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RESUME En zone soudanienne de l'Afrique de l'Ouest, les parcours naturels constituent l'essentiel de l'alimentation des animaux herbivores. Les connaissances relatives aux activités d'ingestion des bovins et à la valeur alimentaire des fourrages prélevés au pâturage sont limitées et sont une contrainte à la formulation des rations complémentaires à ces fourrages. Les activités d'ingestion de six taurillons Borgou (120 ± 0,6 kg) ont été étudiées durant la saison des pluies sur quatre jachères différentes. Des relevés floristiques ont permis d'identifier les espèces fourragères composant les pâturages. Différentes activités d'ingestion des taurillons au pâturage ont été suivies par des observations directes. La proportion du temps passé au pâturage par les taurillons pour le déplacement, le repos-rumination et l'abreuvement ont été respectivement de 67,0, 10,6, 15,7 et 6,7%. Les graminées constituent plus de 50% des fourrages prélevés. Le moment de la journée influence significativement (P < 0,5) la valeur nutritive des fourrages. La matière organique digestible ingérée a varié de 38 à 62 g MSkg-0,75. En saison de pluie, le régime alimentaire des taurillons est satisfaisant en énergie (0,83 UFL kg-1 MO) mais pauvre en matières azotées digestibles (44 g.kg-1 MO), ceci limite la performance des animaux.
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... L'alimentation est l'une des principales causes de la faible productivité des ruminants en région tropicale. Dans la plupart des élevages traditionnels, particulièrement des herbivores domestiques en Afrique au sud du Sahara, l'animal est nourri sur des parcours naturels (Pamo et al., 2006 ;Babatounde et al., 2011). Les zones de pâturages naturels disponibles pour les petits paysans diminuent rapidement à mesure que les terres cultivées avancent (Pamo et al., 2007 ;Kiema et al., 2012). ...
... L'offre de viande rouge (bovins et petits ruminants) qui satisfait 55,6% de la consommation actuelle totale de viande n'en satisferait plus que 30,9% en 2020 (FAO, 2000). Eu égard à l'accroissement démographique et à l'élévation du niveau de vie, la production de viande constitue une priorité pour satisfaire une demande sans cesse croissante en produits carnés au sud du Sahara (Babatounde et al., 2011). ...
... The analysis of the biological types gives an idea of the dynamics of a phytocenosis [24]. The predominance of microphanerophytes in the Sahelian zone has also been noted by several authors [25], [26]. ...
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The present study conducted in the northern zone of Niger aims to show the impact of land use dynamics on woody vegetation. The methodological approach consisted in making in addition to the floristic surveys, the analysis of land use maps (LANDSAT images of the years 1975 and 2018). The floristic inventory allowed the identification of twenty-seven (27) woody species of which eleven (11) in Tanout and sixteen (16) in Aderbissinat. The most important families remain the Fabaceae-Mimosoideae which represent 37.5% at Aderbissinat and 45.45% at Tanout. The biological types remain dominated by microphanerophytes which dominate (86.67%), while for the phytogeographic types it is the Sudano-Zambezian and Sudanian species that dominate, with proportions respectively equal to 31.25%. There is a regression of woody vegetation at the level of these communes with a slight loss in Aderbissinat (60588,034 ha) and an accentuated degradation of vegetation in Tanout (781797,738 ha).
... The challenge for pastoralists today is to efficiently feed their herds, while simutaneously preserving the environmental diversity. Given the importance of feeding and spatial behaviour of grazing ruminants, several experimental results have been published on feeding behaviour of grazing cattle, sheep, goats, in different agroecosystems (Meuret et al. 1985;Babatounde et al. 2009;Hracherrass et al. 2009;Chirat 2010;Babatounde et al. 2011) aiming at answering the various challenges of animal feedings. ...
Article
Feed intake on pastures plays a vital role in cattle rearing in West Africa. However, the scarcity of pastures during the dry season may result in changing grazing behaviour by cattle. Therefore, we studied the management practices of transhumant herders on communal rangelands through monitoring of cattle herds’ behaviour in southern Benin. We expected changes in grazing behaviours of cattle and shifts in diet composition and diet overlaps between herds. Therefore, feeding and spatial behaviours of cattle were studied on six transhumant herds monitored daily, each during three consecutive days on communal rangelands of Djidja. In each herd, three adult cows of four to five years old were equipped with two GPS data loggers (GT-730FL-S) to monitor animals’ movements. The data loggers were set to record the positions of the animals every 10 s and direct observations of the animal activities were made. The results indicated that the activities of cattle varied greatly according to site (p < 0.05). Moreover, feed ingested varied with site. The ration was dominated by woody species with 70% Fabaceae, whereas shrubs and grasses were less represented, indicating a shift in diet. This analysis is required for better monitoring of grazing cattle.
... Ceci pourrait se justifier par une raréfaction et une dégradation des ressources naturelles des parcours habituels de transhumance selon (Convers, 2002) qui a réalisé une étude sur l'état des lieux spatialisés de la transhumance dans la zone périphérique au Parc national du W. En effet, cette raréfaction pourrait être due à l'émergence de la culture cotonnière dans le Borgou et l'Alibori avec pour corollaire l'augmentation des terres cultivables et donc probablement la réduction des aires de pâture (Gibigaye, 2008;Djenontin et al., 2003). Il y a une similarité entre les résultats de cette étude et ceux de Kagoné et al. (2006); (Babatounde et al., 2011) qui ont trouvé que les mouvements des transhumants se faisaient à la recherche de pâturage et d'eau dans les terroirs riverains du PARC W. ...
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L'élevage bovin constitue une source d'activités très importantes pour les agriculteurs du nord-est Bénin. Cependant, les différentes pratiques d'alimentation et de gestion des ressources alimentaires locales restent très peu connues. Cette étude a été réalisée dans les Communes de N'Dali, Nikki et Kalalé au Bénin auprès de 330 éleveurs (110 par Commune) afin d'inventorier et de connaître les ressources alimentaires disponibles pour l'élevage des bovins. La collecte des données a été réalisée sur la base d'un questionnaire semi-structuré en interviews individuels. Les Peulh représentent l'ethnie majoritaire (49,29 % à Kalalé, 80,91 % à N'Dali et 62,73 % à Nikki) des éleveurs de bovins suivis des Gando. Ils pratiquent des cultures telles que le maïs, le sorgho, l'igname et le soja avec un effectif moyen de 46, 31 et 40 bovins respectivement dans les Communes de Kalalé, N'Dali et Nikki. L'alimentation des bovins est composée majoritairement d'herbaceae en saison pluvieuse avec une prédominance des espèces comme : Andropogon gayanus, Pennicetum Sp, Hyparrhenia involucrata, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum, Rottboellia cochinsinensis, Digitaria longijlora, et de Brachiaria jubata. En saison sèche et froide, l'alimentation est composée de résidus de récolte de sorgho, de maïs, de soja et de niébé. Après l'épuisement des résidus de récolte en saison sèche et chaude, les animaux sont nourris à base des ligneux tels que Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Afzelia africana, Daniellia oliveri et Acacia sieberiana. L'abreuvement des bovins se fait plus dans les rivières à Kalalé, dans les barrages à Nikki et dans les puits et forages à N'Dali. On note une forte adoption de la pratique des cultures fourragères chez les éleveurs de Nikki (42,73 %) que ceux de Kalalé et N'Dali (p<0,05). Le sel de cuisine est le principal apport minéral servi aux animaux. L'élevage transhumant (61,82 % à Nikki, 51.09 % à Kalalé et 45,09 % à N'Dali) est plus pratiqué que l'élevage sédentaire. La durée du parcours à Kalalé (11,43 h) et Nikki (11,64 h) est significativement plus grande (p<0,01) qu'à N'Dali (10,11 h). Par contre en saison des pluies, elle n'est pas significative. Cette étude a montré que la stratégie de valorisation des ressources alimentaires varie en fonction des saisons, donc de la disponibilité des aliments et des localités. Mots-Clés : Élevage bovin, ressources alimentaires, alimentation bovine, système d'élevage, Bénin. Abstract Cattle breeding is a very important activity for farmers in northeastern Benin. But, little is known about different feeding practices and management of local feed resources. This study was conducted in the municipalities of N'Dali, Nikki and Kalalé in Benin to inventory and know the feed resources available for the cattle. Data collection was performed on the basis of a semi-structured questionnaire with 330 producers (110 shared) surveyed individually. Herders were in majority from Fulani ethnic group (49.29% in Kalalé, 80.91% in N'Dali and 62.73% in Nikki) followed by Gando people. Size of herds is averaged 46, 31 and 40 heads of cattle respectively in the municipalities of Kalalé, N'Dali and Nikki and crops cultivated in herders' household are maize, sorghum, yams and soybeans. Cattle feeding is predominantly based on herbaceae' in the rain season and the mains species valorized are: Andropogon gayanus, Pennicetum Sp, Hyparrhenia involucrata, Hyparrhenia rufa, Panicum maximum, Rottboellia cochinsinensis, Digitaria longijlora, and Brachiaria jubata. In the cold dry season, animals were fed with crop residues from sorghum, maize, soybean and cowpea. When crop residues become scarce in the hot dry season, the animals are fed on woody species such as Khaya senegalensis, Pterocarpus erinaceus, Afzelia africana, Daniellia oliveri, and Acacia sieberiana. Cattle drinking water sources were mainly: river water in Kalalé, dam water in Nikki and wells and bores water in N'Dali. There is a strong adoption of forage cultivation among herders of Nikki (42.73%) than those of Kalalé and N'Dali. Table salt is the main mineral supplement supplied to animals. Transhumant system is generally (61.82% in Nikki, 51.09% in Kalalé and 45.09% in N'Dali) more practiced than sedentary system. Pasture time in Kalalé (11.43 h) and Nikki (11.64 h) was significantly greater than in N'Dali (10.11 h) especially during in dry season. This study showed that cattle feed resources valorization strategies vary with respect to the seasons, therefore to the feed resources availability and localities.
... Dans les départements de l'Alibori, de l'Atacora et du Borgou, l'alimentation des animaux est assurée aussi par le pâturage naturel (Alkoiret et al., 2009 ;Youssao et al., 2013). Les fourrages utilisés sont très diversifiés et constitués de Andropogon gayanus, Panicum maximum, Rottboellia cochinchinensis, Hyparrhenia involucrata, Penisetum sp, Setaria sp, etc. (Babatoundé et al., 2012 ;Youssao et al., 2013). Les études réalisées par Alkoiret et Gangboché (2005), et Bierschenk et Forster (2004) sur l'organisation sociale des Peuhl, ont confirmé l'importance des plantes fourragères dans l'alimentation des bovins. ...
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Les bovins de race Lagunaire sont surtout élevés au sud du Bénin. Dans le but de décrire l'élevage de cette race, une étude sur les caractéristiques de l'élevage a été réalisée dans les communes d'Avrankou, Adjohoun et Dangbo. A cet effet, un guide d'entretien a été administré aux éleveurs et des prélèvements de sang et de bouse de vache ont été réalisés pour la recherche des hémoparasites et la coprologie. Il ressort de cette étude que la taille moyenne des troupeaux était plus élevée à Dangbo (9,23) qu'à Adjohoun (3,5) et à Avrankou (4,18) (P<0,001). Les animaux étaient élevés pour la production de viande et sont suivis soit par le propriétaire, soit par sa femme ou ses enfants ou par ses employés. Aucun éleveur d'Adjohoun et de Dangbo n'abritait ses animaux dans un campement mais 85,71% des éleveurs d'Avrankou disposaient d'un campement pour leurs animaux (P<0,001). L'alimentation des animaux est assurée exclusivement par le pâturage naturel. Aucun complément d'aliments n'est distribué aux animaux. Tous les éleveurs enquêtés à Adjohoun et Dangbo abreuvaient leurs animaux dans des cours ou plans d'eau, alors que ceux d'Avrankou les abreuvaient avec l'eau de puits pendant toute l'année. Tous les éleveurs enquêtés déparasitaient leurs animaux et les vaccinaient contre la pasteurellose. La prévalence de la trypanosomose a été de 15,39%, 17,65% et 23,08%, respectivement dans les Communes d'Adjohoun, Avrankou et Dangbo. Les parasitoses gastro-intestinales rencontrées étaient les paramphistomoses et les toxocaroses. La prévalence de la paramphistomose a été plus élevée à Adjohoun (23,08 %) qu'à Avrankou (5,88%). L'élevage des bovins de race Lagunaire est encore à l'étape traditionnelle et l'amélioration du système d'élevage doit être envisagée. Abstract Lagune cattle are mainly reared in South Benin. In order to describe this breed's breeding, a study on the characteristics of Lagune cattle breeding was carried out in the townships of Avrankou, Adjohoun and Dangbo. Thus, breeders were surveyed based on an interview guide and blood and cow dung samples were taken for the haematological and coprological analyzes respectively. This study shows that the average herds size was higher in Dangbo (9.23) than in Adjohoun (3.5) and Avrankou (4.18) (P<0.001). The production objective was meat production. Animals monitoring was done either by the owner, by his wife or children or by his employees. No breeder in Adjohoun and Dangbo housed their animals in a camp, but 85.71% of the Avrankou breeders had a camp for their animals (P <0.001). Animals were fed exclusively on natural pasture. Food supplements were not given to animals. All the surveyed breeders in Adjohoun and Dangbo watered their animals in rivers while those in Avrankou watered them with water from wells over the year. All the surveyed breeders treated their animals against parasites and vaccinated them against pasteurellosis. The prevalence of trypanosomiasis was 15.39%, 17.65% and 23.08% respectively in Adjohoun, Avrankou and Dangbo Townships. The gastrointestinal parasites diseases encountered were paramphistomoses and toxocariasis. The prevalence of paramphistomosis was higher in Adjohoun (23.08%) than in Avrankou (5.88%). The breeding of Lagune cattle is still at the traditional stage and the breeding system need to be improved.
... In traditional veterinary medicine, T. procumbens is also mentioned in plants for pharmacological use recognized and used by breeders in Africa [26]. In Benin, the plant is also widely used by pastoralists in the diet of several crops including cattle and rabbits [27][28]. ...
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Objective: The present work has focused on evaluating the effect of tridaxprocumbens on blood clotting.Methods: in the course of our study we have therefore carried out a Hydro ethanol extraction (50/50), Liquid-Solid extraction, and phytochemical screening. Thereafter our study was carried out on nine (09) male and female Wistar type rats aged from 10 to 12 w and weighing between 100 and 200 g. These animals were raised at the laboratory of Biomembranes Laboratory and Cell Signaling from FAST to UAC under standard environmental conditions. Animals have free access to water and food. 09 rats are experienced, divided in three batches of 3 rats each, submitted respectively to the following treatment: fed with distilled water, fed with 100 mg/kg P. C tridax extract procumbens, fed at 300 mg/kg P. C tridax extract procumbens. Evolution of the weight of rats during treatment was measured. After 7 d of treatment, the blood of the rats is taken for an experience of bleeding time, experience of coagulation time, and dosage of some blood parameters (platelet, partial thromboplastin, prothrombin).Results: Phytochemical screening carried out on the leaf and stem powder of Tridaxprocumbens revealed the presence of phenolic compounds, flavonoids, reducing sugar, mucilage, terpene and sterol, but at varying proportions. After 7 d of treatment, evaluation of the effect of the extractions on the body weight of the rats gave interesting conclusions. The weight of the control rats did indeed increase while that of the rats treated with the dose of (100 and 300 mg/kg) dropped. In addition, the effect of the hydroethanolic extract of the leaves and stems of Tridaxprocumbens on the coagulation of blood has been studied in order to verify the alleged property that the said extract can be used to manage bleeding. This was done by examining the effect of the extract on bleeding time, coagulation time, platelet count, activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin rate. These were carried out using the Duke method and the Lee and White method. In the bleeding time experiment, the mean time without adding the extract was 2.58±0.31 min, while the mean bleeding time after treatment with the extract was 1.61±0.70 min at a dose of 100 mg/kg PC and 1.77±0.69 min at a dose of 300 mg/kg PC, achieving 57% of the decrease in normal bleeding time. Thus the extract significantly lowers the bleeding time.When the extract was used for the coagulation time, it was found that the extract promotes blood clotting. In addition, this study reveals that Tridaxprocumbens significantly influences TCA, TP and platelet count at varying doses.Conclusion: The plant material studied in this study is, therefore, a credible alternative for an effective fight against bleeding and also promotes the coagulation of blood.
... In Benin, recent estimates of the contribution of the livestock sector to the national gross domestic product are lacking, but the figure in 2012 published by the National Institute for Statistics and Economic Analysis was about 5.5% (INSAE, 2012 at about 2,222,000 head of cattle, 1,755,000 head of goats, 878,000 head of sheep and 431,000 head of pigs (FAOSTAT, 2016). Despite its economic importance, livestock rearing is still characterized by the predominance of traditional practices, and natural rangelands constitute the main feed resource for herbivores (Babatounde et al., 2011;Assani et al., 2015). According to Squires (2015), the productivity of a rangeland's ecosystem closely depends on rainfall as well as soil texture and depth. ...
Article
In order to characterize current cattle farming systems with respect to herd mobility and its drivers, 803 cattle farmers were surveyed across three vegetation zones along a North-South transect in Benin. Individual interviews were conducted on the basis of a semi-structured questionnaire which included questions on the socio-economic characteristics of livestock breeders, their herd size and structure, their livestock management and other agricultural practices. Production systems were typologized using categorical principal component analysis and Two-Step cluster analysis. The main factors that differentiated the cattle farming systems were type of herd mobility, season of mobility (wet or dry season), amplitude (less or >40 km) of herd movements, herd size, and the dominant cattle breed in the herd. The following six distinct herd types were identified: “Sedentary Crossbreed (Taurine x Zebus) Farms” (n = 174; 21.7%); “Sedentary Zebu Farms” (n = 185; 23%); “Sedentary Taurine Farms” (n = 108; 13.4%); “Low Amplitude Transhumant Zebu Farms” (n = 91; 11.3%); “High Amplitude Transhumant Zebu Farms” (n = 118; 14.7%) and “Variable Amplitude Transhumant Crossbreed (Taurine x Zebus) Farms” (n = 127; 15.8%). The study revealed that pastoral mobility was practiced by about half of the surveyed herders and remains a necessity for the cattle breeders in spite of its constraints. Farmers' social status and environmental conditions also played a significant role in the adoption of a certain herd mobility strategy. The increasing practice of transhumance by non-Fulani people –an activity that until recently was closely associated with Fulani ethnic group– combined with the larger herd sizes in southern and central compared to northern regions, the expansion of crop cultivation among Fulani herders and the southwards expansion of pastoralism to the humid and sub-humid regions revealed a paradigm shift in cattle production systems in Benin. The seasonality and continuously changing availability of grazing lands and water resources were the main drivers of the ongoing transformation in the pastoral systems. Additionally, increased herd mobility has intensified conflicts among herders, and between herders and crop farmers. Adequate interventions are crucial to sustain the current production systems. Mobile pastoralists should adopt improved herd management strategies including timely destocking, while developing and strengthening grazing and manure contracts with local crop and livestock farmers. Settled pastoralists should reduce their dependency on natural rangelands and adopt more forage cultivation. Supportive policies should include the establishment and enforcement of rules for grazing activities and improvement of pastoralists' access to market, credit and veterinary services. Key words: Adaptation; Diversity; Herd mobility; Pastoral systems; Resilience; Transhumance.
... It's important to underline that with a great pressure on natural pasture, breeders are oblige to give new tree species' leaves to cattle as feed. Babatoundé et al. (2011) has found in south of Benin 40 trees used in sheep feeding. Knowing that sheep could eat some forage which cattle cannot, it's normal to have more ligneous forages for sheep than bovine. ...
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There are rainfall dependent and rainfall less dependent forages. The present study, conducted in districts of Nikki, Kalalé, Ségbana and Gogounou located in north-east of Benin republic, deals with less dependent on rainfall ligneous’ forage which are important forages resources available and accessible throughout the year. The methodological approaches used is participatory diagnosis. The useful timbers which leaves are used in ruminant feeding are Pterocarpus erinaceus, Afzelia africana and Khaya senegalensis. Facing the regression of those palatable species due to climate change and overexploitation, twenty-six other woody species previously without any interest to bovine nutrition are increasingly used in drought. However, the contribution of those 26 species in ruminants’ feeding could be limited by the availability, accessibility and palatability.
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L'intégration agriculture-élevage dans les systèmes de gestion de la fertilité des sols se révèle être l'une des solutions durables face aux récurrents problèmes de baisse de la fertilité des sols et de disponibilité fourragères. Trois types d'engrais à base de déjections de petits ruminants et/ou d'engrais NPK ont été testés afin d'évaluer leurs effets sur la productivité du maïs et de l'arachide en culture associée ainsi que sur leurs valeurs fourragères. Dans chaque champ paysan, le dispositif expérimental est un bloc aléatoire complet à trois répétitions composé de quatre traitements (Témoin sans apport d'engrais, MF : engrais NPK 14-23-14 à 200 kg/ha, OM : déjections de petits ruminants à la dose de 5t/ha et MF+OM : déjections de petits ruminants à la doses de 5t/ha + 200 kg/ha NPK 14-23-14). Les précédentes successions culturales des champs paysans sont considérées également comme facteur. Le pH (eau) et les teneurs en carbone organique, azote total, phosphore assimilable puis en potassium échangeable indiquent un faible niveau de fertilité des sols étudiés. Les rendements grains, gousse et biomasse de maïs et d'arachide ; les quantités de N, P et K mobilisées dans la biomasse de maïs et d'arachide ainsi que les valeurs azotée et énergétiques des résidus culturaux utilisés comme fourrages ont été significativement influencés (P<0,05 à P<0,001) par les types d'engrais et les successions culturales sur les parcelles expérimentales. Les résidus d'arachide ont présenté les plus fortes valeurs nutritives 20,48±0,41% pour la matière azotée totale; 143,04±6,89 g/kg matière sèche pour la matière azotée digestive et 1,09±0,02 UFL/kg matière sèche pour la valeur énergétique nette comparativement aux résidus de maïs. L'étude suggère une combinaison des deux types de résidus de culture pour l'affouragement des petits ruminants dans un contexte de précarité fourragère. Mots clés : Fertilité des sols, engrais organique, résidus de récolte, cultures associées, qualité de fourrage. ABSTRACT Integration crop-livestock in soil fertility management prove to be a sustainable response to soil fertility decline especially in the context of land scarcity. The effect of three fertilizer types from sheep and goat Blouklounon et al. 214 dung and NPK fertilizer on the productivity and fodder value of maize and groundnut fodders and grains intercropped was studied at Djidja and Aplahoué districts in southern Benin. In each crop succession, the experimental design was Fisher's block with three replicates and four treatments (Control, MF: use of 200 kg/ha of NPK 14-23-14, OM: use of 5t/ha of sheep and goat manure, OM+MF: use of organic manure 5t/ha + 200kg/ha of NPK 14-23-14). Previous crops successions are considered as factor that could affect the results. pH (water), soil organic carbon, nitrogen, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium revealed decline of soil fertility. Grain and maize straw yields, pods and groundnut biomass yields were significantly (p<0.05 to p< 0.01) influenced by the type of fertilizer and by the previous crop successions. Furthermore, nutrients (N, P and K) uptake by maize straw and groundnut biomass and the nutritive fodder values differ significantly (p< 0.05) considering the type of fertilizer and crop successions. Groundnut fodder had the highest nutritive value 20.48 ± 0.41% for total nitrogen matter; 143.04 ± 6.89 g/kg dry matter for nitrogen digestible matter and 1.09 ± 0.02 UFL/kg dry matter for energetic value compared with maize straw. The study suggests to combine maize straw and groundnut biomass to feed small ruminants in the context of fodder scarcity.
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Au Benin, les sous-produits consideres isolement presentent des deficiences nutritionnelles ou des caracteristiques physiques qui contrarient leur utilisation. Les blocs multi-nutritionnels (BMN), restent un moyen pour corriger ces contraintes. Ce travail vise a evaluer les caracteristiques physiques et nutritionnelles des BMN fabriques au moyen des sous-produits localement disponibles en utilisant trois types de liants (remoulage du manioc appele " garigo ", l’amidon de manioc " goman " et l’argile). La durete a ete estimee en exercant le pouce au milieu du bloc apres sechage et la cohesion en essayant de le rompre a la main avec un effort plus grand. La couleur a ete appreciee par observation directe des blocs et l’odeur grâce a l’odorat. La composition chimique a ete determinee selon les methodes officielles de l’AOAC et les valeurs nutritives au moyen de la digestibilite in vitro en presence de jus de rumen. Les blocs a base de feuilles sechees de Moringa oleifera ou de tourteaux de coton et dont le liant est " goman " sont de meilleures caracteristiques physiques et nutritionnelles. Il n’y a pas de difference significative au niveau des caracteristiques physiques et nutritionnelles des BMN a base de tourteaux de coton et ceux a base de feuilles de Moringa oleifera . © 2016 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Mots cles: Blocs multi nutritionnels, liant, composition chimique, digestibilite in vitro , valeurs nutritives English Title: Physical and nutritional characteristics of multi-nutritional blocks from agricultural and agro-industrial by-products in Benin English Abstract The agricultural and food sector generates numerous byproducts. These offer opportunities for choice of food supplements for ruminants during the dry season when grasses and other herbaceous forage are scarce in rangelands. But, taken separately, these by-products have nutritional deficiencies or physical characteristics that contradict their use. The multi-nutritional blocks (MNB), are a means to address these constraints. Several formulations were tested using three types of binders (middlings of cassava called " garigo " cassava starch " goman " and clay). The hardness was estimated by exerting the thumb in the middle of the block after drying and cohesion under test to break by hand with greater effort. The color was appreciated by direct observation of the blocks and the smell through the smell. The chemical composition was determined according to official methods of AOAC and nutritive values using in vitro gas production. The BMN made from Moringa oleifera leaves or cotton cakes have presented the best physical and nutritional characteristics. It was also noticed that there was no significant difference in the physical and nutritional characteristics of BMN based on cotton cakes or the leaves of Moringa oleifera . © 2016 International Formulae Group. All rights reserved. Keywords: Multi-nutritional blocks, binder, chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, Benin
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Six grasses ( Panicum maximum cvv. C1, T58, 673 and a native accession, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Andropogon gayanus ) were evaluated in small plots in 1997 and 1998 for production and nutritive value in south Benin. The experiment was carried out on a typical gently sloping plateau with poor sandy soils. Rainfall in the first year equalled the annual average for the region (1300 mm), while the second year was particu- larly dry (775 mm). Highest production in the first year was recorded with Panicum maximum cv. C1 (10.8 t/ha DM). The native Panicum maximum and cvv. T58 and 673 of the same species produced 7.0, 6.3 and 6.5 t/ha DM, respectively. Andropogon gayanus yielded 3 t/ha DM. Brachiaria ruzi- ziensis yielded 4 t/ha DM during the rainy season, but died at the beginning of the 1997-98 dry season. With the drought during the second year, only Panicum maximum cv. C1 and Andropogon gayanus survived. Their production (6.3 and 2.6 t/ha DM, respectively) was below that recorded in the first year. The highest nutritive values were recorded for the native accession of Panicum maximum and cv. T58 , which contained digestible crude protein concentrations ranging between 11.3-13.3% (DM basis). Compared with the other species, Brachiaria ruziziensis and Andropogon gayanus had low concentrations of digestible crude protein. Panicum maximum cv. C1 and Andropogon gayanus are recommended for further testing as perennial fodder crops, because of their pro- duction capacity on the poor soils and their adaptation to the variable rainfall of the region.
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