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Silicoflagellates of the Cenozoic of the Japan and Okhotsk seas and the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench

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Abstract

The results of Cenozoic silicoflagellates (marine siliceous microplankton) from the North East Asia marginal seas and adjacent Pacific Ocean study are presented. 147 specific and intraspecific silicoflagellate taxa have found in Cenozoic sediments. The Cenozoic zonation on silicoflagellates for the North West Pacific is based on the direct correlation with diatom zone assemblages. It includes 14 zones, 9 subzones and beds with flora for interval of the Middle Eocene to Holocene. Reconstruction of paleoconditions accomplished. Taxonomic references, appendix with full species composition of studied samples are given. 124 species of silicoflagellates are illustrated.
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... FO Naviculopsis constricta was proposed as the zonal marker for the base of the superjacent zone, which extended into the lower Eocene. This partition of the Palaeocene into two silicoflagellate zones has seen wide use (Bukry 1973(Bukry , 1975(Bukry , 1976(Bukry , 1977b(Bukry , 1981Busen and Wise 1976;Locker and Martini 1987;Tsoy 2011), but offers a limited stratigraphic resolution. Glezer (1979) also used C. hastata as well as C. lamellifera, but this zonation is largely based on fossils from the Eurasian platform, and has seen little utility in deep sea sites. ...
... REMARKS: See comments on N. primativa below. This taxon has also been reported by Tsoy (2011) from the middle Eocene of Russia. ...
... Bukry 1978b;Tsoy 2011) are from the Northern Hemisphere.Bukry (1976) lists a single specimen of N. danica within what we identify as the D. precarentis Zone at 71.8 mbsf in Hole 327A. Given the chronological differences between N. primativa and N. danica,Bukry's (1976) report may represent N. primativa.Naviculopsis elongata(Glezer) McCartney,Witkowski and Szaruga comb. ...
Article
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Early Palaeocene through early Eocene silicoflagellate assemblages were examined from five southern subtropical through subpolar deep-sea sites: DSDP Holes 208 and 524, and ODP Holes 700B, 752A, and 1121B. For each site, the taxonomic composition of the silicoflagellate assemblage is documented in detail; Pseudonaviculopsis gen. nov., Dictyocha castellum sp. nov. and Stephanocha? fulbrightii sp. nov. are proposed, along with several new combinations. More importantly, however, these observations enable a considerable refinement to the existing Palaeocene–Eocene silicoflagellate biostratigraphic zonation that for the first time uses datums calibrated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Timescale. The Corbisema aspera Interval Zone occurs immediately above the K/Pg boundary and is here described from Seymour Island. The Corbisema hastata Partial Range Zone extends from near the K/Pg boundary to late early Palaeocene and has been observed in Hole 208. The Pseudonaviculopsis disymmetrica Acme Zone occurs in Holes 208 and 700B. The Dictyocha precarentis Partial Range Zone, observed in Holes 208, 700B, 752A and 1121B, is subdivided into D. precarentis, Naviculopsis primativa, N. cruciata and Pseudonaviculopsis constricta subzones. The Naviculopsis constricta Partial Range Zone occurs in Holes 524, 700B, 752A and 1121B. This study is also the first to consider syn- and/or diachroneity in Palaeogene silicoflagellate biostratigraphy.
... The early Eocene is the least well understood portion of this Cenozoic study, with few deep-sea silicoflagellate-bearing intervals available. Early Eocene onshore sections in Denmark (Perch-Nielsen, 1976), northwest Germany (Martini, 1981) and various locations in Russia (Gleser, 1966;Tsoy, 2011aTsoy, , 2011b include diverse silicoflagellates but represent neritic depositional settings and exhibit some silicoflagellate diversity and variability not observed in deep-sea sediments. ...
Article
Cenozoic silicoflagellate evolution led to ten known genera derived from two groups classified together in Corbisema that may have survived the end-Cretaceous extinction. These underwent rapid diversification and gave rise to at least five genera before the end of the Paleocene, including Dictyocha and Naviculopsis. Important silicoflagellate evolutionary events include the emergence of corner-aligned double skeleton configuration by the early Paleocene and the sinistral rotation of the Dictyocha byronalis apical bridge in early to middle Eocene that evolved into the apically-ringed silicoflagellate genera (e.g., Distephanopsis and Stephanocha). We interpret Paramesocena and Octactis as descended from Stephanocha, although their precise evolutionary paths remain uncertain. The earliest Octactis has thicker apical ring elements than modern O. pulchra, and is here described as the new species O. kosciuszkoi. New combinations are provided for Stephanocha antarctica and Dityocha octangulata. Overall, Cenozoic silicoflagellates show a trend towards more complicated apical geometries and smaller portals. These features enable silicoflagellate double skeletons to form near-spherical skeletal structures that support the external cell boundaries during mitosis. Silicoflagellates employ various strategies to hold double skeletons together and support the cell boundaries across the portal and window openings. Variability is an important feature of the silicoflagellate skeleton and occurs in two broadly different contexts. The first occurs for all silicoflagellate species, with occasional variant skeletal designs distinct from the predominant morphology. The second variability is associated with a single taxon, where multiple unusual skeletal shapes occur in a silicoflagellate plexus over a geologically narrow time interval and limited geographic extent.
... Due to rare occurrence of the valves their quantitative calculation was not performed. In order to determine the age, the Neogene zonal scales were used for the northern Pacific area for diatoms [30] and silicoflagellates [20]. ...
Article
Data on diatoms and silicoflagellates were obtained for the first time from the lower part of the stratotype of the Liman Formation (Liman Mount area), which allowed dating of this part of the Liman Formation as far as the end of the Middle - beginning of the Late Miocene (Denticulopsis praedimorpha Zone, 12,9-11,5 Ma and Thalassiosira yabei Zone, 11,5-10,0 Ma by diatoms) and revealed the marine genesis of host deposits. The upper part of the stratotype of the Liman Formation (Pyata Cape area) that hosts the continental deposits with an assemblage of freshwater diatoms, with a ceartain degree of confidence may be referred to the Late Miocene (?) - Eopleistocene (Calabrian Stage)
... They are associated with diatoms and known in fossil deposits from Cretaceous to Recent and widely distributed in plankton of modern oceans. This group of siliceous microalgae has been successfully used for biostratigraphy and paleotemperature interpretations (Gleser 1966;Bukry 1981b; Barron et al. 1984Barron et al. , 2014Bukry & Monechi 1985;Perch-Nielsen 1985;Tsoy 2011c). Typically, silicofl agellate biostratigraphic zones in middleto-high latitudes are correlated with diatom zones (Barron et al. 1984(Barron et al. , 2014(Barron et al. , 2015Tsoy 2003Tsoy , 2011a. ...
... They are associated with diatoms and known in fossil deposits from Cretaceous to Recent and widely distributed in plankton of modern oceans. This group of siliceous microalgae has been successfully used for biostratigraphy and paleotemperature interpretations (Gleser 1966;Bukry 1981b; Barron et al. 1984Barron et al. , 2014Bukry & Monechi 1985;Perch-Nielsen 1985;Tsoy 2011c). Typically, silicofl agellate biostratigraphic zones in middleto-high latitudes are correlated with diatom zones (Barron et al. 1984(Barron et al. , 2014(Barron et al. , 2015Tsoy 2003Tsoy , 2011a. ...
Article
A late Eocene to early Oligocene silicoflagellate assemblage from the Azov Sea area of Ukraine is described and illustrated for the first time. The silicoflagellates are found in transitional layers between the Beloglinskiy (Upper Eocene) and Khadumsky (Lower Oligocene) horizons of the Azov Sea area (Eastern Paratethys). A total of 27 silicoflagellate taxa from 6 genera were identified. Silicoflagellate assemblage is correlated to tropical/subtropical Corbisema apiculata Zone of late Eocene to early Oligocene age. The Eastern Paratethys was not yet completely isolated at this period and had connections with the oceans north and south of it.
... The floor of the basin has gently sloping, flat or slightly undulating valleys in the west, which gradually give way to flat, horizontal valleys in the east. The seafloor is covered with thick finely-grained sediments, the bulk of which are diatom remains (Tsoy, 2007(Tsoy, , 2011. The Kuril Basin has formed during the Early Oligocene-Late Miocene (32-7 million years ago) (Karp et al., 2007). ...
Article
SokhoBio expedition Until recently hardly anything was known about the abyssal bivalve fauna of the Sea of Okhotsk, which communicates with the Pacific Ocean via many straits between the Kuril Islands with a maximum depth of 2318. m in Bussol Strait, and about its similarity with the deep-water fauna of the Pacific. Investigation of the materials collected by the SokhoBio Russian-German deep-sea expedition (RV "Akademik M.A. Lavrentyev", 2015), and two Russian expeditions (RV "Toporok", 1948; RV "Vityaz", 1949) from the bottom of the Kuril Basin of the Sea of Okhotsk (2850-3366. m depth) revealed a rich fauna of bivalves including 25 species belonging to 12 families, of which only 12 species (48.0%) were determined to the species level. Nine species (Poroleda extenuata, Katadesmia vincula, Dacrydium rostriferum, Bathyarca imitata, Catillopecten squamiformis, Channelaxinus excavata, Vesicomya pacifica, Cuspidaria cf. abyssopacifica, Myonera garretti) were first records for the Sea of Okhotsk. The richest families were Thyasiridae (7 species) and Cuspidariidae (6 species). The high diversity and richness of the bivalve fauna on the bottom of the Kuril Basin are probably caused by the favorable trophic conditions. The Kuril Basin is characterized by very high rates of sedimentation and high content of organic matter in the sediments. For estimation of connections between deep-water faunas of the Sea of Okhotsk and the Pacific Ocean, the SokhoBio expedition performed 1 station at the maximum depth of the Bussol Strait and 2 stations (3342-3432 and 4679-5013. m) on the Pacific slope of the Kuril Islands opposite to the Bussol Strait, where 24 species belonging to 13 families were found. Among the 25 species found in the deep part of the Kuril Basin more than half of species (17 species, 68%) occur in the Pacific Ocean. Most of them are widespread in the northern Pacific and are eurybathic bathyal-abyssal species. This probably allows them to penetrate into the Sea of Okhotsk through deep straits between the Kuril Islands. Photographs and taxonomic remarks are provided for all identified species (15) that were found in the Sea of Okhotsk and/or the Pacific Ocean. Taxonomic decisions herein: Nuculana aikawai Habe, 1958 and Nuculana sagamiensis Okutani, 1962 are synonymized with Nuculana leonina (Dall, 1896); Arca (Bathyarca) nucleator Dall, 1908 is synonymized with Bathyarca imitata (Smith, 1885); for Leda extenuata Dall, 1897, a new combination is suggested, Poroleda extenuata (Dall, 1897).
Chapter
The oldest marine protist fossil goes back 1.8 Ga (Statherian, Paleoproterozoic), and the oldest dinosterane biomarkers 1.6 Ga (Calymmian, Mesoproterozoic). The probable heterotrophic agglutinated microfossil appeared when marine metazoans appeared in the Ediacaran. Multichambered foraminifers appeared around the start of biomineralization in Small Shelly Fossils in the early Cambrian. The first fossilizable radiolarian polycystine is likely to have appeared in the period of the Cambrian Explosion. After the initial appearance period, the emergence of fossilizable skeleton formative ability was concentrated in five short geological time intervals: (1) the Middle to Late Devonian for calcareous benthic foraminifers; (2) the Carnian to the Rhaetian (Triassic) for the “switching on” of fossilizable dinoflagellate cysts, nannoliths, coccoliths and calcareous cysts, and probably the molecular appearance of diatoms; (3) the Toarcian–Aalenian Ages for diversified dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, the establishment of symbiosis in radiolarian Acantharia and the appearance of planktic lifestyle in foraminifers; (4) the Albian–Maastrichtian Ages for the rapid accumulation of coccolithophores, the start of skeletogenesis both in silicoflagellates and marine centric diatoms, molecular appearance of both araphid and raphid diatoms, and the appearance of fossilizable araphid diatoms; and (5) the middle to late Eocene for the appearance of fossilizable raphid diatoms and radiolarian colonial collodarians and the continuous occurrences of ebridians. The establishment of the modern-type marine protist world was concluded in the late Eocene by the appearance of collodarians, the continuous occurrences of ebridians, and the substituted silicon precipitation marine protists as diatoms.
Article
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The petrographic and micropaleontological studies of the rocks in the sedimentary cover of the Primorye continental slope in the area of Vladimir Bay in the Sea of Japan made it possible to establish that the sedimentary cover is represented in this area by two different facial complexes of Late Miocene rocks. The first facial complex consists of terrigenous rocks (siltstones, sandstones, and conglomerates) that were accumulated under relatively shallowwater conditions of the shelf and the uppermost part of the continental slope. The second one is formed by diatomaceous–clayey rocks under more deep water conditions, mainly in the upper part of the continental slope. The carbonate nodules that are widely distributed among the deposits of the first complex but are also recorded in the second one were formed as a result of diagenetic processes in the terrigenous or silicious–terrigenous sediments that had been formed. With respect to their age, the Late Miocene deposits are characterized by a full succession of diatomaceous zones over 10.0–5.5 mln yr. The sediments of the first facial complex accumulated during the first third of the Late Miocene (10.0–8.5 mln yr), while those of the second began to accumulate somewhat later, but their accumulation continued until the late Miocene (9.2–5.5 mln yr).
Article
Silicoflagellate assemblages have been studied from Hole 1149A (northwestern Pacific, Ocean Drilling Program Leg 185) in a continuous record of pelagic clay from lithologic Unit I. The biostratigraphic framework of D. Bukry, adapted in this work, is calibrated to tropical and subtropical fossil floras. Four biozones and three subzones have been recognized (from the lower Pliocene Dictyocha fibula Zone to the Quaternary Dictyocha aculeata aculeata Zone), and their zonal boundaries have been calibrated to the magnetostratigraphic scale. In particular, the boundary between the Dictyocha perlaevis delicata and the Dictyocha perlaevis ornata Subzones approximates the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. The identification of three closely spaced climatic events (the asperoid/fibuloid reversal at 75.11 meters below seafloor [mbsf], the sharp decrease in abundance of Distephanus sp. at 70.05 mbsf, and the last occurrence of Distephanus boliviensis at 68.46 mbsf) indicates the increased strength of the warm Kuroshio Current in the interval between 3.3 and 2.8 Ma, due to the final closure of the Central American Seaway and leading to the present-day hydrodynamic regime. The beginning of the acme of Mesocena quadrangula at 37.01 mbsf (∼1.1 Ma) also shows a sharp warming in surface waters.
Chapter
Silicoflagellate assemblages of ODP Leg 104 Neogene sequences are the basis of an interpretation of changes in the Neogene paleoenvironment of the Norwegian Sea. Fluctuations in the percentages of temperature and nutrient-sensitive taxonomic groups document major changes in sea-surface conditions. A brief, but distinct, cooling event occurred at 18.0-17.5 Ma which resulted in the disappearance of Naviculopsis. Following this early Miocene cooling a long period of increasing surface-water temperature occurred, leading up to a thermal high in the early middle Miocene (14.0 Ma). The early late Miocene (10.0-9.0 Ma) was distinctly cooler than the middle Miocene, but warmer than the remainder of the Neogene. Conditions between 13.0 and 10.0 Ma are unrecorded because of a regional hiatus, which is the earliest evidence for an end to the more temperate and stable conditions of the early to middle middle Miocene. A major plunge in temperatures occurred between 8.5 and 7.4 Ma and during the remainder of the late Miocene and Pliocene; from 7.4 to 2.65 Ma subpolar conditions prevailed. Silicoflagellates disappeared, except for sporadic occurrences, at 2.64 Ma with the beginning of dominant glacial sedimentation. Biogenic opal is absent in sediments younger than 0.76 Ma, indicating the dominance of glacial conditions with extensive sea ice. -Authors
Chapter
Datum levels and biostratigraphy, including a new zonation of late Neogene silicoflagellates and ebridians, are presented, based on analysis of submarine sediments collected from Sites 798 and 799, Sea of Japan, during the Leg 128 cruise. -Author
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Silicoflagellates are described from Sites 588 (middle Eocene), 591 (middle Miocene to lower Pliocene), and 594 (middle Miocene to Quaternary) in the southwest Pacific. At Sites 591 and 594 a detailed silicoflagellate zonation is possible. Comparison between the sequences recovered at Sites 591 and 206 (Leg 21) revealed two hiatuses in the latter, but helped to establish a zonation for this area from the lower Miocene to the Pleistocene and a correlation to standard nannoplankton zones. The stratigraphic implications of the taxonomy used by various authors and the species concept presented here are discussed in detail. Special reference is made to types described by Ehrenberg and to later synonyma, because the Ehrenberg collection is the base for all subsequent descriptions and evaluations of silicoflagellate taxa. Two new genera, two new subspecies, and three new forms are described from the southwest Pacific Neogene and Pleistocene. Associated sponge spicules were noted and will be described in detail later. -from Authors
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Silicoflagellate specimens referable to the genus Octactis Schiller were examined from suspended particle and sediment trap samples recovered from the Panama Basin, near the Hawaiian Islands and in the equatorial Atlantic. The observations on skeletal structures indicate that the genus Octactis is best considered a synonym of the genus Distephanus.
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The first and last stratigraphic occurrences of selected planktic diatom species for the low and high latitudes in the Eocene and Oligocene are given. Stratigraphic datums for these species are used to define two separate diatom zonations: one (with 12 zones) for low latitudes (Early Eocene to Late Oligocene), and the other (with four zones) for the Oligocene of the high southern latitudes. Cosmopolitan species are well represented in both latitudinal regions during the latest Eocene and in the Late Oligocene. But correlation between the two latitudinal regions is more difficult during the Early Oligocene owing to a dominance of paleogeographically restricted species. Eleven new species, three new varieties, and two new combinations are defined in the appendix, which also includes a species list.
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Two deep-sea cores from a rise on the east side of the Falkland Plateau in the South Atlantic penetrated a Miocene-Pliocene siliceous ooze containing abundant tests of the silicoflagellate Mesocena circulus. This species has previously been recorded from Upper Miocene-Lower Pliocene sediments in the North Pacific Ocean. The occurrence of such a nearly monospecific ooze is unique and may be related to special oceanographic and/or climatic conditions.