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Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana L. were extracted with liquid carbon dioxide, and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) toward several species of ants and cedrol toward ticks was determined. Repellency was tested for ants, and toxicity was tested for ticks. Ants in an outdoor bioassay were significantly repelled by the presence of CWO on a pole leading to a sugar-water solution. Similarly, CWO was a significant repellent barrier to red imported fire ants and prevented them from finding a typical food source. Black-legged tick nymphs exhibited dosage-dependent mortality when exposed to cedrol and at the highest dosage (i.e., 6.3 mg/ml) tested, the cedrol killed 100% of the ticks. These repellency and toxicity results together demonstrate a clear potential for the use of CWO as a pest control agent.
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Bioactivity of Cedarwood Oil and Cedrol Against Arthropod Pests
Environ. Entomol. 43(3): 762Ð766 (2014); DOI:
ABSTRACT Heartwood samples from Juniperus virginiana L. were extracted with liquid carbon
dioxide, and the bioactivity of carbon dioxide-derived cedarwood oil (CWO) toward several species
of ants and cedrol toward ticks was determined. Repellency was tested for ants, and toxicity was tested
for ticks. Ants in an outdoor bioassay were signiÞcantly repelled by the presence of CWO on a pole
leading to a sugarÐwater solution. Similarly, CWO was a signiÞcant repellent barrier to red imported
Þre ants and prevented them from Þnding a typical food source. Black-legged tick nymphs exhibited
dosage-dependent mortality when exposed to cedrol and at the highest dosage (i.e., 6.3 mg/ml) tested,
the cedrol killed 100% of the ticks. These repellency and toxicity results together demonstrate a clear
potential for the use of CWO as a pest control agent.
KEY WORDS cedarwood oil, repellency, toxicity, red imported Þre ant, black-legged tick
Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.), western
juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.), and ashe ju-
niper (Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz) (Cupressaceae)
are very abundant conifers in the United States. The
area covered by junipers has been expanding
(Schmidt and Leatherberry 1995, Ganguli et al. 2008),
and all three are often considered pest species because
of their encroachment onto rangeland and pastures
(Adams et al. 1988).
In addition to its aromatic smell, junipers are known
for their resistance to both microbial decay and ter-
mite attack. Because of this resistance, juniper has long
been used for fence posts (Hemmerly 1970, Adams
2004). The antifungal (i.e., wood-rot fungi) activities
of juniper heartwood extracts have recently been re-
ported (Eller et al. 2010, Mun and Prewitt 2011).
Juniper wood has been shown to be resistant to both
Formosan (Morales-Ramos and Rojas 2001) and east-
ern subterranean (Carter and Smythe 1974, Arango et
al. 2006) termites. Particleboard-chip panels made
from eastern red cedar are moderately resistant to
termite damage (Kard et al. 2007), and Ko¨se and Tay-
lor (2012) recently reported heartwood and included
sapwood of eastern red cedar were resistant to ter-
The wood of eastern red cedar is also known for its
toxicity and repellency to several species of insects
including clothes moths (Huddle and Mills 1952),
ßour beetles (Sighamony et al. 1984), and cockroaches
(Appel and Mack 1989). Eastern red cedar mulch was
also reported to be repellent to ants (Meissner and
Silverman 2001, Thorvilson and Rudd 2001).
However, the bioactivity of eastern red cedar ex-
tracts toward arthropods has not been extensively
studied. Antitermite compounds have been extracted
from eastern red cedar heartwood by organic solvent
(i.e., acetone, pentane, hexane, or methanol) extrac-
tion (Carter and Smythe 1974, Carter 1976, Adams et
al. 1988, McDaniel et al. 1989). An acetoneÐhexaneÐ
water extract of eastern red cedar signiÞcantly re-
duced termite attack when applied to southern pine
by vacuum impregnation (McDaniel and Dunn 1994).
Zhu et al. (2001) found that cedarwood oil (CWO)
repelled termites. Interestingly, cedarwood and its
extracts have also been demonstrated to induce ovi-
position by ladybird beetles (Boldyrev et al. 1969,
Smith et al. 1973).
Our laboratory has been investigating the extraction
and composition of CWO, using supercritical and liq-
uid carbon dioxide as well as pressurized solvents such
as ethanol and hot water (Eller and King 2000, Eller
and Taylor 2004). Carbon dioxide-derived CWO con-
tains higher levels of cedrol and has an odor that more
closely resembles that of eastern red cedar wood than
does CWO obtained by steam distillation (Eller and
King 2000). Carbon dioxide-derived CWO has been
Mention of trade names or commercial products in this article is
solely for the purpose of providing scientiÞc information and does not
imply recommendation or endorsement by the U.S. Department of
Functional Foods Research Unit, National Center for Agricultural
Utilization Research, Agricultural Research Service, United States
Department of Agriculture, 1815 North University St., Peoria, IL
Corresponding author, e-mail:
Imported Fire Ant and Household Insects Research Unit, Center
for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Agricultural
Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 1600 S.W.
23rd Dr., Gainesville, FL 32608.
Crop Bioprotection Research Unit, National Center for Agricul-
tural, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of
Agriculture, 1815 North University St., Peoria, IL 61604.
Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Ag-
riculture, Midwest Area, 1815 North University St., Peoria, IL 61604.
demonstrated to have antifungal, antitermite and anti-
inßammatory effects (Eller et al. 2010; Tumen et al.
2013a,b). CWO is considered safe and is approved as
a food additive by the U.S. Food and Drug Adminis-
tration (2013).
The purpose of this research was to investigate
potential uses of CWO against several economically
important arthropods as a safe natural pest control
agent. Evaluations included its use as a general ant
repellent on hummingbird feeders, a repellent against
red imported Þre ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, and
toxicity against black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis
Materials and Methods
CWO Samples. Heartwood samples from eastern
red cedar (Woodford Co., IL) were prepared from
freshly cut trees. Sapwood was removed from the
samples using a band saw, and heartwood sawdust was
prepared using a compound miter saw. Sawdust sam-
ples were held in glass containers at room temperature
before extraction. Extractions were made using liquid
carbon dioxide (25C and 10.3 Mpa), and the CO
depressurized into glass vials to collect the CWO as
described previously (Eller et al. 2010). ()-Cedrol
was purchased from Aldrich (Milwaukee, WI).
Ant Repellent–Hummingbird Feeder Bioassay.
The experiment was set up as a paired test of untreated
control versus a CWO barrier treatment. The hum-
mingbird feeders (First Nature, Rogers, AR) used in
this study consisted of a large inverted reservoir to
provide a constant level of the sugarÐwater solution
(1:4 by volume). The sugar solution was accessible
through 10 holes in the cover. A plastic hook on the top
of the feeder is used to suspend the feeder. The hum-
mingbird feeders were hung on a 1.63-m-tall black
shepherdÕs hook (Enchanted Garden, Menards, Eau
Claire, WI), and the traps were 1.2 m from the
ground. Twine (1.5 mm in diameter and 30 cm in
length) was wrapped Þve times around the base of the
shepherdÕs hook 15 cm from the ground and tied in
a knot with the excess trimmed off. The concentration
of the CWO in the string was 500 mg/cm
. The
control was left untreated while the treated twine had
l(200 mg) of neat CWO extract applied to the
twine. The two shepherdÕs hooks were placed 1 m
apart at eight separate locations in Peoria and Wood-
ford counties, IL. The feeders were checked daily for
the presence of ants. When ants were Þrst detected,
that replication was ended and each feeder was placed
in a separate plastic bag and placed in a freezer
(10C) to kill the ants present. The ants were then
removed, counted, and preserved in 70% ethanol. The
ants were identiÞed to genus.
Imported Red Fire Ant Contact Repellency. The
bioassay for contact repellency was similar to that
described by Vander Meer et al. (1996). It was hy-
pothesized that the CWO would act as a close-range
repellent not as a volatile long-range repellent. The
test tray was composed of a porcelain pan measuring
180 by 290 by 50 mm. The upper 3 mm of the pan was
coated with Fluon (BioQuip Products, Rancho
Dominguez, CA) to preclude ants from escaping. A
petri dish nest cell (55 mm in diameter) was placed at
one end of the pan. The petri dish had a 5-mm layer
of Castone dental cement on the bottom that acted as
a moisture reservoir. The lid of the petri dish had a
hole placed in the center to allow ant access. To
protect the bottom of the pan from contamination by
the test materials, 2.5-cm
pieces of aluminum foil
were placed in the opposite end of the pan from the
nest cell at each corner 3.0 cm from the sides of the
pan. No food or water was available to the ants during
the bioassay. Fifty microliters of test material was
introduced to the test chamber on a 2.0-cm
piece of
Whatman silicone-treated Þlter paper (cat. # 2200
125; Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and was randomly
assigned and placed on one of the aluminum foil
squares. The other aluminum square received a Þlter
paper square with 50
l of pentane as a control. The
solvent was allowed to evaporate to apparent dryness.
Placed on top of each Þlter paper square was a small
wad of cotton soaked in 10% sucrose to serve as a
phagostimulant. Once test materials were in place, 1
g of ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: For-
micidae) (starved for a minimum of 24 h) was placed
in the nest cell and a stopwatch was started. The
number of ants actively feeding on the treatment and
control cotton balls was observed and recorded after
a total of 5 min. The score for each bioassay replicate
was the number of the 5-min values for control and
treatment. Each experiment was replicated three
times, each with a unique monogyne colony and in a
different test tray. CWO at three concentrations (1
and 10% in pentane: wt:vol, and neat) was tested
against pentane controls. Cedrol at 50% (wt:vol in
pentane) was tested against a pentane control.
Black-Legged Tick Contact Toxicity.
Tick Colony. Unfed nymphs (2Ð3 wk since molt-
ing) of the black-legged tick, I. scapularis (Acari: Ix-
odidae), were procured from the Tick Rearing Facil-
ity, National Tick Research and Education Resource,
Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology,
Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK. Before tox-
icological bioassays, nymphs were held in four-dram
vials contained in a desiccator with potassium sulfate
solution to maintain high relative humidity (RH;
90%), at room temperature (22Ð24C), with a pho-
toperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h. Nymphs were allowed to
acclimate to our laboratory conditions at least 24 h
before starting the toxicological assay.
Coating of Vials and Bioassays. Different concen-
trations of cedrol were tested on unfed nymphs of I.
scapularis, in laboratory bioassays. Three serial dilu-
tions (10) of cedrol were made with hexane ranging
from 6.3 to 0.063 mg/ml. Coating of vials with cedrol
concentrations in hexane was done following the
method of Panella et al. (2005) with modiÞcations.
Each four-dram size vial (27.25 by 67 mm, Fisher-
brand, Fisher ScientiÞc, Pittsburgh, PA) was coated
evenly on the inside by adding 1 ml of the appropriate
solution of cedrol in hexane. Vials were placed on their
side on a roller (Bellco Biotechnology, Bellco Glass,
Inc., Vineland, NJ) and allowed to dry in a fume hood
for 15Ð20 min or until hexane had completely evapo-
rated. There were three replications (i.e., vials) of
each treatment concentration, and three additional
vials were treated with hexane only as a control treat-
ment. The coated vials had only a very thin coating of
oil, which did not appear to impair the movement of
the tick nymphs.
For the bioassay, 10 unfed nymphs were introduced
into each vial and the vials were then capped with a
piece of cotton fabric secured with a rubber band and
Þnally covered with aluminum foil. Vials were placed
in the desiccator with potassium sulfate solution to
maintain high RH (90%), at room temperature (22Ð
24C), with a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D)h. Thus, 30 tick
nymphs were exposed to each cedrol concentration.
Tick mortality was recorded 24 and 48 h after exposure
to the cedrol-coated vials. Ticks were considered alive
when they exhibited normal behavior, and considered
moribund or dead when they were incapable of move-
ment, failed to maintain normal posture, exhibited
uncoordinated movement, were unable to right them-
selves, or showed no sign of life (motionless).
Statistical Analyses. A sign test was used to test the
probability of obtaining the observed results in the ant
repellentÐhummingbird feeder bioassay, and a one-
way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to com-
pare the number of ants at the CWO treatment with
the number of ants at the control after square-root
transformation of the count data plus 1 (Statistix 7.0,
Analytical Software, Tallahassee, FL). A
was used to compare number of red imported Þre ants
at the CWO treatments with the number of red im-
ported Þre ants at the controls. Probit analysis with
logistic distribution was used to analyze probability of
tick mortality based on cedrol concentration (SAS
version 9.3 @ 2002Ð2110 [SAS Institute Inc., Cary,
Results and Discussion
Ant Repellent–Hummingbird Feeder Bioassay.
Ants were Þrst detected at the feeders at 2Ð10 d after
placement in the Þeld. Ants were found at the hum-
mingbird feeders at seven of the eight control repli-
cates, whereas no ants were found at the hummingbird
feeders treated with CWO (n8). The Pvalue for this
result was P0.0078 (Sign test; n7). The total
number of ants captured at the controls ranged from
8 to 112, and the mean number of ants found on the
feeders was 30.7 (n8). The ANOVA indicated that
signiÞcantly more ants were captured at the control
feeders than the feeders with the CWO (F
P0.0021). Five genera of ants were identiÞed from
the seven sites and included Camponotus (at two
sites), Formica (at two sites), and Crematogaster (one
site), Lasius (one site), and Tapinoma sessile Say (at
one site). These results indicate that the ants were
much more likely to be found on the untreated sugar
source than the sugar source with the CWO barrier
and this experiment demonstrated 100% exclusion of
ants with CWO without the use of synthetic pesti-
A CWO-impregnated barrier could be an alterna-
tive to ant deterrent products for hummingbird feed-
ers currently in the market. Commercial products in-
clude barriertype products such as AntGuard,
which contains the synthetic insecticide permethrin.
Other types of products are water-Þlled moats (e.g.,
Trap-It), which rely on water, which is subject to
evaporation, to prevent contact with the attractive
source. Because the most abundant component of
-derived CWO is cedrol (Eller and King 2000) and
cedrol has a relatively high melting point (i.e., 86Ð
87C; Merck Index, 1989), CWO might be expected to
last over the course of a season outdoors. A CWO-
based ant deterrent could be a natural long-lasting,
inexpensive, safe, and effective means to exclude ants
from otherwise attractive sources, such as humming-
bird feeders as well as other uses in structural pest
Red Imported Fire Ant Contact Repellency. The
results of the red imported Þre ant contact CWO
repellency tests are shown in Fig. 1. At every dosage,
the CWO treatment had signiÞcantly fewer ants on
the food source than did the control. Although there
was not a clear dosageÐresponse of CWO concentra-
tion and repellency, during the 5-min test period, the
100% CWO had a mean (SE) of only 1.3 (0.9) ants on
the food source compared with 40 (6.0) for the
corresponding control (Fig. 1). The major component
of CWO is cedrol (50% of total). When cedrol alone
was tested against a control, a mean (SE) of only 31.2
(2.7) red imported Þre ants were at the cedrol treat-
ment compared with a mean (SE) of 68.8 (2.7) red
imported Þre ants at the control. The cedrol treatment
had signiÞcantly fewer red imported Þre ants than did
the control (P0.0001 using
). The 50% cedrol
treatment matches the amount of cedrol in the CWO.
Although 50% cedrol is a signiÞcant red imported Þre
ant repellent, it does not account for all the activity
from the CWO. Other compounds in the CWO that
contribute to CWO repellency against red imported
Þre ants will be the subjects of future investigations.
Essential oils have previously been demonstrated
to be repellent to red imported Þre ants. Mint oil
1% 10% Neat
Cedarwood Oil
Trea tme nt
Mean Number of Fire Ants
Fig. 1. Effect of CWO on number of Þre ants on food
source. SigniÞcantly more Þre ants were on control than
CWO at all three levels (P0.0001, P0.0007, and P
0.0001, respectively for 1%, 10% and Neat using
(Appel et al. 2004), an essential oil product from
China (Chen 2009), the sesquiterpenes callicarpe-
nal and intermedeol (Chen et al. 2008), and com-
pounds from cloves (Kaße and Shih 2013), have all
been shown to be repellent to red imported Þre ants.
In addition, Anderson et al. (2002) reported a water
suspension from Juniperus wood was repellent to
red imported Þre ants. In this study, the CO
rived CWO from J. virginiana was also repellent to
red imported Þre ants. The potential uses for repel-
ling red imported Þre ants could include exclusion
from homes as well as structures such as electrical
Black-Legged Tick Mortality. The results of the tick
mortality tests are shown in Table 1. Only 3.3% of the
tick nymphs in the control treatment were dead after
either 24 or 48 h. However, for those exposed to the
cedrol, a high percentage was dead after as little as
24 h. Nymphs exhibited very high mortality (i.e.,
60%) when exposed to cedrol in glass vials after both
24 and 48 h compared with only 3% mortality for those
exposed to controls. Mortality increased with dosage,
and toxic effects were observed sooner in ticks ex-
posed to higher concentrations based on Probit anal-
ysis of the data.
Previously, essential oils have been shown to be
effective against I. scapularis. Flor-Weiler et al. (2011)
reported nootkatone was toxic to I. scapularis, and
Elias et al. (2013) reported a rosemary-based acaricide
was effective against I. scapularis. Chen et al. (2005)
reported that vetiver oil and nootkatone were repel-
lent to both ants and ticks, and Dolan et al. (2009)
suggested the natural products, nootkatone and car-
vacrol, could be alternative control products to con-
ventional synthetic acaricides. Carroll et al. (2011)
reported that the essential oil from Juniperus chinensis
L. was repellent to I. scapularis. Our results demon-
strate that CWO or cedrol from J. virginiana could also
be used as an alternative to conventional synthetic
acaricides for I. scapularis.
The possible uses for CWO in insect management
beyond the species investigated here could be much
broader. In addition to its potential beneÞts in insect
control, the use of CWO would also use an under-
utilized abundant domestic natural resource.
The authors thank Allard Cosse, Steven Vaughn, Ray Hol-
loway, Amber Durham, and Karen Ray for their assistance
with conducting Þeld tests; and Michele Hosack and David
Milne for red imported Þre ant technical assistance. The
Þeld-collected ants were identiÞed by Michael W. Gates
(Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Agriculture Research
Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD). Gregory Akerman provided
the eastern red cedar samples.
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0 (control) 3.3c 3.3b
0.063 mg/ml 63.3b 76.7a
0.63 mg/ml 83.3ab 93.3a
6.3 mg/ml 100a 100a
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... Turmeric (Curcuma longa), in addition to the antibacterial properties mentioned above, produces biological activities such as insect repellant and anti-snake venom activity that can be used as bioinsecticide [91]. Also, various studies have shown that J. virginiana EO have activities against insects and pathogens [17,92,93]. Yohana et al. [94] studied the important anti-mosquito properties of Juniperus virginiana (Cupressaceae) EOs against dominant malaria vectors, and their findings demonstrated that its EO has the potential for the development of new, efficient, safe, and affordable agents for mosquito control. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) and plant extracts are sources of beneficial chemical compounds that have potential applications in medicine, food, cosmetics, and the agriculture industry. Plant medicines were the only option for preventing and treating mankind’s diseases for centuries. Therefore, plant products are fundamental sources for producing natural drugs. The extraction of the EOs is the first important step in preparing these compounds. Modern extraction methods are effective in the efficient development of these compounds. Moreover, the compounds extracted from plants have natural antimicrobial activity against many spoilage and disease-causing bacteria. Also, the use of plant compounds in cosmetics and hygiene products, in addition to their high marketability, has been helpful for many beauty problems. On the other hand, the agricultural industry has recently shifted more from conventional production systems to authenticated organic production systems, as consumers prefer products without any pesticide and herbicide residues, and certified organic products command higher prices. EOs and plant extracts can be utilized as ingredients in plant antipathogens, biopesticides, and bioherbicides for the agricultural sector. Considering the need and the importance of using EOs and plant extracts in pharmaceutical and other industries, this review paper outlines the different aspects of the applications of these compounds in various sectors.
... Most of these compounds have been previously reported to cause mortality to various arthropods. For instance, Eller et al 18 reported that black-legged tick nymphs exhibited dosage-dependent mortality when exposed to cedrol derived from cedar wood oil. At 6.3 mg/mL cedrol killed 100% of the ticks. ...
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Bedbugs are blood-feeding arthropods that cause anemia in humans upon heavy feeding. Control measures are unsuccessful due to resistance to development, environmental pollution, and cost. There is a need to explore natural herbal-based phytochemicals to combat bedbugs. In this study, compounds from Comiphora africana resin were sequentially extracted, fractionated, identified, and evaluated against bedbugs as individual compounds and in combinations. The chemical constituents of the most active fraction were identified using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Results showed that the dichloromethane crude extract had the highest mean repellency (98.5% with an LC 50 of 4.96 mg/L after 24 and 72 h of exposure time, respectively), similar to the positive control (neocidol). Column chromatographic separation of the dichloromethane extract yielded 9 fractions where “FR7” (eluted with 60% n-hexane in ethyl acetate) demonstrated the highest mean repellency of 79.0% with an LC 50 of 10.12 mg/L after 2 and 24 h exposure times, respectively. From the identified compounds of FR7, cedrol had significantly ( P < .05) higher mean repellency (80.5%) after 6 h of exposure and toxicity (27.43 mg/L) after 24 h exposure. A six-constituent blend of compounds from FR7 [9-octadecenoic acid-ethyl-ester, octadecadien-1-ol, citronellyl formate, cedrol, n-hexadecanoic acid, (1,2)-dihydro-6-methoxy-naphthalene] had the highest mean repellency (93.4% after 12 h exposure) and toxicity (8.83 mg/L after 72 h exposure) than the other blends and individual compounds. This study reports fractions/compounds that can be used in bedbug control measures.
... Our results contrast with those published in the literature for cedarwood oil, the main active ingredient of the BigShot Maxim Concentrate, which has been shown to cause high mortality in arthropod pests (Eller et al. 2014, Khanna & Chakreaborty 2018. In another study, a botanical insecticide containing 25.3% cedarwood and 12.7% cinnamon oil (NatureCide Pest Management) was shown to cause 100% mortality against colony reared Bangonan et al. (2021), found in laboratory bioassays that BigShot Maxim Concentrate was effective at killing colony reared susceptible Ae. aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, compared to a permethrin control -although, similar to the current study, at an application rate higher than the maximum label application rate of 40.7 mL cedarwood oil/ha. ...
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An essential-oil adulticide formulation. BigShot Maxim Concentrate (14% cedarwood oil, 0.53% thyme oil, and 0.25% cinnamon oil), was evaluated using a wind tunnel against pyrethroid resistant (Puerto Rico, PR) and pyrethroid susceptible (Orlando, ORL) colony-reared strains of Aedes aegypti to determine whether the product could be used in operational mosquito control to supplement dwindling efficacy of pyrethroid formulations. The product was sprayed at 0.5x (146 mL/ha), 1.0x (291 mL/ha), and 2.5x (731 mL/ha) the maximum application rate through a ULV nozzle. After application, mortality was checked at 1 and 24 h. The 24 h mortality for the ORL strain was 85.9% ±5.0, 98.7% ±1.3, and 99.2% ±0.8 at the three application rates, respectively. In contrast, mortality at 24 h post exposure for the PR resistant strain was significantly lower, 26.4% ±6.5, 35.2% ±8.0, and 45.1% ±8.0, at the three application rates, respectively. Results suggest that the essential-oil formulation could be moderately effective against a resistant strain of Ae. aegypti if applied at very high rates and would likely need to be reapplied frequently, and target populations monitored for evolution of resistance to cedarwood and other essential oils.
... Our results contrast with those published in the literature for cedarwood oil, the main active ingredient of the BigShot Maxim Concentrate, which has been shown to cause high mortality in arthropod pests (Eller et al. 2014, Khanna & Chakreaborty 2018. In another study, a botanical insecticide containing 25.3% cedarwood and 12.7% cinnamon oil (NatureCide Pest Management) was shown to cause 100% mortality against colony reared Bangonan et al. (2021), found in laboratory bioassays that BigShot Maxim Concentrate was effective at killing colony reared susceptible Ae. aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say, compared to a permethrin control -although, similar to the current study, at an application rate higher than the maximum label application rate of 40.7 mL cedarwood oil/ha. ...
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Journal of the Florida Mosquito Control Association Vol. 69, 2022 published 2Opinio & Forum, 6 articles, and 6 Scientific and Operation Notes. The journal has been published at the FMCA website at and online at https// Each article will has their DOI.
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Essential oils are popular but the direct application of EOs in food as a preservative is limited as it is highly volatile, and the high flavour of EOs affects the...
Botanical pesticides targeted to avoid the pesticide resistance to synthetic ones that conventionally affecting ecosystems diversity. The study designed to evaluate the larvicidal potentials of leaves and fruits extracts (methanol, acetone, hexane, and aqueous) from Thuja orientalis (Pinales: Cupressaceae) against Culex pipiens 3rd instar larvae and to identify the extracts compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of analysis. Leaves and fruits extracts used in concentrations, 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 ppm against the 3rd larval instar of Cx. pipiens in five replicates and larval mortalities recorded after 24 and 48 h post exposure. The larvicidal potentials of extracts showed concentration dependent and varied between leaves and fruits extracts. At 400 ppm concentration, leaves extracts showed 100% larval mortality except in hexane extract exhibited 98%. Acetone, methanol, aqueous and hexane leaves extracts recorded LC50 values, 58.04, 70.20, 77.19 and 84.25 ppm, respectively. Fruits extracts by hexane and methanol exhibited 100% larval mortality and LC50, 68.26 and 83.21 ppm, respectively, while, acetone and aqueous fruits extracts showed 98% and 96% larval mortality and LC50, 92.81 and 102.97 ppm, respectively. Terpenoids and sesquiterpenoids, fatty acid esters mainly identified in both extracts. The present study showed that extracts from Thuja orientalis leaves and fruits acquired promising larvicidal potential for the control of Cx. pipiens larvae with the role of their chemical constituents.
Ionic liquids are those ionic compounds which are liquid below 100 °C and are a combination of organic cations and inorganic/organic anions. They have wide potential to be used as solvents, extraction systems especially for biomedical applications. The past two decades have witnessed exponential rise in publications wherein ionic liquids have found applications in metal ion detection by coordination. This overview gives you a brief insight into the use of different ionic liquids for metal ion analysis.KeywordsIonic liquidOrganic ionsMetal chelationCoordinating ionsMetal extraction
There has been an exponential rise in chemical research since past three decades, which has witnessed an equal growth in the use of toxic and detrimental solvents, reagents, and reactants, leading to long-term environmental damage. Thereafter, with invent and advancement in green chemistry perspective, there has been a slight shift toward utilization of green chemistry principles in research, devolvement, and implementation. But the past decade has witnessed an immense rise in the use of green analytical chemistry owing to recent development in materials and methods that support the green concept.KeywordsGreen analytical chemistryGreen approachesTwelve Principles of Green analytical chemistryEco-friendly techniquesGreen chemistrySample preparationGAPINEMI
Green chemistry was called to protect the environment and human beings from the used or wasted chemicals and solvents that represent hazards in the research laboratories. This chapter summarizes the fundamentals and applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternate green and safe approach for the extraction of essential oils from different plants. At first, we explained essential oils and enumerated their sources and medicinal uses. Then, we discussed old technology for their extraction then presented the SFE approach as a green environmentally benign approach for essential oils extraction. The advantages of using SFE for essential oil extraction over traditional classical techniques were emphasized. SFE could reduce the use of petroleum solvents as well as decrease the extraction time compared to traditional extraction methods. The supercritical fluids (SFs) were characterized with a solubility like liquid and diffusivity like gas, which could dissolve different types of essential oils. Next, the effect of extraction parameter optimization on the SFE of essential oil was discussed. Finally, the taxonomy of different plant sources for essential oils and their SFE method of extraction were summarized and emphasized with many examples from the literature.KeywordsEssential oilsTaxonomyExtractionGreen solventsSupercritical fluid extractionMedicinal uses
Analytical chemistry plays a fundamental role in our society, being involved in drug manufacturing, medical diagnosis, industrial process control, environmental monitoring, food production, and soil analysis. However chemical analysis is usually associated with the usage of toxic substances or generation of waste, which can impact badly the environment. This has driven the need for green analytical chemistry, replacing the traditional chemical methods with other new technologies including in vivo analysis. Infrared spectroscopy is a one of the most clean and accurate methods that can be considered for green analytical chemistry. Infrared benchtop spectrometers have proven over that last decades to replace the chemical methods in many applications. However, their size and cost still cannot enable the ubiquitous chemical analysis using spectrometers. Recently, miniaturization of spectrometers has been evolved which led to many commercial products at a much less cost and with still a good performance. This opens the door for on-site spectral sensing solutions to enable ubiquitous green analytical chemistry.In this chapter, the basic concept of material spectroscopic analysis is introduced. For the application of this concept, different configurations for the spectral sensor solution as well as the sample handling are discussed. Based on this discussion, the building blocks as well as the performance of these sensors are explained indicating their main features and engineering characteristics. The simple analysis presented in this chapter allows quantitative evaluation of these sensors as ubiquitous solutions in the analytical chemistry different applications. The recent development of the miniaturized forms of these solutions present currently in the market/literature are then surveyed and critically compared at the end of this chapter.KeywordsSpectrometrySpectroscopyInfraredMiniature spectrometersAnalytical chemistry
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Heartwood samples from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginiana, J. occidentalis, and J. ashei) were extracted with hexane, ethanol, and methanol. The hexane and ethanol extracts were tested for antifungal activity against four species of wood-rot fungi (i.e, Gloeophyllum trabeum, Postia placenta, Trametes versicolor, and Irpex lacteus). Ashe juniper (AJ) gave the highest extract yields (6.60 to 11.27%), followed by Eastern red cedar (ERC) (4.78 to 9.56%), and then Western juniper (WJ) (4.26 to 7.32%). WJ contained the highest level of cedrol (over 60%), while AJ contained the highest level of thujopsene (over 30%). Methanol and ethanol gave the highest extract yields as well as slightly higher percentages of cedrol and widdrol. The juniper extracts were more effective against white-rot fungi than brown-rot fungi. The ethanol extracts had higher antifungal activity than the hexane extracts. The AJ extracts had the greatest bioactivity against the wood-rot fungi.
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Easter red cedar (Juniperus virginiana) is a valuable source of heartwood extractives that provide decay resistance against termites and wood decay fungi. This study sought to determine the antifungal activity of heartwood extracts obtained using solvents with increasing polarity (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol) against two wood decay fungi. The heartwood was extracted with methanol, and the methanol extract was sequentially extracted with hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate. The yield of the methanol extractives was 5.26 percent based on dry wood and the percentages of the hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate soluble fractions from the methanol extract were 46.4, 8.3, and 28.7 percent, respectively. Hexane and chloroform soluble fractions showed a high inhibitory effect on the growth of the wood decay fungi Trametes versicolor and Gloeophyllum trabeum. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified skeletons of sesquiterpenes and sesquiterpene alcohols in both extracts and the most abundant compounds identified, cedrol, cedrenes, and thujopsenes, were individually screened for antifungal activity. Among the three major sesquiterpenes, cedrol and thujopsene showed the highest inhibitory effects against G. trabeum and T. versicolor, respectively.
The extraction of cedarwood oil (CWO) using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) has been investigated with respect to the effects of extraction temperature and pressure, length of extraction, and age of cedarwood chips. Steam distilled and SC-CO2 derived CWOs were compared by gas chromatography and sensory evaluation, The extraction of CWO increased with extraction temperature, except at the lowest pressure utilised. The highest percentage contribution of thujopsene to the SC-CO2 derived CWO occurred with the combination of 1500 psi and 70 degrees C or 100 degrees C. Essentially all of the CWO was extracted from the wood matrix in the first 10 min, however, complete extraction of water required ca, 25 min. The amount of CWO extracted decreased with increasing age of the cedarwood chips. This decrease was greatest for the more volatile hydrocarbon components, thujopsene and cedrene, The mean weight percentage yields of CWO for steam distillation and SC-CO2 extraction were 1.3 and 4.4%, respectively. An experienced analytical sensory panel selected the SC-CO2 derived CWO as being more similar to the original cedarwood chips than the steam distilled CWO, Volatile collections performed on SC-CO2 extracted, steam distilled and unextracted cedarwood chips indicated that the SC-CO2 extracted chips released almost no volatiles, whereas the unextracted chips released a higher amount of volatiles. The steam distilled cedarwood chips released an intermediate level of volatiles. Copyright (C) 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Anecdotal observations suggest that decorative mulches around ornamental plantings near homes and public areas may reduce activity of the red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta Buren) or may be repellent to colonies. Finely ground, commercially available mulches, both dry and moist, of red cedar, pine bark, red cypress, cypress, and hardwood bark were tested for repellency against laboratory and field colonies of S. invicta. Red cedar mulch showed some repellency; however, in general, small quantities of the mulches were not deterrent to S. invicta as measured by recruitment of foragers to food sources.
The heartwood of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) frequently contains areas of lightcolored wood. This "included sapwood" is considered to be a defect by some manufacturers. In this study, sapwood, included sapwood, and heartwood samples from five eastern redcedar trees were exposed to mold fungi or subterranean termites in a no-choice feeding test. Specific gravity, extractives content, and total volumetric shrinkage were also measured. The extractive content, specific gravity, and volumetric shrinkage values of sapwood and included sapwood were equivalent. Greater extractive content in heartwood blocks was associated with less volumetric shrinkage and greater specific gravity. Included sapwood showed the same resistance to mold growth as heartwood, which was more mold-resistant that the sapwood. Included sapwood, heartwood, and sapwood of redcedar all exhibited resistance to termite attack compared with pine wood controls.
Anecdotal evidence suggests that certain natural materials used in landscaping may repel red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren. The repellency properties of various landscaping materials to S. invicta colonies are addressed in this study. The numbers of S. invicta on or near water-soluble extracts of materials were compared to numbers on control treatments. Sage (Saliva sp.), pine needle, and cedar shaving water suspensions were repellent to S. invicta colonies in the laboratory. Juniper extracts, DEET, neem, and naphthalene may offer short-term repellency and may contribute to integrated pest management of S. invicta in private and public outdoor areas.
Woods unfavorable to Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) in a force-feeding test on heartwood blocks of 11 American coniferous genera included Port-Orford-cedar, eastern redcedar, western redcedar, Daiacypress, redwood, and ponderosa pine. The same woods were not attacked in a choice test of all the woods except Port-Orford-cedar, which was omitted because of its toxicity. Only one of two sources of western redcedar was unfavorable in both force and choice tests; one source of western hemlock was not attacked in the choice test. In force-feeding tests on sawdusts, solvent-extracted sawdusts, and the corresponding wood extracts on filter paper, overall survival was best on test materials of Douglas-fir, subalpine fir, and western larch, followed by western hemlock and ungelmann spruce Many of the extracts prepared from the unfavorable woods contained substances detrimental to termite survival.