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Abstract

The use of herbal preparations remained the main approach of folk medicine to the treatment of ailments and debilitating diseases. Initial intensive researches conducted on Lemongrass extracts (tea) may have showed conflicting evidences, however the resurgence in claims of folk medicine practitioners necessitated further inquiry into the efficacy of the tea. Lemongrass tea contains several biocompounds in its decoction, infusion and essential oil extracts. Anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, antinociceptive, anxiolytic and antihypertensive evidences of lemongrass tea were clearly elucidated to support initial pharmacological claims. Lemongrass tea was non-toxic, non-mutagenic and receives wide acceptance among alternative medicine practitioners in several developing countries. This review therefore presents previous research activities, technologies and information surrounding bioactivities of lemongrass tea. Areas of future researches which may elucidate mechanisms of the biological properties of lemongrass extracts were highlighted.
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*Corresponding author.
Email: senay.simsek@ndsu.edu
International Food Research Journal 21(2): 455-462 (2014)
Journal homepage: http://www.ifrj.upm.edu.my
1Olorunnisola, S. K., 1Asiyanbi, -H. T., 1,2Hammed, A. M. and 2,*Simsek, S.
1Biotechnology Engineering Department, International Islamic University Malaysia,
PMB 53100, Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia
2Plant Science Department, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota, USA
Biological properties of lemongrass: An overview
Abstract
The use of herbal preparations remained the main approach of folk medicine to the treatment
of ailments and debilitating diseases. Initial intensive researches conducted on Lemongrass
extracts (tea) may have showed conicting evidences, however the resurgence in claims of folk
medicine practitioners necessitated further inquiry into the efcacy of the tea. Lemongrass tea
contains several biocompounds in its decoction, infusion and essential oil extracts. Anti-oxidant,
anti-inammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-obesity, antinociceptive, anxiolytic and antihypertensive
evidences of lemongrass tea were clearly elucidated to support initial pharmacological claims.
Lemongrass tea was non-toxic, non-mutagenic and receives wide acceptance among alternative
medicine practitioners in several developing countries. This review therefore presents previous
research activities, technologies and information surrounding bioactivities of lemongrass tea.
Areas of future researches which may elucidate mechanisms of the biological properties of
lemongrass extracts were highlighted.
Introduction
The use of whole herbs and extractives has
remained the main approach of folk medicine
practitioners in the treatment of ailments and
debilitating diseases. They usually claimed that such
whole herbs and extractives are efcacious against
several ailments and diseases without recourse to
scientic proofs. Increased cases of opportunistic
diseases emanating from side effects associated with
synthetic drugs continue to necessitate incremental
efforts in searching for effective biological substitutes
with little or no side effects. Therefore, efforts are
being directed towards elucidating potential sources
such as ethno-medicinal plants (Patil, 2010). New,
robust and less cumbersome extraction techniques
assisted by recent developments in biotechnology
have enhanced investigation of natural compounds
faster with more precision than before leading to
isolation of bioactive compounds with intense health
benets (Wang and Weller, 2006). According to folk
medicine, several plants possess ethno medicinal
benets and Cymbopogon citratus Stapf, also known
as lemongrass remained one of them.
Lemongrass is a perennial grass plant widely
distributed worldwide and most especially in
tropical and subtropical countries (Francisco et al.,
2011). Several reports have linked its origin to Asia
(Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia), Africa and the
Americas. The plant could grow up to 6 inch high
and its bulblike stems consist of terete and glabrous
linearly venated sheathed leaves with narrow base and
acute apex. The leaf height is about 100 cm in length
and 2 cm in width. When squeezed, the leaves usually
produce yellow or amber colored, aromatic, essential
oil (Adejuwon and Esther, 2007). Its aqueous extract is
commonly used as an aromatic drink while the whole
plant is well incorporated into traditional food for its
lemon avour. It also enjoyed wide application in folk
medicine (Figueirinha et al., 2008). Traditionally,
tea made from lemongrass leaves is popular among
countries of South America, Asia and West Africa
having been widely utilized as antiseptic, antifever,
antidyspeptic, carminative and anti-inammatory
effects. Others are febrifuge, analgesic, spasmolytic,
antipyretic, diuretic, tranquilizer and stomachic agent
(Sawyerr, 1982, Viana et al., 2000, Negrelle and
Gomes, 2007; Adejuwon and Esther, 2007; Tatiana
et al., 2011). In this review however, details about
main medicinal properties of lemongrass tea will be
clearly elucidated, while area of future researches
will be well highlighted.
Lemongrass phytochemistry and technology
Lemongrass contains several important bioactive
compounds which are useful in several health issues.
These active compounds are normally found in the
leaves and this is summarized in Table 1. The various
methodologies used in extracting such bioactive
compounds are also summarized in Figure 1.The
root of lemongrass is also being used as chewing
stick for mouth cleaning in several parts of the world
Keywords
Lemongrass
Bioactivities
Biological properties
Decoction
Infusion
Article history
Received: 24 January 2013
Received in revised form:
24 October 2013
Accepted: 7 November 2013
Mini Review
456 Olorunnisola et al./IFRJ 21(2): 455-462
(Sawyerr, 1982).
Essential oil is one of the important components
of lemon grass extracts and its applications include
co-ingredients for perfumes and cosmetics. Its high
citral composition has made it important for several
chemical syntheses (Negrelle and Gomes, 2007).
Similarly, investigations carried out on different
lemongrass extracts showed other important
therapeutic potentials such as anti-cancer, anti-
hypertensive and anti-mutagenicity. Others include
non-toxic properties, anti-diabetic, anti-oxidant,
anxiolytic, anti-nociceptive and anti-fungi (Shah et
al., 2011).
Initially, the use of lemongrass extract in folk
medicine for the treatment of certain ailment was
disputed, but recent ndings have conrmed its
efcacy (Adejuwon and Esther, 2007; Celso et al.,
2011a). Despite this, lemongrass tea and its essential
oils is becoming unpopular especially among
developing nations. This might be due to lack of
awareness of published results on the efcacy of
the extracts on several health related issues. Hence,
the focus of this review is to concisely document all
reported biological properties of lemongrass extracts
(infusion and decoction) and essential oils. Similarly,
suggestions regarding future directions in this area
of study were thoroughly prepared to ease the path
towards elucidation of inherent medicinal properties
of lemongrass.
Lemon grass extracts contained several medicinal
chemical components which reside in its essential oil
and aqueous extract as summarized in Table 1. Detail
information on performance of all these compounds
are concisely presented in next section.
Pharmacological properties of lemongrass
Anti-inammatory properties
Tissue inammation is one of the main health
issues worldwide. The hike in its prevalence has been
attributed to sophisticated lifestyles occasioned by
technological advancement. Therefore, inammation
accounts for more cases of mortality among people.
Importantly, it has been linked with other health
problems like cancer, cardiovascular rheumatoid,
neurodegenerative and diabetes (Jaswir and Monsur,
2011). Inammation in animal tissue is usually
triggered by physical stress or when chemical inducers
(e.g. lipopolysaccharide) are present within the tissue
composition. Mechanistically, inammation will
occur when lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is incubated
with macrophages thereby leading to secretion of
pro-inammatory mediators such as nitric oxide
(NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Other inductive
factors include reactive oxygen species (ROS),
cytokines which includes tumor necrosis factor-
TNF-α, interleukins and up-regulation of nuclear
factor keppa-B cells proteins (NF-κB).
Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and
Cyclo-oxygenase (COX-2) are responsible for the
release of NO and PGE2 while TNF-α trigger NF-
κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK)
pathways. To complete the list, the latter is responsible
for p38-MAPK, c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)
and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK)
(Kulinsky, 2007).
Solvent extracts, polyphenol rich extractants and
citral isolate are the chief components of lemongrass
exhibiting anti-inammatory activities as reported
by several investigators. Similarly, aqueous extracts
Figure 1. Methods of extracting bioactive compounds
from lemongrass
Table 1. Bioactive compounds from lemon grass extract
and essential oil
Co m po ne nt
Biolog ical ac tivities
References
Myrce ne
Antibac te ria l a ctivity
Grace et a l., 1984
Citra l
α-citr al (geranial)
β-citr al (neral)
Antibac te ria l a ctivity
Antinoc ice ptive ac tivitie s
Grace et a l., 1984;
Via na e t al., 2000;
Dhar mendra e t al., 2001
Heptenone
Not a vailable
Grace et a l., 1984
Dipentene
Not a vailable
Grace et a l., 1984
Limonene
Not a vailable
Berenice e t al., 1991;
Grace et a l., 1984
Linalool
Not a vailable
Berenice e t al., 1991;
Grace et a l., 1984
Borneol
Not a vailable
Grace et a l., 1984
Geranial
Ger aniol
Limonene
β-myrcene
6-methyl-5- hepten-2-ona
undecan-2-one
Antimicr obia l action,
Antivira l activity,
Anti-oxidant a ctiv ity
Anti-gout ac tivity
Anti-diab etic ac tivity An xiolytic
proper ties
Antinoc ice ptive ac tivity
Anti-fungal ac tivity
Mirghani e t al., 2012
Ce lso e t al., 2011;
Bidinotto et al., 2010;
Blanco e t al., 2009;
Cos ta e t al., 2006;
Via na e t al., 2000;
Dhar mendra e t al., 2001,
Shigeharu e t al., 2001;
Berenice e t al., 1991
Citro nellol
Anti-fungal ac tivity
Dhar mendra e t al., 2001;
Berenice e t al., 1991
Olorunnisola et al./IFRJ 21(2): 455-462 457
devoid of lipid and essential oil and polyphenol
fractions (phenolic acids, avonoids and tannins) of
lemongrass leaves were investigated for their anti-
inammatory properties. Aqueous lemongrass extract
inhibited secretion of NO, PGE2 and expression of
iNOS, but not COX-2 in LPS induced RAW 264.7
macrophage cell lines and skin-derived dendritic
cell line (FSDC) (Figueirinha et al., 2010; Francisco
et al., 2011). Furthermore, same extract was also
reported to inhibit LPS induced phosphorylation of
p38MAPK and JNK 1/2 but no effect on ERK 1/2
activation. Degradation of IκBα by LPS induction
was prevented by aqueous extract by inhibiting NF-
κB activation (Francisco et al., 2011).
The polyphenolic fractions of the extracts have
been demonstrated to reduce secretion of NO and
expression of iNOS in LPS stimulated skin-derived
dendritic and RAW 264.7 cell lines. However,
avonoids and tannins fractions exhibited better anti-
inammatory potency due to presence of luteolin
glycosides. Phenolic acids on the other hand exhibit
satisfactory inhibition of PGE2 production in LPS
induced RAW 264.7 macrophage. None of the
lemongrass polyphenolic fractions inhibited COX-2
expression (Lee et al., 2008; Figueirinha et al., 2010;
Francisco et al., 2011). The removal of the essential
oil, which contains citral has been opined for such
inactivity. Similarly, ethanolic lemongrass extract
(50%) is efcacious against inammation caused by
LPS induced by murine alveolar macrophages. The
mechanism of action is by inhibiting the secretion of
NO and pro-inammatory cytokine tumor necrosis
factor TNF-α (Tiwari et al., 2010).
Citral, and other monoterpenes from lemongrass,
exhibits in-vivo anti-inammatory using carrageenan
induced paw edema and peritonitis in model rat. Paw
edema was reportedly reduced by application of citral
(100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) and peritonitis was
also reduced as leukocyte conversion to peritoneal
cavity was mitigated (Quintans-Júnior et al., 2010).
In addition, citral is dose dependent in reducing
COX-2 mRNA, protein expression and activated
peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα
and γ) in LPS induced U937 human macrophage-
like cells (Katsukawa et al., 2010). PPARα and γ are
group of nuclear receptor proteins that play essential
role in regulation of cell development, differentiation
and metabolism by functioning as transcription factor
(Kulinsky, 2007).
Equally, Citral was reported to inhibit cytokine
production by reducing IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10
production before and after LPS introduction in
animal and peritoneal macrophages, while aqueous
methanolic (70%) extract of lemongrass only inhibited
IL-6 production (Sforcin et al., 2009; Bachiega
and Sforcin, 2011). Water extract of lemongrass,
containing linalool and epoxy-linalool oxides, was
reported to inhibit IL-1β but induce IL-6 (Sforcin et
al., 2009).
Lemongrass tea has been proven to possess
analgesic activity due to presence of terpenes
(especially myrcene). Hyperalgesia induced by both
carrageenan and PGE2, but not dibutyryl cyclic
AMP in rat was reported to ameliorated by oral
administration of lemongrass infusion in a dose
dependent manner (Lorenzetti et al., 1991; Sforcin
et al., 2009). Oral application of decoction obtained
from lemongrass also possess anti-inammatory
properties by reducing rat hind paw edema previously
induced by a subplantar injection of carrageenan
(Carbajal et al., 1989).
Anti-oxidant properties of lemongrass tea
Oxidation is a fundamental process in human cells,
tissue and systems leading to formation of reactive
oxygen species (ROSs) which include hydrogen
peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2-) and free
radicals (Heo et al., 2003). Due to its reactivity, ROSs
damage biochemical components like cell membrane,
cellular lipids, proteins and DNA (Devasagayam et
al., 2004). Additionally, ROS(s) function as major
inducer of several health issues like atherosclerosis,
rheumatoid arthritis and muscle destruction. Others
are cataracts, certain neurological disorders, cancer
and ageing. Antioxidants have to be present in the
body to offer protective mechanism against damaging
effects of oxidation process caused by these radicals
(Finkel, 1998; Thannickal and Fanburg, 2000).
Researchers have identied antioxidant potentials
of lemongrass extracts and documented their abilities
to reduce ROSs. Such mechanism include inhibition
of lipoperoxidation and decolorization of 2,2-
diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (Sharma and
Bhat, 2009; Mirghani et al., 2012). Infusions and
decoctions prepared from lemongrass showed anti-
oxidant properties by scavenging superoxide anion,
inhibiting lipoperoxidation and decolorizing DPPH.
These effects are higher in infusion than decoction
(Cheel et al., 2005). Similarly, lemongrass infusion
exhibited stronger antioxidant activities in relation
to other extracts (methanolic, 80% aqueous ethanol
and decoction). Further studies revealed that tannin
and avonoid fractions of oil-free infusion extract
were most active anti-oxidative agents compared to
phenolic acids fraction (Figueirinha et al., 2008).
Aqueous ethanol extract was reported to exhibit
antioxidant properties by decreasing reactive oxygen
species production and lipid peroxidation, as well
458 Olorunnisola et al./IFRJ 21(2): 455-462
as, increasing superoxide dismutase activity and
glutathione formation (Tiwari et al., 2010). Recently,
essential oil of lemongrass was also reported to show
antioxidant property by DPPH scavenging test. The
results showed that both leaves and stalk extracts
possess radical scavenging ability in a dose dependent
manner (Mirghani et al., 2012).
Anti-bacteria potential of lemongrass tea
Anti-bacterial activity in extracts of plant materials
has been elucidated from various sources in recent
times with promising results. This characteristic has
also been investigated in the volatile oil portion of the
aqueous extract of lemon grass (Grace et al., 1984).
Among the major bioactive compounds identied in
the oil were α-citral (geranial) and β-citral (neral)
components. These components demonstrate their
antibacterial activity by inhibiting the growth of both
Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. However
the third component- myrcene possess no antibacterial
activity individually but do enhance activity when
combined with others (Grace et al., 1984).
Anti-obesity and antihypertensive activity of lemon
tea
Several investigations have been carried out on
the potentials of lemon grass extract as a source of
hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic substances which
may lower the risks of hypertension and obesity.
Available reports showed that citratus aqueous extracts
when fed to rats at 500 mg/kg/day led to signicant
reduction in hypoglycemic index in spite of counter-
regulatory factors such as catecholamine, cortisol
and glucagon. Hypolipidemic effect was recorded
with noticeable reduction in low density lipids levels
in the blood stream. The mechanism by which the tea
effectively performs these effects remained elusive but
several researchers have associated it with increased
insulin synthesis and secretion (hyperinsulinemia) or
increased peripheral glucose utilization (Adejuwon
and Esther, 2007; Celso et al., 2011a).
The presence of anti-hypertensive compounds
such as avonoids and alkaloids has been reported
to assist in the hypoglycemic properties exhibited
by lemon grass aqueous extract since it contains
essential oil and other extractants (Onabanjo et al.,
1993; Oladele et al., 1995). Similarly, lemon grass
extracts were efcacious in reducing cholesterol
levels in the blood stream. Investigators opined that
this could be due to the presence of an endogenous
ligand of central-type benzodiazepine receptors
known as endozepine octadecaneuropeptide (ODN),
which are inhibitors of food intake in small animals
(Do Rego et al., 2007).
Anxiolytic properties of lemongrass tea
In order to elucidate its efcacy in curing anxiety
related conditions, researchers have investigated
anxiolytic properties of lemongrass tea (Liberalli et
al., 1946; Alves et al., 1960; Olaniyi et al., 1975;
Nogueira, 1983). Earlier investigations reported
negative effects related to anxiolytic properties of the
decoctions made from lemon tea (Carlini et al., 1986;
Leite et al., 1986). However, recent experimental
results revealed that decoctions and infusion (lemon
grass tea) made from lemon grass actually exhibit the
potential to cause anxiolytic effects when they are
fed to animals (Celso et al., 2011a). This was evident
from positive results recorded in Light/dark box
test. In this particular test, a biphasic dose response
(U-shaped) curve which was similar to the curves
extensively studied by Calabrese and Baldwin (2003)
was reported. Similarly, the anxiolytic effects of the
extract appeared to follow a GABAergic system
signaling behaviour with established anxiolytic
drugs (Celso et al., 2011b). These reports therefore
buttressed the use of lemongrass extracts for treatment
of ailments of central nervous system (CNS) in folk
medicine. However, there are unanimous reports
among researchers on the safety of lemon grass
tea for domestic and other uses as opined by folk
medicine practitioners (Souza Formigoni et al., 1986;
Leite et al., 1986; Carlini et al., 1986; United States
Environmental Protection Agency, 1997).
Antinociceptive properties of lemon tea
The possibility of lemon tea possessing
antinociceptive effects has been well researched
over the years. Earlier reports showed that lemon
grass extracts has little or no positive actions thereby
negating the claims in folk medicine (Carlini et al.,
1986; Leite et al., 1986; Souza-Formigoni et al.,
1986). However, recent investigations presented
contra reports. According to Viana et al. (2000),
lemon grass tea possessed antinociceptive property
which was evident in positive results from different
nociceptive testes performed on the extract. Essential
oil of lemon grass, which contained citral but no
myrcene was investigated for their antinociceptive
activities using three experimental models of
nociception in mice. The hot plate test showed that
response to stimulus by the mice was increased by
essential oil administered intra-peritoneally (I.P.)
while writhing by acetic acid induction showed that
intra-peritoneal and oral administration of essential
oil caused inhibition of abdominal contraction
in a dose dependent manner. In the formalin test,
licking time was drastically inhibited by essential oil
administered I.P. at both rst and second phase of the
Olorunnisola et al./IFRJ 21(2): 455-462 459
experiment (Viana et al., 2000). They reported that
opioid receptors are involved in the antinociceptive
action since antagonist naloxone blocked the effects
of the tested essential oils present in the extract. Same
group of investigators opined that the discrepancy
noticed with regards to earlier reports could be due
to differences in plant chemotypes used for analysis.
Citral, obtained from lemongrass, has been reported
to possess anti-nociception properties according to
the ndings of Quintans-Junior et al. (2011) using
acetic acid induced writhing and nociception induced
by formalin. It was concluded that citral is capable
of exhibiting peripheral antinociceptive property by
inhibiting writhing and nociception.
Anti-fungi properties of lemon tea
The action of essential oils extracted from lemon
grass decoction against both pathogenic and edible
fungi is of immense contribution as investigated by
researchers. Lemon grass oil showed a promising
prospect among several essential oils by inhibiting
the growth of fungi cells which are implicated in
secreting mycotoxins during storage of grains and
other food products (Fandohan et al., 2008; Nguefacka
et al., 2012). Here, the synergistic effects of oil
fractions showed both synergistic and antagonistic
effects among different portion of characterized
oils (Viana et al., 2000; Nguefacka et al., 2012).
Essential oil fraction of lemon tea has been reported
to exhibit anti-fungal effects against lamentous
fungi of different classes thereby showing its broad
spectrum of activity against both disease causing and
non pathogenic fungi. Similarly, the oil is capable
of inactivating disease causing yeast cells (Candida
spp.) by inhibiting their growth (Dharmendra et al.,
2001).
Cytotoxicity and anti-mutagenicity
Several studies (both in-vivo and in-vitro) have
been conducted to investigate cytotoxicity and
mutagenicity effects of lemongrass extract in order
to conrm the safety of lemongrass tea. All phenolic
compounds isolated from methanolic extract of
lemongrass were nontoxic to human lung broblasts
even at high concentration (1 mM) (Cheel et al.,
2005). In another study, adult rats subjected to oral
consumption of lemongrass tea for 2 months did not
cause any toxicity effect on both the rat and their
resulting offspring (Lucia et al., 1986). Rat repeatedly
feed with lemongrass myrene did not develop
tolerance unlike analgestic drug morphine (Sforcin
et al., 2009). Protection of mitochondria membrane
integrity in stressed murine alveolar macrophages
was reportedly restored by 5% ethanol extract of
lemongrass therefore exhibiting cytoprotective
property (Tiwari et al., 2010). Lemongrass extract
obtained using 80% ethanol did not show any
matagenic properties in Salmonella mutation test.
Even, the extract was able to counter chemical
mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and
TA100 (Vinitketkumnuen et al., 1994). Also, damage
to chromosome induced by mitomycin C in human
lymphocytes was inhibited by lemongrass (Meevatee
et al., 1993). Bidinotto et al. (2011) investigated
protective effect of essential oil from lemongrass in
N-methyl-N-nitrosurea (MNU) induced leukocyte
DNA female Balb/C mice. It was reported that
lemongrass essential oil exhibited protective action
against MNU-induced DNA damage.
Consumption of lemongrass infusion preparation
was tested for toxicity effect on human. The toxicology
effect was reported to be negative as there were
no differences in serum biochemical assays, urine
analysis and physical examination after 6 and 14 days
of drinking lemongrass tea. Although, slight increase
in bilirubin and amylase in some of the volunteers
observed, such increase did not exhibit any medical
implication. Furthermore, lemongrass tea did not
show any hypnotic and anxiolytic properties (Leite
et al., 1986).
Toxicity and gastric tolerance of three essential
oils, including that of lemongrass, were tested in
adult rat. Lemongrass essential oil did not show
any acute (1 day) and sub-acute (14 days) toxicity
when dosed at 5-1500 mg/Kg body weight, but at
higher dose, 2000 and 3000 mg/Kg body weight,
abnormalities were recorded. LD50 is >3500 mg/Kg
body weight. Also, low dosage of oil did not show
change in morphological structural of rat stomach
and liver, however, higher dosage of oil result into
hepatocytes necrosis and leukocytes infestation of
liver parenchyma alongside with alteration of stomach
structure. Therefore, essential oil from lemongrass
is safe for human consumption and can be used for
maize storage at prescribe concentration (Fandohan
et al., 2008).
Future trends
Most studies on lemongrass tea and extracts
are prepared through infusion, decoction or organic
solvent extraction without considering effects of other
factors, such as method of cultivation, harvesting
time, controlled oxidation/fermentation, roasting/
frying and withering conditions. Previous works
have reported that these factors affect composition,
physicochemical and biological properties of tea
from other sources (Dix et al., 1981). There are
possibilities that properties of lemongrass tea
460 Olorunnisola et al./IFRJ 21(2): 455-462
might also be affected if studies consider the above
mentioned factors.
Also, conventional solvent extraction techniques
form majority of the works on lemongrass. Other
extraction aiding method like microwave aided
extraction, ultrasonic aided extraction, enzymatic
aided extraction, high pressure processing, sub-critical
water extraction and supercritical uid extraction
have not been well explored, if studied at all. These
novel techniques have been reported to give improve
yield and biological properties of products (Wang
and Weller, 2006). Supercritical uid extraction of
essential oil from lemongrass was reported to give
higher yield compared to hydro-distillation method
(Marongiu et al., 2006). Efforts have also been made
to investigate the effects of ultrasound processing
during the production of lemongrass essential
oil-alginate nanoemulsions. This will eventually
enhance incorporation of lemongrass essential oil in
food matrix and increase its bioavailability (Salvia-
Truijillo et al., 2012).
Furthermore, it has been reported that clarication
of beverage improve appearance and beverage
qualities, no study of such on lemongrass tea has been
reported. All these areas that have been identied
should form the focus of future researchers working
on lemongrass.
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... Several reviews on the biological activities of lemongrass have been published in recent years [10,13,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]; however, the cardiovascular potential of this plant is covered only broadly. To the authors' knowledge, the current paper constitutes the first comprehensive review on the anti-hypertensive potential of lemongrass. ...
... In addition, minerals such as potassium, calcium, silica and phosphorus are also present [19], as well as vitamins A, B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folate), and E and protein, carbohydrates and fat [45]. Several reviews on the biological activities of lemongrass have been published in recent years [10,13,[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42]; however, the cardiovascular potential of this plant is covered only broadly. To the authors' knowledge, the current paper constitutes the first comprehensive review on the anti-hypertensive potential of lemongrass. ...
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Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf) is a herb commonly used in folk medicine for many purposes. However, its anti-hypertensive potential has not yet been thoroughly studied. This paper reviews the anti-hypertensive effects of both lemongrass and its main compound citral in in vitro, ex vivo, preclinical and clinical studies. Lemongrass essential oil contains terpenes and their derivatives, whereas extracts contain different classes of polyphenols. Both citral and lemongrass display vasorelaxant activity ex vivo, acting by the promotion of endothelial nitric oxide/prostanoids secretion together with the blockage of calcium channels in the vascular smooth muscle. Citral also displays a negative chronotrope effect, probably due to a centrally mediated enhancement of parasympathetic activity. In both healthy and hypertensive animals, the acute administration of lemongrass results in a decrease in blood pressure, sometimes accompanied by a compensatory increase in heart rate. Similarly, in healthy and hypertensive human subjects, the consumption of lemongrass tea decreases blood pressure. Additionally, a weak/moderate diuretic activity has also been reported in animals and humans, although the mechanisms of action remain elusive. Future preclinical studies are necessary to identify other compounds with anti-hypertensive activity and additional pharmacological pathways. Although well tolerated, the safety profile of lemongrass should be better characterized.
... Culinary herbs include fresh leaves, stems, or flowers of herbaceous plants that are ingested in various forms because of their properties, such as flavour enhancer and developing aroma or piquancy to foods and drinks [1,2]. Spices and herbs are considered the 'heart of cooking' in most parts of Asia as most of the dishes, such as curries and soups along with salads, are prepared using a combination of spices and medicinal herbs as ingredients [3]. ...
... Similarly, Cymbopogon citratus is also an aromatic herb and is commonly known as 'lemon grass' due to its lemon-like odour, which is due to the presence of citral, a monoterpene [21]. It is used as a taste enhancer in tea, juices, and other beverages [2], and is also used to cure digestive problems, stomachache, high blood pressure, fever, cough, and other oxidativestress-related ailments [22,23]. Different heating methods also enhance the nutritional and biological activities of C. citratus [24]. ...
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The current study aimed to investigate the antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic and antihe-molytic potentials of heat-treated Petroselinum crispum, Trigonella-foenum graecum and Cymbo-pogon citratus. Ten min roasted and thirty min boiled fresh T. foenum-graecum and processed P. crispum revealed the highest DPPH scavenging activity (50% to 75% inhibition). All P. crispum samples displayed the highest antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae and B. subtilis at 10, 20 and 30 min boiling and 20 min roasting and baking. The antidiabetic potency of herbs was increased upon 10 min roasting, while P. crispum was ineffective in reducing haemolysis. Pearson correlation analysis (PCA) displayed a positive relationship (r > 0.3) between phyto-chemicals and antioxidant activity and weak correlation (r < 0.3) with antidiabetic potentials. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) indicated that some compounds disappeared on heating the herbs, while some compounds showed an increase in concentration. All-inclusive, this study endorses the application of roasted P. crispum and T. foenum-graecum against various diseases. ARTICLE HISTORY
... 10 Lemongrass has been widely used as a traditional remedy by preparing the "tea" or infusion from fresh or dry leaves in almost all the continents and it comprises a wide range of indications, from mild conditions such as flu, fever, cuts, coughing, and headaches to more severe illness such as rheumatic, bladder disorder, diabetes, and malaria. [11][12][13][14] It is considered as a potent antibacterial, antitussive, antiseptic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory agent. [15][16][17][18] The lemon-scented leaves of lemongrass is also used for insect repellent. ...
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Objectives The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of lemongrass extract incorporated in a resorbable periodontal dressing on gingival wound healing microscopically, following gingivectomy in rats. Materials and Methods Thirty healthy adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were used in this study. Gingivectomy was performed on anterior area of lower jaw in the labial surface of central incisive and, subsequently, wound areas were covered with povidone iodine gel (group P, positive control, n¼10), lemongrass resorbable dressing (group L, n¼10), and a cellulose-based dressing containing myrrh (group M, positive control, n¼10). Histological changes were monitored in days 4, 7, and 14 postsurgery to evaluate �broblast and collagen deposition as repair stage of healing process. Statistycal Analysis One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey’s post hoc for multiple comparisons were employed to measure differences between pairs of means, p-value of 0.05 was considered statistically signi�cant. Results We observed signi�cant difference repair parameters of the healing process between surgical sites treated with lemongrass periodontal dressing and control groups. Wounds treated with lemongrass dressing had greater �broblast compared with control groups in 4 and 7 days after surgery (p � 0.05). Conclusion The results suggest positive potential therapeutic effects for this new formulation of periodontal dressing on acceleration of surgical wound healing that lead to improvement of periodontal treatment consequences following gingivectomy.
... Selain itu kandungan antioksidan dalam serai selain meningkatkan stamina juga aroma yang mengurangi kecemasan (Ibrahim 1999;Silalahi. M 2019;Olorunnisola 2014). ...
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Empon – empon merupakan tanaman obat yang mengandung bahan aktif kurkumin, minyak atsiri dan antioksidan yang dimanfaatkan sebagai minuman untuk meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh pada pasien Covid-19. Tujuan pembuatan minuman peningkat daya tahan tubuh sebagai upaya percepatan penanganan Covid-19 di Kota Semarang. Metode pengabmas meliputi uji coba formula minuman empon-empon, uji daya terima pada 15 panelis agak terlatih, pembuatan minuman empon-empon dan pendistribusian minuman kepada 90 pasien Covid-19 dan 30 tenaga yang bertugas di ruang isolasi sebanyak 350 ml selama 4 hari. Sebagian besar panelis menyukai minuman empon-empon formula C dengan rata – rata jumlah skor terhadap terhadap rasa (3,80 ± 0,86 (sangat suka)), aroma (3,40 ± 0,83 (suka)) dan warna (3,53 ± 0,92 (sangat suka)). 90 pasien Covid-19 dan 30 tenaga yang bertugas di ruang isolasi sangat suka terhadap rasa, aroma dan warna serta menyatakan manfaat minuman empon-empon meningkatkan stamina dan mengurangi rasa lelah.
... Lemongrass (Cymbopogon nardus L.) is a type of grass plant that has high prospects as an essential oil-producing commodity [11] [12]. Therefore, citronella is very suitable to be used as an object of current study related to the development of essential oil extraction methods [13].Previously, the method of obtaining essential oils of a plant was carried out using the method of water distillation [14], and steam distillation [15] [16]. Unfortunately, some of these conventional extraction methods are considered less effective, especially in terms of the quality of the final product obtained [17]. ...
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The extraction of essential oils from Lemongrass leaves (Cymbopogon nardus L.) has become more promising than ever before due to the oils' increasing demand in the market in addition to the dynamic breakthrough in its technology advancement. This study presents a comparison of two different methods of microwave-assisted essential oil extraction, namely Microwave Hydrodistillation (MHD) and Solvent-Free Microwave Extraction (SFME), both of which exhibit a better quality in terms of essential oil recovery compared to the conventional extraction methods. This study investigated the effect of extraction time, microwave power, as well as feed-to-distiller volume ratio (F/D). Experimental results suggest that although there is a tendency to increase yield along with the increasing power, the yield turns out to decrease at higher power, with the optimum power for the MHD method being 420 W and that of the SFME method being 560 W. Smaller F/D ratios appear to give higher yields for both methods and the smaller the size of the material, the higher the yield obtained. The MHD method produces a smaller yield but has a better quality of citronella oil compared to the SFME method. Two first-order and second-order extraction kinetics models were compared for both the MHD and SFME methods, and the results suggest that the first-order model was slightly better at representing the experimental data based on the RMSD and R2 values. This applies to both experimental data using the MHD and SFME methods, respectively.
... The pharmaceutical industry has identified these bio-active agents in plants and their importance in synthetic medicine and has tested the most commonly used plant species (Nguenang et Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Persea Americana mill (Avacado pear seed) have been shown to contain these bioactive compounds and utilized in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Lemongrass is a tall perennial grass generally grown in humid tropical and subtropical regions belonging to Poaceae (Olorunnisola et al., 2014). Furthermore, lemongrass contains high amounts of minerals, vitamins and macronutrients. ...
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Background and Purpose: Essential oils are a mixture of volatile lipophilic constituents, most commonly sourced from higher plant leaf bark tissue. The study investigated the total phenolic contents of essential oil obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Persea Americana mill (avocado pear seed) and its bioactive component. Methods: The essential oils of both plants were obtained using the Soxhlet extraction method. Total phenol compositions were assayed using standard colourimetric methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to ascertain the presence of phytochemicals in the extract. Results: The total phenolic content of the plants showed a significant (p <0.05) difference ranging from 23.88 to 46.38 mg tannic acid equivalent/g of extract. Cymbopogon citratus had the highest value of 46.38±0.26 mg tannic acid equivalent/g compared to Persea Americana Mill's, which had a value of 23.88±0.34 mg tannic acid equivalent/g. The chromatograms corresponding to the chromatographic analysis (GC-MS) of Cymbopogon citratus and Persea Americana Mill allowed the identification of 26 different compounds from Cymbopogon citratus 15 different compounds from Persea Americana Mill. The peak height of Cymbopogon citratus showed a significant (p <0.05) difference ranging from 2781 to 335638. It was observed that Caryophyllene had the highest value compared to that of Myrcenyl acetate, which had the lowest value of 2781. Persea Americana mill also showed a significant (p <0.05) difference ranging from 560862 to 13557730, with Tetra decanoic acid having the highest value of 13557730 compared to 1 E-11, Z-13-Octadecatriene with the lowest value of 560862. This difference in peak height could result from the difference in the molecular weight of the volatile compounds. Conclusions: Overall, the study gave information on the phenolic and volatile compounds of Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass) and Persea Americana mill (avocado pear seed) and could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and could be used as a therapeutic agent in preventing or treating degenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.
... Lemongrass, an herb from the genus Cymbopogon, contains multiple biologically active terpenes and is commonly used in traditional medicine as a natural treatment for numerous ailments (Mirghani et al., 2012;Najafian et al., 2011;Olorunnisola et al., 2014;Ortiz et al., 2010;Paranagama et al., 2003;Yang et al., 2013). Essential oil derived from lemongrass possesses a wide variety of commercial and culinary applications. ...
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Obesity is a predisposing factor to diseases such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Lemongrass essential oil (LEO), from Cymbopogon flexuosus, possesses numerous therapeutic properties including modulation of obesity in vivo. This experiment investigated the effect of LEO and its major components citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal), citral dimethyl acetal (1,1-dimethoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene), and citral diethyl acetal (1,1-diethoxy-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-diene) in modulation of adipogenesis and genetic expression in adipocytes. Adipogenesis was induced from murine 3T3-L1 preadipocytes procured from ATCC and maintained in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) enriched with calf serum. Differentiation was conducted using DMEM enriched with 10% fetal bovine serum, Dexamethasone 0.25 µM, 3-isobutyl-methylxanthine 0.5 mM, and insulin 10 mg/ml for 2 days, followed by 5 days of insulin 10 mg/ml alone. Samples were subjected to experimental treatments at a concentration of 2.5 × 10⁻³. Intracellular triglycerides were quantified and photomicrographs were obtained following Oil red O (ORO) staining procedure. Total ribonucleic acid was extracted and expression of genes effecting in lipid metabolism were quantitated using real-time polymerase chain reaction. ORO staining procedure and spectrophotometric analysis demonstrated decreased lipid accumulation following treatments. LEO and its major constituents significantly inhibited expression of sterol response binding protein 2, cluster of differentiation 36, fatty acid binding protein 4, and peripilin. These results indicate modulation of lipid accumulation through decreased lipid uptake, increased lipolysis, decreased differentiation, and downregulated lipid biosynthesis. This investigation suggests that LEO and its constituents exert effects on adipocyte metabolism and are important for understanding metabolic disease. Further investigation is required to elucidate the degree that each mechanism implicated contributes to the observed effect.
Article
This study was conducted in broiler field / college of Agriculture/ Tikrit University during 9-4 to 14-5-2019 to know the effect of adding lemongrass leaves powder to the dietary on meats traits of broilers. 135 chicks Ross-308 were distributed randomly to three treatments, each treatment divided into three replicates (15 birds per replicate). T1 was standard treatment; T2 and T3 were added 1g and 2g of lemongrass per one kg of diet, respectively. The results showed a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in T2 compared with other treatments in cooking loss and water holding capacity, otherwise, T2 increased significantly (P≤0.05) in the thawing loss compared with T1, the treatments did not differ significantly in the dripping loss. T2 and T3 increased significantly in protein percentage compared with T1, while these treatments were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) compared with T1 in the fat and moisture percentages, the per cent of meat ash did not differ significantly among treatments. The Peroxide Value, Thiobarbituric acid and Free Fatty Acids significantly increased (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. The percentage of all fatty acids like linoleic, oleic, stearic, palmitic and linolenic increased significantly (P≤0.05) in T2 and T3 compared with T1. We conclude from this study that adding lemongrass powder to broiler diets improved most of the physical and chemical traits of meat.
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the bioactive LEO phytocomponents are useful for a myriad of medicinal properties including anti-microbial, anticancer, antioxidant, insecticidal, and antimalarial activities (Figure 2). Although LEO and its constituents have shown anticancer activity in vitro, and, in some cases, in animal studies, only a few researchers to date have tested the delivery of its bioactive components combined with nanoparticles or delivery systems. a variety of applications, from food safety and food preservation, in terms of antioxidant potential as well as for antifungal properties, to applications in agriculture and veterinary medicine, and as coatings on biopolymers for surgery (maxillofacial silicone specimens in dentistry, other medical implants) have been recently proposed. The ability of LEO terpenes to stop bacteria and fungi from growing in biofilms has also a wide array of applicative uses in medicine and surgical devices, and in industrial solutions to biocorrosion, biofouling, biodegradation, water microbiology, and the control of bacterial quorum sensing signals [103]. The ability to modify the materials used in medical devices allows the application of LEO components to make such surfaces resistant to biofilm formation.
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