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Three new species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia (vol 21, pg 65, 2014)

Authors:
  • Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences

Abstract and Figures

We described three new species of the genus Chiromantis, one added as a member of Javan frogs and two others as new members of Sumatran frogs. Discovery of the new frogs from Sumatra and Java is not surprising. Because Sumatra is one of the biggest islands in Indonesia with varied habitat types, herpetofaunal survey especially on frogs in this island is still insufficient. As for Java whose herpetofauna has been relatively well studied, the present finding of a new species suggests occurrence of more undescribed species and/or future record of taxa occurring elsewhere.
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THREE NEW SPECIES OF Chiromantis PETERS 1854 (ANURA: RHACOPHORIDAE)
FROM INDONESIA
Awal Riyanto1and Hellen Kurniati1
Submitted August 3, 2012.
We described three new species of the genus Chiromantis, one added as a member of Javan frogs and two others as
new members of Sumatran frogs. Discovery of the new frogs from Sumatra and Java is not surprising. Because
Sumatra is one of the biggest islands in Indonesia with varied habitat types, herpetofaunal survey especially on
frogs in this island is still insufficient. As for Java whose herpetofauna has been relatively well studied, the present
finding of a new species suggests occurrence of more undescribed species and/or future record of taxa occurring
elsewhere.
Keywords: Chiromantis; new species; Sumatra; Java.
INTRODUCTION
Frogs of the genus of Chiromantis Peters, 1854 (fam-
ily Rhacophoridae) are generally small, arboreal inhabit-
ants of disturbed and primary forests, and are nocturnal
and most active during rainy seasons (Chan et al., 2011).
Chiromantis is distributed from tropical east and west
Africa, northern India, Southeast Asia including Myan-
mar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Laos, and China (Gris-
mer et al., 2007; Chan et al., 2011; Li et al., 2011; Frost,
2013). Frost (2013) recorded 16 species of this genus.
The occurrence of the genus Chiromantis in Indone-
sia (outside Borneo) was first reported by Kurniati (2011)
from Sumatra Island. Then unnamed sp. 1 (based on one
specimen) was collected from secondary forest at North
Sumatra Province and sp. 2 (five specimens) were col-
lected from palm oil plantation on West Sumatra Prov-
ince. In addition, McGuire also found a congeneric mem-
ber from Rimbo Panti, North Sumatra (McGuire, per-
sonal communication). Recently, three specimens were
collected from modified lowland habitat (paddy field)
from Bogor, West Java (Fig. 1). In a recent list of Javan
frogs (Iskandar and Colijn, 2001), and reports of other
workers investigating Javan anura (Liem, 1971; Iskandar,
1998; Riyanto, 2010, 2011; Kurniati et al., 2001; Mum-
puni, 2001; Kurniati 2002 and 2003), the genus Chiro-
mantis has never been known from Java.
Although Java is one of big islands in Indonesia and
relatively well studied herpetologically, new discovery in
herpetofauna is still open, as exemplified by a new lizard,
Eutropis macrophthalma (Mausfeld and Böhme, 2002)
and new record of file eared tree frog, Polypedates otilo-
phus (Riyanto et al. 2009). We assign the new material
from Java and Sumatra reported here to the genus Chiro-
mantis based on the following combination of characters:
relatively small (SVL 21.1 – 26.0 mm); having smooth
skin on the body and limbs which is not co-ossified to the
1026-2296/2014/2101-0065 © 2014 Folium Publishing Company
Russian Journal of Herpetology Vol. 21, No. 1, 2014, pp. 65 – 73
1Herpetology Division “Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense,” Research
Centre for Biology-The Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Widyasat-
waloka Building, Jl. Raya Jakarta Bogor, km. 46 Cibinong, West
Java 16911, Indonesia; e-mail: wal_lizards@yahoo.com;
awal.riyanto@lipi.go.id; hkurniati@yahoo.com
Fig. 1. Map of Great Sunda, showing type localities of three new Chi-
romantis from Indonesia. Red circle indicate type locality of Chiro-
mantis trilaksonoi, blue circle indicate type locality of C. nauli, and
yellow circle indicate type locality of C. baladika.
skull; a horizontal pupil; digital disks with a circummar-
ginal groove and a transverse ventral groove; fingers I
and II nearly one-half webbed and opposing fingers III
and IV; and having toes at least three-quarters webbed
(Chan et al., 2011; Grismer et al., 2007).
Additionally, these frogs have a unique combination
of several morphological and color pattern characteristics
that clearly separate them from all other Asian Chiro-
mantis and we describe each of them as a new species.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Measurements were taken using digital calipers to
the nearest 0.1 mm (Table 1) following Grismer et al.
(2007) as follows: snout-vent length (SVL), taken from
the tip of the snout to the vent; head length (HL), taken
from the posterior margin of the angle of lower jaw to the
tip of the snout; head width (HW), taken immediately
posterior to the eyes; width of upper eyelid (ELW), mea-
sured from the medial base of the upper eyelid to the lat-
eral edge at its widest point; eye diameter (ED), the dis-
tance between the anterior and posterior corners of the
upper and lower eyelids; internarial distance (IND), the
minimum distance between the nostrils; interorbital dis-
tance (IOD), the distance across the top of the head be-
tween the medial margins of the orbits at their closest
points; snout length (SNL), measured from the anterior
corner of the eye where the upper and lower lids meet to
the tip of the snout; distance from the nostril to the eye
(DNE), taken from the anterior corner of the eye to the
posterior edge of the nostril; tympanum diameter (TD),
taken as the horizontal width of the tympanum at its wid-
est point; forelimb length (FLL), measured from the el-
bow to the tip of the third finger; hand length (HLT),
measured from the proximal edge of the palmar tubercle
to the tip of the third finger; thigh length (THL), mea-
sured from the center of the knee to the center of the hind
limb insertion; tibia length (TIL), measured from the cen-
ter of the knee to the center of the ankle; measured from
the proximal edge of the inner metatarsal tubercle to the
tip of the fourth toe (FL); width of the disk of the third
finger (3FDW); and width of the disk of the fourth toe
(4TDW).
We recorded the call of Chiromantis from Java under
natural conditions with an Sanyo MP3 digital stereo au-
dio recorder at 96 kHz/24 bit. We also recorded the call
of Philautus vitteger from mount Salak (Gunung Hali-
mun Salak National Park), West Java at the night when
was raining around 21.00. Unfortunately, the air tempera-
ture was not recorded. Recorded calls were analyzed us-
ing Adobe Audition version 3.0.
66 Awal Riyanto and Hellen Kurniati
TABLE 1. Selected Measurements (in mm) of Type Series
Character
Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov.
MZB.Amph.
Chiromantis
nauli sp. nov.
Chiromantis baladika sp. nov.
MZB.Amph.
17.932
(holotype) 17.933 17.934
MZB.Amph.
14.916
(holotype)
17.935
(holotype) 17.936 17.937 17.938 17.939
SVL 25.4 25.9 26.0 21.1 21.1 21.4 21.8 21.1 21.6
HL 7.9 8.7 8.1 7.6 7.9 7.4 8.1 8.2 7.9
HW 7.1 7.8 7.3 6.8 7.1 7.2 7.6 7.8 7.1
ELW 1.0 0.9 0.6 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9
ED 2.9 2.9 3.4 3.0 3.6 3.5 3.5 3.3 3.1
IND 2.1 2.4 1.9 2.0 2.3 2.4 2.1 2.2 2.2
IOD 2.6 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7 2.4 3.0 2.6 2.6
SNL 3.5 4.0 3.6 3.8 3.6 3.5 3.7 3.8 4.0
DNE 2.0 2.4 1.8 1.5 2.0 1.6 1.9 2.0 1.9
TD 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1
FLL 10.4 11.1 10.1 9.4 9.4 9.7 10.1 9.6 9.5
HLT 5.8 6.6 5.6 6.6 6.3 6.7 6.7 7.0 7.1
THL 12.2 11.5 11.2 10.4 9.9 10.0 11.2 10.3 9.8
TIL 13.3 13.5 13.0 10.3 10.7 10.2 11.3 11.1 10.2
FL 9.4 10.1 9.0 9.0 9.0 9.2 9.8 9.6 9.6
3FDW 1.3 1.0 1.1 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.6 1.3
4TDW 0.8 0.7 0.7 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.1 1.3 1.0
See Material and Methods for abbreviations. All specimens are males.
SYSTEMATICS
Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov.
(Figs.2–3)
Holotype. MZB.Amph.17.932 (field number
AR7023), an adult male, collected from Bantarjaya vil-
lage (Desa), Bancarbungur district (Kecamatan), Bogor
regency (Kabupaten), West Java province, Indonesia
(06°32¢00.6¢¢ S 106°44¢21.9¢¢ E; elevation 191 m) on
April 10, 2011, by Wahyu Trilaksono and Teja Lesmana.
Paratypes. Two males, MZB.Amph.17.933 and
17.934, collected from the type locality on April 20,
2011, by collectors of the type specimen.
Diagnosis. Small sized frog, SVL (25.4 – 26.0 mm),
skin smooth, head skin not co-ossified to the skull, pupil
horizontal, inner two fingers widely separated from outer
two fingers (opposable); digital disks with a circummar-
ginal and transverse ventral groove; white yellowish
patch on upper jaw beginning bellow middle portion of
eye and extending posterior to shoulder region.
Description of holotype. A male SVL is 25.4 mm;
body moderately slender; head wider than body, rela-
tively flat; HL slightly longer than HW, HL/HW ratio —
1.11; snout profile, longer than diameter of eye, SNL/ED
ratio — 1.21, sloping anteroventrally, slightly projecting
beyond mouth; canthus rostralis rounded, distinct; pupil
horizontal; loreal region vertical and concave; nostrils
near tip of snout, protuberant backward; internarial dis-
tance less than interorbital distance, IND/IOD ratio —
0.81; interorbital width greater than width of upper eye-
lid, IOD/ELW ratio — 2.6; eye large, protuberant,
ED/HL ratio — 0.37; tympanum distinct, subcircular,
TD/ED ratio — 0.55, bordered dorsally by weak
supratympanic fold; vomerine teeth absent; choanae
oval; tongue deeply notched posteriorly; single median
vocal sac; vocal slits placed on the floor of mouth also on
anterior both sides of jaw.
Forearm short, FLL/SVL ratio — 0.41; hand and
forearm relatively robust; fingers bearing expanded disks
with a circummarginal and transverse ventral groove, rel-
ative length III > IV > II > I; disk on third finger largest,
slightly less than width of tympanum, 3FDW/TD ratio
0.81; first and second fingers free of web, webbed be-
tween third and fourth fingers with formula III 0 – 2 IV;
inner two fingers widely separated from outer two fingers
(opposable); subarticular tubercles between penultimate
and adjoining proximal phalange well developed; skin of
ventral surface of hand composed of large, round tuber-
cles; inner and outer palmar tubercle present, very small;
a nuptial pad on inner surface of base of first finger.
Hind limb relatively long, TIL/SVL ratio — 0.52;
tibiotarsal articulation reached the snout when fully
stretched leg adpressed to body; toes webbed with for-
mula I 1 – 1.5 II 0 – 2 III 0.5 – 2 IV 1 – 0 V, relative
length IV > III > V > II > I; toes bearing expended disks
with circummarginal and transverse ventral groove;
subarticular tubercles well developed, oval; inner meta-
tarsal tubercle distinct; no outer metatarsal tubercle.
Dorsal surface smooth; ventral surfaces of belly com-
posed of large hexagonal, granules.
Coloration in life. Dorsal surface bright brown with
faint longitudinal stripes of darker brown; white yellow-
ish patch on upper jaw beginning below middle portion
of eye and extending posteriorly to shoulder region; ven-
tral surface of lower jaw yellowish; venter surface im-
maculate white, semi-transparent; limb bones and red-
dish blood vessel visible through skin on limbs; ventral
surface of toes disk slightly reddish.
Natural history. All specimens were collected from
18:00 to 21:00 on the paddy field when perched on paddy
plant.
Three New Species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia 67
Fig. 2. View in life from right side (A), and ventral view (B) holotype
of Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.17932).
Fig. 3. Ventral surface of right palmar (A) and right tarsal (B) of
holotype of Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.17932).
Scale bars are 5 mm.
Call. The calls of Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov.
consist of two types, i.e., short and long calls (Fig. 4A).
The short calls are a series of high pitched piping tones
that consists of 2 3 notes and call length varies from
4.4 sec for two note calls to 6.3 sec for three note calls.
Note duration varies from 9 to 16 msec (12.8 ± 2.4 msec;
n= 10) and internote interval ranges from 11 to15 msec
(12.5 ± 1.9 msec; n= 6). Fundamental frequency varies
from 4453 to 4536 Hz (4506.1 ± 49.7 Hz; n= 7) with
maximum fundamental spectrumf requency from 3000
to 5000 Hz.
The long calls are consist of 8 10 notes with call
length varies from 2.8 sec for eight note calls to 3.7 sec
for ten note calls. Notes duration varies from 4 to
10 msec and internote interval ranges from 25 to 58 msec
(31.9 ± 7.9 msec; n= 16). The fundamental frequency
of long calls varies from 3703 to 4771 Hz (4236.9 ±
249.8 Hz; n= 19) with maximum fundamental spectrum
frequency from 2500 to 5000 Hz.
Etymology. The specific epithet is in honor to our
technician who collected types and showed them to the
first author suggesting their undescribed status.
Comparison. Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp. nov. cur-
sory similar to the Philautus vittiger from Java but differs
in having head skin not co-ossified to the skull, inner two
fingers widely separated from outer two fingers (oppos-
able) and characteristic of advertisement call. The new
species has two call types versus single call type in P.
vittiger. The differences on characteristic advertisement
call C. trilaksonoi and P. vittiger are shown in Table 2
and Figs. 4 and 5.
As illustrated in Table 3, Chiromantis trilaksonoi
sp. nov. can be distinguished from all Asian Chiromantis
68 Awal Riyanto and Hellen Kurniati
Fig. 4. Comparison on oscillograms of call of Chiromantis trilaksonoi
sp. nov. and Philautus vittiger. Short and long call type of C. laksonoi
(A). Zoomed oscillogram of short call of C. laksonoi (B). Zoomed
oscillogram of long call of C. laksonoi (C). Oscillogram of call of
Philautus vittiger (D).
Fig. 5. Comparison on audiospectrograms of call of Chiromantis tri-
laksonoi sp. nov. and Philautus vittiger. Audiospectrogram of C. lakso-
noi (A). Audiospectrogram of P. vittiger (B).
TABLE 2. The Comparison on Characteristic of Advertisement Call between Chiromantis laksonoi sp. nov. and Philautus vittiger
Sound parameters Chiromantis laksonoi sp. nov. Philautus vittiger
Number of type call Two Single
Length of short calls, msec 9 – 16 (12.8 ± 2.4; n= 10) No
Length of long calls, msec 4 – 10 (12.8 ± 1.3; n= 18) 46 – 58 (54 ± 6.9: n=3)
Internote interval of short calls, msec 11 – 15 (12.5 ± 1.9; n=6) no
Internote interval of long calls, msec 25 – 58 (31.9 ±7.9; n= 16)
Fundamental frequency of short calls, Hz 4453 – 4546 (4506.1 ± 49.7; n=7) No
Fundamental frequency of long calls, Hz 3703 – 4771 (4236.9 ± 249.8; n= 19) 3046 – 3187 (3093 ± 81.4; n=3)
Maximum fundamental frequency spectrum of short calls, Hz 3000 – 5000 No
Maximum fundamental frequency spectrum of long calls, Hz 2500 – 5000 2000 – 3500
except C. nongkhorensis and C. samkosensis by having
white patch on side of upper jaw. It differs from these two
species by having a obtusely pointed snout.
Chiromantis trilaksonoi is distinguished from C. du-
dhwaensis,C. marginis,C. punctatus,C. shyamrupus,
C. vittatus, and C. baladika in lacking light dorsolateral
stripes. It differs from C. laevis,C. punctatus,C. shyam-
rupus,C. simus,C. nauli sp. nov., and C. baladika sp.
nov. by having dark postorbital stripes. Chiromantis tri-
laksonoi differs from C. laevis,C. marginis,C. nongkho-
rensis,C. vittatus, and C. baladika in lacking banding on
dorsal aspect of thighs. This new species lacks blotched
pattern on dorsum such as those found in C. inexpectatus,
C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis, and C. baladika. It differ
from C. laevis,C. marginis,C. punctatus,C. samkosen-
sis, and C. baladika in lacking small brown spots on
dorsum.
Chiromantis trilaksonoi has distinct tympanum,
which distinguishes it from C. marginis,C. punctatus,
and some specimens of C. vittatus. It has distinct canthus
rostralis, which is indistinct in C. punctatus and C. simus.
It is similar to all other Asian Chiromantis except
C. doriae in having external vocal sac. The presence of
inner metatarsal tubercle distinguishes C. trilaksonoi
from C. shyamrupus.
Chiromantis trilaksonoi can be further differentiated
from all Chiromantis except C. inexpectatus,C. marginis
and C. samkosensis by having web between third and
fourth fingers. It differs from C. doriae,C. nongkhoren-
sis,C. punctatus,C. vittatus,C. nauli sp. nov., and C. ba-
ladika sp. nov. in having disk of the third finger narrower
diameter of tympanum. It is similar to all other Asian
Chiromantis except C. laevis in having more intensive
webbing in toes. It is has obtusely pointed snout which
distinguishes it from C. doriae,C. inexpectatus,C. mar-
ginis,C. nongkhorensis,C. simus, and C. samkosensis.
Chiromantis trilaksonoi has smooth skin of dorsum,
it differs from C. nongkhorensis and C. simus which have
small tubercle skin and also from C. dudhwaensis which
has finely granular dorsum. Chiromantis trilaksonoi dif-
fers from C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis,
C. shyamrupus,C. simus, and C. vittatus in lacking dis-
tinct granular fold between eye and shoulder.
Three New Species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia 69
TABLE 3. Data Matrix of the Diagnostic Characters Separating the Asian Species of Chiromantis from Another
Character
doriae
dudhwaensis
inexpectatus
laevis
marginis
nongkhorensis
punctatus
shyamrupus
simus
vittatus
samkosensis
trilaksonoi sp. nov.
nauli sp. nov.
baladika sp. nov.
Sample size ***********315
Dark stripes on dorsum present (1) or absent (0) 110000011100,100
Light dorsolateral stripes present (1) or absent (0) 01001011010001
Dark postorbital stripe present (1) or absent (0) 11101100011100
Banding on dorsal aspect of thighs (1) or not (0) 00011100010001
Blotched pattern on dorsum (1) or not (0) 00101100000001
Small brown spots on dorsum (1) or not (0) 00111010001001
White patch on side of upper jaw (1) or not (0) 0#100100001100
Tympanum distinct (1) or indistinct (0) 1111010110,11111
Canthus rostralis distinct (1) or indistinct (0) 11111101011111
External vocal sac present (1) or absent (0) 011#111#111111
Inner metatarsal tubercle present (1) or absent (0) 11111110111111
3rd and 4th fingers 1/4 webbed (1) or less (0) 00101000001100
Disk on 3rd finger as large as tympanum (1) or not (0) 10000110010011
More (1) or less (0) than 1/3 webbing on toes 11101111111111
Snout obtusely pointed (1) or truncate (0) 01010011010111
Skin of dorsum smooth (1), with small tubercles (0), or finely granular (×) 1 × 111011011111
Glandular fold between eye and shoulder distinct (1) or faint (0) 00101101110000
Note. 1, present; 0, absent; #, character unobtainable from literature; *, literature reference are Grismer et al. (2007), Chan et al. (2011), and Matsui
et al. (2014).
Chiromantis nauli sp. nov.
(Figs. 6 and 7)
Holotype. MZB.Amph.14316 (FN HK 903), male,
collected from Teluk Nauli, Sibolga, North Sumatra
Province, Indonesia (1°04¢4.09¢¢ N 99°02¢2.15¢¢ E; eleva-
tion 950 m a.s.l.) on March 2004 by Hellen Kurniati.
Diagnosis. Small sized frog, SVL (21.1 mm),
smooth skin, head skin not co-ossified to the skull, hori-
zontal pupil, inner two fingers widely separated from
outer two fingers (opposable); digital disks with a cir-
cummarginal and transverse ventral groove; finger free
of web; dorsal without blotched pattern and no spots.
Description of holotype. Body moderate slime;
male SVL — 21.1; head wider than body, relatively flat;
HL rather longer than HW, HL/HW ratio — 1.12; snout
pointed in lateral profile, longer than diameter of eye,
SNL/ED ratio — 1.27, sloping anteroventrally, slightly
projecting beyond mouth; canthus rostralis rounded, dis-
tinct; pupil horizontal; loreal region vertical and concave;
nostrils near tip of snout, protuberant backward;
internarial distance less than interorbital distance,
IND/IOD ratio — 0.67; interorbital width greater than
width of upper eyelid, IOD/ELWratio — 2.14; eye large,
protuberant, ED/HL ratio — 0.39; tympanum distinct,
subcircular, TD/ED ratio — 0.47, bordered dorsally by
weak supratympanic fold; vomerine teeth absent; choa-
nae rounded; tongue attached anteriorly, deeply notched
posteriorly; single median vocal sac.
Forearm moderate in length, FLL/SVL ratio — 0.45;
hand and forearm relatively robust; fingers bearing
expanded disks with a circummarginal and transverse
ventral groove, relative length III > IV > II > I; disk on
third finger largest, relatively same to the width of tym-
panum, 3FDW/TD ratio — 1.07; fingers free of web;
inner two fingers widely separated from outer two fingers
(opposable); subarticular tubercle between penultimate
and adjoining proximal phalange well developed; skin of
ventral surface of hand composed of small, round tuber-
cles; inner and outer palmar tubercle absent; a nuptial pad
on inner surface of base of first finger.
Hind limb relatively short, TIL/SVL ratio — 0.49;
tibiotarsal articulation beyond snout when fully stretched
leg adpressed to body; toes webbed with formula I 1 – 1
II 0.5 – 1.5 III 0 – 1.5 IV1 – 0 V, relative length IV> V >
III > II > I; toes bearing expended disks with circummar-
ginal and transverse ventral groove; subarticular tu-
bercles well developed, oval; inner metatarsal tubercle
distinct; no outer metatarsal tubercle.
Coloration in life. Dorsal surface brown yellowish
without blotched pattern; ventral surface white yellowish
and tip of fingers and toes dark.
Natural history. The specimen was collected from
animal wallows in the secondary forest that previously as
selected logging area for ten years which had been
stopped since 2002.
Etymology. The specific epithet is in reference to the
type locality of Teluk Nauli in the Sibolga, North Suma-
tra Province, Indonesia.
Comparison. As illustrated in Table 3, Chiroman-
tis nauli sp. nov. can be distinguished from C. doriae,
C. dudhwaensis,C. shyamrupus,C. simus,C. vittatus,
and some specimens of C. trilaksonoi sp. nov. by lacking
of dark stripes on dorsum.
Chiromantis nauli lacks of light dorsolateral stripes,
which distinguishes it from C. dudhwaensis,C. marginis,
C. punctatus,C. shyamrupus,C. vittatus and C. baladika
sp. nov. It differs from C. doriae,C. dudhwaensis,C. in-
expectatus,C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis,C. vittatus,
C. samkosensis, and C. trilaksonoi in lacking dark post-
orbital stripe. It lacks banding on dorsal aspect of thighs,
70 Awal Riyanto and Hellen Kurniati
Fig. 6. View in life from left side (A), ventral view in preserved (B)
holotype of Chiromantis nauli sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.14916). Scale bar
is 5 mm.
Fig. 7. Ventral view of left palmar (A) and ventral view of right tarsal
(B) holotype of Chiromantis nauli sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.14916). Scale
bars are 5 mm.
which distinguishes it from C. laevis,C. marginis,
C. nongkhorensis,C. vittatus, and C. baladika. It differs
from C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis, and
C. baladika in lacking blotched pattern on dorsum. It dif-
fers from C. inexpectatus,C. laevis,C. marginis,
C. punctatus,C. samkosensis, and C. baladika in lacking
small brown spots on dorsum. Chiromantis nauli can be
distinguished from C. inexpectatus,C. nongkhorensis,
C. samkosensis, and C. trilaksonoi by lacking white
patch on side of upper jaw. It is similar to other Asian
Chiromantis except C. marginis,C. punctatus, and some
specimen of C. vittatus in having distinct tympanum.
It differs from C. punctatus and C. simus by having dis-
tinct canthus rostralis. It is similar to other Asian Chiro-
mantis except C. doriae in having external vocal sac.
It differs from C. shyamrupus in having inner metatarsal
tubercle. It differs from C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,
C. samkosensis, and C. trilaksonoi in lacking webbing on
fingers.
Chiromantis nauli can be distinguished from C. dud-
hwaensis C. inexpectatus,C. laevis,C. marginis,
C. shyamrupus,C. simus,C. samkosensis, and C. trilak-
sonoi by having disk on third finger as large as tympa-
num. It is similar to all other Asian Chiromantis except
C. laevis in having more intensive webbing on toes.
It differs from C. doriae,C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,
C. nongkhorensis,C. simus, and C. samkosensis in
having obtusely pointed snout. Chiromantis nauli has
smooth skin of dorsum, it differs from C. nongkhorensis
and C. simus which have small tubercle skin and also
from C. dudhwaensis which has finely granular dorsum.
It differs from C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis,C. shyam-
rupus,C. simus, and C. vittatus in lacking distinct granu-
lar fold between eye and shoulder.
Chiromantis baladika sp. nov.
(Figs. 8 and 9)
Holotype. MZB.Amph.17.935 (FN. HK77), male,
collected from West Sumatra Province (1°26¢15.3¢¢ S
101°31¢47.7¢¢ E; elevation 273 m a.s.l.) at temporary
pool in palm oil plantation in 2010 by Hellen Kurniati.
Paratype. Four males, MZB.Amph.17.936 – 17.939,
collected from the type locality on 2010 by collector of
the type specimen.
Diagnosis. Small sized frog, male SVL (21.1
21.8 mm), smooth skin, head skin not co-ossified to the
skull, horizontal pupil, inner two fingers widely sepa-
rated from outer two fingers (opposable); digital disks
with a circummarginal and transverse ventral groove;
white yellowish patch on upper jaw begins bellow middle
portion of eye and extends posterior to shoulder region.
Description of holotype. Body moderate slime;
male SVL — 21.1 mm; head wider than body, relatively
flat; HL rather longer than HW, HL/HW ratio — 1.11;
snout pointed in lateral profile, as long as diameter of
eye, SNL/ED ratio — 1.0, sloping anteroventrally,
slightly projecting beyond mouth; canthus rostralis
rounded, distinct; pupil horizontal; loreal region vertical
and concave; nostrils near tip of snout, protuberant back-
ward; internarial distance less than interorbital distance,
IND/IOD ratio — 0.85; interorbital width greater than
width of upper eyelid, IOD/ELWratio — 2.70; eye large,
protuberant, ED/HL ratio — 0.46; tympanum distinct,
subcircular, TD/ED ratio — 0.28, bordered dorsally by
weak supratympanic fold; vomerine teeth absent; choa-
nae rounded; tongue attached anteriorly, deeply notched
posteriorly; single median vocal sac.
Forearm moderate in length, FLL/SVL ratio — 0.45;
hand and forearm relatively robust; fingers bearing
expanded disks with a circummarginal and transverse
ventral groove, relative length III > IV > II > I; disk on
third finger largest, relatively same to the width of tym-
Three New Species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia 71
Fig. 8. View in life from left side (A) ventral view in preserved (B)
holotype of Chiromantis baladika sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.17932). Scale
bar is 5 mm.
Fig. 9. Ventral view of right palmar (A) and right tarsal (B) holotype
of Chiromantis baladika sp. nov. (MZB.Amph.17932). Scale bars are
5 mm.
panum, 3FDW/TD ratio — 1.20; fingers free of web;
inner two fingers widely separated from outer two fingers
(opposable); subarticular tubercle between penultimate
and adjoining proximal phalange well developed; skin of
ventral surface of hand composed of small, round tuber-
cles; inner and outer palmar tubercle absent; a nuptial pad
on inner surface of base of first finger.
Hind limb relatively short, TIL/SVL ratio — 0.51;
tibiotarsal articulation beyond snout when fully stretched
leg adpressed to body; toes webbed with formula I 0 – 1
II 0 – 1 III 0 – 1 IV 1 – 0 V, relative length IV > V > III >
II > I; toes bearing expended disks with circummarginal
and transverse ventral groove; subarticular tubercles well
developed, oval; inner metatarsal tubercle distinct; no
outer metatarsal tubercle.
Dorsal surface smooth; ventral surfaces composed of
large hexagonal, granules.
Coloration in life. Overall dorsum surface ground is
brown with dark brown and yellow blotched; a yellow
lined running from tip of snout to vent; surface of venter
and throat white; three dark bars on thigh.
Natural history. The specimens were collected on
the palm oil plantation.
Etymology. Term baladika (in Sanskrit) means
choosing the brave warriors for the defense of the coun-
try and nation.
Comparison. As illustrated in Table 3, This new
species can be distinguished from all Chiromantis except
C. marginis and C. nongkhorensis by having blotched
pattern on dorsum. Chiromantis baladika sp. nov. can be
distinguished from C. marginis by having combination
characters such as light dorsolateral stripes, fingers is
free of web, has distinct tympanum, the disk on third fin-
ger as large as tympanum, pointed snout obtusely, and
lack of distinct granular fold between eye and shoulder.
Moreover, the webbed formula on toes is different also
between C. baladika and C. marginis,I0–1II0–1III
0–1IV1–0Vvs.I1–2II1–2III1–2I-V2–1V.
Much characters of Chiromantis baladika are similar
to C. nauli sp. nov. except in the presence of light dorso-
lateral stripes, banding on dorsal aspect of thigh, blotched
pattern on dorsum and small brown spots on dorsal. Chi-
romantis baladika lack of dark stripes on dorsum such as
those present on C. doriae,C. dudhwaensis,C. shyamru-
pus,C. simus,C. vittatus and some specimens of C. tri-
laksonoi sp. nov.
Chiromantis baladika has light dorsolateral stripes,
which distinguishes it from C. doriae,C. inexpectatus,
C. laevis,C. nongkhorensis,C. simus,C. samkosensis,
C. trilaksonoi, and C. nauli. It differs from C. doriae,
C. dudhwaensis,C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,C. nong-
khorensis,C. vittatus,C. samkosensis, and C. trilaksonoi
in lacking dark postorbital stripe. It differs from C. do-
riae,C. dudhwaensis,C. inexpectatus,C. punctatus,
C. shyamrupus,C. simus,C. samkosensis,C. trilaksonoi,
and C. nauli in having band on dorsal aspect of thighs.
Chiromantis baladika can be distinguished from C.
doriae,C. dudhwaensis,C. nongkhorensis,C. shyamru-
pus,C. simus,C. vittatus,C. trilaksonoi and C. nauli by
having brown spots on dorsum. It differs from C. inexpe-
ctatus,C. nongkhorensis,C. samkosensis, and C. trilak-
sonoi in lacking white patch on side of upper jaw.
Chiromantis baladika has distinct tympanum which
indistinct in C. marginis,C. punctatus and some speci-
men of C. vittatus. It differs from C. punctatus and C. si-
mus in having distinct canthus rostralis. It is similar to all
other Asian Chiromantis except C. doriae in having
external vocal sac. It differs from C. shyamrupus in pres-
ence of inner metatarsal tubercle. It distinguishes from
C. inexpectatus,C. marginis,C. samkosensis and C. tri-
laksonoi in free of web on fingers. Chiromantis baladika
can be distinguished from C. dudhwaensis,C. inexpecta-
tus,C. laevis,C. marginis,C. shyamrupus,C. simus,
C. samkosensis, and C. trilaksonoi by having the disk on
third finger as large as tympanum. It is similar to all other
Asian Chiromantis except C. laevis in having intensive
webbing on toes. This new species has obtusely pointed
snout which distinguishes it from C. doriae,C. inex-
pectatus,C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis,C. simus, and
C. samkosensis.
Chiromantis baladika has smooth skin of dorsum, it
differs from C. nongkhorensis and C. simus which have
small tubercle skin and also from C. dudhwaensis which
has finely granular dorsum. It differs from C. inexpe-
ctatus,C. marginis,C. nongkhorensis,C. shyamrupus,
C. simus, and C. vittatus in lacking of distinct granular
fold between eye.
DISCUSSION
These three new species are the first Chiromantis
frog described from the Indonesian territory. Two new
species from Sumatra, Chiromantis nauli sp. nov. and
Chiromantis baladika sp. nov. are as a follow up of the
report of Kurniati (2011) which first reported the occur-
rence of the genus in Indonesia outside Borneo based on
the single specimen was collected from North Sumatra
and five specimens were collected from West Sumatra.
The other one from Java, Chiromantis trilaksonoi sp.
nov. was collected from anthropological habitation.
The findings of these new species are not really sur-
prising. Because Sumatra is the one of biggest islands in
Indonesia with a varied habitat types for herpetofauna
especially frog and the frog study in this island is still
lack. As for Java that was relatively well studied on
72 Awal Riyanto and Hellen Kurniati
herpetofauna, finding new species or at least new record
still open. In 2002, Mausfeld and Böhme described a new
skink, Eutropis macrophthalma and then Riyanto et al.
(2009), newly recorded Polypedates othilopus from the
island. Together to the new Cyrtodactilus (Riyanto et al.,
in prep.) and the suspected new Ptychozoon (Brown et
al., 2012), this discovery is complemented recent Javan
herpetological findings.
Acknowledgments. We thank Jimmy A. McGuire (Uni-
versity of California at Berkeley, USA) and Rafe Brown (Loui-
siana State University, USA) for first consultation in the discov-
ery, Amir Hamidy [Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense (MZB),
Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI — Indonesian
Institute of Sciences), Indonesia] for provided the useful paper
in Chiromantis. We thank to Irvan Sidik and Mumpuni Sancoyo
(MZB, LIPI, Indonesia) for collaboration and small discussion
in Museum Zoologicum Bogoriense, LIPI, Indonesia. Awal
Riyanto special thanks to Wahyu Trilaksono who collect the
Javan specimen. Hellen Kurniati thank to Hatfield that support-
ing fieldwork in Teluk Nauli, North Sumatra and Sophey
Persey and Anhar Harahap (Zoological Society of London, UK)
who support fieldwork in West Sumatra. We thank to Masafumi
Matsui for reviewing the manuscript.
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Three New Species of Chiromantis Peters 1854 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Indonesia 73
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... Gunung Muria is separated from Sumatera by ~ 580 km, Kalimantan by ~350 ROCK GECKO FROM JAVA, INDONESIA Zootaxa 4608 (1) © 2019 Magnolia Press · 171 km, and Belitung Island (the type locality of C. purnamai) by ~470 km. The African-Asian Frog genus Chiromantis also occurs in Java (Riyanto & Kurniati 2014;Wostl et al. 2017), as do other recently described reptiles and amphibians Hartmann et al. 2016;Kieckbusch et al. 2016;Wostl et al. 2017;Hamidy et al. 2018). These novelties have shown Java to be a more herpetologically interesting place than heretofore believed, even though it was believed to have been relatively well studied during the long history of exploration during the Dutch colonial period. ...
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We describe a new species of rock gecko of the genus Cnemaspis from Java, Indonesia, representing the first record of the genus for this Island. The new species was collected from the southern slopes of Gunung Muria, a dormant volcano in Central Java. The new species is easily distinguished from all congeners by having a maximum SVL of 58.1 mm in males and 56.9 mm in females; a pair of sharp conical tubercle clusters on the occiput; a warty bridge on the nuchal loop, extending from the upper tympanum and curving to the nape; dorsal tubercles not linearly arranged; 18–20 paravertebral tubercles; postmentals separated by one scale; gular, pectoral and abdominal scales, ventral scales of fore- and hindlimbs, and subcaudal scales keeled; no tubercles on lower flank; precloacal and femoral pores absent; enlarged submetacarpal scales present on the first digit of the manus; 38–40 ventral scales; 31–35 lamellae under fourth toe; two postcloacal tubercles on each side; enlarged median subcaudal scales row present; caudal tubercles encircling tail; and a sexually dimorphic ventral color pattern, with males having a yellow belly and females white and the ventral surface of the tail in males yellow proximally changing to white at mid-length, whereas in females, alternating black and white rings completely encircle the tail, which is black distally.
... Male (20) Female (6) Male (8) Female (5 Sumatra had been explored for its amphibian diversities for long decades, but new species are continuously discovered from this Island until now. At least two new endemic genera (Sigalegalephrynus and Sumaterana) and 14 species of frogs have been described from this island in the last five years (Matsui et al., 2014;Riyanto & Kurniati, 2014;Streicher et al., 2014;Hamidy & Kurniati, 2015;Smart et al., 2017;Wostl et al., 2017;Arifin et al., 2018aArifin et al., & 2018bMunir et al., 2018). The finding of Microhyla gadjahmadai sp. ...
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A new species of frog in the genus Microhyla is described from Sumatra, Indonesia based on molecular and morphological characters. This new species was previously confused with M. achatina, a Javan endemic. This new species is diagnosable from its congeners by possessing a medium size (SVL in adult males 18.20–21.32 mm, in adult females 20.37–25.51 mm), a stout body, a nostril–eyelid length being about half of the snout length, having a single outer palmar tubercle, a tibiotarsal articulation reaching the center of the eye (when the hindlimbs are stretched and adpressed to the body), having finger and toe tips dilated, having the dorsum with medial longitudinal grooves, and excibiting a very thin and short dark stripe on the temporal region above a wider cream stripe, extending from the postorbital area to insertion of forelimb. Additionally, the new species is characterized by possessing relatively little foot webbing. Uncorrected 16S rRNA sequence divergences between the new taxon and sequences for other congeneric species available ranged from 4.8 to 15.0%.
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A tiny new species of narrow-mouthed frog of the genus Microhyla is described from the island of Belitung and southeastern Sumatra, Indonesia. The most distinctive feature of the new frog is its diminutive adult size, snout-vent length ranging only from 12.3 to 15.8 mm in adult males. Phylogenetic analyses based a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, along with detailed morphological and acoustic comparison differentiate the new taxon from all known congeners. The new species, formally described as Microhyla sriwijaya sp. nov., is a member of the M. achatina species group and the sister taxon to M. orientalis. It is diagnosable from other congeners by a combination of characters: (1) smaller male snout-vent size < 16 mm; (2) snout obtusely rounded in dorsal view; (3) absence of mid-dorsal line and skin fold; (4) first finger reduced (finger I length less than half of finger II length); (5) dorsum with a prominent dark median mark extending posteriorly, narrow anteriorly near the level of the shoulder and expanding dorsolaterally up to the vent; margins of the dorsal marking concave with broad reddish-brown or orange colouration on either side; (6) foot webbing rudimentary, reaching just up to the first subarticular tubercle on all toes; (7) dorsal skin with prominent tubercles, especially in life; (8) tibiotarsal articulation of adpressed limb reaching beyond the snout tip; and (9) males produce a single type of call with pulsatile temporal structure, calls of relatively short duration ranging between 31.8–62.8 s, with two to three pulses delivered at a rate ranging between 32.2–36.0 pulses per second, and the mean overall dominant frequency of 4.3 kHz. The uncorrected pairwise genetic distances between Microhyla sriwijaya sp. nov. and all other known congeners are > 3.8% for the studied 16S gene fragment. The new species was discovered from wayside rural areas with oil palm plantations at four localities in the small island of Belitung (type locality), and from coffee plantation and secondary forest at Lampung in southeastern Sumatra. It is not known from any protected area and appears to be threatened due to tin mining activity, intensive logging, oil palm, and other commonly practiced agriculture activities.
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We investigated phylogenetic relationships among populations of two species within the genus Leptophryne, L. cruentata and L. borbonica, using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene. As a result, we identified two distinct lineages within populations currently considered Leptophryne cruentata: 1) a lineage containing L. cruentata from the type locality, and 2) a lineage from Mt. Slamet and Mt. Ciremai. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences, we describe the Mt. Slamet and Mt. Ciremai populations as a new species, L. javanica sp. nov. The new species is distinguished from L. cruen-tata and L. borbonica by the following combination of morphological characters: the presence of distinct yellow mottling on the dorsum; relatively small body size (SVL male 22.2-24.0 mm, female 29.6 mm); relatively short hindlimbs (HLL 37.0-40.9 mm); relatively short fourth toe (4ToeL 4.3-6.0 mm); basal webbing on the hands, but well developed on toes; very protruding snout and an indistinct tympanum. In our preliminary phylogenetic analysis, we also detected four distinct lineages within Leptophryne borbonica: 1) a lineage containing true L. borbonica from west Java, 2) a lineage from Lam-pung (Sumatra I), 3) a lineage from northern Borneo, and 4) a lineage from Bengkulu (Sumatra II). Further studies are needed to determine taxonomic status of these lineages.
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Buku Penemuan Spesies Baru ini merupakan rangkuman hasil penelitian yang dilakukan oleh para peneliti di Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia dalam mengungkap keanekaragaman hayati, baik fauna, flora maupun mikrob dalam kurun waktu lima tahun (2010–2014). Dalam buku ini tercatat sekitar 188 spesies baru yang terdiri dari: 110 fauna, 67 flora, dan 11 mikrob. Temuan spesies baru yang paling banyak dari kelompok fauna adalah spesies ikan (33 spesies), sedangkan dari flora adalah spesies Begonia (16 spesies). Adapun untuk kelompok mikrob yang paling banyak adalah spesies Actino¬mycetes (7 spesies).
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A seven week study of the Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java, Indonesia was conducted between July 29 and 17 September 1990. The purpose of the study was to compile an inventory of the reptile and amphibian species present in the National Park. 14 Anura, 16 Lacertilia, 17 Ophidian, 2 Testudinta and one Crocodile species were identified. Two Lacertilia, one Testudinata and 10 Ophidiasprecies are new record for the park. A tentative comparison was made between our result and a study of the region by Martens (1957) in 1955 and 1956. Management suggestion for the conservation of herpetofauna of Ujung Kulon National Park are discussed along with suggestion for further research.
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Riyanto A (2011) Herpetofaunal community structure and habitat associations in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 38-44. Community structure and habitat associations of amphibians and reptiles on both rainy and dry seasons of six habitat types of three sites in Gunung Ciremai National Park, West Java were investigated in March and October 2008. The data of herpetofauna was obtained by opportunistic searches. Herpetofaunal diversity for each habitat was determined by using Shannon Wiener index, the species abundance per unit area was calculated by using Margalef’s index, and the homogeneity of distribution of species in relation to other species in a sampled per unit area was evaluated using Evenness index. The similarity in herpetofauna communities among habitat types was determined using Sorensen’s coefficient, meanwhile the Jaccard’s index was used to estimate similarities in habitat utilization. Thus, both of community similarities and habitat utilization displayed in cluster dendrogram. A total of 46 amphibian and reptile taxa were recorded, comprising 16 anurans, 22 lizards and 8 snakes. Of the total taxa, four anurans are endemic and an unusual specimens probably new in sciences referred to the genus Cyrtodactylus and Eutropis. There were differed in sequential of biological indices among habitat types but not much different in their values. The result of cluster analysis showed different patterns on the community similarity among habitat type and habitat utilization during rainy and dry seasons.
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The frog family Rhacophoridae recently underwent notable reorganization and taxonomic rearrangement. Several new genera were erected to refect evolutionary history, including Ghatixalus, Gracixalus, Feihyla, Liuixalus and Raorchestes. Herein, we reviewed the systematics and phylogeny of the rhacophorids, the defnition of the family Rhacophoridae and its tribes, and the taxonomic history and diagnoses of the genera of this family. Also, we suggest future directions for research.
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A new species of the rhacophorid genus Chirixalus is described from western Myanmar. As with other members of Chirixalus, this species possesses a hand in which the two outer fingers oppose the inner fingers. This species differs from other members of this genus by a dorsal pattern of many dark brown spots on a lighter background of the head, trunk, and legs.
Book
All amphibians occuring on Java and Bali
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We record a tree frog of the genus Chiromantis for the first time from outside the Southeast Asian continent and describe it as a new species, Chiromantis inexpectatus. The new species from the Malaysian state of Sabah, Borneo, is a small-sized Chiromantis (male snout-vent length ca. 22 mm), and is distinguished from all other members of the genus by the combination of the following morphological characteristics: dark stripes absent, but dark spots present on dorsum; a dark-brown lateral band present from snout tip to half of body, bordered ventrally by white stripe; third and fourth fingers less than half webbed; third finger disk wider than tympanum diameter; and inner metatarsal tubercle present. Significance of findings of this species from Borneo Island, as well as phylogeny and breeding habit of the genus Chiromantis, are briefly discussed.
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A new species of rhacophorid frog of the genus Chiromantis is described from Phnom Samkos in the northwestern section of the Cardamom Mountains, Cambodia on the basis of having the following unique characteristics: green blood; turquoise bones; a thick, white line running from below the midsection of the eye onto the upper lip to the shoulder; and fingers III and IV being more than one-quarter webbed. It is further distinguished from its congeners by a unique combination of additional morphological and color pattern characteristics. This new species is the eighth potential endemic known from the Cardamom Mountains and underscores the need for continued field work in this remote section of Indochina.