Article

Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Biomethane for Transport: Uncertainties and Allocation Methods

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Abstract

Employing a life-cycle assessment approach, this paper studies greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions resulting from biomethane used as transportation fuel. It focuses on both GHG allocation methodologies and uncertainties regarding GHG emissions from biomethane. The goal is to calculate GHG emissions of two types of biomethane used in transportation: that produced from biowaste feedstock and that extracted from dedicated energy crop feedstocks. The effects of allocation methods used for digestate and those of other factors arising during the life cycle of biomethane are studied. The GHG emissions of biomethane produced from biowaste with digestate use are approximately 22 gCO2eq MJ–1; those of biomethane extracted from dedicated energy crops are 61 gCO2eq MJ–1. However, using the substitution method for digestate decreases biowaste emissions by 10 gCO2eq MJ–1 and dedicated energy crop emissions by 22 gCO2eq MJ–1. The highest emissions uncertainties are related to land use change, cultivation processes, digestate use, and technology selections in digestion and upgrading. Using technology with high energy consumption or methane leakages will significantly increase total emissions. On the other hand, use of renewable energy in processes is one option for decreasing total emissions. It appears that biomethane could be produced with lower emissions than previous studies have shown by optimizing production and implementing new technology. The utilization of digestate in replacing mineral fertilizers, resulting in additional GHG emission reductions, is a key issue which should be accorded more attention in the future. For one to achieve reliable results, factors related to biomethane production and allocation methods for digestate emissions should always be chosen on a case-by-case basis.

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... The EU-28 mix for corn silage methane production from the GaBi database has been used here and has been augmented by adding distribution and refueling. Biomethane may be distributed via natural gas grids or via refueling infrastructure for natural gas [43]. The electricity used in distribution and refueling processes consumes approximately 1 MJ kg −1 methane [43]. ...
... Biomethane may be distributed via natural gas grids or via refueling infrastructure for natural gas [43]. The electricity used in distribution and refueling processes consumes approximately 1 MJ kg −1 methane [43]. ...
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Miscanthus Willow short-rotation coppice (SRC) Forest residues Life cycle assessment (LCA) Land use Soil quality Carbon sequestration Soil organic carbon (SOC) a b s t r a c t The environmental impact of different land-use systems for energy, up to the farm or forest ''gate'', has been quantified with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Four representative crops are considered: OilSeed Rape (OSR), Miscanthus, Short-Rotation Coppice (SRC) willow and forest residues. The focus of the LCA is on changes in Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) but energy use, emissions of GreenHouse Gases (GHGs), acidification and eutrophication are also considered. In addition to providing an indicator of soil quality, changes in SOC are shown to have a dominant effect on total GHG emissions. Miscanthus is the best land-use option for GHG emissions and soil quality as it sequesters C at a higher rate than the other crops, but this has to be weighed against other environmental impacts where Miscanthus performs worse, such as acidification and eutrophication. OSR shows the worst perfor-mance across all categories. Because forest residues are treated as a by-product, their environmental impacts are small in all categories. The analysis highlights the need for detailed site-specific modelling of SOC changes, and for consequential LCAs of the whole fuel cycle including transport and use.
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Energy balances are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for biogas systems based on 8 different raw materials. The analysis is based on published data and relates to Swedish conditions. The results show that the energy input into biogas systems (i.e. large-scale biogas plants) overall corresponds to 20–40% (on average approximately 30%) of the energy content in the biogas produced. The net energy output turns negative when transport distances exceed approximately 200 km (manure), or up to 700 km (slaughterhouse waste). Large variations exist in energy efficiency among the biogas systems studied. These variations depend both on the properties of the raw materials studied and on the system design and allocation methods chosen. The net energy output from biogas systems based on raw materials that have high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) is relatively low. When energy-demanding handling of the raw materials is required, the energy input increases significantly. For instance, in a ley crop-based biogas system, the ley cropping alone corresponds to approximately 40% of the energy input. Overall, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy-demanding process, corresponding to 40–80% of the energy input into the systems. Thus, the results are substantially affected by the assumptions made about the allocation of a plant's entire energy demand among raw materials, e.g. regarding biogas yield or need of additional water for dilution.
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The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied.
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Biofuels have been promoted as a way to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but it is questionable whether they indeed do so. The study compared energy and GHG balances of transport biofuels produced in Finnish conditions. Energy and GHG balances were calculated from a life cycle perspective for biogas when timothy-clover and reed canary grass silages and green manure of an organic farm were used as a raw material. The results were compared with published data on barley-based ethanol, rape methyl ester (biodiesel) and biowaste-based biogas. The energy input for biogas was 22–37% of the output depending on the raw material. The GHG emissions from field-based biogas were 21–36% of emissions from fossil-based fuels. The largest energy input was used in the processing of the biofuels while most of the greenhouse gases were emitted during farming. The GHG emissions of the field-based biogas were emitted mainly from fuels of farming machinery, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions of the soil and the production of ensiling additives. The energy efficiency was most sensitive to the methane yield, and GHG emissions to the N2O emissions. Biogas had clearly lower energy input and GHG emissions per unit energy output than domestic barley-based ethanol and biodiesel.
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Anaerobic digestion (AD) of source-separated municipal solid waste (MSW) and use of the digestate is presented from a global warming (GW) point of view by providing ranges of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that are useful for calculation of global warming factors (GWFs), i.e. the contribution to GW measured in CO(2)-equivalents per tonne of wet waste. The GHG accounting was done by distinguishing between direct contributions at the AD facility and indirect upstream or downstream contributions. GHG accounting for a generic AD facility with either biogas utilization at the facility or upgrading of the gas for vehicle fuel resulted in a GWF from -375 (a saving) to 111 (a load) kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) wet waste. In both cases the digestate was used for fertilizer substitution. This large range was a result of the variation found for a number of key parameters: energy substitution by biogas, N(2)O-emission from digestate in soil, fugitive emission of CH( 4), unburned CH(4), carbon bound in soil and fertilizer substitution. GWF for a specific type of AD facility was in the range -95 to -4 kg CO(2)-eq. tonne(-1) wet waste. The ranges of uncertainty, especially of fugitive losses of CH(4) and carbon sequestration highly influenced the result. In comparison with the few published GWFs for AD, the range of our data was much larger demonstrating the need to use a consistent and robust approach to GHG accounting and simultaneously accept that some key parameters are highly uncertain.
Article
Energy security concerns and the need for mitigation of environmental impacts associated with energy generation from fossil fuels (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions), has accelerated the deployment of renewable fuels such as biogas. The objective of this study was to conduct an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of multiple biogas production and utilization pathways in order to identify areas where further mitigation of potential environmental impacts could be realized to enhance environmental sustainability of biogas deployment. The LCA of pre-defined small (
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Background, aim, and scope Human use of land areas leads to impacts on nature in several ways. Within the framework of the UNEP/SETAC Life Cycle Initiative, it was stated that life cycle assessment (LCA) of land use should assess at least the impact on biodiversity, the impact on biotic production, and the impact on the regulating functions of the natural environment. This study focuses on the climatic impact of land use as determined by the CO2 transfers between vegetation/soil and the atmosphere in the course of terrestrial release and re-storage of carbon. Materials and methods Compared with the potential natural vegetation as a baseline, areas getting transformed by man (land transformations) as well as areas forced to maintain their current non-natural state (land occupations) may store reduced amounts of carbon in soil and vegetation, whereby the mobilized carbon is essentially transferred to the atmosphere in form of CO2, contributing to global warming. The size of this climatic impact is determined by the amount of carbon transferred per hectare, as well as by the duration of the carbon’s stay in air. Generally, we consider this duration as limited by spontaneous reversal of vegetation and soil toward a quasi-natural form as soon as human land use ends. Taking the mean stay in air of 1 ton carbon from fossil fuel combustion as a basis of comparison, 1 ton carbon released by, e.g., a forest-to-cropland transformation can be adequately weighted by considering the timing of carbon backflow from air to the spontaneously regrowing forest. Results Carbon transfers to the air per hectare, as well as imputable durations of carbon stay in air, are determined for the most important types of land transformation and land occupation, for locations in any of the terrestrial biomes of tropical forest, temperate forest, boreal forest, tropical grassland, and temperate grassland. The carbon quantities are expressed as “fossil-combustion-equivalent” tons of carbon so that they can be summed up with carbon amounts from fossil fuel combustion into the usual LCA indicator for global warming potential. Discussion The results confirm that on a per hectare basis, transforming forests into cropland has a more serious climatic effect than continuing to occupy such land as cropland for one additional year. But on a global basis, maintaining current cropland areas for one additional year is a serious driver of global warming due to the huge area of croplands in zones where forest would be the natural vegetation. Furthermore, forest-to-cropland transformations cause carbon transfers to air per hectare of roughly similar size in tropical, temperate, or boreal zones, but due to slow forest restoration, transformation of boreal forests has a stronger influence on global warming. Conclusions and recommendations The results of this study facilitate a worldwide impact assessment of land use with respect to global warming. Together with the two separate studies covering the impacts of land use on biodiversity and on biotic production, a tool will be available for a reasonably complete LCA of land use at global level. However, the data quality needs further improvement.
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The use of renewable energy is a possible solution to reduce the contribution to climate change of human activities. Nevertheless, there is much controversy about the non-climate related environmental impacts of renewable energy as compared to fossil energy. The aim of this study is to assess a new technology of biomethane production by monofermentation of cultivated crops. Based on the results of an attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), the contribution to climate change of biomethane production and injection into the grid is 30–40% (500a time horizon) or 10–20% (100a) lower than the contribution of natural gas importation. The reduction depends mainly on the biogas yield, the amount of readily available nitrogen in the digestate and the type of agricultural practices. Nevertheless, the natural gas definitively generates far lower ecosystem quality and human health damages than the biomethane production. Farming activities have the most important contribution to the damages mainly because of land occupation and the use of fertilizer. The main improvement opportunities highlighted are: the increase of biogas yield, the choice of good agricultural practices and the cultivation of winter or summer crops exclusively. Future research should include the emission and sequestration of CO2 from soil. The ripple effects related to the total increase of farming area and the consequences of farming activities on the food production chain should be addressed as well. To this aim, the switch to consequential LCA is a critical challenge, from both the methodological and application point of view, to support decision-making.
Article
The prospects for expanded utilization of biogas systems in German was analysed, by identifying the operational and policy factors affecting the complete chain of processes from implementation process for biogas plants, through to biogas production and utilization. It was found that the Renewable Energies Act (EEG) and energy tax reliefs provide bases for the support of expanded utilization. Upgrading of biogas to natural gas quality for utilization in the transportation sector was arguably the most promising technology that could support rapid utilization expansion. Sustainable deployment of biogas systems in light of the unstable feedstock prices and availability, and the need for subsidy-free operation in the long term requires; enhancement of feedstock flexibility and quality characteristics to maximise gas yield, and optimisation of the anaerobic digestion process management. Assessment of energy balance and potential environmental impacts of the integrated process chain provides a holistic assessment of sustainability. The results also support the development and foster of policies and framework for development of biogas as environmentally friendly energy resource, among a mix of renewable energy sources, hence, compete favourably with fossil fuels to enhance the prospects for expanded utilization.
Article
In several housing development projects in Norway the requirements related to the mandatory connection to district heating plants have shown to be a barrier for building low-energy residential buildings. The developers have considered the costs related to both low-energy measures and a space heating system that can utilize district heat to be too high to give the project acceptable profitability. In these projects the developers wanted to use a cheaper electric space heating system. Based on models representative for the range of the Norwegian district heating plants, calculations show that the CO2 emissions related to heating in residential buildings with an energy standard in accordance with the new building regulations and that are connected to the district heating grid, are lower than for similar buildings with a low-energy standard and with heating based on electricity. However, in a long term perspective the differences are marginal when considering the national annual CO2 emissions. Similarly, increased peak power demand due to electricity-based heating may also be regarded as marginal when compared to the present maximum peak power capacity in Norway.
Article
Our strong dependence on fossil fuels results from the intensive use and consumption of petroleum derivatives which, combined with diminishing oil resources, causes environmental and political concerns. The utilization of agricultural residues as raw materials in a biorefinery is a promising alternative to fossil resources for production of energy carriers and chemicals, thus mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security. This paper focuses on a biorefinery concept which produces bioethanol, bioenergy and biochemicals from two types of agricultural residues, corn stover and wheat straw. These biorefinery systems are investigated using a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach, which takes into account all the input and output flows occurring along the production chain. This approach can be applied to almost all the other patterns that convert lignocellulosic residues into bioenergy and biochemicals. The analysis elaborates on land use change aspects, i.e. the effects of crop residue removal (like decrease in grain yields, change in soil N2O emissions and decrease of soil organic carbon). The biorefinery systems are compared with the respective fossil reference systems producing the same amount of products/services from fossils instead of biomass. Since climate change mitigation and energy security are the two most important driving forces for biorefinery development, the assessment focuses on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cumulative primary energy demand, but other environmental categories are evaluated as well.
Article
The energy efficiency of different biogas systems, including single and co-digestion of multiple feedstock, different biogas utilization pathways, and waste-stream management strategies was evaluated. The input data were derived from assessment of existing biogas systems, present knowledge on anaerobic digestion process management and technologies for biogas system operating conditions in Germany. The energy balance was evaluated as Primary Energy Input to Output (PEIO) ratio, to assess the process energy efficiency, hence, the potential sustainability. Results indicate that the PEIO correspond to 10.5–64.0% and 34.1–55.0% for single feedstock digestion and feedstock co-digestion, respectively. Energy balance was assessed to be negative for feedstock transportation distances in excess of 22 km and 425 km for cattle manure and for Municipal Solid Waste, respectively, which defines the operational limits for respective feedstock transportation. Energy input was highly influenced by the characteristics of feedstock used. For example, agricultural waste, in most part, did not require pre-treatment. Energy crop feedstock required the respect cultivation energy inputs, and processing of industrial waste streams included energy-demanding pre-treatment processes to meet stipulated hygiene standards. Energy balance depended on biogas yield, the utilization efficiency, and energy value of intended fossil fuel substitution. For example, obtained results suggests that, whereas the upgrading of biogas to biomethane for injection into natural gas network potentially increased the primary energy input for biogas utilization by up to 100%; the energy efficiency of the biogas system improved by up to 65% when natural gas was substituted instead of electricity. It was also found that, system energy efficiency could be further enhanced by 5.1–6.1% through recovery of residual biogas from enclosed digestate storage units. Overall, this study provides bases for more detailed assessment of environmental compatibility of energy efficiency pathways in biogas production and utilization, including management of spent digestate.
Article
This paper analyses the overall environmental impact when biogas systems are introduced and replace various reference systems for energy generation, waste management and agricultural production. The analyses are based on Swedish conditions using a life-cycle perspective. The biogas systems included are based on different combinations of raw materials and final use of the biogas produced (heat, power and transportation fuel). A general conclusion is that biogas systems normally lead to environmental improvements, which in some cases are considerable. This is often due to indirect environmental benefits of changed land use and handling of organic waste products (e.g. reduced nitrogen leaching, emissions of ammonia and methane), which often exceed the direct environmental benefits achieved when fossil fuels are replaced by biogas (e.g. reduced emissions of carbon dioxide and air pollutants). Such indirect benefits are seldom considered when biogas is evaluated from an environmental point of view. The environmental impact from different biogas systems can, however, vary significantly due to factors such as the raw materials utilised, energy service provided and reference system replaced.
Article
Simulations with the power market model EMPS and the energy system model EFOM have been made to assess the effects of large-scale wind production on the CO2 abatement in the Nordic countries. We are mostly focusing on the year 2010, comparing the results with substantial wind power amounts to a base case scenario. The results for the EMPS simulations with 16–46 TWh/a wind production in Nordic countries (4–12% of electricity consumption), show that wind power replaces mostly coal-fired power generation. As a result of all fuels replaced by wind production a CO2 reduction is achieved, of 700–620 g CO2/kWh. The results for the simulations of Finnish energy system show similarly that new wind power capacity replaces mainly coal-fired generation. In another scenario it has been assumed that the use of coal-fired generation is prohibited in order to meet the Finnish Kyoto target. In this case new wind power capacity would replace mainly natural gas combined-cycle capacity in separate electricity production and the average CO2 reduction would be about 300 g CO2/kWh. This case reflects the situation in the future, when there is possibly no more coal to be replaced.
Article
The overall goal of the present study is to evaluate different strategies for treatment of solid waste in Sweden based on a life cycle perspective. Important goals are to identify advantages and disadvantages of different methods for treatment of solid waste, and to identify critical factors in the systems, including the background systems, which may significantly influence the results. Included in the study are landfilling, incineration, recycling, digestion and composting. The waste fractions considered are the combustible and recyclable or compostable fractions of municipal solid waste. The methodology used is life cycle assessment (LCA). The results can be used for policy decisions as well as strategic decisions on waste management systems. A waste hierarchy suggesting the environmental preference of recycling over incineration over landfilling is often put forward and used in waste policy making. LCAs can be used to test the waste hierarchy and identify situations where the hierarchy is not valid. Our results indicate that the waste hierarchy is valid as a rule of thumb. The results also suggest that a policy promoting recycling of paper and plastic materials, preferably combined with policies promoting the use of plastics replacing plastics made from virgin materials, leads to decreased use of total energy and emissions of gases contributing to global warming. If the waste can replace oil or coal as energy sources, and neither biofuels nor natural gas are alternatives, a policy promoting incineration of paper materials may be successful in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases.
Article
Fuel-cycle emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon oxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulphur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons (HC), methane (CH4), and particles are analysed from a life-cycle perspective for different biogas systems based on six different raw materials. The gas is produced in large- or farm-scale biogas plants, and is used in boilers for heat production, in turbines for co-generation of heat and electricity, or as a transportation fuel in light- and heavy-duty vehicles. The analyses refer mainly to Swedish conditions. The levels of fuel-cycle emissions vary greatly among the biogas systems studied, and are significantly affected by the properties of the raw material digested, the energy efficiency of the biogas production, and the status of the end-use technology. For example, fuel-cycle emission may vary by a factor of 3–4, and for certain gases by up to a factor of 11, between two biogas systems that provide an equivalent energy service. Extensive handling of raw materials, e.g. ley cropping or collection of waste-products such as municipal organic waste, is often a significant source of emissions. Emission from the production phase of the biogas exceeds the end-use emissions for several biogas systems and for specific emissions. Uncontrolled losses of methane, e.g. leakages from stored digestates or from biogas upgrading, increase the fuel-cycle emissions of methane considerably. Thus, it is necessary to clearly specify the biogas production system and end-use technology being studied in order to be able to produce reliable and accurate data on fuel-cycle emission.
Article
The energy system plays an essential role in accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste management systems and waste technologies. This paper focuses on energy use and energy recovery in waste management and outlines how these aspects should be addressed consistently in a GHG perspective. Essential GHG emission data for the most common fuels, electricity and heat are provided. Average data on electricity provision show large variations from country to country due to different fuels being used and different efficiencies for electricity production in the individual countries (0.007-1.13 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh(-1)). Marginal data on electricity provision show even larger variations (0.004-3 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). Somewhat less variation in GHG emissions is being found for heat production (0.01-0.69 kg CO(2)-eq. kWh( -1)). The paper further addresses allocation principles and the importance of applying either average or marginal energy data, and it discusses the consequences of introducing reduction targets on CO( 2) emissions. All discussed aspects were found to significantly affect the outcome of GHG accounts suggesting transparent reporting to be critical. Recommendations for use of average/marginal energy data are provided.
Article
One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO(2).
Article
IL-18, originally termed as interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) inducing factor, is a proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 cytokine superfamily. IL-18 plays an important role in immune, infectious, and inflammatory diseases due to its induction of IFN-gamma. However, accumulated evidence has demonstrated that other effects of IL-18 are independent of IFN-gamma. Here, we reviewed the current literatures regarding the role of IL-18 in the heart and cardiovascular system. Infiltrated neutrophils, resident macrophages, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes in the heart are able to produce IL-18 in response to injury. IL-18 is produced as a biologically inactive precursor (pro-IL-18) that is activated by caspase 1 (the IL-1beta converting enzyme). Elevated IL-18 levels have been observed in cardiac tissue and circulation after myocardial I/R and sepsis. The possible cellular and molecular mechanisms concerning IL-18-induced myocardial injury include induction of inflammation, increased apoptosis, a cardiac hypertrophy effect, modulation of mitogen activated protein kinase activation, and changes in intracellular calcium. Finally, we briefly reviewed the therapeutic strategies for inhibiting IL-18's biological activity to protect cardiac tissue from injury.
Article
The potential implementation of measures intended for energy-efficiency or environmental purposes (such as the prohibition of electric heating, peak shaving and the installation of cogeneration amongst others) necessitates quantification methods to accurately estimate their assumed impact. Therefore, in this paper, a tool and a methodology are created to simulate and evaluate electric demand- and supply-side options. This way, the responsibility of a proposed measure with regard to emissions and energy use can be quantified.Throughout the years, many (often conflicting) views on the use of electricity have been advanced. Sometimes it was/is claimed that electricity use should be stimulated because electricity is a relatively clean source of energy (especially in countries with a lot of renewables and/or nuclear energy). Others claim that electricity use should be discouraged because it would be more efficient to use the primary energy sources directly, without the intermediate conversion into electricity and the associated transmission and distribution losses. Mostly, these statements cannot be justified without a detailed analysis of the local energy system. To fully grasp the impact of demand-side measures it is important to understand that incremental changes in demand instantaneously only affect the activation of a limited amount of plants, whereas the activation of all other plants remains unchanged. Therefore, only the parameters (emissions and energy use) of this limited amount of plants are relevant, whereas the average system is not. If the change in demand is large, also the evolution of the power system may have to be altered. Then, not only the impact of the demand-side measure, but also the choices made in the planning (i.e., investments) of the power system is important. In these cases, there are no obvious conclusions, and simulations are necessary for quantitative predictions. For simple demand-side options (without alteration of the power system), the results are often not conclusive. Most of the time the overall environmental gain or loss is small, especially when an electric option is compared to a fossil alternative. The result will then also depend on the efficiency of the fossil option. If the demand-side option, on the other hand, creates possibilities for substantial changes in the supply-side structure, the results are dominated by the supply side. If the measure triggers the construction of a cleaner plant (e.g., a combined cycle gas-fired plant), or prevents the commissioning of a polluting plant (e.g., a coal-fired plant), it provides positive results.
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