Book

Digital Youth: The Role of Media in Development

Authors:

Abstract

Digital Youth: The Role of Media in Development recognizes the important role of digital tools in the lives of teenagers and presents both the risks and benefits of these new interactive technologies. From social networking to instant messaging to text messaging, the authors create an informative and relevant guidebook that goes beyond description to include developmental theory and implications. Also woven throughout the book is an international sensitivity and understanding that clarifies how, despite the widespread popularity of digital communication, technology use varies between groups globally. Other specific topics addressed include: Sexuality on the Internet. Online identity and self-presentation. Morality, ethics, and civic engagement. Technology and health. Violence, cyberbullying, and victimization. Excessive Internet use and addictive behavior.

Chapters (12)

Adolescents today live enmeshed in digital media, such as computers, video games, cell phones, and other hand-held devices. Often referred to as digital natives, many have lived their entire lives surrounded and immersed within digital worlds. These new technologies are undoubtedly popular among adolescents, but parents and other observers often see them as negative influences. Are these concerns justified or are media more benign and helpful to adolescents? Which technologies do teens use and what do they do with them? Does adolescents’ use of technology help them navigate the challenges of adolescence or does it only complicate matters? Are digital worlds giving rise to new behaviors or are we seeing the transfer of traditionally adolescent behaviors to digital worlds? What are some of the opportunities, challenges, and dangers that come with technology use? How can we ensure that young people use technology safely? We tackle some of these questions in this book, and hope to leave the reader with an understanding of how youth influence and are influenced by newer forms of interactive technologies. In this chapter, we describe the digital landscape surrounding adolescents, including the technologies and online applications that they use as well as the salient aspects of the communication environment inherent to most newer digital media. The chapter concludes with the specific goals and organization plan of the book.
Adolescence is a period of tremendous change and many view it as a period of “storm and stress.” Although we now know that adolescence is not always a turbulent period, the storm and stress view, has come to frame questions about the role of interactive technologies in adolescent development, the focus of this book. In this chapter, we present the developmental approach that we use throughout the book to examine the role of digital media in adolescent development. The first part of the chapter reviews some of the lessons learnt from developmental psychology. We briefly describe three core adolescent developmental issues – sexuality, identity, and intimacy – around which the first part of this book is organized. Then we argue that we must treat digital worlds as another social context for adolescent development along the lines of familiar ones such as families, peers, and schools. The second part of the chapter examines the role of digital media during adolescence and presents our co-construction model of adolescents’ online behavior, which suggests that adolescents’ online and offline worlds are psychologically connected. Consequently, adolescents may bring the issues and people from their offline worlds to their online ones. We discuss the implications of our co-construction model for understanding the role of digital media in young people’s development.
Sexuality as a developmental issue is present throughout the life cycle, but becomes especially salient during adolescence. Adolescents have to adjust to their developing sexuality, in particular their increased sexual drive and interest in sex and have the task of constructing their sexual selves. Sexual content and topics feature prominently in adolescents’ online lives from chat rooms, to bulletin boards, and in adolescents’ online conversations, including well-publicized instances of sexting. In this chapter, we show how young people use the Internet to deal with their developing sexuality. We begin by highlighting important aspects of this adolescent developmental issue and then examine the characteristics of online environments that support sexual activities more generally. The rest of the chapter will describe adolescents’ online sexual exploration, from the construction of their sexual self to their access of sexually explicit content. Because most of the research on adolescents’ online sexual exploration is silent on the issue of gay and lesbian youth, we consider the potential role of the Internet for sexual minority youth separately. Even though age and gender trends in adolescents’ online explorations parallel offline ones, we will show that online behaviors are not identical to offline ones, as they adapt their behaviors to the characteristic of online environments.
From the early days of the Internet, scholars and writers have speculated that digital worlds are venues where users can leave their bodies behind and create new and different selves online. These speculations take on added significance in the context of adolescence, when individuals have to construct a coherent identity of the self. This chapter examines the role of technology in identity construction – a key adolescent developmental task. We begin by examining theoretical conceptions about identity in the context of adolescence and then explore the meaning of the terms self-presentation and virtual identity. To show how adolescents’ use technology in the service of identity, we will first describe some of the online tools they can use for self-presentation and identity construction. Then we show how adolescents use these tools to explore identity on the Internet, particularly through blogs and social networking sites; in a separate section, we show how youth use the Internet to construct their ethnic identity. Last, we turn to whether adolescents’ engage in identity experiments and online pretending and whether they have virtual personas in a psychological sense. In the conclusion section, we identify questions about online self-presentation, virtual identity, offline identity development for future research to address.
Digital communication tools, such as email, instant messaging, text messaging, games, and social networking sites are very popular among adolescents. Youth use them to interact and communicate with their peers as well as their family members. In this chapter, we explore the role of technology in the third task facing adolescents: that of developing intimacy and interconnections with the people in their lives. We consider the mediating role of technology in three important relationships in young people’s lives: friendships and peer group relationships, romantic relationships (dating), and relationships within the family. First, we describe their use of online contexts to interact with their friends and other peers. Because of concerns about purely online friendships, we examine separately their online interactions with offline friends and acquaintances as well as their online relationships with peers, who are not part of their offline world, and the quality of such purely online relationships. Then we describe adolescents’ online romantic relationships, and reflecting extant research, will focus on those that are purely online. The final section will describe technology and teens’ relationships with their family, with a special emphasis on how teens’ status as the technology expert may be altering traditional family dynamics and relationships. The chapter concludes by raising questions about whether adolescents’ online interactions with their peers may transform their friendships and disrupt their family relationships.
We examine the role of technology as adolescents deal with the developmental task of constructing a moral and ethical set of values and becoming fully engaged, active members of their communities. Digital technologies such as the Internet and cell phone are both a tool and a social context and adolescents must learn to use them safely, securely, and legally. As a tool, the Internet provides youth with access to information, but youth also use it for plagiarism and to illegally download and share movies, music, and software. As a social context, the Internet allows adolescents to interact with peers and strangers, to participate in online communities, and to engage with their local and more distant communities. Online worlds also come with their own rules, etiquette, and social conventions and youth must learn to navigate them in ways that may at times be at odds with offline moral and ethical values. The first part of the chapter explores some of these complexities in relation to adolescents’ developing sense of morality and ethics online and addresses the following topics: (1) maintaining privacy online (2) falsifying information online (3) online cheating and stealing (4) cyber plagiarism (5) software piracy and illegal downloading of music, movies, and software. The second part of the chapter examines how youth use technology to engage with their communities, including local, national, and even global ones.
The second part of the book starting with this chapter looks at the practical implications of young people’s interactions with technology. This chapter takes an in-depth look into how adolescents’ online activities influence their well-being. First, it suggests some of the different pathways by which the Internet might mediate well-being. Then, it examines the direct and indirect effects of technology on physical well-being. Some of the direct effects include the potential for physical injuries, physiological arousal; indirect effects include the relation between technology use and obesity and sleep patterns. In the final section, the chapter describes extant research on the relation between Internet use and psychological well-being and the factors (e.g., user characteristics, kind of online activity) that mediate this relation. Two other important issues that we address are short-term effects and the effect of negative interactions on well-being. Throughout, we emphasize the important of education to ensure that youth use technology in ways that will enhance their well-being.
This chapter describes young people’s use of the Internet in the service of their health and well-being. The Internet has both communication and information capabilities and the chapter details adolescents’ use of the Internet to enhance wellness and deal with illness. It begins by briefly considering the information capabilities of the Internet as regards health and well-being. Then it describes the nature and extent to which adolescents use online health- related information resources, such as websites and bulletin boards. We discuss adolescents’ use of these resources as a function of their age and gender and describe their health information seeking behaviors. We also consider the opportunities/advantages that online health resources may present for youth. In particular, we focus on the benefits (e.g., information and social support from peers) that they may provide for groups of adolescents who might not have offline access to these resources because of their location (e.g., rural areas, areas steeped in poverty), social isolation, or illness (e.g., teens with cancer). We also consider the challenges that online resources represent such as information overload, credibility concerns, and dangerous/harmful content. Finally, we address the Internet’s potential as a tool for treatment delivery, with particular attention to the factors that may limit the efficacy of such interventions with youth.
As technology is becoming central in our lives, we are seeing cases of extreme use and dependence on these newer tools. Although we find such excessive Internet use among all age groups, it is especially prevalent among adolescents and emerging adults and this chapter focuses on such “addictive behavior” on the Internet. An important issue that we consider is whether it is even appropriate to use the term “addiction” in the context of Internet users. Next, we describe what addictive behavior on the Internet entails along with information about the prevalence of addictive behavior among adolescents. Then we discuss the symptoms considered to be red flags for Internet-related addictive behavior and describe the personal and social context of addictive behavior on the Internet. We discuss separately four areas of online addictions: online gaming, online relationships (communication), virtual sexual behavior, and online gambling. Finally, we describe the therapeutic approaches used to treat addictive behavior on the Internet.
This chapter focuses on the darker sides of the Internet and other technologies – their potential for violence, aggression, and victimization of young people. Concerns about violent media content are not new, and research on earlier visual media forms such as television and films and that on newer interactive media such as video games reveals that violent media content does lead to increases in violent and aggressive behavior. In addition to providing access to content, new digital media provide opportunities for interactions and consequently pose new challenges, such as aggressive and hostile interactions at the hands of peers and adults. This chapter examines the many different forms of online violence and aggression. After reviewing the findings of extant research on violence in media (e.g., television, video games, etc.), the chapter focuses on three categories of online aggression: (1) violence in web sites and other online content, (2) interactive online games with violent content, (3) online interactions that are aggression-tinged, including cyber bullying and online sexual solicitation and victimization. For each category, we describe the online landscape or interaction and then examine its impact on adolescents’ lives.
In the foregoing chapters, we have shown that digital worlds offer youth opportunities for interaction and access to vast amounts of information and resources, but they also have their unsavory aspects, such as pornography, violent, and other inappropriate content that can be readily accessed, as well as potential for victimization at the hands of peers and adults. Understandably parents, practitioners, and policy makers are confused and uncertain as to how to respond to young people’s online forays. Our recommendation is to focus our efforts on protecting and empowering youth so they can use technology positively and safely, and in ways that will promote their well being. This chapter describes what we can do to ensure that youth have positive and safe experiences in digital worlds by safeguarding them from inappropriate and harmful online content (e.g., pornography and violence) and victimization by peers (e.g., cyber bullying) and adult predators (sexual solicitation). Doing so will require the concerted and proactive actions of government, industry, parents, and schools. For each stakeholder, we first present strategies to protect youth from inappropriate content and then present those that they can use to protect them from victimization. Although most of the information is in the context of the USA, where available, we provide information from other countries and contexts as well.
Today’s youth, as digital natives, have lived virtually their entire lives surrounded by digital media, especially computers and the Internet. Not surprisingly, their interactions with technology have raised questions and concerns. Research has begun to uncover the many different ways that technology intersects young people’s lives. Our goal for this book was to sift through this body of work and present a balanced and comprehensive account of youth digital worlds and their implications for adolescent development. In this concluding chapter, we revisit some of the themes encountered throughout the book, consider their implications, and identify questions and gaps in our understanding that future research must address. In particular, we examine the role of digital media in development, summarize findings that provide support for our contention that young people’s offline and online worlds are psychologically connected, clarify and consider the implications of such connectedness.
... The results showed a higher prevalence of sexting behaviours during confinement in Spanish emerging adults compared to Spanish adults, which seems to indicate an increase in sexting among emerging adults relative to the prevalence prior to the period of confinement (Agustina & Gómez-Durán, 2016;Chacón-López et al., 2019). Compared to adults, who seem to have a more solid sexual identity (Jules et al., 2017), emerging adults are characterized by both a need for intimacy and an exploration of their sexuality (Newman & Newman, 2015;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). In this regard, emerging adults could exhibit a more active sexual life because they are in a process of transitioning to adulthood, which increases their opportunities for experiencing greater sexuality (Newman & Newman, 2015). ...
... adults) reported more motivations for engaging in sexting behaviours that primarily alluded to flirting, foreplay, seeking intimacy, boredom and feelings of loneliness. As previously mentioned, emerging adults seem to show a greater need to develop their intimacy and sexual identity (Newman & Newman, 2015;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010), which seems to translate into motivations taking on a sexual (e.g., flirting or foreplay) and emotional nuance (e.g., search for intimacy, boredom and feelings of loneliness) for engaging in sexting behaviours (e.g., Alonso- Gil Llario et al., 2020). Regarding gender, the results showed that men have a greater motivation to get involved in sexting due to a greater need to satisfy their partner, search for intimacy and boredom. ...
... Los resultados mostraron que durante el confinamiento hubo una mayor prevalencia de comportamientos de sexting en los jóvenes españoles en comparación con los adultos españoles, lo que parece indicar un aumento del sexting entre los jóvenes en relación con la prevalencia previa al periodo de confinamiento (Agustina & Gómez-Durán, 2016;Chacón-López et al., 2019). En comparación con los adultos, que parecen tener una identidad sexual más sólida (Jules et al., 2017), los jóvenes se caracterizan tanto por la necesidad de intimidad como por una exploración de su sexualidad (Newman & Newman, 2015;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). En este sentido, los jóvenes podrían presentar una vida sexual más activa porque se encuentran en el proceso de transición hacia la adultez, lo que aumenta sus oportunidades de Tabla 3. Estimación de los predictores de sexting durante el confinamiento en función de la edad. ...
Article
SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in the mandatory isolation of the entire population, reducing the opportunities for casual sexual encounters or between partners who do not live together. However, it is plausible to assume that other forms of sexual contact like sexting are occurring. This research aimed to analyse the behaviours and motivations to engage in sexting and to examine some predictors of mental health and loneliness that could be associated with sexting during confinement. The sample consisted of 510 participants: 280 emerging adults and 230 adults. The results showed higher prevalence of sexting behaviours among emerging adults (vs. adults) and among males (vs. females). Moreover, emerging adults reported more motivations to engage in sexting. Finally, the analysis revealed that loneliness would predict engagement in sexting by emerging adults. These findings could have implications for the implementation of sexual education programmes aimed at achieving adequate social interactions associated with sexting.
... This generation of youth is the transition group between millennials who were born and raised in the era of digital technology development and Generation Z who were born and raised in the era where digital technology is a given. This transition in generation raises an interesting question in regard to how users take advantage of technology to negotiate and present aspects of the self (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). Moreover, the variety of existing and emerging social media platforms have enabled youths to use more than just one platform. ...
... In the case of youths, the discussion about online self-presentation becomes significant as it becomes the way youths explore their identity (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011;Zemmels, 2012). Social media platforms have provided the youths a space for exploration, whether it be how they present themselves in these platforms or how they construct that certain space and make it their own. ...
... Online self-presentation is one of the ways to demonstrate online identity (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). Online self-presentation is important because individuals have considerable choice with regard to which aspects of the self to reveal (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
As one of the most popular social media platforms in Indonesia, Instagram is used by millennials and Generation Z. Nonetheless, it is now common practice for a person to own accounts in more than just one social media platform. Hence, this raises the question regarding how Indonesian youths present their distinctive self in their Instagram accounts. This paper aims to analyse the identity construction of Indonesian youths on Instagram, as well as the space construction compared to other platforms they use simultaneously. The research was conducted using the virtual ethnography method to gain insights of not only what appears on the digital screen, but also the correlation with the users’ offline reality and persona. Initial findings in this paper indicate that Indonesian youths tend to present a certain selected persona on screen. This persona is not seen as a separated fragment from their offline persona but rather embraced as a part of their whole self. However, the construction of identity and space in Instagram cannot be separated from the socio-cultural context, not only offline but also online. There are factors that tend to influence the space construction in Instagram as their personal showroom, a personal space to present their selected self.
... Both mass and social media act as contexts for those developmental tasks (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Valkenburg and Piotrowski, 2017). While mass media-driven templates such as drama, reality shows, or celebrity news provide experiences through which young people learn how attention operates, social media play a crucial role in terms of social acceptance (boyd, 2014) and of co-creation of online contexts (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011). ...
... Both mass and social media act as contexts for those developmental tasks (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Valkenburg and Piotrowski, 2017). While mass media-driven templates such as drama, reality shows, or celebrity news provide experiences through which young people learn how attention operates, social media play a crucial role in terms of social acceptance (boyd, 2014) and of co-creation of online contexts (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011). The affordances of social media (the persistence of online expressions and content; the potential audience who can bear witness; the ease with which content can be shared; the ability to find content) create both opportunities and challenges for their networked publics -and when attention becomes a commodity, interpersonal conflicts emerge and battles over reputation, status, and popularity can be intentionally or accidentally hurtful to others (boyd, 2014). ...
... First, the children's self-reported aggressive behaviors are seen as a result of the intensification of online risks and opportunities in children's lives, as they are increasingly engaged with internet platforms for multiple educational and recreational purposes. Often, children's behaviors in physical and digital social worlds are intertwined and supported by transactional links with each other (Brewer et al., 2018;Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011). Furthermore, the new de-territorialized encounters and opportunities for online aggression cannot be dissociated from their relation to the nature of social control and pro-social influences in adolescents' lives, nor from the latter's previous experiences of vic-timization. ...
Article
To address the topic of children’s online aggression, this article explores a subsample from the EU Kids Online dataset (2017–2019) of 1404 children, aged 9–16, who reported having engaged in aggressive acts online in the previous year. Through a cluster analysis, respondents were classified into three groups. Findings emphasize the risk factors for aggression and how they relate to age-specific developmental tasks. Boys predominate, but the gender gap is not as wide as in offline contexts. For almost half of the children, aggression goes hand in hand with victimization. All the clusters share high levels of emotional deprivation. A sense of lacking social support, from both adults and peers, becomes more relevant among those children with high and more problematic engagement in online aggression. Results confirm that online aggression must be considered within the complex and fluid offline–online continuum cutting across the social contexts in which children grow.
... Therefore, the more consumers, female-male, use Instagram, the more likely they are going to perceive natural women as sexual objects (Cohen, Newton-John, and Slater, 2017;Meier and Gray, 2014;Park and Lee, 2017). In this sense, women are pushed to self-disclose more sexualized self through this interactive force of selfobjectification and social media encouragement (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Taylor, Peplau, and Sears, 2003). ...
... However, the current findings coincide with the studies that found women display undress images in their posts (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2009;Tortajada, Araüna, and Martínez, 2013). This is true as sexual objectification theory predicts a positive link between social media use and sexualized self-disclosure (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Taylor, Peplau, and Sears, 2003). In the case of Instagram, the more embedded the consumer is on this platform, the more likely they objectifies themselves (Cohen, Newton-John, and Slater, 2017;Meier and Gray, 2014;Park and Lee, 2017), even more so than the luxury fashion brands. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines how luxury fashion brands and luxury fashion brand hash-tags that consumers use in their posts portray women on Instagram. The study was framed by sexual objectifi-cation theory (physical presentation, body display, sexually suggestive poses , and feminine touch) and sexism stereotypes (women in traditional roles such as dependent, caretaker, decorative and sexual object). This study examines 700 Instagram posts, 350 from top luxury fashion brands, and 350 from consumers. Young and skinny women's images dominate Instagram posts created by luxury fashion brands, while consumers are older and fit. Unexpected results show that luxury fashion brands feature women less sexually desirable, with less sexually suggestive poses and fewer sexist stereotypes than consumers.
... This sexual exploration is now occurring at a time when over 95% of adolescents have access to a cell phone and nearly half of youth report being online "almost constantly" (Smith & Anderson, 2018). Digital media has fundamentally transformed how adolescents interact with online content and with peers by providing affordances-such as "24/7" availability and absence of social cues-to which adolescents must adapt (Nesi et al., 2018;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). The accessibility and relative anonymity afforded by digital media have also created a unique environment in which adolescents can explore their emerging sexualities, including consuming sexual media and constructing their own online sexual experiences (Greenfield, 1984;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). ...
... Digital media has fundamentally transformed how adolescents interact with online content and with peers by providing affordances-such as "24/7" availability and absence of social cues-to which adolescents must adapt (Nesi et al., 2018;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). The accessibility and relative anonymity afforded by digital media have also created a unique environment in which adolescents can explore their emerging sexualities, including consuming sexual media and constructing their own online sexual experiences (Greenfield, 1984;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). As many as threequarters of youth have been exposed to online pornography, either intentionally or accidentally (Behun & Owens, 2020;Chen et al., 2013;Peter & Valkenburg, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Online sexual behaviors like sexting, viewing pornography online, and using the internet to start relationships are increasingly common among adolescents, yet research has struggled to keep pace. This study fills a gap in the sexual communication literature by examining the extent to which a sample of high school adolescents are discussing digital sexual topics with their parents and best friends compared to more traditional sexual topics (pregnancy, STDs, condoms, and abstinence). Participants were 226 U.S. high school students (M age = 16.25; 58% girls; 46% White, 25% Latino, 24% Black) who reported their digital sexual behavior and sexual communication in the past year. Rates of sexting, viewing pornography, and starting relationships online were high (89% had engaged in at least one of these behaviors; 35% engaged in all three behaviors); yet communication about these topics was generally low: only 7% of youth had discussed all three digital topics with their parents and 19% had discussed all three with their best friends. This is in contrast to nearly 50% of youth who discussed traditional topics with their parents and best friends. Patterns of communication and digital sexual behavior were similar by gender, with the exception of pornography: boys were more likely to view pornography and discuss it with friends than girls. Implications for adolescent development in the digital age are discussed.
... Since all three necessarily presuppose interactions with other people, the expansion of one's social circle through the formation of new relationships is natural part of this developmental phase (Collins & Steinberg, 2007). Considering that adolescents can use the internet to fulfill these developmental tasks (e.g., Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2011;Suzuki & Calzo, 2004), interactions with new people from the internet can be seen as similar to interacting with new people offline-which is a part of adolescence that can be beneficial for development. Interactions with unknown people from the internet allow adolescents to form new social contacts and relationships, discuss and develop interests not shared by their offline friends, become part of an online community, find romantic partners, and explore their sexuality (Borca, Bina, Keller, Gilbert, & Begotti, 2015;Suzuki & Calzo, 2004). ...
... As adolescents grow older, their developmental needs, including the need to widen their social circle, becomes more prominent (Miller et al., 2010). Our findings support the notion that developmental needs are reflected in adolescents' online behavior (e.g., Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2011), and suggest that interactions with unknown people from the internet can be understood to be an age-appropriate behavior. ...
Article
Adolescents commonly make new social connections online that sometimes result in face-to-face meetings. Despite potential benefits, risk-focused discourse dominates public debates and shapes information shared by sources important for adolescents—news media, preventive programs, peers, parents, and teachers. Our study examines how information about face-to-face meetings from these sources relates to adolescents’ risk perception and engagement in such meetings. Using a sample of 707 Czech adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 46% male), we analyzed these effects for male and female adolescents to reflect the gendered nature of the risk-focused discourse. Male adolescents’ risk perception was not affected by information from any source. Female adolescents’ risk perception was negatively affected by information peers with prior experience with face-to-face meetings but not by other information sources. Female adolescents also perceived face-to-face meetings as riskier in general. We discuss gender differences and the limited impact of information sources on risk perception and provide practical recommendations.
... Therefore, the more consumers, female-male, use Instagram, the more likely they are going to perceive natural women as sexual objects (Cohen, Newton-John, and Slater, 2017;Meier and Gray, 2014;Park and Lee, 2017). In this sense, women are pushed to self-disclose more sexualized self through this interactive force of selfobjectification and social media encouragement (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Taylor, Peplau, and Sears, 2003). ...
... However, the current findings coincide with the studies that found women display undress images in their posts (Behm-Morawitz and Mastro, 2009;Tortajada, Araüna, and Martínez, 2013). This is true as sexual objectification theory predicts a positive link between social media use and sexualized selfdisclosure (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2011;Taylor, Peplau, and Sears, 2003). In the case of Instagram, the more embedded the consumer is on this platform, the more likely they aobjectifytifies themselves (Cohen, Newton-John, and Slater, 2017;Meier and Gray, 2014;Park and Lee, 2017), even more so than the luxury fashion brands. ...
Article
This study examines how luxury fashion brands and luxury fashion brand hashtags that consumers use in their posts portray women on Instagram. The study was framed by sexual objectification theory (physical presentation, body display, sexually suggestive poses, and feminine touch) and sexism stereotypes (women in traditional roles such as dependent, caretaker, decorative and sexual object). This study examines 700 Instagram posts, 350 from top luxury fashion brands, and 350 from consumers. Young and skinny women’s images dominate Instagram posts created by luxury fashion brands, while consumers are older and fit. Unexpected results show that luxury fashion brands feature women less sexually desirable, with less sexually suggestive poses and fewer sexist stereotypes than consumers.
... This section examines why adolescents in general may be drawn to harmful online content and then addresses why some adolescents may be especially at risk for exposure to problematic content. Peer interaction and the need to form social ties with others is a key developmental task during adolescence (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), so adolescents may be drawn to websites that depict harmful content because of their interactivity. During adolescence, changes in reward sensitivity occur, which may make adolescents more prone to seeking new, exciting, and stimulating experiences (Steinberg et al., 2018). ...
... Of note is that the results regarding the role of emotional problems and sensation seeking as risk factors was similar across all three countries; they also parallel findings from research on offline problem behaviors and other online problem behaviors. They add to the evidence indicating that youths' offline and online lives are psychologically connected (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011), and suggest that Problem Behavior Theory may have broad applicability to understand and explain problem behavior in online settings just as it has with offline problem behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although adolescents’ exposure to harmful online content has been linked to decreased subjective well-being and offline risky behaviors, there is limited research on the factors that underlie such problematic online behavior. Using the conceptual framework of Problem Behavior Theory, this study examined the role of risk (i.e., emotional problems, sensation seeking) and protective (i.e., the quality of family environment, social support from friends) factors in exposure to harmful online content among 4473 12- to 16-year-olds (M = 13.9, SD = 1.3, 49% girls) in the Czech Republic, Finland, and Spain. Individual country samples included 1848 adolescents from the Czech Republic (age: M = 14, SD = 1.4; 51% girls), 788 from Finland (age: M = 13.9, SD = 1.3; 52% girls), and 1837 from Spain (age: M = 13.5, SD = 1.2; 47% girls). In all of the sampled countries, emotional problems and sensation seeking served as risk factors, whereas good family relationships were protective. In some countries, the effects of emotional problems and sensation seeking were moderated by the quality of the family environment and social support from friends. These moderating effects suggest that individual risk factors for exposure to harmful online content may be buffered by a positive family environment and friends’ support. The findings revealed similarities in the risk and protective factors underlying online problem behavior across three different countries. They demonstrate that the mechanisms proposed by Problem Behavior Theory can help to understand the etiology of adolescent problem behavior across different countries as well as offline and online contexts.
... Hal ini menyebabkan mereka menganggap apa yang dipaparkan dalam media adalah gaya hidup yang perlu dituruti. Pengulangan kandungan media yang salah atau bertentangan dengan norma masyarakat mempengaruhi cara pandang mereka terhadap kehidupan sosial mereka (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). Keadaaan ini berlaku sepanjang masa sehinggalah mereka mencapai fasa seterusnya iaitu memasuki fasa belia. ...
... Stereotaip selalunya tidak tepat kerana hanya berasaskan jangkaan semata-mata. Stereotaip inilah yang akan menyebabkan representasi dibentuk dan seterusnya dijadikan asas dalam membuat kandungan media massa (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). ...
... Setiap generasi pernah mengalami "menjadi muda", karenanya, budaya kaum muda dipahami sebagai praktik kultural yang tidak terbatas pada usia tertentu, melainkan lebih menyorot pada fenomena generasi yang terjadi. Dalam kaitannya dengan generasi millennials dan generasi Z yang secara empiris pada konteks saat ini merupakan kaum muda, media digital merupakan bagian yang tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kehidupan, serta bagaimana mereka mempersepsi realitas dan membangun makna (Dimock, 2019;Shatto & Erwin, 2016;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011) Kaum muda dalam kajian media hiburan dapat dilihat melalui berbagai perspektif. Tulisan ini akan berfokus kepada posisi kaum muda sebagai audiens yang aktif dalam konteks penggunaan media digital di Indonesia, khususnya kanal media sosial. ...
... Salah satu karakter kaum muda dinyatakan dengan konsep "emerging adulthood" yang mana ditandai dengan adanya eksplorasi identitas (Bennett & Robards, 2014;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011;Zemmels, 2012). Eksplorasi identitas tersebut terjadi utamanya dalam tiga ranah, yaitu asmara atau kehidupan percintaan, pendidikan atau pekerjaan atau kehidupan karier, dan cara pandang mereka terhadap dunia. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Artikel ini akan membahas persoalan media sosial dan kaum muda, dengan penekanan pendekatan generasi kaum muda dalam proses komunikasi maupun media sosial sebagai medium komunikasi generasi kaum muda. Secara garis besar artikel ini akan mengeksplorasi hasil penelitian terkait kaum muda dan penggunaan media sosial, memberikan penilaian kritis atas pemikiran-pemikiran yang berkait dengan relasi antara kaum muda, budaya populer dan media sosial, serta mengeksplorasi pemahaman tentang budaya kaum muda (youth culture) dalam kaitannya dengan budaya media. Pokok bahasan dalam artikel bertumpu pada sejumlah konteks sosio-kultural yang memengaruhi perilaku komunikasi kaum muda yang termediasi melalui media sosial.
... Adolescents today live in a very different way than previous generations, and they have a complex and bidirectional relationship between what happens online and offline. 10 Adolescents are characterized by the massive use of internet on mobile phones and they consider it an essential part of their everyday lives. Consequently, many of the classic psychological issues (abuse, aggression, and addictions) have rapidly found an online equivalent (cyberbullying, sexting, PIU, nomophobia, and so on), and their prevalence is growing as a result of this increased exposure. ...
... Consequently, many of the classic psychological issues (abuse, aggression, and addictions) have rapidly found an online equivalent (cyberbullying, sexting, PIU, nomophobia, and so on), and their prevalence is growing as a result of this increased exposure. 10,11 Many studies have found that cyberbullying, Internet pornography, and Internet fraud can have a detrimental impact on teenage mental health and behavior in a variety of ways. [12][13][14] Adolescents with PIU have been reported to have a prevalence rate ranging from 0.8 percent in Italy to 26.7 percent in China. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: This study aim was to study the association between problematic internet use and depression, impulsivity, anger, aggression and social phobia among Lebanese adolescents. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 1103 young adolescents (14-17 years), recruited from October 2017 till April 2018. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) was used to evaluate the level of problematic internet use. Data were analyzed using the MANCOVA analysis. The main independent variable of interest was the IAT, while the dependent variables included the psychological scales. Adjustment for possible covariates, including age, gender, monthly income, parents’ status, number of siblings, smoking status, and alcohol frequency, was performed. Results: The multivariate analysis taking the psychological scales as the dependent variables and the problematic internet use (IAT score) as an independent variable, showed that problematic internet use was associated with higher depression, impulsivity, aggression, anger, hostility and social anxiety. Interpretation: Problematic internet use has become an important health issue that should not be overlooked, particularly because of the increased use of the internet by adolescents. Educational programs on early exposure to the internet should be developed.
... Over the most recent years, they have gotten considerably simpler to get through utilizations, i.e., applications on smartphones [1,2]. By and large, enormous, youth utilize social media service for basic adolescent nurturing errands, like character development, identity creation, optimistic turn of events, and companion engagement [2,3]. As adolescents look for closeness with their friends and make progress toward independence, their online surroundings as often as possible mirror their offline lives [4]. ...
Article
Objective: The prime intent of this study was to determine the adverse effect of social media addiction on adolescent’s life effectiveness, studying in grade 8th to 12th in Delhi NCR, India. Materials and Methods: The psychometric properties of the Bergen social media Addiction Scale and Life Effectiveness Questionnaire by James Neill were evaluated, additionally examining the factor structure utilizing the Partial least squares-based Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) amongst n = 968 adolescents. The hypothesized inverse relationship between the two scales is tested using the person correlation examination. Results: Adolescence’s life effectiveness, dimensions of time management, self-confidence, emotional control, and achievement motivation were significantly adversely (negatively) related to Facebook Addiction. Implications: The over-use of social media will trigger failure in education and social relationships, health and well-being concerns, provoking life disruption. The reasonable usage of online media requires ethos, attention, and awareness on how to utilize them effectively. We can propel students by bringing issues to light.
... In a postdigital world, youths blend friendships online and off, and so it is not surprising that they are receiving emotional assistance via their online worlds (Shklovski et al., 2015). Moreover, day-level findings also corroborated the benefits of online information seeking in relation to negative emotions, here in relation to anger (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). Looking to the future, young people are likely to be benefit from more and better online information to enhance their mental health as prevention scientists expand their online portfolios to include open free resources and massive online interventions (Muñoz et al., 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
Mobile technologies are omnipresent across adolescent life and require better characterization of their potential benefits. Adolescents also experience high rates of daily stress so that investigating youths’ technology use in relation to their stress response is of practical importance. We employed experience sampling data from a subset of 115 youths ( n = 1,241 time points) who reported on their technology-based coping and assessed how these related to emotion change throughout the day and controlled for important covariates. Models testing for the benefits of moderate use (relative to no or heavy use; i.e., Goldilocks effect) showed a clear pattern of positive effects of moderate coping online, particularly in relation to support seeking and self-distraction. Moderate online coping was adaptive and often fostered declines in negative emotion.
... The perceived emotional distance when online reduces the fear of repercussions as individuals no longer feel responsible for what they say or do (Aiken, 2016;Suler, 2004). This can allow youth to test norms with their friends-in essence, cyberspace can be used as "training wheels" for identity exploration (Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2010). ...
Article
Digital communication poses challenges for scholars interested in the link between peers and crime since youth are often less inhibited online and can more easily share their opinions and experiences with offline activities. Drawing on longitudinal data from middle and high school students, this study explores how online communication impacts the sharing of personal and peer delinquency. Criminogenic risk factors are largely unrelated to the digital disclosure of personal delinquency among those who offend; however, peer online disclosure is related to self-reported delinquency, independent of perceived peer delinquency. These findings suggest cyberspace may extend offline mechanisms of peer influence beyond providing a unique source of online influence.
... Youth development in the digital age is both similar to and different from that before social media became widely accessible. On the one hand, as discussed above, new technologies are addressing similar developmental needs (Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2011;Valkenburg & Peter, 2011) and there is noticeable consistency or overlap between youth's online and offline lives and behaviors (boyd, 2014;Reich et al., 2012). On the other hand, the affordances of social media have introduced novel characteristics, opportunities, and challenges to youth development. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media use is almost ubiquitous among adolescents and emerging adults. Although much has been studied about the psychological implications of social media use, there is currently no integrative model in which multiple dimensions of social media are considered. The goal of this theoretical article is to introduce the Multidimensional Model of Social Media Use (MMSMU), which aims to provide a useful framework for researchers and practitioners to study and understand young people’s social media use in relation to their psychological well-being. The model attends to three major dimensions: activities performed on social media, motives for social media use, and communication partners connected through social media. We present empirical evidence showing whether each dimension is associated with better or poorer well-being and identify or propose mechanisms explaining the associations. Before concluding the article, we discuss clinical implications and possible ways to further expand the proposed model.
... Young people in today's digital age are described as important contributors and co-constructors of the online information landscape (Subrahmanyam and Smahel, 2010), or as information creators (Koh, 2013). In this 21st century, the prevalence of information technology and the Internet have shaped youth's behaviour in relation to sources and channels of information, including both active and passive information seeking and information use (Wilson, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction. This paper presents empirical research on whether young people’s perceived information literacy influences their perceived service quality of a youth information and counselling agency. Method. An online survey was distributed and 3,287 responses of young people between fifteen and twenty-nine years old were collected from sixteen different countries across Europe. The survey questionnaire was pre-tested by five academic experts in the field, and by youth information service workers. The SERVQUAL model including constructs (access, reliability, and responsiveness) was used to devise a theory-based conceptual model. Additionally, we used perceived information literacy as an antecedent construct in our model. Analysis. We applied structural equation modelling to investigate the effect of perceived information literacy and constructs of the SERVQUAL model on perceived service quality. Results. The results of analysis show that perceived information literacy has a strong influence on perceived ease of access, perceived reliability, and perceived responsiveness, and through these constructs has an indirect effect on perceived service quality. Conclusions. Results show a clear alignment with existing literature in the areas of youth perceived information literacy and information services. The proposed framework contributes to the scholarly discussion on youth information services and youth perceived information literacy.
... These interactive media platforms have been constantly used to maintain friendship and emotional connection. Nowadays, the real-life of adolescents is closely related to their "online environments", and social media have become an integral part of critical adolescent developmental tasks [14]. These online environments reflect, complement, and reinforce wellunderstood psychological mechanisms, such as social comparison, self-disclosure, and impression management [15]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background The year 2020 will be remembered as the “year of the COVID-19 pandemic”. The world population had to familiarize themselves with words as swabs, personal protective equipment, pandemic. To curb the wave of the pandemic, almost all the countries imposed self-isolation and social distancing. We conducted a web-based survey to investigate the behavioural responses during the quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods Participants were 1860 youth aged 12–18 years attending lower secondary schools and upper secondary schools. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, lifestyle changes during the quarantine period, and the psychological impact of the lock-down on adolescents’ life. Results Most adolescents experienced feelings of fear, discouragement, and anxiety which strongly affected the approach to their daily lifestyles. Most of the surveyed subjects reported having used this period to acquire new skills and to practice physical activities at home. The use of technology was predominant both for recreational activities and educational purposes. Conclusions Despite the strong psychological impact of the quarantine, adolescents showed good levels of resilience. Technology played a crucial role during the quarantine for young subjects who have increased the daily use of technological devices to stay connected with the rest of the world.
... The majority of North American adolescents' use SNS's to communicate, form relationships, and explore their identities (Subrahmanyam & Greenfield, 2008). The world of SNS's has evolved so quickly and has been conceptualized and categorized in so many ways that it is difficult to define (Gross, 2004;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). Many studies have examined the impact of SNS on adolescents such as MySpace or chat rooms and blogs only to discover that youth have moved on to other modes of communication (Subrahmanyam & Sahel). ...
Article
Full-text available
The adolescent age group is one of the most vulnerable periods of life span. It is the period that develops identity and integrity among individuals. The environmental influx to this group includes the SNS’s as one of the major components, having a direct impact on the transition of adolescents to adults. It is in this backdrop, the need is to critically study the impact of SNS’s on adolescent’s life and identifying the key consequences that are emerging out of either using or misusing of same. Ranging from initial exposure of SNS’s to disturbed social life a detailed assessment has been made to know how school-going adolescents are influenced. The mental health status and related illness due to misuse of SNS’s has due assessment. The study is also identifying the core areas of intervention like monitoring and participation for effective response to adolescent problems arising out of excessive usage of same.
... Literasi kesehatan mental terdiri dari: (a) pengetahuan tentang cara mencegah gangguan mental; (b) pengenalan saat gangguan berkembang; (c) pengetahuan tentang pilihan mencari bantuan dan perawatan yang tersedia; (d) pengetahuan tentang strategi self-help yang efektif jika masalah yang dihadapi masih kategori ringan; (e) keterampilan melakukan pertolongan pertama untuk mendukung orang lain yang mengalami gangguan mental atau berada dalam krisis kesehatan mental (Jorm, 2012). Literasi kesehatan mental telah terbukti meningkatkan kemampuan remaja mencapai tingkat kesehatan mental dan kesejahteraan yang positif, serta mampu mengakses layanan kesehatan mental tepat waktu ketika masalah kesehatan mental terjadi (Cairns & Rossetto, 2019 (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). Berbagai penelitian tentang media sosial dan remaja, mengungkapkan media sosial akan meningkatkan harga diri dan dapat menjadi komponen dukungan sosial bagi remaja (Best et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstrak: Remaja merupakan kelompok rentan terhadap masalah kesehatan jiwa karena berada pada tahap perkembangan. Tujuan kegiatan pemberdayaan remaja berbasis online ini untuk meningkatkan pengetahuan dan keterampilan remaja melakukan promosi kesehatan mental menggunakan media sosial. Kegiatan Pemberdayaan ini dilakukan berbasis online menggunakan media sosial whatsapp, instagram dan zoom meeting. Proses pemberdayaan remaja ini dikemas dalam bentuk Camp Online Gen Z selama 9-17 Agustus 2021. Sasaran kegiatan ini adalah perwakilan remaja SMA Negeri 5 Sorong, Papua, SMK Negeri 1 Plosoklaten, Kabupaten Kediri dan SMK Negeri 2 Tarakan, Kalimantan Utara. Hasil kegiatan ini dari 49 peserta 61,3% mengalami peningkatan pengetahuan (nilai p <0,05), mampu menghasilkan media promosi kesehatan jiwa. Penggunaan media sosial terbukti efektif untuk kegiatan pemberdayaan remaja sebagai peromotor kesehatan. Abstract: Adolescents are a group that is vulnerable to mental health problems because they are in the developmental stage. This online-based youth empowerment activity is aims to increase adolescents knowledge and skills in promoting mental health using social media. This empowerment activity is carried out online using social media whatsapp, instagram and zoom meeting. The youth empowerment process is packaged in the form of Gen Z Online Camp during August 9-17, 2021. The targets of this activity are representatives of youth at SMA Negeri 5 Sorong, Papua, SMK Negeri 1 Plosoklaten, Kediri Regency and SMK Negeri 2 Tarakan, North Kalimantan. The results of this activity from 49 participants 61.3% experienced an increase in knowledge (p value <0.05), able to produce mental health promotion media. The use of social media has proven to be effective for youth empowerment activities as health promoters.
... It is important to note that, nowadays, the life of young people is closely related to social media, their "online environments" have become an integral part of critical youth developmental tasks [175]. These online environments reflect, reinforce, and complement psychological mechanisms, such as social comparison, self-disclosure, and impression management [176]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: COVID-19 pandemic has affected the physical health, psychological wellbeing, and mental health of the whole population. Young people are among those most at risk of developing mental health symptoms or disorders related to the pandemic. Purpose: the present narrative review is aimed at providing an updated overview of the current literature concerning the psychological impact of the SARS-CoV-2 infection but also of the COVID-19 outbreak, environmental restriction, and social distancing on mental health outcomes among the youth population aged between 15 and 25 years. Methods: in December 2021, an electronic search on this topic was performed on PubMed. Relevant publications from January 2020 until December 2021 were included. Findings: 53 cross-sectional studies, 26 longitudinal studies, 4 ecological studies, 1 qualitative study, and 1 systematic review were included. We found many methodological limitations in the studies included, especially poor choice of study samples and short follow-ups. Little literature was in support of a strong relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and consequences on youth mental health. On the contrary, many studies showed how extraordinary measures to limit the spread of the virus have impacted young people in terms of onset of new mental disorders and symptoms, suicidality, and access to emergency psychiatric services. Depressive and anxiety symptoms and disorders show the greatest increase in incidence, especially in girls and young women. Conclusions: it seems important to pay attention to the mental health of young people in relation to the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. However, studies with more robust methodologies and longer follow-ups are needed to establish precise indications for targeted interventions in this context.
... Informants are approximately on their early 20s by the time they are interviewed. They're neither too young to be a beginner in social media, nor too old to be unfamiliar with social media's features and impacts (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011;Zemmels, 2012). All informants have a few years of experience in using social media, particularly Instagram. ...
Article
Full-text available
Instagram social media platform has become the source of recent information on various fields for the youth audiences, including the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic that Indonesia and the world are currently facing. Unfortunately, not every information on Instagram, especially the controversial and viral ones, are aimed to be informative. Some information is considered provocative and only creating panic instead of raising awareness. This research is intended to understand how Indonesian youth audiences perceive Covid-19 related information through Instagram and how useful and informative the information has been. The research is conducted using a qualitative approach and reception analysis method by interviewing the informants to achieve specific data. All informants are categorized as youth audiences with different socio-cultural backgrounds. Findings in this research show that informants tend to be in the negotiated reading position, in which they are negotiating the Covid-19 information they gain from Instagram with the discourse that they may receive from other sources. They believe that Covid-19 is real, but they have concerns in regards to the handling effort of the virus spread in Indonesia. This negotiated position has evoked both fear and alertness among Indonesian youth towards the uncertainty condition of this pandemic era. Kata Kunci: informasi covid-19, instagram, audiens kaum muda, analisis resepsi.
... Recent studies have found that children's social relations can benefit from digital communications(Davis, 2013(Davis, , 2012Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011;Valkenburg & Peter, 2011;Vossen & Valkenburg, 2016). A survey of eight to 18 year-olds in the United States found that children spend more than 40 percent of their time online communicating with others(Rideout et al., 2010). ...
... We also evaluated the extent to which phubbing mediates self-presentation. Self-presentation is regarded as an important social media activity (Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). Arguably, such activities often center on users' needs to share personal content on social media for reasons related to impression management and self-expression (Krämer & Winter, 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media platforms can deliver benefits for their users. They help people to stay in touch with each other and to have control over how they present themselves to their contacts on these platforms. In some cases, these benefits lead to excessive usage, which can diminish individual wellbeing, and compromise relationships with significant others. We surveyed 275 respondents to investigate the influence of and interactions between (1) self-presentation (specifically false self-presentation), (2) FoMO (fear of missing out), and (3) phubbing (ignoring someone by diverting attention to a mobile phone) in the context of excessive Instagram use. We found that phubbing mediates the relationship between false self-presentation and excessive Instagram use but did not find evidence that phubbing mediates the relationship between FoMO and excessive Instagram use. We also found a positive relationship between excessive Instagram use and educational level. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical and practical implications of the results. © 2022 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... Prior research has demonstrated that adolescents tend to use their online spaces to maintain connection and intimacy with their offline friendships [53]. Adolescents' online and offline worlds are psychologically connected, and they use these digital spaces to explore important developmental needs such as identity and exploring autonomy [54]. Finding like-minded online peers who share the same interests, including their mutual love of pets, can help reduce feelings of loneliness and increase a sense of belonging [10]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescence is a prime developmental period to explore human–pet relationships, particularly given that teens are often relying less on their families, and more on other attachment figures such as peers and pets. However, most research on pet companionship is conducted with adults and young children. Moreover, lived experiences around having pets in households with adolescents are underexplored, particularly from parents’ perspectives. This qualitative interview study of 31 parents/guardians in the Northeast U.S. explored perceptions of the benefits and challenges of having pets for their adolescent’s well-being as well as how adolescents affected their pet’s well-being. Our three main themes for perceived benefits of pets included social (e.g., reducing anxiety), physical (e.g., screen time companionship), and emotional (e.g., regulation of difficult emotions such as anger, loneliness). Challenges to adolescent well-being included such social topics as family tension around unevenly shared responsibilities, physical themes such as problematic animal behaviors, and emotional themes related to grieving the passing of pets. We offer a developmental systems approach to understanding pets within adolescent families, noting future directions for developing family interventions to improve pet–adolescent interactions given the demands of child and pet upbringing during adolescence.
... Quienes han investigado respecto a los procesos de desarrollo y aprendizaje en internet y redes sociales han pretendido abogar por una postura más conciliadora entre los argumentos que se focalizan en los efectos negativos en los sujetos y los que lo hacen en sus efectos positivos. De este modo, las conclusiones académicas tienden a sostener que los efectos de la participación de sujetos en espacios virtuales es neutra y dependiente del uso específico que se le dé a dichos espacios (Michikyan & Suárez-Orozco, 2016;Pereira, Fillol & Moura, 2019;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2010). Esta idea es acorde a la argumentación sostenida hasta ahora: los efectos de la participación en espacios sociales virtuales no es inherentemente positiva o negativa, del mismo modo que la participación en espacios sociales analógicos tampoco lo es. ...
Article
Full-text available
La omnipresencia de las tecnologías digitales y del internet como un medio de interacción cotidiano lleva a preguntarnos por las formas en que las personas constituyen un modo de relación singular con estos y el impacto que dicha relación puede tener en procesos de aprendizaje informal, bajo el supuesto de que aspecto central de este es la capacidad de experimentar y sostener instancias de conflicto cognitivo de forma espontánea. Dado que entre individuo y mundo digital se establece una relación bidireccional, donde el primero es tanto agente de producción de espacios privilegiados de interacción como receptor pasivo de un bombardeo informativo, se considera que en la medida que no se desarrollen estrategias para navegar de manera más efectiva en internet y redes sociales se reducen las posibilidades de desarrollar nuevos aprendizajes. Se comentan investigaciones contemporáneas sobre el impacto que la navegación en internet y redes sociales tiene sobre diversos procesos de aprendizaje informal para dar cuenta de sus resultados, así como de limitaciones en sus enfoques. A raíz de ello se propone el concepto de psicogeografía como una herramienta conceptual útil a la hora de teorizar respecto a las diversas trayectorias de aprendizaje que los jóvenes pueden desarrollar a la hora de relacionarse con los espacios digitales. Se concluye señalando el desafío pedagógico de promover el desarrollo estrategias que ayuden a explorar el mundo digital más allá de los espacios con los que se está familiarizado y reconocer la infinidad de espacio todavía por conocer.
... The idea that the features of online environments shape individuals' experiences and behaviors has a long tradition in computer-mediated communication (CMC) theories, which rely on the assumption that individual communication patterns are "mediated" by the technological context in which they occur (see Walther, 2011). Building on these principles, psychology and media effects scholars have argued that SM sites are made up of unique features that impact, or even transform, adolescents' social experiences (boyd, 2010;Nesi et al., 2018a) and developmental tasks (Subrahmanyam & Šmahel, 2011;Valkenburg & Peter, 2011). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
In this theoretical review paper, we provide a developmental–sociocultural framework for the role of social media (SM) in contributing to adolescent girls’ body image concerns, and in turn, depressive symptoms and disordered eating. We propose that the features of SM (e.g., idealized images of peers, quantifiable feedback) intersect with adolescent developmental factors (e.g., salience of peer relationships) and sociocultural gender socialization processes (e.g., societal over-emphasis on girls’ and women’s physical appearance) to create the “perfect storm” for exacerbating girls’ body image concerns. We argue that, ultimately, body image concerns may be a key mechanism underlying associations between adolescent girls’ SM use and mental health. In the context of proposing this framework, we provide empirical evidence for how SM may increase adolescent girls’ body image concerns through heightening their focus on: (1) other people’s physical appearance (e.g., through exposure to idealized images of peers, celebrities, and SM influencers; quantifiable indicators of approval); and (2) their own appearance (e.g., through appearance-related SM consciousness; exposure to one’s own image; encouraging over-valuing of appearance; and peer approval of photos/videos). Our framework highlights new avenues for future research on adolescent girls’ SM use and mental health, which recognize the central role of body image.
... En lien avec les considérations de Lerner (1991Lerner ( , 2004Lerner et al., 2015) (Jenkins-Guarnieri et al., 2013;Maczewski, 2002;Steinfield et al., 2008;Subrahmanyam & Smahel, 2011). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
De nos jours, les configurations socio-technologiques modernes conduisent les communautés scientifiques, médicales et éducatives à de nombreux débats concernant les usages numériques des jeunes. Les périodes d’adolescence et d’émergence de l’âge adulte correspondent toutes deux à une phase d’exploration identitaire, qui consiste à tester des rôles dans différents contextes et à les intégrer dans une identité personnelle cohérente. Des recherches traitant du bien-être des jeunes au travers de leurs usages numériques suggèrent qu’une utilisation forte peut mener les jeunes à des issues défavorables sur le plan socio-émotionnel tandis que d’autres indiquent que ces espaces peuvent permettre de développer des compétences psychosociales, de se sentir soutenus émotionnellement. Ce travail de recherche vise à proposer un cadre conceptuel et méthodologique qui permet d’étudier les relations entre les expériences en ligne des jeunes et leur développement psychosocial au travers de la construction de leur identité et de leur niveau d’ajustement psychologique, tout en prenant en compte les caractéristiques spécifiques des jeunes (ie., période d’âge et sexe). Notre population se compose d’adolescents scolarisés en lycée et de jeunes adultes étudiants de l’enseignement supérieur. Ce travail de recherche comportait 3 temps de mesure : un premier temps en Décembre 2018 (N=1970), un second temps en Mars 2019 (N=970), et un troisième temps en Mai/Juin 2019 (N=819). Les participants ont répondu à un ensemble de questionnaires évaluant les usages numériques, les processus de la construction identitaire et les indices d’ajustement psychologique. Les données ont été traitées selon une double approche, à la fois centrée sur les personnes et centrée sur les variables. En complément, des entretiens semi-directifs ont été réalisés quatre mois après le recueil de données quantitatives. Nos résultats soulignent une grande diversité chez les jeunes et ont permis d’identifier des profils contrastés : 6 profils d’usages numériques et 7 statuts identitaires. Des analyses en tri-croisés indiquent des liens cohérents et stables entre les profils d’usages numériques et les statuts identitaires. Concernant l’ajustement psychologique, nos résultats indiquent que les profils d’usages numériques caractérisés par une présentation de soi authentique en ligne, et les statuts identitaires caractérisés par des engagements forts, présentent les meilleurs niveaux d’ajustement psychologique. A l’inverse, les profils d’usages numériques caractérisés par une présentation de soi en ligne falsifiée, et les statuts identitaires associés à de faibles engagements s’accompagnent des niveaux d’ajustement psychologique les plus faibles. L’étude des liens croisés-décalés entre le processus identitaire mal-adaptatif d’exploration ruminative et les variables d’usages numériques, en considérant les variabilités intra et inter-individuelles au fil du temps (ie., RI-CLPM), révèle de nombreuses associations spécifiques selon la période d’âge et le sexe des jeunes. Les entretiens semi-directifs ont permis de préciser le vécu psychologique d’une adolescente et d’une jeune adulte, et soulignent quelques différences d’usages liées à leurs motivations et à leurs niveaux de développement. Ces résultats permettent de compléter la littérature et de développer un nouveau regard sur les usages numériques des jeunes français. Des usages numériques semblent être problématiques pour le développement psychosocial de certains jeunes, tandis que pour d’autres, ils peuvent être plus favorables en termes de construction de l’identité et d’ajustement psychologique. Cette étude souligne l’importance de caractériser les usages numériques en prenant en compte la période d’âge et le sexe des jeunes de façon à apprécier leur incidence sur le développement psychosocial. Enfin, cette étude conduit à dégager des perspectives de recherche et des recommandations appliquées en matière d’éducation et de santé.
Article
Hate crimes have existed throughout human history. Although in recent decades many countries have criminalized this form of violent crime in their legislation, few countries pay special attention to prevention measures aimed at countering hate crimes. In this paper, the author will present the hate crime prevention programs launched in the countries that have advanced most in the creation and implementation of such prevention measures. The first two parts of the paper are dedicated to the analysis of special hate crime prevention programs focusing on the perpetrator, while the third part presents the programs focusing on the potential victims. The last part of the paper discusses the role of the media as the bearers of hate crime prevention programs.
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, social networking sites have become an integral part of students' social lives, with teenagers spending more time than necessary. These networks have become important to them as they serve as platforms to interact with users and build relationships with their peers. Social networks are now seen as learning platforms or communities that can be used to increase student engagement and performance. Social networks have been seen as platforms that can easily create a learning environment for students and their peers. Conversely, many researchers and studies have also found a negative impact that social networks have on student educational performance. This perspective explores the consequences of social networking sites, which have been a matter of much concern and the use of Social networking sites or other technology both are associated with positive and negative aspects of the coin for adolescents and teens.
Article
Full-text available
In the shadows of the current tensions that frames our digital spaces, this paper explores how teaching for the practice of dignity of persons and digital discipleship can be act as an effective religious educational response to cyberbullying. Imploring a theoretical approach with a practical theological analysis drawn out of Catholic church teachings and discourse on the dignity of persons and discipleship, this paper offers an understanding of digital discipleship and dignity of persons specifically formed for responding to attacks on human dignity like that of cyberbullying through the use of the practical pedagogical method of ‘see, judge, and act.’
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this article is to present the issue of the Internet in the everyday lives of young people. The article is a review and synthesis of the findings of ten years of research on young people’s use of the Internet. This article also provides an overview of research conducted primarily in foreign research institutions. The query was based on scientific databases available online (EBSCO, Google Scholar). According to several studies, young people mostly use social media to portray themselves to the rest of the world. They use social media to share images and information about their lives. Teenagers, in particular, are constantly engaging with others online for entertainment as well as to broaden their knowledge and obtain education. One of the most critical aspects of functioning in cyberspace is one's public image on social media.
Article
Full-text available
This comprehensive review of the literature aims to shed light on Malaysian youth's multi-platform television consumption pattern. This is because television viewing habits have become extremely fluid in recent years. As a result, this review is crucial in order to learn and comprehend what is occurring in contemporary youth consumption patterns, particularly among Malaysian youth. The study employed a systematic evaluation of the literature, which involved the use of pre-defined criteria to select academic publications to be surveyed over a five-year period (early January 2017 to the end of 2021), as well as a qualitative synthesis of the findings. By describing and analysing the titles, abstracts, keywords, and full papers of the 17 articles chosen, and using a revised PRISMA flow, this study arrives at a holistic and systematic assessment of this approach over the last few years to guide future research on youth television consumption patterns, particularly in the local context. The findings indicate a shift in Malaysia's television consumption trends. This study found four themes in Malaysian youth TV consumption patterns: credible and factual TV programmes or content, self-preferences and personal tastes, cognitive and emotional needs, and cultural aspects. However, local circumstances, such as ethnic groups' television consumption patterns, make it considerably more interesting to study because the values ingrained in their cultural identity are distinct from those of mainstream television.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has made quite a big change in life, including communication and interaction. Parents, as the main part of the learning process for their children, also experience these challenges. This pandemic also impacts the form of uncertainty in other living conditions such as emotional, intellectual, physical, and social development conditions. It is not uncommon for some parents to experience bad luck where their businesses go bankrupt or even lose their jobs. This condition certainly causes some parents to be prone to experiencing stress or depression. This condition will certainly impact parents’ behavior towards their children, which will greatly impact parenting. However, parents are required to be able to provide good guidance to their children. Therefore, this study aims to describe the resilience of parents to children amid the COVID-19 pandemic situation. To achieve the expected goals in this study, the method used is quantitative with a descriptive survey type. The respondents in this study were carried out through accidental random sampling. The number of samples or respondents (n) in this study reached 455. Based on the results obtained, it turns out that parents have relatively capable or good resilience amid a pandemic like today, but also a systematic and concrete efforts to be able to assist parents in addressing the needs of their children because most of their potential stress is an attempt to meet their children’s needs.
Article
Toxicity continues to have a strong presence in online environments. This is particularly true for digital entertainment like online games. Toxicity is an important topic as it impacts game development, consumption, popularity, public perception, and player health and well-being. Most of the existing literature on toxicity in gaming is descriptive and exploratory; it often sets out to map milestones and inherent drivers of toxicity. In this article, an alternative perspective is advanced, drawing from a foundation in media and culture studies. Data (streaming online chat, user-generated content, and forum discussions) were collected daily for 4 weeks from Twitch.tv and Steam channels about the popular online game DOTA 2. Results were processed with a content analysis relying on the driving concepts of toxicity and social affordance. The case study and related platforms were selected for their relevance and pertinence with the theme addressed. Findings point to peculiar interactive patterns in framing, supporting, and overturning toxicity and resulting harassment in these extended settings. Implications are noteworthy for scholars and practitioners who intend to shed light on how diffused audiences negotiate toxicity in digital gaming and beyond.
Article
A growing body of literature reveals that social media use could positively or negatively impact adolescent wellness across many dimensions of health. Specifically, the leading wellness model in counseling, the Indivisible Self Model of Wellness (IS-Wel), includes media as an institutional context, but does not explicitly account for social media use. Additionally, while the counseling literature has begun to explore the effects of technology use on individual wellness, social media use in particular has not been examined. Therefore, the authors reviewed the current, empirically-based literature on the effects of social networking site use among adolescents within the framework of the IS-Wel. Implications for adolescents, as well as for counseling practice are discussed.
Article
Despite the age restrictions of social networking sites (SNS) averaging age 13 years, younger children are engaging with these sites (Ofcom, 2019). Research has shown that SNS use exposes the user to many risks, such as cyberbullying and lower self-esteem. Alternatively, SNS use can enhance social capital (maintenance formation of friendships). Current literature has considered these mostly within adolescent and adult samples. This study aims to investigate the extent to which children's behaviours on SNS predict risk and benefit outcomes. Within a sample size of 883, 351 children (aged 7-to-12 years) identified accessing SNS; these children completed an online survey measuring online self-disclosure, self-presentation, digital literacy skills, social capital, experiences of cyberbullying and self-esteem. Findings demonstrate that self-disclosure behaviours are associated with bridging social capital and that presentation of the real self is associated with the benefits of both bonding and bridging social capital. In terms of risk outcomes, self-disclosure behaviours are associated with cyberbullying perpetration and victimisation. These findings highlight that 7- to 12-year-olds are accessing SNS and that their behaviours online are associated with both risky and beneficial outcomes. Importantly, parents, teachers and policymakers should consider the benefits of SNS use, as well as the risks, in order to foster children's digital engagement.
Article
Full-text available
Bu çalışmada sosyal medyada paylaşılan hadislerin dinî yaşantıya olan etkisi incelenmiştir. Araştırmada nicel yöntem benimsenmiş, araştırma verileri hazırlanan anket yoluyla toplanmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Balıkesir Üniversitesi öğrencileri, örneklemini ise basit rastlantısal yöntemle seçilmiş 317 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmanın amacı günümüzde bilgi paylaşım araçlarından biri haline gelen sosyal medyada paylaşılan hadislerin örneklem grubunun dinî yaşantısına ne oranda etki ettiğini tespit etmektir. Bu amaca uygun olarak katılımcılara sekiz ana başlıkta bazı önermeler sunulmuştur. Araştırmada elde edilen verilere göre katılımcıların çok büyük bir kısmı sosyal medyaya ve burada paylaşılan hadislere güvenmemektedir. Bununla birlikte katılımcıların sekiz ana başlıktan üçünü %50’nin altında bir oranla; beş başlığı ise %50’nin üzerinde dinî yaşantılarına aktardığı tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmada ulaşılan sonuçlardan hareketle sosyal medya kullanıcılarının gizil (örtük) öğrenme yöntemiyle sosyal medyada paylaşılan hadislerdeki dinî bilgileri öğrendiklerini ve dinî yaşantılarına aktardıklarını söylemek mümkündür.
Chapter
Through the accounts of young queer men in Montreal, Ortiz Núñez and Meunier explore the role that digital media plays in their identity construction and coming out processes. This chapter aims to understand, beyond the social discourse of vulnerability, how queer youth have engaged in resistance practices in the digital media culture in which they grew up. Through constructing and narrating their online histories queer young people have been writing queer histories of the recent past while also developing new ways of expressing historical experience, online activism and resistance to the norms surrounding them, especially during secondary school.
Chapter
Full-text available
Ambulatory assessment methods used to capture “real-world” microprocesses through self-report or passive data collection are used to assess child and adolescent behavior in context. This chapter begins by introducing the researcher to ambulatory assessment methods and describes these methods for use in child and adolescent developmental and behavioral research. Next, the importance of attention to timing is discussed. We then suggest appropriate analytic methods for putting ambulatory assessment data to best use to answer developmental research questions. We end with comments on the ethics of ambulatory assessment data and some concluding remarks for researchers wanting to use these methods in their own work.
Article
Online` racial discrimination and race‐related traumatic events online have been linked to psychological distress in Black youth. The current study builds on extant literature by examining associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination, after controlling for gender identity and ethnic–racial setting of college in a sample of 245 Black youth. Additionally, this study examines the potential moderating effects of gender identity. This study is the first to examine the associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms specific to racial discrimination. Path modeling revealed positive associations among online racial discrimination, traumatic events online, and trauma symptoms of discrimination. No significant differences in models were found by gender identity.
Thesis
Full-text available
This paper aims to find out why many people refuse to identify as a gamer publicly. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate how the gaming community is structured, where the dominant culture positions it and how members themselves perceive their social role. This paper starts off to theoretically examine how social groups work by using subcultural theories, which include Ken Gelder’s six criteria of subcultures, to lay the groundwork for better understanding the video game culture and how one can approach it (3). As stated in the very beginning, the community that plays video games is enormously large. That is why a closer look will be taken on the term gamer, to comprehend to whom it refers. The central task of this paper lies in the two-part analysis. Firstly, supported by the evaluations of the mainstream press, the external perspective from the dominant culture on the social group of gamers is being captured and discussed. Secondly, an examination of internal communication on the online gaming platform Twitch shall gain insight into the mindset of a gamer which is subsequently interpreted. Finally, this study contrasts the results of both perspectives and evaluates them to one conclusion.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Jabodetabek area (Jakarta Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi) was the first area to be reported and has the most cases of COVID-19 in Indonesia. This survey research aims to analyze the factors that affect the output of family resilience during the COVID-19 pandemic. All research instruments (the process of resilience, stressor, coping strategy, stress, husband-wife interaction, social support, and output of resilience) had adequate internal reliability Cronbach’s alpha ranging from 0.69- 0.89). The survey was conducted in April 2020 using an online survey site from Google Docs, involving 140 intake families selected purposively. Data were analyzed using descriptive, correlation, and regression tests. The family description was shown by the average value of the research variables. There were three descriptions: (1) with a stressor score of 30%, and coping strategy score of 49%, the stress symptoms experienced by the family was 32%; Almost all (91%) of the respondent’s families did coping strategy through to get closer to God; (2) during the COVID-19 pandemic, the score of husband and wife interaction was quite high, namely 78% and social support at 66%; (3) the respondent’s family had a belief system score of 86%, both organizational patterns and communication patterns of 85% respectively, but the resilience output was lower at 68%. The results of the relationship test showed that there were: (1) positive relationships between both husband and wife interactions and social support with components of resilience process (belief system, communication, organizational patterns) and with resilience output; (2) negative relationship between both stressor and stress symptoms with both resilience process components and resilience outputs; (3) positive interrelationship among process components, and between components of the process of resilience with outputs of resilience. The effect test results showed that resilience output was positively influenced by social support and belief system but negatively influenced by stressors and coping strategies (Adjusted R2 = 0.43)
Article
‘Sexting’ as a form of sexual expression and experimentation has grown increasingly ubiquitous among teens. In addition to fostering intimacy and closeness among selected partners, sexting between minors incurs considerable risks to youth mental, physical, social and emotional wellbeing. Current debates on sexting focus on the conflicting role of pressure and pleasure among youth. We highlight findings from 35 focus groups with Canadian teens examining attitudes and experiences with cyber-risk and sexting. Our results show that youth demarcate boundaries between public and private and an ordered/disordered sense of self as they seek intimacy with others through the exchange of explicit digital material. Drawing on recent conceptual and theoretical work on image-based sexual abuse, we suggest that teens express situated agency when reflecting on sexting, indicating only partial awareness of wider patriarchal contexts mediating and patterning gendered behaviours involved in sexting and its outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
Many sexting studies conducted in the Western cultures have shown that the percentage is higher in less traditional cultures. However, the generalizability of this phenomenon to non-Western cultures has not been extensively researched. The purpose of this study is to examine and explain cross-cultural differences in sexting behavior among subjects from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia. A mixed methods approach was used. The first, qualitative phase included focus groups with two groups of high school students from Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia (N = 57), aged 15 to 19. In the second, quantitative phase, questionnaires were sent to 440 young adults with an average age of 21 years (SD = 3:8). From the interviews with the young people, nonconsensual sexting was perceived as less beneficial. Sexting was viewed as a double standard. The quantitative study revealed gender and country differences in attitudes toward sexting and motives for sexting. Positive attitudes toward sexting were found to predict different forms of sexting motives in both samples. In the sample from Bosnia and Herzegovina, age was found to predict sexting with instrumental motives and body image reinforcement motives. Gender, on the other hand, was found to be predictive of instrumental sexting motives in the Croatian sample and body image reinforcement sexting motives in the Bosnia and Herzegovina sample. This study illustrates the value of cross-cultural approaches combined with mixed methods as a design to study sexting behavior.
Article
Interpersonal electronic surveillance (IES) refers to monitoring a partner's location, conversations, and other private information such as search history. Although IES has been linked to relationship functioning, this work does not take into account the dyadic nature of relationships using data from both members of a dating pair. Thus, this study aimed to document rates and concordance of IES perpetration among a college sample of dating pairs, explore whether rates of IES perpetration differ by gender, and describe how each partner's IES perpetration is associated with trust, jealousy, negative relationship behaviors, and explore whether any associations are moderated by gender. A total of 136 couples (age 18-25 years) participated in a study wherein each member of the couple reported IES perpetration, trust, jealousy, and negative relationship behaviors. Results indicated that 44 percent of the sample presented with either one or both partners engaging in IES perpetration. Furthermore, results of actor-partner interdependence models indicated that there were significant actor effects for all outcomes such that one's own IES perpetration was related to lower trust in the partner, higher jealousy, and engagement in more negative partners toward the partner. However, no significant partner effects emerged. Results further indicated that actor effects were present for women, but not men. Overall, results of this study indicate that dyadic examinations of IES perpetration may shed light into the ways that couples use technology and that future research is warranted to determine how to prevent IES perpetration and ultimately potential relationship consequences.
Chapter
Although there is a growing interest in understanding the impact of types and patterns of Internet use on individuals of different ages, relatively few studies have fully considered developmental perspectives. This chapter offers an overview of the main findings regarding Internet use and problematic Internet use during stages of development. It includes both behavioral development and neurodevelopment and describes frequently performed online behaviors including social networking, online sex, gambling and gaming, and cyberbullying.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Weblogs (blogs) - frequently modified Web pages in which dated entries are listed in reverse chronological sequence - are the latest genre of Internet communication to attain widespread popularity, yet their characteristics have not been systematically described. This paper presents the results of a content analysis of 203 randomly-selected Weblogs, comparing the empirically observable features of the corpus with popular claims about the nature of Weblogs, and finding them to differ in a number of respects. Notably, blog authors, journalists and scholars alike exaggerate the extent to which blogs are interlinked, interactive, and oriented towards external events, and underestimate the importance of blogs as individualistic, intimate forms of self-expression. Based on the profile generated by the empirical analysis, we consider the likely antecedents of the blog genre, situate it with respect to the dominant forms of digital communication on the Internet today, and advance predictions about its long-term impacts.
Article
Full-text available
Much research has described the various practices of gaining access and participation in multi-user game communities. Cheat websites that are a prominent part of the game culture and industry have been debated because of their illegitimate nature but received little attention in terms of their educational value. In this paper we analyze the cheat sites created by players for a tween virtual world called Whyville.net, which encourages youth ages 8-16 to participate in a range of social activities and play casual science games. Analysis of a sample of 257 cheat sites resulted in typologies for both the cheats and sites in terms of quality and quantity of science content. In addition we followed a particularly active cheat site over the course of eight months and investigated formal discussions of the Whyville community concerning cheating. Implications of these findings as cultural artifacts of the game community and as guides for designing informal online learning activities are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we describe how participants in an online teen chatroom adapt to the unique features of chat environments to achieve conversational coherence and create a new communicative register. Typically, online chat conversations have several topics being discussed simultaneously, and participants' contributions do not follow the turn-taking sequence found in face-to-face or telephone conversations. We propose that there are two basic requirements for coherence in a chat conversation—establishing who is participating in a particular conversation and establishing what constitutes a relevant response. Our analysis of an online chat transcript reveals that the visual nature of the chat medium allows participants to modify extant communication strategies and create new ones to fulfill these requirements. Formally, the chatroom code integrates features of oral and written discourse. Functionally, this code, in the context of a teen chatroom, enables participants to co-construct important features of discourse, such as participant identity and characteristics, and relevant utterances.
Article
Full-text available
Within the cultural context of MySpace, this study explores the ways emerging adults experience social networking. Through focus group methodology, the role of virtual peer interaction in the development of personal, social, and gender identities was investigated. Findings suggest that college students utilize MySpace for identity exploration, engaging in social comparison and expressing idealized aspects of the selves they wish to become. The public nature of self and relationship displays introduce feedback mechanisms by which emerging adults can legitimize images as associated with the self. Also, male–female differences in self-presentation parallel, and possibly intensify, gender norms offline. Our study suggests that social networking sites provide valuable opportunities for emerging adults to realize possible selves; however, increased pressure for female sexual objectification and intensified social comparison may also negatively impact identity development. A balanced view, presenting both opportunities and drawbacks, should be encouraged in policies regarding youth participation in social networking sites.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, we propose that adolescents' online interactions are both a literal and a metaphoric screen for representing major adolescent developmental issues, such as sexuality and identity. Because of the public nature of Internet chat rooms, they provide an open window into the expression of adolescent concerns. Our study utilizes this window to explore how issues of sexuality and identity are constructed in a teen chat room. We adapt qualitative discourse methodology to microanalyze a half-hour transcript from a monitored teen chat room, comparing it, where relevant, to a second transcript, used in a prior study [Greenfield, P.M., Subrahmanyam, K., 2003. Online discourse in a teen chat room: New codes and new modes of coherence in a visual medium. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology 24, 713–738.]. Our microanalysis reveals that participants use the online space of teen chat to air adolescent concerns about sexuality and to develop creative strategies to exchange identity information with their peers. This exchange is critical to the activity of “pairing off”, an important teenage expression of emerging sexuality. Developmental issues from adolescents' offline lives are reconstructed online with some important differences. The virtual world of teen chat may offer a safer environment for exploring emerging sexuality than the real world. Through the verbally explicit exchange of identity information, participants are able to “pair off” with partners of their choice, despite the disembodied nature of chat participants.
Article
Full-text available
Social networking sites (e.g., MySpace and Facebook) are popular online communication forms among adolescents and emerging adults. Yet little is known about young people's activities on these sites and how their networks of “friends” relate to their other online (e.g., instant messaging) and offline networks. In this study, college students responded, in person and online, to questions about their online activities and closest friends in three contexts: social networking sites, instant messaging, and face-to-face. Results showed that participants often used the Internet, especially social networking sites, to connect and reconnect with friends and family members. Hence, there was overlap between participants' online and offline networks. However, the overlap was imperfect; the pattern suggested that emerging adults may use different online contexts to strengthen different aspects of their offline connections. Information from this survey is relevant to concerns about young people's life online.
Article
Full-text available
The present study experimentally examines the impact of emoticons on message interpretation among secondary school students (N = 105). Furthermore, perceived motives for emoticon use are examined. Results show that emoticons do have an impact on message interpretation. Emoticons are useful in strengthening the intensity of a verbal message. Furthermore, it is possible to create ambiguity and express sarcasm online by varying the valence of the emoticon and the valence of the message. Overall, the authors conclude that to a large extent, emoticons serve the same functions as actual nonverbal behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Over the past decade, technology has become increasingly important in the lives of adolescents. As a group, adolescents are heavy users of newer electronic communication forms such as instant messaging, e-mail, and text messaging, as well as communication-oriented Internet sites such as blogs, social networking, and sites for sharing photos and videos. Kaveri Subrahmanyam and Patricia Greenfield examine adolescents' relationships with friends, romantic partners, strangers, and their families in the context of their online communication activities. The authors show that adolescents are using these communication tools primarily to reinforce existing relationships, both with friends and romantic partners. More and more they are integrating these tools into their "offline" worlds, using, for example, social networking sites to get more information about new entrants into their offline world. Subrahmanyam and Greenfield note that adolescents' online interactions with strangers, while not as common now as during the early years of the Internet, may have benefits, such as relieving social anxiety, as well as costs, such as sexual predation. Likewise, the authors demonstrate that online content itself can be both positive and negative. Although teens find valuable support and information on websites, they can also encounter racism and hate messages. Electronic communication may also be reinforcing peer communication at the expense of communication with parents, who may not be knowledgeable enough about their children's online activities on sites such as the enormously popular MySpace. Although the Internet was once hailed as the savior of education, the authors say that schools today are trying to control the harmful and distracting uses of electronic media while children are at school. The challenge for schools is to eliminate the negative uses of the Internet and cell phones in educational settings while preserving their significant contributions to education and social connection.
Article
Full-text available
Three studies examined the notion that computer mediated communication (CMC) can be characterised by high levels of self-disclosure. In Study one, significantly higher levels of spontaneous self-disclosure were found in computer-mediated compared to face-to-face discussions. Study two examined the role of visual anonymity in encouraging self-disclosure during CMC. Visually anonymous participants disclosed significantly more information about themselves than non-visually anonymous participants. In Study three, private and public self-awareness were independently manipulated, using videoconferencing cameras and accountability cues, to create a 2x2 design (public self-awareness (high and low) x private self-awareness (high and low). It was found that heightened private self-awareness, when combined with reduced public self-awareness, was associated with significantly higher levels of spontaneous self-disclosure during computer-mediated communication.
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the phenomenon of lying on adolescents' weblogs. The sample consisted of 113 completed surveys out of 120 in total. The age of participants ranged between 13 and 17 years old. Interviews were conducted with 10 randomly selected participants whose answers were then verified. The results suggest not only that adolescents present personal information such as their age, gender, and place of residence but that these pieces of information are presented truthfully. Generally, the level of dishonesty was low, with young adolescents tending to lie more often about their interests. Public topics (school and life) had the most truthful answers, whereas the least truthful answers concerned intimate topics (family life, partnership). These results suggest that adolescents' blogs serve as a place where the writers can both present themselves and communicate with their peers in a way that goes beyond a traditional diary.
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the JUNIOR SUMMIT online community, which consisted of 3,062 adolescents representing 139 countries, varying SES, and a range of experience with computers. The online forum culminated in the election of 100 delegates. By analyzing the messages posted before results of the election were announced, we explore whether language use predicts who was elected as a leader, as well as gender differences in leadership style. Results indicate that the young online leaders do not adhere to adult leadership styles of contributing many ideas, sticking to task, and using powerful language. On the contrary, while the young people elected as delegates do contribute more, their linguistic style is likely to keep the goals and needs of the group as central--by referring to the group rather than to themselves, and by synthesizing the posts of others rather than solely contributing their own ideas. Furthermore, both boy and girl leaders follow this pattern of interpersonal language use. These results reassure us that young people can be civically engaged and community minded, while indicating that these concepts themselves may change through contact with the next generation.
Article
Full-text available
The authors examined the online construction of identity and sexuality in a large sample of conversations from monitored and unmonitored teen chat rooms. More than half of the 583 participants (identified by a distinct screen name) communicated identity information, most frequently gender. In this way, participants compensated for the text-based chat environment by providing information about themselves that would be visible and obvious in face-to-face communication. Sexual themes constituted 5% of all utterances (1 sexual comment per minute); bad or obscene language constituted 3% of the sample (1 obscenity every 2 minutes). Participants who self-identified as female produced more implicit sexual communication, participants who self-identified as male produced more explicit sexual communication. The protected environment of monitored chat (hosts who enforce basic behavioral rules) contained an environment with less explicit sexuality and fewer obscenities than the freer environment of unmonitored chat. These differences were attributable both to the monitoring process itself and to the differing populations attracted to each type of chat room (monitored: more participants self-identified as younger and female; unmonitored: more participants self-identified as older and male).
Article
Full-text available
With this special section on children, adolescents, and the Internet, we survey the state of a new field of inquiry in developmental psychology. This field is important because developmentalists need to understand how children and adolescents live in a new, massive, and complex virtual universe, even as they carry on their lives in the real world. We have selected six empirical articles to showcase various aspects of child and adolescent development in this virtual universe. These articles reflect three major themes of this new field: communication on the Internet; cognitive development, academic achievement, and the Internet; and adolescents in a globalized Internet world. These three sections reflect one of our major editorial goals: to sample various relevant aspects of development as they relate to the Internet. The selection of articles reflects a second editorial goal: to sample both the positive and negative aspects of the virtual world in which children and adolescents are increasingly living. Another of our editorial goals was to sample as large an age range as possible. We also utilized a very broad definition of development. Last but not least, we sought out and found methodological diversity.
Article
Full-text available
We examined the search for partners by participants in two teen chat services having different ecologies. Over 12,000 utterances from monitored and unmonitored chat rooms were analyzed to assess online partner selection attempts and to see how such attempts may be influenced by the presence of an adult monitor. We found that the search for partners is ubiquitous in adolescents' online haunts, just as it is in their offline lives, and approximately two requests for a partner occur each minute. Although partner selection appears to be an important activity in online teen chat rooms, there are differences in frequency and format (e.g., the use of numerals, sexualized requests) as a function of participants' age and gender, and chat room ecology (monitored vs. unmonitored).
Article
Full-text available
The present study investigated the relationships between adolescents' online communication and compulsive Internet use, depression, and loneliness. The study had a 2-wave longitudinal design with an interval of 6 months. The sample consisted of 663 students, 318 male and 345 female, ages 12 to 15 years. Questionnaires were administered in a classroom setting. The results showed that instant messenger use and chatting in chat rooms were positively related to compulsive Internet use 6 months later. Moreover, in agreement with the well-known HomeNet study (R. Kraut et al., 1998), instant messenger use was positively associated with depression 6 months later. Finally, loneliness was negatively related to instant messenger use 6 months later.
Article
The presented study is focused on the Internet mediated communication, mainly in comparison to the face to face communication. The aim of the study is to review some publications and researches on how the perception of another person proceeds in electronic communication, how we perceive ourselves, our identity, what language we use, how this language differs from the language of face to face communication, and whether the style of both types of communication is different.
Article
Presented study is focused on communication of adolescents in the internet environment. The study is based on qualitative methodology - grounded theory method. 16 interviews were carried out, a half of them being held in the reality and the others in the internet enviroment. The communication of adolescents is analyzed on two levels - from the point of view of adolescents, and from the point of researcher's view. The author carried out a comparison of virtual and real interviews and set the differences between them. He defines a new phenomenon in the virtual communication - the phenomenon of multiplicity of communication.
Chapter
Ever since G. Stanley Hall's (1904) seminal work a century ago, peer relationships have been regarded as a central feature of American adolescence. From the early years through the present, researchers have remained decidedly ambivalent about the effects of peers on American adolescents (Berndt, 1999), but few deny the significance of peer relationships and interactions during this stage of life. Do peers comprise a supportive social context that fosters identity and helps to socialize youth into adult roles, or do they form an arena for frivolous and delinquent activity, with patterns of interaction that undermine autonomy and self-esteem? In this chapter I overview some of the major features of peer relations that have occupied researchers' attention over the past 10 or 15 years. Insights emerging from their studies underscore the complexity of adolescent peer relations and clarify the conditions under which peer interactions foster healthy or unhealthy development.
Article
The objective of this study is to understand the gratifications behind music downloading among college students, and examine how the gratifications along with music interest are associated with a variety of downloading-related activities.The results suggest that the process of downloading music files is an entertaining and convenient way to acquire music.The downloading motives were not linked significantly to filesharing (uploading as well as downloading music). However, entertainment/pass time, convenience/economic utility and information-seeking factors and experience were predictors of building a library of music on one's computer. Males reported having more songs stored in their computers than females and were more likely to burn compilation compact discs (CDs) with the music files they downloaded. Affinity for music was not associated significantly with any of the downloading activities examined, but was positively associated with CD purchasing.
Article
As virtual worlds for children increase in popularity, it is important to examine their developmental implications. Given the limited research on this question, we use extant social science research on youth and digital media to understand how children 's participation in virtual worlds might mediate their development. We identify four different pathways by which new media can potentially mediate development. Then we review relevant research on video games, which, like virtual worlds, contain three-dimensional online fantasy worlds; we also review research on online communication forums, which are like virtual worlds in that they allow users to create online selves and interact with one another. These studies also provide concrete examples of the pathways by which media influence development. We examine three specific questions about children 's use of virtual worlds: what they typically do in them, their learning potential, and whether virtual world participation mediates development. We conclude that children's virtual world activities resemble their offline ones, indicating that their offline and online worlds may be connected. The potentialforl earningf rom virtual worldp articipationi s as yet unknown and requires further research. Children's online selves are connected to their offline ones and this has implications for their safety; although their interactions in virtual worlds appear to mirror offline patterns, we do not as yet know their potential benefits or costs. The Article concludes that although children's virtual world activities and interactions may be connected to their offline lives, there are several pressing questions about their participation that must be addressed.
Article
Part one of this paper highlights how students today think and process information fundamentally differently from their predecessors, as a result of being surrounded by new technology. The author compares these “digital natives” with the older generation who are learning and adopting new technology naming them “digital immigrants”.
Article
A longitudinal analysis of panel data from users of a popular online social network site, Facebook, investigated the relationship between intensity of Facebook use, measures of psychological well-being, and bridging social capital. Two surveys conducted a year apart at a large U.S. university, complemented with in-depth interviews with 18 Facebook users, provide the study data. Intensity of Facebook use in year one strongly predicted bridging social capital outcomes in year two, even after controlling for measures of self-esteem and satisfaction with life. These latter psychological variables were also strongly associated with social capital outcomes. Self-esteem served to moderate the relationship between Facebook usage intensity and bridging social capital: those with lower self-esteem gained more from their use of Facebook in terms of bridging social capital than higher self-esteem participants. We suggest that Facebook affordances help reduce barriers that lower self-esteem students might experience in forming the kinds of large, heterogeneous networks that are sources of bridging social capital.
Article
Instant messaging (IM) has shown signs of becoming one of the main stream communication applications for users, like e-mail. Many people maintain constant contacts with multiple friends and relations via IM simultaneously whenever they are online, whether working on other applications or not. In addition to allowing instant exchange of text information, a unique feature of IM is its use of graphical icons that express emotions, known as emotional icons or emoticons. We explored their potential effects. Our model, based on prior theory and research, was tested using data collected from student users; it was analyzed to reveal potential effects of emoticons on various factors related to the use of IM. Our study used structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis; the results showed that the user of emoticons felt a positive effect on enjoyment, personal interaction, perceived information richness, and perceived usefulness. Our results suggested, however, that emoticons were not just enjoyable to use, but also a valuable addition to communication methods.
Article
It has been speculated that computer game play by young people has negative correlates or consequences, although little evidence has emerged to support these fears. An alternative possibility is that game play may be associated with positive features of development, as the games reflect and contribute to participation in a challenging and stimulating voluntary leisure environment. This study examined the relationship between game play and several measures of adjustment or risk taking in a sample of 16-year-old high school students. No evidence was obtained of negative outcomes among game players. On several measures—including family closeness, activity involvement, positive school engagement, positive mental health, substance use, self-concept, friendship network, and disobedience to parents—game players scored more favorably than did peers who never played computer games. It is concluded that computer games can be a positive feature of a healthy adolescence.
Article
As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents' home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys' and girls' online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.
Article
This study investigated whether changes in the technological/social environment in the United States over time have resulted in concomitant changes in the multitasking skills of younger generations. One thousand, three hundred and nineteen Americans from three generations were queried to determine their at-home multitasking behaviors. An anonymous online questionnaire asked respondents to indicate which everyday and technology-based tasks they choose to combine for multitasking and to indicate how difficult it is to multitask when combining the tasks. Combining tasks occurred frequently, especially while listening to music or eating. Members of the “Net Generation” reported more multitasking than members of “Generation X,” who reported more multitasking than members of the “Baby Boomer” generation. The choices of which tasks to combine for multitasking were highly correlated across generations, as were difficulty ratings of specific multitasking combinations. The results are consistent with a greater amount of general multitasking resources in younger generations, but similar mental limitations in the types of tasks that can be multitasked.
Conference Paper
Text messaging" — using a mobile phone to send a message — has changed how teenagers use wireless phones to communicate and coordinate. While the media reports rapid growth in text messaging, less is known about why teenagers have adopted it. In this paper, we report findings from a study of teenagers' text messaging practices. Specifically, we show that teenagers use text messages to: arrange and adjust times to talk, coordinate with friends and family, and chat. Moreover, we argue that the reasons teenagers find text messaging quick, cheap, and easy to use, are grounded in their social context. Finally, we show that teenagers encounter three problems when text messaging- understanding evolving language, determining intent from content, and addressing messages.
Article
This paper seeks to connect adolescents' communication within on-line weblogs or blogs to developmental processes. A total of 195 English language blogs written by self-identified 14- to 18-year-olds were selected; three entries from each blog were analysed, resulting in a sample of 585 entries. Blogger demographics, self-presentation, and blog entries (format, style, content, and tone) were coded. The blog authors in our sample were overwhelmingly female and lived within the US; the majority were between 15- and 16-years of age. Bloggers utilized usernames and userpictures for self-presentation and in addition to gender, frequently presented information about their age and location. The majority of the entries used text, were narrative and reflective in style, and contained themes related to their authors' peers and everyday life. Emotional tone was present and entries with romantic, identity, and future-related themes often contained emotional tone. Blog authors seemed to be using blogs to create narratives and to reflect about the people and events in their lives. Our results show that adolescent bloggers project off-line themes to their blogs, suggesting that their on-line and off-line contexts are psychologically connected.