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In the July 2010, two adults of pirapitinga Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818) were captured in Croatian waters. These are the first recordings of this species in the fresh waters of Croatia, the second time it is reported in Central Europe. One of the explanations the presence of this neotropical species in the Croatian is the release in river by aquarists.
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... Pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) is an important freshwater fish species of the Latin American aquaculture (Fiod et al., 2010). This fish has been successfully introduced as an exotic species in several other countries of the world and now it is widely cultured outside Latin America as well (Abimorad & Carneiro, 2004;Cáleta et al., 2011;Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2016). It has a rapid growth rate, with the ability of survivorship at low temperatures (Cáleta et al., 2011) and being an omnivorous fish could efficiently utilize diets of various chemical compositions (Abimorad & Carneiro, 2004Abimorad, Squassoni, & Carneiro, 2008;Fernandes, Carneiro, & Sakomura, 2000, 2001. ...
... This fish has been successfully introduced as an exotic species in several other countries of the world and now it is widely cultured outside Latin America as well (Abimorad & Carneiro, 2004;Cáleta et al., 2011;Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), 2016). It has a rapid growth rate, with the ability of survivorship at low temperatures (Cáleta et al., 2011) and being an omnivorous fish could efficiently utilize diets of various chemical compositions (Abimorad & Carneiro, 2004Abimorad, Squassoni, & Carneiro, 2008;Fernandes, Carneiro, & Sakomura, 2000, 2001. The available EAA requirements of pacu have been determined on the basis of the ideal protein concept Khan et al., 2020). ...
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The present study aimed to determine the ideal ratios of digestible essential amino acids (EAAs) for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus) juveniles by the amino acid (AA) deletion method. A completely randomized design which consisted of 11 treatments and three replicates each was used. The treatments included a control diet (CD) containing 55% of nonpurified natural ingredients and 45% of purified synthetic amino acids and ingredients, and other ten isonitrogenous and isoenergetic EAA limiting diets (LDs), each being deficient in 44.4 ± 0.02% of the respective EAA. Pacu juveniles with initial average body weight of 6.22 ± 0.09 g were distributed among 33 fiber glass tanks. Fish were fed with semipurified and extruded diets for 113 days two times a day until apparent satiation. The ideal ratio of each dietary EAA was calculated on the basis of the relationship between body N retention and amount of EAA deleted from the respective EAA LD. Based on the AA deletion method, the ideal ratios of digestible EAAs for pacu juveniles, relative to lysine requirement of 100% were estimated as: methionine 14.6%, threonine 35.0%, tryptophan 6.6%, arginine 62.8%, histidine 13.6%, isoleucine 26.3%, leucine 43.7%, phenylalanine 27.2%, and valine 35.8%.
... in Spain (Leunda, 2010), Slovakia (Hensel, 2004), Poland (Nowak, Szczerbik, Tatoj, & Popek, 2008), Croatia (Ćaleta, Tutman et al., 2011), The guppy is one of the most popular aquarium fishes. Its viable populations have become established in many hot springs or warm effluents of power plants in many European countries (Hanel et al., 2011). ...
... In most countries, the highest number of introductions took place between 1960 and 1980 (Figure 4). Since 2000, Turkey-Thrace has not documented any new alien fish speciesintroductions, as opposed to Croatia, which has recorded the highest number of new alien species since then(Ćaleta, Jelić et al., 2011;Ćaleta, Tutman et al., 2011;Jelkić & Opačak, 2013;Safner et al., 2013;Šanda et al., 2013), although this may be the result of intensive ichthyological research in the period after 2000 rather than new introductions(Figure 4). ...
... The results of the present study showed the number of scale rows were less numerous; both above and below the lateral line. The number of ventralkeel spines of P. brachypomus was similar to other studies (Jégu 2003;Machado-Allison 1983;Čaleta et al. 2011).The mean count of prepelvic and postpelvic ventral-keel spines in this study, however, was higher when compared to data given in Escobar et al. (2019), for both P. brachypomus and P. orinoquensis. The average count of rays in pectoral fin in this study was close to the average count reported in Escobar et al. (2019) for P. brachypomus, while it was lower in P. orinoquensis. ...
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Piaractus brachypomus is highly valued as an aquaculture and ornamental fish species. However, it is frequently considered as a non-native or invasive species. In Polish waters P. brachypomus is an incidental non-native species, most likely released by aquarists, and it is unable to overwinter or reproduce. Outside its native distributional range, this species has been recorded nearly worldwide. In regions where exist it is often confused with other species such as Piaractus mesopotamicus and Piaractus orinoquensis, possibly with Colossoma macropomum and their hybrids, and Pygocentrus nattereri. In this study, we provide a detailed taxonomic description and the most useful discriminative features for the species, of five specimens of P. brachypomus caught in water bodies in northwestern Poland (in 2002-2010), and a sample of 11 specimens obtained from laboratory culture (2012-2019) that originated from South America. The examinations included describing metric and meristic characters, the neurocranium structure, the dentition formula, parasite fauna, and species identification based on a mitochondrial COI sequence. The phylogenetic tree inferred using maximum likelihood showed that pirapitinga samples were nested within the Amazon Basin clade of P. brachypomus. This is the first molecular study in Europe and first detailed morphometric study (including the neurocranium) of this species from a non-native area of its distribution. Characters such as dentition can be used to discriminate among the genera Colossoma, Piaractus and Pygocentrus, while meristic characters such as lateral line scale counts, numbers of scale rows above and below the lateral line, pectoral and pelvic fin rays counts, and ventral-keel spine counts can be used to discriminate among species within the genus Piaractus. Nevertheless, morphometric characters do not seem to be an appropriate tool to distinguish closely related species in the genus Piaractus.
... Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is an important fish species that belongs to the characidae family and is a favorable cultivable species in different regions of the world, including Asia, Europe, North and Central America, and Oceania (Abimorad, Favero, Squassoni, & Carneiro, 2010;Cáleta et al., 2011;Fernandes et al., 2000;Froese & Pauly, 2013). To support the aquaculture industry, it is necessary to improve the optimum protein and AA requirement data and increase the production of this important fish by formulating diets with a balanced EAA profile. ...
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In the present study, juvenile (live body weight, 54.3 ± 8.2 g), preadult (live body weight, 822.5 ± 33.9 g), and adult (live body weight, 1,562.8 ± 41.8 g) pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, were used to estimate their dietary essential amino acid (EAA) requirements using the whole‐body amino acid (AA) pattern. The results showed that whole‐body moisture, crude protein, total lipid, and ash contents expressed on a wet weight basis (%) were significantly different among the studied growth phases. No significant differences were observed in the dietary EAA requirements estimated for the three growth phases of pacu. These dietary EAA requirements were found to be different than those previously estimated for the same fish through its muscle AA pattern. Based on whole‐body EAA to total EAA ratios {A/E ratios; [(each EAA/total EAA) × 1,000]}, EAA requirements were estimated to be histidine (0.42%), arginine (1.36%), threonine (0.82%), valine (0.90%), methionine (0.45%), isoleucine (0.83%), leucine (1.29%), phenylalanine (0.74%), lysine (1.64%), and tryptophan (0.14%) for pacu. These estimated requirements may serve as a reference line in the formulation of practical and experimental diets until dose–response‐based optimum EAA requirements are available for pacu.
... The genus Piaractus (family Serrasalmidae) contains two species: P. brachypomus, distributed in the Orinoco and Amazon river basins across Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela ( Eschmeyer et al. 2017), and P. mesopotamicus, which occurs in the Paraguay-Parana river basin in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay ( Eschmeyer et al. 2017). Both species are highly valued in the global aquarium ( Nico et al. 2017) and aquaculture industries ( Singh 2014;Ramos-Valladão et al. 2016) and consequently have been introduced outside their native range (e.g., Europe, United States of America, Southeast Asia, India and Colombia;Howells 2001;Cagauan 2007;Leunda 2010;Ćaleta et al. 2011;Restrepo-Santa Maria and Alvarez-León 2013;Correa et al. 2014). Lago Petén-Itzá is a lake located in the karstic region of El Petén in northern Guatemala ( Curtis et al. 1998;Brenner et al. 2002;Anselmetti et al. 2006). ...
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We documented the first record of the non-native species Piaractus brachypomus (Characiformes: Serrasalmidae) in Lago Petén-Itzá, Petén, Guatemala. One brined specimen was donated by a local fisherman in San Benito, El Petén. The captured specimen was reportedly collected in the southern basin of the lake. We used the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) to validate identity of the specimen. We hypothesize that the local aquarium trade is the most likely source of introduction of the non-native Pacu in Lago Petén-Itzá.
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The present study attempts to shed light on some biological aspects and characteristics of Piaractus brachypomus, including some biometrics, phenotypic and feeding pattern that characterizes this species. Besides, the study touches upon the body shape and the Otolith. These fish species have recently been seen frozen in the Iraqi local market. The standard length of fish specimens in this study reach 26.55cm it exceeded the specimens of Pacu fish collected from other studies from other countries, As well the specimens weight was 632gm it exceeded other studies mentioned in this manuscript. As the irregularity in the distribution of teeth rows, especially in the lower jaw was clear in our specimens. The average weight of some skull bones of Piaractus brachypomus specimens is 2.25g, which gives evidence of the heaviness of the bones of this species.
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Full-text available
The present study attempts to shed light on some biological aspects and characteristics of Piaractus brachypomus, including some biometrics, phenotypic and feeding pattern that characterizes this species. Besides, the study touches upon the body shape and the Otolith. These fish species have recently been seen frozen in the Iraqi local market. The standard length of fish specimens in this study reach 26.55cm it exceeded the specimens of Pacu fish collected from other studies from other countries, As well the specimens weight was 632gm it exceeded other studies mentioned in this manuscript. As the irregularity in the distribution of teeth rows, especially in the lower jaw was clear in our specimens. The average weight of some skull bones of Piaractus brachypomus specimens is 2.25g, which gives evidence of the heaviness of the bones of this species.
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A checklist of the freshwater fish fauna of Croatia is presented for the first time. It is based on 1360 publications of historical and recent data in the literature. According to the literature review, there were 137 fish species in 30 families and 75 genera recorded in Croatia. The checklist is systematically arranged and provides distributional data of the freshwater fish fauna as well as whether the species is endemic, introduced or translocated.
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The Iberian Peninsula contains a highly endemic freshwater ichthyofauna that is being homogenized and threatened by an increasing number of non-native fishes. Here, in this paper, I reviewed the literature on the impacts of fish introductions and translocations on the native Iberian ichthyofauna. The aims of the present review were (1) to provide an overview of the already studied and proven impacts as well as of the suggested potential impacts that remain to be tested, (2) to synthesize the current knowledge in the Iberian Peninsula and (3) to suggest future research approaches. Despite some well-documented impacts, an increasing number of non-native fish species and a wide range of diverse ecological situations uncover knowledge gaps which hamper conservation and management efforts. Since the introduction of species is often pointed out as a major cause of extinctions, I encourage research groups and funding agencies to devote more resources to the study of interactions between non-native and native fishes in order to develop evidence-based species-specific impact assessments.
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With a total production of 223,626 tonnes ard 1.5% of the world production in 1988, the importance of aquaculture in Latin America is minor. Only when intended for export has production increased, especially evident in salmonid production in Chile and shrimp production in Ecuador. Interest in culturing endemic fish species has increased significantly; however, production has seldom progressed beyond the pilot stage and is still of no economic importance. Information on mollusc culture potential indicates excellent conditions along the Pacific coast, but this depends upon marketing methods and seeking new markets. The exploitation of marine algae is an important factor in the economies of several Latin American countries. Therefore is very desirable to continue cultivation attempts of some species; better exploitation through coordinated planning would certainly help aquaculture in Latin America economically.
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The author describes the discovery of a male pirapitinga-Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier, 1818), 222 mm long and weighing 440 g, caught in the Zelená Voda reservoir at Nové Mesto nad Váhom (Slovakia).
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We report captures of exotic serrasalmine characids, Piaractus brachypomus, P. mesopotamicus, and an aberrant characid of unresolved identity and two species of cobitids, Misgurnus mizolepis and M. anguillicaudatus in freshwaters of Oregon. Oriental weatherfish, M. anguillicaudatus, appear to be established in a localized area of the Clackamas River of western Oregon, and in the Owyhee, Malheur, and Snake rivers of eastern Oregon. Preliminary thermal tolerance testing of pirapatinga, P. brachypomus, and oriental weatherfish showed that the former was unlikely to survive winter water temperatures in temperate western states, whereas the latter could easily tolerate water temperatures lower than normal winter temperatures.
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