Conference Paper

Direct or indirect sensor enabled eco-driving feedback: Which preference do corporate car drivers have?

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Conference Paper

Direct or indirect sensor enabled eco-driving feedback: Which preference do corporate car drivers have?

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Abstract

The increasing demand for energy is rapidly exhausting our planet's natural resources (e.g. fossil fuels). Corporations with increasingly large car fleets significantly contribute to the volume of CO2 emissions released into the atmosphere. Further investigation is needed to help reduce this escalation in global warming utilizing eco-friendly yet cost effective measures. Internet of Things solutions, using sensor enabled feedback technologies with GPS and accelerometer, offer a medium which provides drivers with eco-driving feedback services. A field-test with 50 corporate car drivers demonstrated an overall improvement in fuel efficiency, supporting literature findings claiming that direct feedback has a greater impact on energy savings than indirect feedback approaches. In this study monetary incentives were irrelevant, as corporate car drivers fuel costs are reimbursed by the company. This provides an attractive opportunity for corporations looking to reduce their CO2 footprint and petrol costs by offering their employees eco-driving applications at minimum costs.

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... Based on additional available information, drivers can adapt to their behavior. As different studies show, it is possible to reduce fuel consumption through feedback systems by between 1 and 7% on average (e.g., [5,6]). ...
... However, research has rarely considered mobile-only solutions for EDFIS. We have found only two corresponding contributions [5,19]. Indeed, mobile EDFIS can make an essential contribution to the avoidance of CO 2 emissions, especially in emerging trends such as car sharing [20]. ...
... Their mobile EDFIS provided eco-feedback about operational DB, such as acceleration or speed [14]. Furthermore, the authors derived that car drivers prefer direct feedback on operational DB during the trip instead of indirect feedback afterward [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emissions from road traffic contribute to climate change. One approach to reducing the carbon footprint is providing eco-driving feedback so that drivers adapt their driving style. Research about the impact of eco-feedback on energy consumption is the basis for designing a mobile eco-driving feedback information system that supports drivers in reducing fuel consumption. This work develops design knowledge from existing knowledge. Subsequently, we implement a prototypical instantiation based on the derived knowledge. Insights from a field study suggest that our design artifact allows most drivers to decrease fuel consumption by 4% on average. The paper’s theoretical contribution is a set of design principles and an architecture of the proposed mobile eco-driving feedback information system. One recommendation is to provide normative feedback that compares drivers with each other. This feedback appears to encourage drivers to decrease their fuel consumption additionally. The design knowledge may support researchers and practitioners in implementing efficient eco-driving feedback information systems.
... Based on additional available information, drivers can adapt to their behavior. As different studies show, it is possible to reduce fuel consumption through feedback systems by between 1% and 7% on average (e.g., Tulusan et al. 2012a;Boriboonsomsin et al. 2010). Current research strands in IS research aim at contributing to sustainability, one of which is IS for Environmental Sustainability (Melville 2010;Watson et al. 2010). ...
... However, research has rarely considered mobile-only solutions for EDFIS. We have found only two corresponding contributions (Tulusan et al. 2012a;Dahlinger et al. 2018). Indeed, mobile EDFIS can make an essential contribution to the avoidance of CO2 emissions, especially in emerging trends such as car sharing (Shaheen and Cohen 2013). ...
... Their mobile EDFIS provided eco-feedback about operational driving behavior, such as acceleration or speed (Tulusan et al. 2012b). Furthermore, the authors derived that car drivers prefer direct feedback on operational driving behavior during the trip instead of indirect feedback afterward (Tulusan et al. 2012a). Kurani et al. (2013) achieve similar fuel savings in a real-world scenario using a recording and display device. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Achieving a more sustainable lifestyle is one of the most important challenges of the 21st century. Sustainable development, therefore, is one of the key objectives also for industrial nations such as Germany. Sustainable development is defined as the "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs" (WCED 1987, Chapter 2). This development, however, is not only based on environmental dimensions but also on economic and social dimensions. These are known as the three pillars of sustainability. According to the Global Sustainable Development Report (Messerli et al. 2019), there are four levers of transformation being most important to achieve sustainable development, one of which is science and technology. Information systems (IS) research investigates the application of information technology in organizational settings (Hevner et al. 2004). IS research considers itself as a socio-technical discipline (Briggs et al. 2010), which should investigate IS-related issues along a social-technical continuum (Sarker et al. 2019). In recent times, the field is discussing more intensively the application of IS for sustainability purposes (e.g., Melville 2010; Watson et al. 2010; Henkel and Kranz 2018). However, IS scholars claim for more work to be done regarding sustainable development (Seidel et al. 2017; Gholami et al. 2016; Parmiggiani and Monteiro 2018) and to develop knowledge along the social-technical continuum (Sarker et al. 2019). For this reason, the aim of this dissertation is to develop knowledge for IS to achieve sustainable development from different socio-technical perspectives. Therefore, this work applies pluralistic methodological approaches (qualitative methods, e.g., semi-structured interviews, and quantitative methods, e.g., data collection from a field study or online experiments). The theoretical contribution of this dissertation expands existing design knowledge in the field of IS for sustainability. Following Gregor and Hevner (2013), design knowledge can be grouped into two types: descriptive and prescriptive knowledge. On the one hand, descriptive knowledge contributes to the knowledge about natural phenomena and the sense-making relationships between phenomena (what). Descriptive knowledge provides the scientific base for the world we live in. On the other hand, prescriptive knowledge contributes to the knowledge about man-made artifacts to improve our world (how). Design theories are an abstract and coherent body of knowledge, which include both types of knowledge (Gregor and Hevner 2013). Overall, this work takes three different perspectives to develop both types of knowledge: the socio-technical perspective, the sociocentric perspective, and the technocentric perspective. First, to contribute to the socio-technical perspective, this thesis presents new approaches to analyze and improve individual driving behavior in individual road traffic. Personal traffic accounts for approximately 11% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions globally (Andor et al. 2020). Environmental driving behavior, therein, has a significant impact on the fuel consumption of vehicles (Lárusdóttir and Ulfarsson 2014), and reductions of fuel consumption up to 30% are possible. One promising approach to improve individual driving behavior is the application of eco-feedback to the driver. Therefore, this thesis presents prescriptive knowledge in the form of design artifacts for mobile eco-driving feedback information systems (EDFIS), which results from justificatory knowledge, a prototypical instantiation of a mobile EDFIS, and its application within a field study. The results indicate that eco-feedback affects environmentally friendly driving behavior. However, eco-feedback seems not to address all aspects of eco-driving behavior. Nowadays, the Internet-of-Things (IoT) has reached cars, and ever more embedded sensors allow for rich data analysis of individual driving behavior. Therefore, this thesis presents a factor model describing IoT-measured individual driving behavior to handle the resulting amount of IoT-data and analyzes the effect of eco-feedback on individual driving behavior. Second, to contribute to the sociocentric perspective, this thesis presents design knowledge on how to design social media platforms in order to counteract so-called fake news. Such misleading information – which has always been a problem but has recently found nutritious ground in social media – poses a major threat. In recent times, fake news is spread to impact political decision-making and elections. However, fake news is not only a challenge for politics but also for ecologically and economically sustainable development. For instance, fake news is spread to influence financial markets in order to affect the financial value of stocks and options (Maasberg et al. 2018). Furthermore, fake news is a popular means to undermine climate change, which in reality requires significant changes in the individual and collective behavior of people (van der Linden et al. 2017). This thesis presents two new approaches to empower people individually to recognize and report misleading information to counteract the spread of fake news. Firstly, related articles are an appropriate tool to improve social media users' ability to recognize fake news as such. Especially, the application of controversial related articles shows the best results. Secondly, social norm messages are an appropriate tool to encourage social media users to report fake news. This allows social media providers to effectively identify and remove misleading and deceptive information from their platforms. To contribute to the third and last, technocentric perspective, this thesis presents a new approach to analyze and design lean, digitally supported value creation processes in companies and organizations. In the light of ever more connected entities and the diffusion of digital technologies, innovative information flows enable various potentials in value creation processes and allow minimizing waste. For instance, rich information availability allows production with fewer resources or the more accurate usage of perishable materials. The presented Value Stream Modeling and Notation (VSMN) constitutes a domain-specific modeling language, which supports designers of economically sustainable value creation processes in times of digitalization. For evaluation purposes, we present, among others, the results of the application of VSMN while designing lean material logistics processes in hospitals. The results also constitute prescriptive knowledge for material logistic processes in hospitals, which are more efficient due to the targeted use of digital technologies. To sum up, this dissertation presents design knowledge – including both types, descriptive and prescriptive knowledge – and contributes to the knowledge base about IS for sustainability (Gholami et al. 2016; Seidel et al. 2017; Parmiggiani and Monteiro 2018) and sustainable development (Messerli et al. 2019). In addition, the thesis develops design knowledge along the social-technical continuum (Sarker et al. 2019). Using methodological pluralistic (qualitative and quantitative) approaches allows an extension of the existing knowledge from different perspectives (Venkatesh et al. 2013). Overall, the results of this thesis contribute to overcoming one of the greatest challenges of mankind and the greatest challenge of the 21st century.
... Making consumption visible by giving real-time feedback was one of the strategies adopted by these researchers to impart awareness and change user behavior. Realtime energy consumption as number of kilowatts and amount of money was supplemented with more specific numbers such as kilograms of CO 2 generated [9,[13][14][15][16][17][18]. This numerical feedback was augmented with pictorial representations of real environmental changes such as the melting of iceberg, the changes in aquatic habitat and the depletion or growth of coral reefs to help users relate their consumption to environmental issues [19,20]. ...
... These studies focused on developing a positive attitude towards more sustainable modes of transportation. Eco-driving is also a part of sustainable transportation efforts to modify driving behavior, an area explored by Tulusan et al. [18], who studied the impact of DriveGreen, an eco-driving smartphone application, on changing driver behavior by providing real-time, cumulative and offline feedback. ...
... The mechanisms used for persuasion can be broadly categorized into android/mobile applications, social media based applications, persuasive games, ambient or interactive displays and persuasive robots. Mobile applications act as real-time portable feedback devices by providing ongoing notifications about the sustainability of various actions [18,27,30]. These applications can be combined with social media to increase the popularity of these technologies. ...
Article
Persuasive technology is the application of technology to change human behavior or attitude or both. As applied to sustainable Human Computer Interaction (HCI), it has been the focus of much recent research. To provide an understanding of scope of these studies, this article reviews the literature on this topic published between 2000 and 2016. It is limited to research articles providing an evaluation of persuasive technologies published in peer-reviewed publications and conference proceedings in environmental sustainability. Appropriate articles were found using the Web of Knowledge, PsycINFO, ASCE digital library and the ACM digital library, using combinations of keywords. Also included were articles meeting the inclusion criteria cited in the ones resulting from the initial search. In total, 38 articles were reviewed, of which 61% focused on electricity consumption issues, with the remaining investigating a variety of other sustainability issues. Further, the results from the analysis of these articles found that the duration of the studies was under one month for approximately half of them. The sample size of the 14 field tests involving families ranged from 1 households to 30, with 12 studies involving a sample size of less than or equal to 10. The sample size of the field studies involving individuals ranged from 4 to 651. The methodology of both field and lab studies collected quantitative (consumption and interaction data) and qualitative data (surveys, focus groups, interviews and observations). The results from these 38 articles found that behavioral changes were observed in 42% of the studies. In addition, of the 19 studies reporting an increase in awareness, 8 also reported a behavior change, suggesting a relationship between awareness and behavioral change. This review concludes that more research is needed, specifically the need to design interventions using a sociotechnical approach rather than focusing on individuals as the unit of analysis for design and evaluation. In addition, there is a need to expand the research beyond user considerations to include societal and political ones.
... As such, feedback intervention can be treated as a source of extrinsic motivation to enhance intrinsic motivation in teaching individual drivers when their performance has achieved a standard that is deserving of reinforcement (Warneken & Tomasello, 2008). For example, one study found that feedback intervention can improve fuel efficiency, even when financial rewards are not presented as an incentive (Tulusan et al., 2012). Both extrinsic and intrinsic motivation play an important role in influencing drivers to perform a more frequent eco-driving behavior. ...
... On the empirical side, the research will support the work of some researchers who have attempted to highlight driver response to feedback systems in encouraging eco-driving behavior Graving et al., 2010;Harvey et al., 2013;Jenness et al., 2009;Stillwater & Kurani, 2011;Tulusan et al., 2012). This research will provide an empirical investigation into the ways in which individual drivers respond to, perceive, and interact with various in-vehicle ecodriving feedback design attributes and systems using a larger survey sample. ...
Thesis
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The success of the change towards frequently undertaking eco-driving behavior is highly dependent on the individual drivers and appropriate in-vehicle feedback systems that drivers respond to. This work uses the data coming from 822 individuals who participated an online survey over a two-month period using 14 graphics of different types of in-vehicle eco-driving feedback interfaces and finds that researcher-identified eco-drivers are those ICEV drivers with strong environmental beliefs, and self-identified eco-drivers are those who have higher level of education, lower income, and strong environmental beliefs. This variation in researcher-identified and self-identified eco-drivers by demographics, vehicle characteristics, and motivational factors suggests an intention-behavior gap that self-identified eco-drivers are not those who are actually engaging in frequent eco-driving behaviors. Beyond the identification of eco-drivers, the use of in-vehicle eco-driving feedback itself plays an important role in encouraging eco-driving behavior. This work finds that eco-drivers are more likely than non-eco-drivers to be influenced by the use of eight different types of feedback. In the analyses of a causal chain leading from intentions to behavior, eco-driving intentions account for up to 22.4% of the variance in models explaining self-reported eco-driving behavior. The use of Biophilic Rewards and Eco-Driving Coach feedback types were found to play the most important role in motivating drivers to eco-drive. Ultimately, this research develops an integrated theoretical framework to better understand the role of the use of in-vehicle eco-driving feedback in encouraging eco-driving behavior. It posits that feedback design attributes are relevant in whether and how drivers perceive information and the impact on driver response towards frequent eco-driving behavior. It also provides direction for further research to expand on themes surrounding social norms, and a framework to undertake experimental fieldwork in the future.
... For example, Darby [2] described the utility of accumulated household energy consumption feedback for assessing long-term patterns and trends for large energy loads and the impact over time of equipment investments or other changes; whereas instantaneous data can reveal impacts of behavior with respect to smaller end-uses. In the context of eco-driving feedback, studies have shown instantaneous feedback (e.g., momentary fuel efficiency) is used primarily for experimentation and learning new behaviors, whereas accumulated feedback (e.g., average fuel-efficiency) is used primarily for goal-setting and assessing overall performance [39,40]. As mentioned later with regard to feedback standards, it is also useful to provide information at multiple time scales for comparison [25]. ...
Article
Eco-feedback is information about resource (energy, water, food) consumption provided back to consumer(s) with the goal of promoting more sustainable behavior. Effective eco-feedback relies upon an understanding of key eco-feedback design dimensions and how they relate to behavior change. This paper develops a conceptual framework that includes a typology of eco-feedback design dimensions and maps those dimensions on to the behavioral mechanisms of attention, learning, and motivation. To develop this framework, we synthesized, clarified, and expanded on previous discussions of eco-feedback design dimensions across multiple academic disciplines. Our analysis yielded three types of behaviorally-relevant eco-feedback design dimensions: information, timing, and display. Information dimensions include granularity, metrics, valence, and contextual information. Timing dimensions include latency, strategic timing, and frequency and duration. Display dimensions include medium, modality, style, location, audience, and response requirement. Each of these dimensions has implications for eco-feedback salience, precision, or meaning, qualities that correspond to the behavioral mechanisms of attention, motivation, and learning, respectively.
... Otras investigaciones en Europa han demostrado una mejora del 5% al 15% en la eficiencia de combustible, una vez que los conductores han asistido a un programa de formación de ecoconducción (Tulusan et at, 2012). ...
Chapter
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Las emisiones nocivas que provienen de los vehículos representan una de las principales fuentes de contaminación. El exceso de agentes contaminantes en la atmósfera es uno de los mayores problemas a los que nos enfrentamos en la actualidad. En este trabajo se estudia como representar el comportamiento de varios conductores de acuerdo a los estilos de conducción (ecológica, normal, agresiva) mediante lógica difusa y aplicaciones geoespaciales, para evaluar la eficiencia energética en un vehículo eléctrico. La metodología utilizada para representar los estilos de conducción, se basa en el uso de lógica difusa. En primer lugar, se determinó que variables afectan el consumo de energía del vehículo eléctrico, para utilizarlas como datos de entrada en el clasificador. Así mismo, se utilizó una aplicación geoespacial para representar en un mapa los datos obtenidos de los ensayos de conducción, lo que facilita su visualización. Finalmente, se presentan los resultados obtenidos en los ensayos de conducción en carreteras reales, y se concluye que modificando el estilo de conducción, el consumo de combustible y las emisiones asociadas al automóvil se pueden reducir hasta un 20% o más.
... Eco driving techniques designed to improve fuel economy vary from on-board trip computers to powertrain control solutions, and utilize the sensory information from sensors embedded within vehicle systems to monitor the in-vehicle or out-of-vehicle status [9,10]. These can be segmented into active or passive methods according to the level of vehicle controllability. ...
Article
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Energy efficiency enhancement has become an increasingly important issue for battery electric vehicles. Even if it can be improved in many ways, the driver's driving pattern strongly influences the battery energy consumption of a vehicle. In this paper, eco assist techniques to simply implement an energy-efficient driving assistant system are introduced, including eco guide, eco control and eco monitoring methods. The eco guide is provided to control the vehicle speed and accelerator pedal stroke, and eco control is suggested to limit the output power of the battery. For eco monitoring, the eco indicator and eco report are suggested to teach eco-friendly driving habits. The vehicle test, which is done in four ways, consists of federal test procedure (FTP)-75, new european driving cycle (NEDC), city and highway cycles, and visual feedback with audible warnings is provided to attract the driver's voluntary participation. The vehicle test result shows that the energy usage efficiency can be increased up to 19.41%.
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The transportation sector is recognized as one of the several sources of environmental problems produced by human activity in the U.S., according to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The U.S. plays an outsized role: research shows that 45% of the world’s automotive CO2 emissions come from automobiles in the U.S. Because of the pollutant emissions of internal combustion engines, the transportation sector is the main producer of greenhouse gas emissions. Researchers have considered technological solutions such as eco-driving to solve such problems. Eco-driving reduces excessive fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions by adjusting or enhancing drivers’ behaviors such as maintaining a steady speed, avoiding heavy acceleration and deceleration, anticipating the traffic flow ahead, and minimizing idling time. Several countries implemented eco-driving and demonstrated its efficient results; depending on the type of vehicle, the fuel consumption savings can be up to 30%. Implementing an eco-driving system that displays information such as average fuel efficiency and instantaneous acceleration results in a short-term reduction in fuel consumption. The result of a study using a driving simulator showed that faster but shorter acceleration/deceleration is more fuel-efficient than milder but longer acceleration/deceleration when compared over the same time span.
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Promoting eco-driving with battery electric vehicles (BEVs) can help drivers reduce their average energy consumption and enhance the driving range of a BEV. The present study examined the influence of three persuasive strategies (feedback regarding energy consumption, gamification, and financial rewards) compared to a baseline condition (no feedback or intervention) on the average BEV energy consumption under natural driving conditions. The influence of persuasive strategies on participants’ attitudes towards eco-driving, as well as self-reported eco-driving knowledge were investigated. The persuasive strategies were used over 22 months. 108 participants took part in the field study in Germany and used BEVs for their daily business travel. Energy consumption data was gathered via data loggers. Participants had unlimited access to their post-drive eco-driving feedback via a web application. The use of game design (i.e. gamification) elements and financial rewards significantly reduced energy consumption as compared to baseline or mere feedback regarding energy consumption. Participants showed a habituation to eco-driving after removal of the strategies. Driving experience with BEV and gamification predicted eco-driving knowledge. We found first evidence from a highly naturalistic field trial by providing driving data from a car sharing case study, improving on previous studies that mostly used laboratory settings or instructed driving. We expanded upon persuasion research, supporting the idea that gamification can be strongly relevant for energy saving behaviour.
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To change the driving behavior of mail-van drivers so as to encourage energy saving, a program was developed and implemented in the Netherlands Postal and Telecommunications Services (PTT). Based on empirical analysis, 3 approaches were used to influence driving behavior: providing information, providing task assignment and control, and providing feedback on gasoline consumption. The effectiveness of the program was tested in a field experiment. Attitudes, social norms, and reported behavior changed, and energy savings of more than 7% were achieved, compared with a control group. From an economic point of view, further implementation in the PTT organization could be attractive. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A driving simulator study was conducted to assess whether real-time feedback on a driver's state can influence the driver's interaction with in-vehicle information systems (IVIS). Previous studies have shown that IVIS tasks can undermine driver safety by increasing driver distraction. Thus, mitigating driver distraction using a feedback mechanism appears promising. This study was designed to test real-time feedback that alerts drivers based on their off-road eye glances. Feedback was displayed in two display locations (vehicle-centered, and IVIS-centered) to 16 young and 13 middle-aged drivers. Distraction was observed as problematic for both age groups with delayed responses to a lead vehicle-braking event as indicated by delayed accelerator releases. Significant benefits were not observed for braking and steering behavior for this experiment, but there was a significant change in drivers' interaction with IVIS. When given feedback on their distracted state, drivers looked at the in-vehicle display less frequently regardless of where feedback was displayed in the vehicle. This indicates that real-time feedback based on the driver state can positively alter driver's engagement in distracting activities, helping them attend better to the roadway.
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Computing devices and applications are now used beyond the desktop, in diverse environments, and this trend toward ubiquitous computing is accelerating. One challenge that remains in this emerging research field is the ability to enhance the behavior of any application by informing it of the context of its use. By context, we refer to any information that characterizes a situation related to the interaction between humans, applications and the surrounding environment. Context-aware applications promise richer and easier interaction, but the current state of research in this field is still far removed from that vision. This is due to three main problems: (1) the notion of context is still ill defined; (2) there is a lack of conceptual models and methods to help drive the design of context-aware applications; and (3) no tools are available to jump-start the development of context-aware applications. In this paper, we address these three problems in turn. We first define context, identify categories of contextual information, and characterize context-aware application behavior. Though the full impact of context-aware computing requires understanding very subtle and high-level notions of context, we are focusing our efforts on the pieces of context that can be inferred automatically from sensors in a physical environment. We then present a conceptual framework that separates the acquisition and representation of context from the delivery and reaction to context by a contextaware application. We have built a toolkit, the Context Toolkit, that instantiates this conceptual framework and supports the rapid development of a rich space of context-aware applications. We illustrate the usefulness of the conceptual framework by describing a number of contextaware applications that h...
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Im Markt der automobilen Finanzdienstleistungen nehmen die herstellerverbundenen Automobilbanken eine führende Stellung ein. Mit innovativen Finanzierungskonzepten rund um das Auto greifen sie Kundenwünsche auf und stärken die Loyalität der Kunden zu den Fahrzeugmarken ihrer Konzerne. Sie stabilisieren den Fahrzeugverkauf und schaffen zusätzliche Erträge für Hersteller und Autohandel. Dank ihrer Produkt- und Prozesskompetenzen entwickeln sich die Autobanken von reinen Absatzfinanzierern zu Anbietern von integrierten Mobilitätslösungen. Die Autoren zeigen praxisnah und anschaulich, wie das Geschäft der Autobanken funktioniert: Welche Produkte und Dienstleistungen werden angeboten? Was sind die besonderen Rahmenbedingungen dieses Geschäftes? Warum sind die Autobanken erfolgreich? Die vielschichtigen Beiträge unterstreichen die Bedeutung der Autobanken für die automobile Wertschöpfungskette auch in der aktuellen Wirtschaftskrise.
Book
Handbuch Automobilbanken „Tempora mutantur“ – die Zeiten ändern sich und mit ihnen das Geschäftsmodell der Autobanken. Stand die erste Auflage dieses Handbuches für Autobanken noch im Zeichen der globalen Finanz- und Wirtschaftskrise, so hat sich in den vergangenen fünf Jahren die Rolle der herstellerverbundenen Institute verändert und sie ist weiter gewachsen. Die Suchmaschine Google weist unter dem Stichwort „automobile Finanzdienstleistung“ aktuell 1.600.000 Einträge aus, ein Plus von 320 Prozent gegenüber den 500.000 Einträgen im Jahr 2009. Die Entwicklung der Autobanken wird von drei Megatrends getrieben: Consumer Behaviour, Digitalisierung und Regulierung. Die Auswirkungen der Veränderungen im wirtschaftlichen, technologischen, finanziellen und regulatorischen Umfeld auf das Geschäftsmodell der Autobanken fließen in diese zweite Auflage ein. Die Erstauflage wurde daher vollständig überarbeitet und durch neue Beiträge ergänzt. Dies gibt dem Leser einen aktuellen und umfassenden Einblick in das operative Wirkungsfeld der Autobanken und einen Ausblick auf ihre strategischen Herausforderungen. Der Inhalt • Das Marktumfeld der automobilen Finanzdienstleistung • Die Fahrzeugfinanzierung als Mittel der Kundenbindung • Das Leistungsangebot der Autobanken • Erfolgsfaktoren im operativen Geschäft • Perspektiven für das strategische Management Der Herausgeber Dr. Frank Stenner war von 1992 bis 2004 Vorsitzender der Geschäftsführung der BMW Bank. Von 2005 bis 2006 leitete er das Konzerntreasury der BMW Group. Dr. Stenner arbeitet seit 2010 als Autor, Berater und Dozent. Im Jahr 2012 wurde er von der Hochschule für Wirtschaft und Umwelt Nürtingen-Geislingen auf eine Gastprofessur berufen.
Article
The personal transport sector constitutes an important target of energy conservation and emission reduction programs. In this context, eco-feedback technologies that provide information on the driving behavior have shown to be an effective means to stimulate changes in driving in favor of both, reduced costs and environmental impact. This study extends the literature on eco-feedback technologies as it demonstrates that a smartphone application can improve fuel efficiency even under conditions where monetary incentives are not given, i.e. where the drivers do not pay for fuel. The field test, which took place with 50 corporate car drivers, demonstrates an improvement in the overall fuel efficiency by 3.23%. The theoretical contribution underlines the assumption that context-related feedback can favorably influence behavior even without direct financial benefits for the agent. Given the large share of corporate cars, findings are also of high practical importance and motivate future research on eco-driving feedback technologies.
Chapter
This chapter deals with the ethics of persuasive technology. Ethical issues are especially prominent when computer technology uses novelty as a distraction to increase persuasion. When dealing with a novel experience, people not only lack expertise but they are distracted by the experience, which impedes their ability to focus on the content presented. Being in a novel situation can make people more vulnerable because they are distracted by the newness or complexity of the interaction. When it comes to persuasion, computers also benefit from their traditional reputation of being intelligent and fair, making them seem credible sources of information and advice. Another advantage of computers is persistence. Unlike human persuaders, computers don't get tired; they can implement their persuasive strategies over and over.
Article
Among several strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles, “eco-driving†is one that had not received much attention in the United States (U.S.) until recently. The core of eco-driving programs is to provide drivers with a variety of advice and feedback to minimize fuel consumption while driving. The advice and feedback can be provided through various means including website or brochure, class or training, and in-vehicle driving aids. This study evaluated how an on-board eco-driving device that provides instantaneous fuel economy feedback affects driving behaviors, and consequently fuel economy, of gasoline-engine vehicle drivers in the U.S. under real-world driving conditions. The results from 20 samples of drivers in Southern California show that on average the fuel economy on city streets improves by 6% while the fuel economy on highways improves by 1%. According to responses to the questionnaire at the end of the study period, this group of drivers is willing to adopt eco-driving practices in the near future (mean score of 7.4 out of 10). In fact, 40% of them have already practiced ecodriving, and that penetration rate could go up to 95% if the gasoline price increases to $4.4 per gallon.
Article
An effective way to reduce fuel consumption in the short run is to induce a change in driver behaviour. If drivers are prepared to change their driving habits they can complete the same journeys within similar travel times, but using significantly less fuel. In this paper, a prototype fuel-efficiency support tool is presented which helps drivers make the necessary behavioural adjustments.The support tool includes a normative model that back-calculates the minimal fuel consumption for manoeuvres carried out. If actual fuel consumption deviates from this optimum, the support tool presents advice to the driver on how to change his or her behaviour. To take account of the temporal nature of the driving task, advice is generated at two levels: tactical and strategic.Evaluation of the new support tool by means of a driving simulator experiment revealed that drivers were able to reduce overall fuel consumption by 16% compared with ‘normal driving’. The same drivers were only able to achieve a reduction of 9% when asked to drive fuel efficiently without support; thus, the tool gave an additional reduction of 7%. Within a simulated urban environment, the additional reduction yielded by the support tool rose to 14%. The new support tool was also evaluated with regard to secondary effects.
Article
The differential effects of two forms of feedback on energy consumption behaviour were examined in two units of a metallurgical company. In one unit, employees received information about energy conservation, had to set goals and received feedback on their own conservation behaviour. The same procedure was followed with employees in a second unit, but they also received information about the performance of the first unit. In accordance with predictions from social identity theory and social comparison theory, the results clearly showed that employees in the comparative feedback condition saved more energy than employees who only received information about their own performance, even half a year after the intervention. A remarkable finding was that behavioural change took place with hardly any changes in attitudes or intentions. The discussion focuses on these findings and on their implications for organizational behaviour change in general.
Article
This paper presents results from a study conducted between 2000 and 2002 by the Swedish National Road Administration, MTC and later also TFK to improve the knowledge of the impact the economical driving concept EcoDriving has on emissions. In the study 86 persons, half of these earlier trained in EcoDriving, drove on a route in real traffic with two instrumented cars. Driving patterns and fuel consumption were measured on road. Emissions were measured on dynamometer for complete cycles. The results show no significant differences in emissions between trained and untrained drivers except for CO2. Drivers trained in EcoDriving who in the enquiry stated that they regularly check their fuel consumption and therefore have a motivation for driving economically had lower fuel consumption compared to other trained and untrained drivers. This result shows that both training and motivation is needed to achieve low fuel consumption. Keys-words: ecodriving, ecodrive, driving style, emissions, fuel consumption
Article
It is widely recognized that communications that activate social norms can be effective in producing societally beneficial conduct. Not so well recognized are the circumstances under which normative information can backfire to produce the opposite of what a communicator intends. There is an understandable, but misguided, tendency to try to mobilize action against a problem by depicting it as regrettably frequent. Information campaigns emphasize that alcohol and drug use is intolerably high, that adolescent suicide rates are alarming, and—most relevant to this article—that rampant polluters are spoiling the environment. Although these claims may be both true and well intentioned, the campaigns' creators have missed something critically important: Within the statement “Many people are doing this undesirable thing” lurks the powerful and undercutting normative message “Many people are doing this.” Only by aligning descriptive norms (what people typically do) with injunctive norms (what people typically approve or disapprove) can one optimize the power of normative appeals. Communicators who fail to recognize the distinction between these two types of norms imperil their persuasive efforts.
Article
The following conditions were successively instituted on an experimental bus (the 11:00 AM–2:00 PM daily operation of a campus bus): baseline, VR-3 token reinforcement (every 3rd passenger, on the average, received a token worth about 10 cents for boarding the bus), continuous token reinforcement (every passenger received a token), VR-3 token reinforcement, and baseline. Compared to the experimental controls, experimental bus ridership increased significantly during token reinforcement manipulations. There was no difference in the effects of VR-3 and continuous token reinforcement. Results suggest that compared to continuous token reinforcement, intermittent token reinforcement may provide a viable and economical appproach to increasing bus ridership. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Outlines some of the advantages of an integration of psychological (social-learning) and economic conceptualizations when developing behavioral interventions in resource conservation. The procedures and results of rebate studies in residential energy and water conservation are presented in which rebates were used as a method to modify conservation behaviors and to estimate experimental price elasticity in contrast to the usual econometric methods. A meta-analysis is performed on behavioral energy studies conducted from 1973 to 1980, which shows that the effectiveness of rebates and feedback is partially explained by an economic factor. Also reviewed are field-based studies designed to modify perceptions of comfort and residential energy conservation in addition to the development of a rebate system instituted to reduce domestic water consumption. Maximization theory is offered as an integrative, conceptual framework that may be useful for planning resource conservation interventions. (49 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Can computers change what you think and do? Can they motivate you to stop smoking, persuade you to buy insurance, or convince you to join the Army? "Yes, they can," says Dr. B.J. Fogg, director of the Persuasive Technology Lab at Stanford University. Fogg has coined the phrase "Captology"(an acronym for computers as persuasive technologies) to capture the domain of research, design, and applications of persuasive computers.In this thought-provoking book, based on nine years of research in captology, Dr. Fogg reveals how Web sites, software applications, and mobile devices can be used to change peoples attitudes and behavior. Technology designers, marketers, researchers, consumers-anyone who wants to leverage or simply understand the persuasive power of interactive technology-will appreciate the compelling insights and illuminating examples found inside. Persuasive technology can be controversial-and it should be. Who will wield this power of digital influence? And to what end? Now is the time to survey the issues and explore the principles of persuasive technology, and B.J. Fogg has written this book to be your guide.
Article
A feedback programme was employed to help drivers improve their safety behaviour based on the idea that particular types of driver error result from contingency traps as defined by Fuller [Journal of Applied Behaviour Analysis, 24 (1991) 73]. Two drivers and their single respective passengers participated. For each driver, repeated in-car observations were made of four unsafe driving behaviours. Two of these were sequentially targeted in the behavioural intervention that involved the passengers providing informational feedback to their driver. Both drivers showed a marked improvement across the targeted behaviours. The study demonstrated the applicability of behaviour analysis to the traffic domain and the efficacy of individual feedback as a behavioural tool for positive behaviour modification.
Conference Paper
This paper presents a Cloud-based system computing customized and practically fast driving routes for an end user using (historical and real-time) traffic conditions and driver behavior. In this system, GPS-equipped taxicabs are employed as mobile sensors constantly probing the traffic rhythm of a city and taxi drivers'intelligence in choosing driving directions in the physical world. Meanwhile, a Cloud aggregates and mines the information from these taxis and other sources from the Internet, like Web maps and weather forecast. The Cloud builds a model incorporating day of the week, time of day, weather conditions, and individual driving strategies (both of the taxi drivers and of the end user for whom the route is being computed). Using this model, our system predicts the traffic conditions of a future time (when the computed route is actually driven) and performs a self-adaptive driving direction service for a particular user. This service gradually learns a user's driving behavior from the user's GPS logs and customizes the fastest route for the user with the help of the Cloud. We evaluate our service using a real-world dataset generated by over 33,000 taxis over a period of 3 months in Beijing. As a result, our service accurately estimates the travel time of a route for a user; hence finding the fastest route customized for the user.
Conference Paper
This paper describes the design and evaluation on the road of a context aware driving advisor designed to promote better driving behavior. CarCOACH takes the information gathered from various sensors in the car and identifies common driving mistakes to appropriately commenting on driving behavior. The system presents scheduled feedback controlled in terms of quantity of total feedback and feedback with regards to a specific stimulus, and driver current state. Its goal is to reduce driver's stress while maximizing the effectiveness of the feedback presented.
Conference Paper
The advent of second-generation intelligent computer tutors raises an important instructional design question: when should tutorial advice be presented in problem solving? This paper examines four feedback conditions in the ACT Programming Tutor. Three versions offer the student different levels of control over error feedback and correction: (a) immediate feedback and immediate error correction; (b) immediate error flagging and student control of error correction; (c) feedback on demand and student control of error correction. A fourth, No-tutor condition offers no stepby-step problem solving support. The immediate feedback group with greatest tutor control of problem solving yielded the most efficient learning. These students completed the tutor problems fastest, and the three tutor-supported groups performed equivalently on tests. Questionnaires revealed little student preference among the four conditions. These results suggest that students will need explicit guidance to benefit from learning opportunities that arise when they have greater control over tutorial assistance.
Article
In response to threats posed to the future supply of energy and to the environment, the G8 leaders, in Gleneagles, UK in 2005, agreed to an initiative called the Gleneagles Plan of Action (GPOA) which addresses climate change, clean energy and sustainable development. In the GPOA, G8 leaders pledged to encourage the development of cleaner, more efficient and lower-emitting vehicles, and to promote their deployment by, among other means, asking the IEA to review existing standards and codes for vehicle efficiency and to identify best practices. In order to properly response to the above-mentioned requests from G8 leaders, the IEA has launched, among other activities, study on policies for "transforming the way we use energy" focusing on end-use efficiency including the one in transport sector and made a comprehensive response to the GPOA at the 2008 G8 Summit Meeting in Japan with 25 recommendations on energy efficiency. Regarding these recommendations, the G8 leaders have proclaimed, in the G8 Hokkaido Toyako Summit Leaders Declaration, that they would maximize implementation of the IEA's 25 recommendations. This paper summarizes the IEA activities in transport sector regarding the GPOA and their findings and recommendations.
Article
The development and manufacture of hybrid vehicles, which combine a conventional engine, and a battery-powered electric motor to achieve improved fuel economy and performance, are discussed. A full-fledged hybrid car, such as a Toyota Prius travels twice the distance that of an average American car on a gallon of gas. A full-fledged hybrid vehicle provides fuel economy of 60 percent, which is achieved from regenerative braking, that captures as electrical power much of the energy lost as frictional heat. Another benefit of the hybrid vehicles is that the efficient use of gasoline results in lower emissions of carbon dioxide, which is the primary greenhouse gas.
Article
The extant literature on goal setting through 1990 has been reviewed and integrated by Locke and Latham (1990a). The result was the development of a theory of goal setting with special emphasis on its practical implications for the motivation of employees in organizational settings. The purpose of the present paper is twofold. First, the theory is summarized and updated with respect to research completed since publication of the 1990 book. Second, the self-regulatory effects of goal setting are described. Emphasis is given to ways that people can use goals as a self-management technique.
Energy: Energy Efficiency Directive - European commission
  • European Commission
Ford SmartGauge: Designing an Extra 9 MPG?
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D. Formosa, "Ford SmartGauge: Designing an Extra 9 MPG?", 2009.
Is Safe Driving More Economical? Driver Safety and Fuel Consumption
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GreenRoad, "Is Safe Driving More Economical? Driver Safety and Fuel Consumption," 2008 [online].
Fleetcar management in German companies. Fuhrparkmanagement in deutschen Unternehmen
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Dataforce, "Fleetcar management in German companies. Fuhrparkmanagement in deutschen Unternehmen," 2011, [online].
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Impact of EcoDriving on emissions. Transport and Air Pollution
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H. Johansson, P. Gustafsson, M. Henke, and M. Rosengren, "Impact of EcoDriving on emissions. Transport and Air Pollution," Proceedings from the 12 th Symposium, 2003, pp. 97-105.