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Understanding the internal processes of behavioral engagement in a national park: A latent variable path analysis of the value-belief-norm theory

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Theoretical advances in research on the antecedents of human behavior have offered promising explanations for why people choose to undertake environmentally friendly action. This investigation provides further insight on the psychological processes driving self-reported behavioral engagement among visitors to Channel Islands National Park in the United States. We used latent variable structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized structure stipulated by the value-belief-norm (VBN) theory of environmentalism. Biospheric-altruistic values geared toward non-human species and concern for other people positively predicted environmental worldview and pro-environmental behavior, whereas egoistic values negatively influenced moral norm activation. Consistent with previous research, findings also showed that belief structures and personal moral norms gave rise to conservation behaviors reported by visitors to the park.
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... A large body of literature has examined the prevalence and psychological drivers of various pro-environmental behaviour (Dresner et al., 2015;López-Mosquera & Sánchez, 2012), such as sustainable consumption and behaviours Ding et al., 2019;Klöckner, 2013;Li et al., 2020;Peattie, 2010;Wang et al., 2020;Wang et al., 2021) and behaviours of engaging with a national park (e.g. volunteering in parks) (van Riper & Kyle, 2014). Understanding the psychological factors motivating pro-environmental behaviour can be complex. ...
... Halpenny (2010) demonstrates that place attachment to a national park was positively related to pro-environmental behaviour. van Riper and Kyle (2014) found that personal norms concerning a national park are positively linked with pro-environmental behaviour affecting the park, such as volunteering for the park and reducing invasive species. Whitburn et al. (2019) show that participating in tree planting is positively associated with pro-environmental behaviour. ...
... A five-point Likert scale (1: strongly disagree-5: strongly agree) was used to measure this construct. Items for altruistic, biospheric, and egoistic values were adopted from several studies in the literature (Landon et al., 2018;Stern et al., 1999;van Riper & Kyle, 2014). These value-related constructs were measured in a fivepoint Likert scale (1: not at all important-5: extremely important). ...
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Urban nature is widely recognized to be vital for sustainable urban development due to its wide range of benefits to urban residents. One of these benefits is urban nature’s contribution to promoting pro-environmental behaviour. This behaviour can reduce individual consumption, thereby decreasing the overall ecological footprint of urban areas. However, there is limited empirical evidence for a link between urban nature and pro-environmental behaviour. To test this link, we apply the value-belief-norm theory by examining the relationship between learning in urban nature and environmental values among Singaporean residents (n = 1,500). Our findings showed that learning in urban nature affected biospheric values and personal norms of the public. In turn, these values and norms promoted the public’s support for certified timber products, organic products, and boycotts of non-sustainable products. Relational values also supported these impacts. These benefits indicate an urban ecosystem service transcending city boundaries as urban nature in one region can support reducing an ecological footprint in other regions. These study findings may contribute to finding a contribution of urban nature as a nature-based approach to encouraging sustainable consumption, and a role of relational values in promoting pro-environmental behaviour.
... More importantly, various online virtual communities have been valuable sources of information for sustainable behavioral change [23]. A study identified that social media UGC positively and significantly affects the image of a destination, as well as attitudes, and the intention to visit said destination [24,42]. Another paper explored and compared the way social media is used in promoting responsible travel behavior and how sustainable actions influence community awareness [14]. ...
... From a technical perspective, active and ambitious tourists, with their aspirations and requirements for customized and sustainable experiences, might be co-creators of experience and co-managers of tourism resources. Previous studies examined how an effective social media conversation can promote an agenda for sustainable consumption awareness and practices into online lifestyles [42]. The findings of one such study revealed that online information was more convincing than that provided by tour operators [45]. ...
... From a hypothetical relationship analysis, this study proposed that social media UGC has a significant impact on shaping their responsible environmental behavior towards coastal tourism. Several studies have focused on how the engagement of social media influences the environmentalist ideological activity of an individual and put their contributions into social change towards sustainable practice [34,41,42]. We consider our study's most interesting contribution to be the association between cognitive and affective triggers of UGC with mediating variables, namely environmental awareness and environmental concern. ...
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There has been increasing interest in coastal tourism, sparking a debate on the responsible environmental behavior of travelers visiting sustainable destinations. To mitigate this issue, destination marketing organizations (DMOs) and environmental activists are trying to develop strategic approaches (i.e., by using digital technologies) to enhance the sustainable behavior of travelers. Environmental responsiveness and its impact on sustainable destinations is gaining attention by companies, scholars, and institutions. However, the relevant literature has not addressed social media user-generated content regarding sustainable destinations. Sharing stakeholder knowledge, activities, and experience on social media could accomplish this goal. Hence, this paper aims to explore travelers′ responsible environmental behavior towards coastal tourism within the social media user-generated content paradigm. To measure the effect of user-generated content (UGC), i.e., cognitive triggers and affective triggers, on the responsible environmental behavior of travelers, a survey questionnaire was used to collect data (n = 506) from the world’s longest sandy sea beach, Cox’s Bazar, located in the Southern part of Bangladesh. The data were examined by structural equation modeling (SEM). The results revealed that cognitive and affective triggers of user-generated content influence travelers’ environmental concerns and attitudes, making a significant contribution to shaping responsible environmental behavior. Additionally, the findings show that environmental concerns and attitudes play a significant role in producing commitment towards a sustainable coastal tourism practice. This study contributes to the effectiveness of user-generated content for persuasive interactions with destination marketing organizations to develop sustainable tourism practices.
... These actions, ranging from recycling at home to voting for an environmental party, span multiple behavioral domains (Larson, Stedman, Cooper, & Decker, 2015) that may influence the trajectory of human-environment interactions in the future. In light of these complexities, researchers have sought to improve measurement of psychometric scales by identifying the classes of pro-environmental behaviors with similar feasibility (Halpenny, 2010) and ensuring survey items are tailored to specific resource management contexts (van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
... Previous research has suggested there are multiple dimensions of pro-environmental behavior, depending on the domain and extent of impacts (Steg, Bolderdijk, Keizer, & Perlaviciute, 2014;Stern, 2000). While some researchers have measured pro-environmental behavior using unidimensional typologies (e.g., Kaiser, 1998;van Riper & Kyle, 2014), others have followed Stern's (2000) classification of behavior including activist and non-activist actions that span public and private spheres. Drawing on this latter perspective, scholars have argued that pro-environmental behavior can be conceptualized in terms of conservation lifestyles, social environmentalism, environmental citizenship, and land stewardship (Larson et al., 2015), as well as public, private, and social stewardship (van Riper, Browning, et al., 2019). ...
... Previous research has argued that values can directly predict behaviors that promote environmental sustainability (Karp, 1996;van Riper, Winkler-Schor, et al., 2019) or indirectly affect behavior when mediated by other psychological factors such as personal norms (Han, 2015;Nordlund & Garvill, 2003). This tripartite model of the value basis for explaining pro-environmental behavior has been validated in a wide array of research contexts (Han, 2015;Obeng & Aguilar, 2018;Poortinga et al., 2004;Steg & Vlek, 2009;van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
... These actions, ranging from recycling at home to voting for an environmental party, span multiple behavioral domains (Larson, Stedman, Cooper, & Decker, 2015) that may influence the trajectory of human-environment interactions in the future. In light of these complexities, researchers have sought to improve measurement of psychometric scales by identifying the classes of pro-environmental behaviors with similar feasibility (Halpenny, 2010) and ensuring survey items are tailored to specific resource management contexts (van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
... Previous research has suggested there are multiple dimensions of pro-environmental behavior, depending on the domain and extent of impacts (Steg, Bolderdijk, Keizer, & Perlaviciute, 2014;Stern, 2000). While some researchers have measured pro-environmental behavior using unidimensional typologies (e.g., Kaiser, 1998;van Riper & Kyle, 2014), others have followed Stern's (2000) classification of behavior including activist and non-activist actions that span public and private spheres. Drawing on this latter perspective, scholars have argued that pro-environmental behavior can be conceptualized in terms of conservation lifestyles, social environmentalism, environmental citizenship, and land stewardship (Larson et al., 2015), as well as public, private, and social stewardship (van Riper, Browning, et al., 2019). ...
... Previous research has argued that values can directly predict behaviors that promote environmental sustainability (Karp, 1996;van Riper, Winkler-Schor, et al., 2019) or indirectly affect behavior when mediated by other psychological factors such as personal norms (Han, 2015;Nordlund & Garvill, 2003). This tripartite model of the value basis for explaining pro-environmental behavior has been validated in a wide array of research contexts (Han, 2015;Obeng & Aguilar, 2018;Poortinga et al., 2004;Steg & Vlek, 2009;van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
Preprint
Understanding the transactions that occur between humans and their environments requires research focused on phenomena that explain behavioral patterns, particularly values that serve as guiding principles in life. Mounting evidence has suggested that pro-environmental behavior is motivated by the long-term goal of living a meaningful life, as reflected by Aristotle's concept of eudaimonia. However, the relationships among value concepts, particularly eudaimonic values, remains unclear despite the fundamental role that these constructs play in explaining why people make behavioral decisions. We conceptualized eudaimonic values with guidance from Self-Determination Theory to understand how a suite of values affected pro-environmental behavior reported by recreational anglers (n = 1,103) across five US states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Michigan, New York, Indiana) in the Great Lakes region. Results from a latent variable path model showed that eudaimonic values were strong predictors of biospheric, altruistic, egoistic, and hedonic values, which in turn, influenced self-reported behavior among recreational anglers who were at risk of spreading aquatic invasive species. These findings suggest that eudaimonic values are an antecedent to values-behavior relationships and can improve the predictive capacity of models being developed to inform management strategies for minimizing human activities that are contributing to the unintentional spread of aquatic invasive species.
... For example, norms and beliefs have been identified as strong determinants of environmental decisions Riepe et al., 2017). It has also been observed that biospheric and altruistic values tend to dominate in prediction (van Riper and Kyle, 2014) and in the stability of pro-environmental behavior, above egoistic values (de Groot and Steg, 2009). ...
... The topic concerned complex ecological issues in the GoN, discussed in relationship with fishing activities, especially the impact of gillnet fisheries on the ecosystem. We compared antecedents of pro-environmental behavior (van Riper and Kyle, 2014;Fujitani et al., 2017) in fishers who were members of an ecosystem-based intervention (a lecture with workshop materials containing EwE) (Figure 3), with those who received lectures that didn't involve EwE. Using a pre-survey (recruitment) and post-survey (applied to the fishers that participated in the three phases of the study) control design, changes in environmental values, beliefs, norms, and behavioral intentions were evaluated. ...
... Universal values (Schwartz and Bilsky, 1987), both biospheric and altruistic, as well as egoistic, showed potential to explain the support (or lack of it) to reduce the fishing effort by 25%, as has been found in other studies of environmental behavior van Riper and Kyle, 2014). Since egoistic values focus on the individual's own life over taking care of other people or the environment, they tend to have a negative influence on the prediction of support (de Groot and Steg, 2010), which is the case for measure B in the pre-survey before the FIGURE 5 | Comparison between means of the pre and post survey sample within the control (non-EwE lecture) and treatment (EwE lecture). ...
Article
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Encouraging people’s pro-environmental behaviors is an objective of Education for Sustainable Development. In the context of small-scale fisheries, unsustainable fishing practices are compromising the integrity of coastal communities and ecosystems. Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) is an ecosystem modeling software that presents interactions/changes in the food web as a result of fishing. Despite the multiple applications of EwE in fisheries management, it is unknown from a quantitative perspective whether the application of EwE trophic modeling in environmental education processes and management produces effects on norms and ecological beliefs, and if it alters behavioral intentions of the participants receiving ecosystem modeling information. We conducted a behavior change intervention with gillnet fishers in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica, to compare antecedents of pro-environmental behavior between participants who received an ecosystem-based intervention (lectures containing EwE models; treatment) and those who received lectures that didn’t involve EwE (control). Based on theories of environmental psychology, we used a pre–post survey design, to evaluate changes between control/treatment, and to assess the influence of psychometric constructs and fishing characteristics on the behavioral intentions to support sustainable fishing measures and owning a fishing license (revealed behavior). Personal norms and values were significant at explaining management measures’ support, along with some fishing characteristics (e.g., fishing site). Deliberating about possible future scenarios (via EwE-modeling) helped reduce uncertainties, increasing legitimacy and a perceived behavioral control (PBC) to support measures. Currently, licenses in the Gulf aren’t granted under defined ecological criteria, and although altruistic-biospheric values scored highly before the intervention began, due to mistrust and high illegal-unlicensed fishing, fishers may be underestimating how much others care about the environment. Value-oriented and ecosystem-based interventions may assist to effectively redesign the licensing system and encourage fishers to support sustainable measures. Our research indicates the importance of education interventions that teach about the impacts of fishing in the ecosystem while helping participants to perceive themselves as capable of implementing actions (PBC) and expressing biospheric-altruistic values to restore trust. Redirecting human behaviors to reconnect with ecosystem resilience can be a leverage point for sustainability and for the compliance of small-scale fisheries management measures. Keywords: behavior change interventions, social psychology, environmentally relevant behavior, value-beliefnorm (VBN) theory, theory of planned behavior (TPB), Costa Rican Pacific, Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) modeling, tropical small-scale fisheries
... Other scholars use similar terms, such as homocentric, ecocentric and egocentric values [62], and ecocentrism versus anthropocentrism [27,71,89]. Generally, in the mixed model, egotism has been shown to negatively correlate with pro-environmental behaviors, whereas altruism and biospheric values independently foster pro-environmental behaviors, attitudes, and/or knowledge [18,48,54,94,92]. ...
... Blind patriotism is rooted in in-group loyalty; however, the true problem is intrinsically due to egoism toward out-groups. If patriotism includes impartial altruism toward society [13] and consideration for others, if this altruism fosters environmentalism as prior studies assumed [18,48,54,77,88,92], and if this patriotism has effects on environmentalism, such a structural relationship should be quantitatively revealed in our analysis. Thus, consideration for society and others was assumed to mediate the relationship between patriotism and environmentalism. ...
... In order to investigate the good patriotism and social consideration's effects on environmentalism, we adopted measures of individual pro-environmental behavior and attitudes as environmentalism measurement. Here, environmentalism is regarded broadly as an individual philosophy that leads to pro-environmental values, concern, attitudes, and behavior; see [17,92,98]. Among them, proenvironmental behavior and attitudes can be regarded as the components of environmentalism and the outputs of pro-environmental values [86]. ...
Article
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Recent studies have indicated a positive association between patriotism and environmentalism; however, the correlation between them has not yet been quantitatively verified. Additionally, differences in “good” versus “blind” patriotism have been ignored in environmental behavior studies; thus, theoretical concepts related to their effects on environmentalism have not been empirically tested. The present study aims to reveal the effects of good patriotism and social consideration on pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and the mediating effect of social consideration on the relationship between patriotism and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, while removing national or political prejudice or ideology from the measurement of patriotism. Data collected using a self-report questionnaire were analyzed for Chinese university students and workers. Results of multiple hierarchical linear regression analysis of five pro-environmental attitudes/behaviors estimation models showed that patriotism was correlated with pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors, and this correlation was completely mediated by individual social consideration, which was strongly and positively correlated with both patriotism and pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors. Our findings show that patriotism encourages people to focus on societal structures and environmental problems. The effect of good patriotism on individual pro-environmental attitudes and behaviors is clearly different from that of blind nationalism, as shown in previous literature. The present study highlights implications for future policy-making and education on patriotism and environmentalism in China.
... Ecological value is broadly believed as a meaningful construct in the environmental behavior literature [13,15,27]. Authors [16] and [28] described personal value as important criteria that one utilizes to make choices, to verify behaviors, and to assess others and events. ...
... Ecological value is interchangeably used with biospheric value or environmental value. Customers with high ecological value place emphasis on the advantages/disadvantages for the ecosystem when making their purchase decisions and behaviors [16,27,29]. In the hospitality context, [15], in their empirical research, uncovered that ecological value is a crucial factor, inducing a better relationship with a green product and eliciting a positive intention for the product. ...
Article
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This research developed a sturdy theoretical framework that offers a better comprehension regarding customer approach intentions for eco-friendly museum products. Using a quantitative process, the apparent role of ecological value, connectedness to nature, social pressure, proenvironmental reputation was explored. Data quality testing demonstrated the validity of the construct measures. The critical mediating nature of customer-product relationship quality and feeling of pride was unveiled by conducting a structural analysis. In addition, the feeling of pride was a prominent factor determining sacrifice, visit, pay, and word of mouth (WOM) intentions. Social pressure played a major role in building relationship quality, whereas pro-environmental reputation was a key contributor to increase the feeling of pride. The model contained a strong prediction power for intentions. Results of this study contribute to enriching the extant knowledge regarding customer pro-environmental decision-making process, which is helpful for an eco-friendly museum and its success.
... According to the leading authors in the field of urban design, the under-utilisation issue of public spaces can be approached based on three main segments: the physical, socio-cultural, and the psychological segments (Karuppannan and Sivam 2012;Kazmierczak 2013;Riper and Kyle 2014;Md Sakip et al. 2015). In the context of the city of Putrajaya, Malaysia, the city in its physical development aspect is well-planned in terms of accessibility, proximity, aesthetic, legibility, comfort, quality, facilities and maintenance (Moulay and Ujang 2016;Abd Aziz and Rasidi 2013;Putrajaya Corporation, 2002). ...
... Despite the apparent well-designed spaces and all the beneficial values provided by the neighbourhood parks, there are still many of the parks that are being under-utilised by the public (Peters et al. 2010;Azmi and Karim 2012;Neutens et al. 2012;Riper and Kyle 2014;Moulay and Ujang 2016). Additionally, the under-utilisation of public open spaces reflects a disruption of the person-place bonding and reveals the degradation of a city (Madanipour 2010). ...
Article
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Public spaces that include neighbourhood parks have a significant function in supporting and enhancing social life. They facilitate interaction between people and their environment, thus improving social connectedness and promoting residents’ wellbeing. However, there were raising concerns on the under-utilisation of parks over the years where it has become a crucial part of the global urban agenda. To this end, comprehending place attachment is crucial to enhance the meaning, functions, and attraction of places. This qualitative study attempts to provide thorough contextual insights on the attachment process from park users’ perspective. A sample of 28 park users was selected purposively within the neighbourhood of Precinct 9, Putrajaya, Malaysia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were performed face to face and later transcribed verbatim, then analysed through an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. Two themes and five sub-themes emerged from the interviews. First is the park’s attachment process, including emotional attachment, park’s meaning, and functional attachment. Second is the cognitive aspect of park use, including attitudes and beliefs related to parks. Findings revealed that the process of park’s attachment is interrelated while the functional attachment is the key concept to attract residents to the neighbourhood park and the trigger of the whole attachment process.
... This interest has grown in the past three decades as social scientists of all stripes including psychologists, anthropologists, political scientists, sociologists, and geographers, have all tried answering the questions 'why do people act environmentally-friendly?' and 'what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior (Kollmuss and Agyeman, 2002)?' In response to these questions, several studies have identified self-social motives and identity (Gatersleben et al., 2014), belief structures (Schwartz, 1994), value-orientations (Stern, 2000;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014;Van Riper et al., 2020.), situational context and goals (Steg et al., 2014), ideologies (Dunlap et al., 2000) and moral philosophies (Zaikauskaite et al., 2020) as important factors that shape environmental behavior at the individual and group scales. While much progress has been made in explaining the association between PSB and internal psychological processes, less is known about which environmental self-identities and socio-demographic factors translate into which behavior especially when considering high to low-impact PSBwhile being mindful of broader structural constraints on human actions. ...
... Our modified VIP model predicted a causal relationship between the variables as proposed. In conventional VIP models (Van Riper and Kyle, 2014;Van der Werff and Steg, 2016), biospheric values were considered to play a key role in shaping the chain of variables that influence participation in PSB. Our modified model revealed that altruistic values combined with biocentric, deep ecology, ecofeminist, and eco-spiritual identities predicted personal norm and actual engagement in PSB. ...
Article
This study aims to identify factors influencing people’s participation in frequent and effective pro-sustainable behaviors (PSB) in Portland, Oregon, using value-belief-norm theory and a modified value-identity-personal norm (VIP) model. Drawing from a resident survey (n = 484) and applying a series of regression and mediation analyses, we tested the power of the VIP model in our sample to examine the influence of values, environmental self-identity, and personal norms on PSB while adjusting for socio-demographic factors. Our study revealed participants who held altruistic values (i.e., cared for the community, valued diversity and gender equality, and made decisions based on cooperation) had stronger environmental self-identity characterized by a belief that reflects biocentrism, ecofeminism, ecospirituality, or deep ecology. These identities were significantly associated with participation in more effective PSB after adjusting for personal norms. Participants with egoistic values had stronger anthropocentric identity and weaker personal norms which translated into lower participation in more effective PSB. Also, education increased PSB, with master’s degree holders participating more than other groups. Overall, values, environmental self-identity, and higher education predicted participation in effective PSB. Our refined theoretical model is, therefore, promising for assessing multiple PSB at once, especially those that significantly reduce carbon footprint on the planet.
... That is, adding other relevant influential factors to the TPB such as personal norms and awareness of consequences from the NAM can enhance better predictive validity so that we can reach a more accurate predictive model (Steg et al., 2014;Xu et al., 2017). This is supported by the PEB literature suggesting PEB can be considered a type of pro-social behaviour which is driven by altruistic beliefs about what is right or wrong based on the consequences of a person's actions on others' welfare (Lindenberg and Steg, 2007;Steg and Vlek, 2009;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014). Given this rationale, several studies have suggested integrating the TPB with the NAM to improve the predictive power of the PEB model in the general pro-social context (Manosuthi et al., 2020;Shin et al., 2018) including waste separating. ...
... It should be noted that 'intention' as a proxy for measuring 'behaviour' in the TPB was removed in the current proposed conceptual model as shown in Fig. 1 the 'intention-action gap' has been highlighted in numerous studies (Goh and Baum, 2021;Goh, 2020a;Goh et al., 2017;Unsworth et al., 2013). In an effort to address this gap, some researchers have considered measuring 'on-site/current behaviour' as an immediate proxy for measuring actual behaviour once there is a possibility to measure their current behaviour while in the house (on-site behaviour) Goh, 2020b;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014;Kaiser et al., 2005). Given this rationale, this study attempted to shift from measuring residential households' waste separation intentions to gathering data based on their current behaviour. ...
Article
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A pro-environmental behaviour to solve the problem of household waste and achieve sustainable municipal solid waste management is waste separation behaviour (WSB). As part of pro-environmental behaviour, WSB is argued to be influenced by rational decision-making approach (i.e. the theory of planned behaviour [TPB]) and moral norms approach (i.e. norm activation model [NAM]). Drawing from the integration of the TPB and the NAM along with the addition of a moderator i.e. ‘local government support’ as an external predictor of WSB, a new model was developed. Using structural equation modelling, this study tested the integrated structural model amongst 1697 household residents in the city of Joondalup, Australia. The SmartPLS results indicated that the personal norm, social norms and perceived behavioural control were found to be the major factors influencing residents towards WSB while both attitudes and local government support were unexpectedly found to have no significant influence thereon. Furthermore, the perceived behavioural control was found to have the highest effect on WSB. This indicates the more Joondalup residents feel confident and capable of sorting the waste at source, they will be more driven towards sorting their waste using the three-bin system. These findings are useful for promoting and planning WSB by policy-makers to ease the waste disposal problem.
... In the literature, usually the impact of awareness of behavioural consequences on personal norms is analysed (Stern, 2000;Van. Riper & Kyle, 2014;Fang et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2019). However, authors analysing the direct impact of awareness of behavioural consequences on pro-environmental behaviour have found different results. Liobikiene and Poskus (2019) revealed that awareness of behavioural consequences significantly and positively influenced private but not public behaviour, ...
... Altogether, the changes in self-enhancement values were insignificant (Fig. 2 (right)). Our study confirmed that values are rather constant as was stated by other authors (Brown & Kasser, 2005;Hansla et al., 2008;Papagiannakis & Lioukas, 2012;Stern et al., 1995;van der Werff, 2013;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
Article
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The changes in pro-environmental behaviour, whether people become more environmentally friendly or not, have been analysed very scarcely. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to analyse the changes in pro-environmental behaviour and its determinants in Lithuania as a transition European Union country comparing years 2011 and 2020. Applying Chi-Square and t test statistics, the results showed a significant increase in performance of pro-environmental behaviour in 2020. Waste sorting and purchase of environmentally friendly goods increased the most, meanwhile water and energy saving behaviour increased the least. Applying the value-belief-norm theory and leaner regression analysis, we analysed whether the same determinants influenced pro-environmental behaviour in 2011 and 2020. The results revealed that the impact of determinants differed. In 2020, the main factor of pro-environmental behaviour was the perception of environmental problems but not self-transcendence values dimension. Furthermore, self-enhancement values and awareness of behavioural consequences negatively influenced pro-environmental behaviour in 2020. Analysing the changes in these factors, an insignificant difference was observed in self-enhancement values. The changes in other factors were significant, particularly the changes in the level of environmental responsibility was the biggest. Therefore, implementation of environmental education and information programmes and various environmentally friendly public initiatives positively contributed to the enhancement of environmental awareness and pro-environmental behaviour.
... Personal norms are the self-constructed behavioral expectations that an individual puts on themself in different situations [43]. Both, awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility, are antecedents of personal norms, as they trigger the activation of this mindset [44]. The Norm Activation Model [43] postulated a causal chain of relationships where higher awareness of consequences leads to a greater ascription of responsibility, which in turn increases personal norms [45]. ...
... Additionally, this study can help companies to improve their marketing strategy with content that encourages green consumer behavior. Advertisements should appeal to the awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility of consumers, as these are important triggers of personal norm [44]. If consumers are aware of the consequences that their behavior has and take responsibility for it, they are going to be more likely to buy green products. ...
Article
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Recycling used materials is one way to deal with the depletion of natural resources available on earth. Companies increasingly integrate recycled materials into their production processes and transition towards circular business models. However, although the attitude towards sustainable products is positive, consumers still prefer to buy products made from new instead of recycled materials. Empirical research on factors influencing the purchase intention of recycled products is still limited. This study aims to examine consumers’ individual factors that are important in the decision process to buy recycled products. The Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory is explored in the context of recycled product purchase intention. Perceived risk is added to the research model as a moderator that hinders purchase intention. The different influences are analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modelling with a sample of 177 respondents from Germany. Results indicate that the causal chain of relationships between values, beliefs, and personal norm has a positive influence on recycled product purchase intention. Perceived risk, on the other hand, has a significant negative direct effect on purchase intention but strengthens the relationship between personal norms and purchase intention. Theoretical and managerial implications as well as avenues for further research are discussed.
... In an effort to overcome this gap, some researchers have considered measuring 'on-site/current behaviour' as an immediate proxy for measuring actual behaviour and also exploring other factors influencing an individual's pro-environmental behaviour to overcome the inadequacies in the theory of planned behaviour Kaiser, Hubner, & Bogner, 2006;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
... Schwartz (1977) originally developed the norm activation model with personal norms, referred to as moral expectations that individuals hold for themselves, at the core of the model to guide or predict people's altruistic behaviours. The literature suggests that pro-environmental behaviour can be considered as a type of pro-social behaviour which is driven by altruistic beliefs about what is right or wrong based on the consequences of a person's actions on others' welfare (Lindenberg & Steg, 2007;Steg & Vlek, 2009;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014). Given this rationale, several studies have suggested integrating norm-activation model with theory of planned behaviour to improve the predictive power of the PEB model in the general pro-social context (Manosuthi et al., 2020;Shin et al., 2018). ...
Article
A specific concern for many park managers is the generation of waste by visitors. One way to combat this issue in national parks is to encourage visitors to put their litter in a bin. This study investigates binning behaviour, as a type of pro-environmental behaviour, of visitors to Yanchep National Park, Australia. Using structural equation modelling, this study tested an integrated structural model combining the theory of planned behaviour and the norm-activation model with data from 219 visitors to this park. The study tried to move away from measuring visitors' pro-environmental intention and instead gathered data based on their current behaviour (i.e. visitors' on-site binning behaviour). The results revealed a good fit of the survey data to the model which explained 55.9% of the variance in binning behaviour. Furthermore, the finding has demonstrated the efficacy of combining the norm activation model with the theory of planned behaviour in explaining visitors' binning behaviour. This highlighted the role of personal norms as the key driver of binning behaviour among visitors to Yanchep National Park. Therefore, park administrators should strengthen and activate visitors’ salient personal norms. Findings of this study assist in better understanding how park administrators can promote binning behaviour based on an effective framework.
... Analysing students' perceptions of sustainable development in developing countries such as the Dominican Republic is of great importance because these young people will become the leaders who will have to develop strategies and actions in their professional and personal lives. Being able to analyse students' perceptions and propose alternatives to improve their perception towards sustainability is essential because there is evidence that knowledge about sustainability fosters good attitudes and behaviours in students, as well as increasing their intention to engage in sustainable actions [20][21][22][23][24]. One of the challenges teachers face regarding education for sustainable development is the inclusion of even more content in an already overloaded curriculum [25]. ...
... Steg et al. [41] confirmed that aspects such as value and environmental attitude influence people's sustainable behaviours. Some studies indicate that there is a relationship between behaviour in favour of the environment and environmental attitudes [20]. People who care about the environment and natural resources tend to adopt sustainable attitudes since they believe that protecting the environment is the right thing to do [42]. ...
Article
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Environmentally friendly behaviour and the equitable and sustainable use of natural resources can contribute to solving various environmental, economic, and social problems in different countries. The analysis of the perception of young students is important because schools are suitable for educating future generations and shaping their attitudes to also include a greater concern for the environment. This research aims to determine the degree of influence that a series of Likert-type questions of knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours about sustainable development has on a series of items of the student profile (gender, age, course, and household members) in a developing country. For this, an artificial neural network is used that allows us not only to quantify the degree of influence but also to obtain an estimation of the student’s profile according to the responses obtained on sustainable development. The network developed allows us to obtain, through a determined collection of answers to questions about sustainable development, the estimation of a specific profile of a student from a developing country. This can be useful to educational communities interested in optimising economic resources through sustainable development, allowing them to know which issues they should focus more (or less) on according to the profile of the student they are targeting.
... Future research should also expand this model by including extra critical variables of pro-environmental behaviors (e.g., ecological values, environmental attitudes, conservation intentions) and incorporating them to perfect this model. Specifically, some scholars studying pro-environmental behaviors believe that values, environmental attitudes, and ecological concerns significantly influence pro-environmental intentions and behaviors that are conducive to the environment [35,73,74]. Extending this model with these key concepts will increase the explanatory power for pro-environmental behaviors. ...
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This paper establishes an analysis framework to investigate the effect of the awareness of consequences and the ascription of responsibility on farmers’ organic fertilizer application behaviors (OFABs). Using questionnaire survey data from Hubei Province, one of the main grain-producing areas in China, this study employed both mediating effects and moderating effect analytical methods to analyze the influencing mechanism of the awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility on farmers’ OFABs. The results show that, firstly, the awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility have a significant positive impact on farmers’ OFABs. The improvement in farmers’ awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility can effectively promote the utilization of organic fertilizers for enhanced ecological production. Secondly, the awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility have a significant positive impact on farmers’ OFABs through individual farmers’ personal norms. Increasing farmers’ awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility firstly stimulates their personal norms; then, personal norms have a positive impact on farmers’ OFABs. Thirdly, farmers’ social norms can positively regulate the relationship between personal norms and their OFABs. The higher the social norms of farmers, the more their social norms can have a positive regulating effect on their OFABs. Therefore, in the future, it will be necessary to vigorously promote farmers’ awareness of consequences and ascription of responsibility, in order to enhance farmers’ social norms, and to improve the level of farmers’ social norms, in order to greatly promote farmers’ engagement in OFABs. This will ultimately better promote rural ecological environmental protection and ecological civilization construction.
... Specifically, awareness of consequences precedes ascription of responsibility (De Groot and Steg, 2009;Steg and De Groot, 2010;Stern, 2000;Stern et al., 1999). Previous studies show that when people are aware of adverse consequences, they tend to show responsibility for negative outcomes (Aguilar-Luzón et al., 2012;Han, 2015;Han et al., 2017;Park et al., 2018;Stern et al., 1999;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014). In addition, recognizing the consequences can lead to the identification of benefits (Loebnitz and Grunerta, 2018). ...
Article
This study developed a conceptual framework for a preventive travel decision-making process amidst the COVID-19 pandemic, combining the Health Belief Model (HBM) and Value-Belief-Norm (VBN). Analyzing 409 responses collected from an online survey, this study verified the integrated model as a salient theory addressing the importance of social components and health belief factors in affecting behavior. The model revealed that altruistic value influences the HBM variables, whereas personal norms mediate preventive behaviors and beliefs in both VBN and HBM. These findings offer new theoretical insights into decision-making process and provide practitioners with effective crisis management strategies concerning pro-social and health beliefs.
... Kebanyakan penelitian yang dilakukan pada negara barat yang cenderung memiliki nilai budaya individualis, seperti Amerika Serikat, Lithuania, Spanyol, Belanda (Aguilar-Luzón et al., 2012;De Groot & Steg, 2010;Poškus, 2016;Van Riper et al., 2018;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014;Whitley et al., 2016). Milfont et al. (2006) menyatakan bahwa negara yang memiliki nilai individualis cenderung memiliki orientasi nilai biosfer lebih besar yang mendukung seseorang untuk melakukan perilaku pro-lingkungan. ...
... Moreover, river rafting guide companies imparted knowledge about the program during the rafting experience, which may have increased awareness of the consequence of inaction and responsibility at the individual level, as posited by the Value-Belief-Norm Theory and Norm Activation Model (de Groot & Steg, 2009;Stern, 2000). However, we suggest that the outcome expectations of respondents in the resource recreation management context of the present study varied over the course of an experience (van Riper & Kyle, 2014). That is, outdoor recreationists likely engaged their beliefs in different ways throughout a given trip on the Kern River. ...
Article
Understanding the relationships among social psychological drivers of pro-environmental behavior has been the focus of a long-standing body of research aimed at minimizing human impacts on the environment. Within public land management contexts, empirical evidence has suggested that place-based motivations and normative beliefs explain why people intend to engage in behavior that benefits the environment; however, the personal relevance of outdoor activities varies, in that recreationists often report distinct degrees of involvement that influence patterns of thought and behavior. Therefore, we tested the moderating effect of enduring involvement in outdoor recreation on the relationships among motivations, normative beliefs, and pro-environmental behaviors that reflected tenets of the Leave No Trace (LNT) educational outreach program. We segmented respondents into involvement profiles and tested a series of hypothesized relationships using multi-group structural equation modeling. Data were derived from a study of white water rafters on the Kern Wild and Scenic River in California's Sierra Nevada. Results indicated that both the strength and influence of select motivations on normative beliefs are stronger among individuals with higher involvement in rafting. A relationship between respondents' stated levels of importance for achievement as a motive for activity participation and normative beliefs about LNT also emerged among respondents with medium levels of involvement, whereas normative beliefs about LNT are associated with place-based motives for being with similar people and being in nature among those with high levels of involvement. These results explain the relationships among multiple antecedents of behavior within the context of a high-risk wilderness experience. Management implications The behavioral phenomena examined in this research explain the development of stewardship practices to help sustain environments while optimizing visitor experiences in the outdoors.Natural resource recreation managers should consider the personal relevance of activities as defining features that explain variation in motivations and responses to normative pressure. The presented results indicate that framing information in line with the involvement profiles will be more likely to resonate with recreationists in related contexts. Respondents were motivated to engage in white water rafting to be around similar people, enjoy nature, learn, and escape from personal and social pressures, but these motivations vary in accordance with levels of involvement. In settings where recreationists are presented with opportunities to engage in nature-based recreation that requires specialized skills, those with high levels of involvement may be more sensitive to normative pressures to protect the expected outcomes of their nature-based goals and desire to be around other highly involved recreationists.
... Biospheric value is associated with nature and the biosphere; altruistic value is concerned with the welfare of others; and egoistic value emphasizes maximizing individual benefits (Klöckner, 2013;. According to existing research, values have a positive impact on an individual's environmental concern, norms, and attitude, which in turn has a positive impact on their pro-environmental actions (Choi et al., 2015;Han, 2015;Jakovcevic & Steg, 2013;Riper & Kyle, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
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Despite the increasing popularity of green hotels, there is a dearth of research and literature on consumer attitudes toward green hotels. The purpose of this study is to investigate consumer intention to visit a green hotel in Sri Lanka by examining the effect of biospheric and egoistic values on consumer attitudes toward green hotels and desire for green hotels. An online survey was distributed among young consumers through google forms by using social media neworks (Facebook and LinkedIn). Three-hundred and twenty-six (326) consumers were eligible to participate in the survey and 280 respondents were used for the further analysis. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to analyse the collected data, assess the model and test hypotheses. The findings indicate that biospheric value is a highly significant predictor of consumer attitudes and desires toward green hotels. Additionally, it appears that the desire for green hotels is a stronger predictor of green hotel visit intention than the attitude toward green hotels. This is the first study to deepen our understanding of the two psychological theories namely goal-directed behaviour and value-belief-norm theory in the context of green hotel. To this end, the findings of the study provide unique cues for managers and green hotel practitioners in developing marketing strategies to enhance behavioural intention among young consumers to choose green hotels.
... Therefore, those personal norms determine whether an individual should engage in a particular behavior to prevent damaging outcomes [14]. In other words, when altruistic values are considered to be the life's rule of thumb and responsible to minimize environmental change, his personal norms will increase [15]. ...
Article
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This study develops a conceptual model for volunteer tourists by applying norm activation theory. Even though this theory has been employed in numerous studies to understand a wide range of intentions and behaviors in various fields, a little has investigated and extended the theory to explain tourists' intention to experience volunteer tourism and behavior, by including risk perception as a moderator. Data from a survey of 212 volunteer tourists in Indonesia, who at least participated once in a volunteer activity, was used to test the proposed model and hypotheses. The findings from the structural equation modeling showed that perceived risk moderates the relationship between personal norm and voluntourism behavior.
... Therefore, the following hypotheses are proposed: Egoistic values usually pose a negative impact on the new ecological paradigm (Kiatkawsin & Han, 2017;X. Liu et al., 2018;Lorenzo-Romero et al., 2019;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014). An explanation for that result could be that egoistic values are associated with the emphasis of dominance, great fortune, control over others, and power of authoritarianism that expects to be respected and obeyed by others -these characteristics are not highly posited by young respondents (Kiatkawsin & Han, 2017). ...
Article
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This study proposed a theoretical framework based on Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory to examine tourists’ intentions to undertake agrotourism and to behave pro-environmentally while travelling in Vietnam, and assess the moderating effect of tourist sources. The results validate VBN theory explaining that tourists’ intentions could be determined through the chain of values beliefs, and personal norms, contributing to the theoretical evidence within the context of Vietnam’s agrotourism. Practical implications were drawn from the findings that reveal some similarities and differences between Vietnamese and international tourists, indicating that two groups are not homogeneous then suggest marketing strategies for Vietnam’s agrotourism market.
... The measurement scale was developed based on the proposed conceptual model (Figure 1), which included 37 measurement items from previous literature (see Table S1 for details) [11,28,[52][53][54][55][56][57][58]. These observed variables were appropriate amendments developed to fit this study's settings. ...
Article
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With the deepening of the garbage classification policy strength, making urban household garbage sorting mandatory in China, it is imperative to clarify the key factors affecting the urban residents’ intention to behave in garbage classification. Though it has attracted the attention of researchers, there are still several aspects that need to be supplemented and improved. Thus, this study aims to investigate the critical factors affecting the urban residents’ intention of garbage sorting and develop an extended model of planned behavior by integrating expectancy theory (ET) and norm activation model (NAM). Given the positive externalities of urban residents’ garbage sorting behaviors, awareness of consequences and attribution of responsibility are correspondingly interpreted as environmental benefits (EB) and environmental concerns (EC). The sample data of 668 urban residents who lived in four pilot cities of garbage classification in China were collected and adopted to the structural equation modeling (SEM) with bootstrapping estimation method to assess the causal relationship between variables. The results indicated that the expectation (Exp) was a significant positive predictor of garbage sorting intention. Attitude (AT), perceived behavior control (PBC) and subjective norm (SN) positively affected urban residents’ expectation of garbage sorting, with SN having the most significant direct impact. The results also found that the EB has significant influences EC, which strongly influences urban residents’ expectation of garbage sorting. Furthermore, the total effect of EC on Exp is higher than other paths, and the mediating effect of SN on Exp by AT and PBC is greater than other indirect paths, which accounted for about 27.1% of the total effect. Finally, we discuss both theoretical and practical implications, along with recommendations for future research.
... Consequently, feeling responsible activates norms that in turn influence pro-social behaviour, providing strong evidence for the mediator interpretation of NAM. Similarly, the feasibility of a mediator model was supported in studies that examined eco-friendly behaviour in tourism settings (Han, 2015;Megeirhi et al., 2020;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014). Based on this, we assume that tourists' problem awareness and ascription of responsibility should increase their feelings of moral obligation, triggering support for new technologies to protect the GBR. ...
Article
Coral reefs provide important ecosystem services as well as economic and cultural benefits to society. Yet they are under significant threat from anthropogenic and natural threats, including climate change. Australia’s Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is one such reef undergoing significant change. More radical interventions that go beyond traditional forms of management are being considered to help repair and restore the GBR. These are based on science and technologies that have yet to be widely tested. This paper reports on a study that seeks to identify and understand support for such interventions, and to understand the antecedents that explain support. The Norm Activation Model (NAM) was extended with a sample of 468 domestic and international tourists to Cairns, Australia. Personal norms had the largest direct influence on support for interventions, followed by attitudes. Awareness of consequences had a large positive impact on personal norms and a smaller positive impact on attitudes. A negative relationship was found between information and attitudes. Personal norms and attitudes also acted as mediators between awareness of consequences, information and support. No differences were found between domestic and international tourists. The results are discussed and theoretical and practical implications outlined.
... Second, within the theoretical framework of the "VBN", personal norms existed as conditions that directly affected the implementation of green building in architectural education. Simultaneously, in the existing study on VBN theory, some scholars also discussed the impact of personal values and environmental beliefs on personal norms (Bamberg and Möser, 2007;Jakovcevic and Steg, 2013;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014). The structural analysis in the present study also proved the significant correlation between students' environmental beliefs (including NEP, AC/AR beliefs) and their personal norms. ...
Article
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Purpose Aiming to find out how to incorporate green building into the architectural curriculum, this study aims to explore the psychological path for cultivating architectural students’ awareness and motivation to learn the green design concepts and related technologies. Design/methodology/approach Based on a global review of relevant architectural courses in universities, a set of green building learning behaviors was proposed and a survey was conducted in architectural schools in South China to verify the “value-belief-norm” theory through the lens of green building learning behaviors. The psychological path that affects students’ green building learning behaviors was analyzed using structural equation modeling. Findings The results showed that biospheric and altruistic values could directly affect students’ motivation to learn green building, while personal norms served as the mediating condition for personal values and beliefs, and ultimately improved motivation. Practical implications The study suggests that the cultivation of environmental awareness and a sense of the ecological crisis should be developed through foundation courses, by establishing an ecological architecture curriculum, to more effectively guide students to learn and practice green building. Originality/value This study, for the first time, applied the “value-belief-norm” theory, which was developed to explain the psychological path for pro-environmental behaviors, to green building learning behaviors of architectural students. https://www.emerald.com/insight/content/doi/10.1108/IJSHE-06-2020-0200/full/html
... However, a review of the extant literature shows there are inconsistencies in understanding PEBs. For example, some research has primarily measured visitors' PEBs via one dimension, considering it as a general group of behaviours (Moghimehfar et al., 2018;Tonge et al., 2014;Van Riper & Kyle, 2014) while others have considered them as specific behaviours (Brown, Ham, & Hughes, 2010;Esfandiar, 2020;Goh et al., 2017;Liu, Sheng, Mundorf, Redding, & Ye, 2017). Some proenvironmental behaviours may occur at the organisation or community level (i.e., public-sphere environmentalism such as supporting conservation organisations) while others take place at an individual or personal level (i.e., private-sphere environmentalism such as engaging in recycling) (Diekmann & Preisendörfer, 2003). ...
Article
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Understanding pro-environmental behaviours (PEBs) in protected areas has attracted considerable research attention. This perennial issue is pertinent in reducing negative compounded impacts and/or increasing positive impacts in protected areas. This study aims to provide a review of the literature to unpack the existing publications of PEBs in protected areas and to scope future research avenues. A total of 88 empirical research journal articles were collected through Scopus, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases. Results showed 43.18% of the articles analysed considered PEBs as a general group of behaviours while the remaining 56.82% were specific domains of PEBs including littering, staying on-trail, and car use. The majority of the literature adopted cross-sectional quantitative survey methodology, making limited use of longitudinal, experimental and qualitative research approaches, which may have limitations for future research. The review suggests modelling and predicting PEBs needs to be focused on a specific behaviour of a specific (target) audience in a specific context (time and place). There are avenues for potential future PEBs research; however, its specific domains, theoretical advancement, measurability and cultural influences, require significant rethinking for future research.
... Given the importance of understanding the mechanism of the formation of TERB, multiple theories have been developed and applied in existing studies. These theories include planned behavior theory (Han et al., 2010), normative motivation theory (Gao et al., 2017), value-belief-norm theory (Van Riper and Kyle, 2014), social capital theory (Li and Wu, 2020), goal-directed behavior (Han and Yoon, 2015), and an integrated analysis framework of the theories mentioned above (Lindenberg and Steg, 2007;Han and Hyun, 2017). The variables covered by these theoretical models, such as behavior attitude, perceived behavior control, ascription of responsibility, awareness of consequences, personal norms, and interpersonal trust, and the variables included in the extended model and framework, such as environmental attitude and tourism experience (Lee and Jan, 2015), environmental concern (Li and Wu, 2020), conservation commitment (Lee, 2011), and place attachment (Qu et al., 2017), focus more on personal intrinsic psychological factors than on contextual factors. ...
Article
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The promotion of tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior (TERB) plays a central role in destination management for sustainability. Based on the stimulus–organism–response framework, this study proposes an integrated model for behavior management by examining the relationship between stimuli (natural environment and availability of infrastructure) and response factors (satisfaction and TERB) through the organism (the emotion of awe). Survey data from 458 tourists visiting Mount Heng in Hunan Province, Southern China, were used to empirically evaluate the proposed framework. The findings demonstrate that the perception of a destination’s natural environment positively impacts tourists’ sense of awe and satisfaction; the perception of availability of infrastructure positively and significantly influences awe, satisfaction, and TERB; and awe positively impacts satisfaction and TERB. Moreover, the emotion of awe plays a significant mediating role in this proposed model. The theoretical significance of this study and the implications for tourism destinations are discussed.
... In the relevant literature, the Value-Belief-Norm (VBN) theory and Norm-Activation-Model (NAM) (Stern and Dietz, 1994;Stern et al., 1999;Stern, 2000) have been applied to explain sustainable and environmental behaviours of individuals (Liobikiene and Juknys, 2016). In the VBN framework, the psychosocial constructs, i.e. attitudes, values, and beliefs are considered to be germane in predicting sustainable and environment-friendly behaviour (Dunlap et al., 2000;Van Riper and Kyle, 2014). This model highlighted the significance of the impact of values on environment-friendly behaviour that is inherent in the Goal Framing Theory (Lindenberg and Steg, 2013), which states that three types of goals (gain goals, hedonic goals, and normative goals) govern the environment-friendly behaviour in a given situation (Steg et al., 2014). ...
The increasing urbanization and changing consumption patterns are putting great strain on environmental sustainability. The consumption patterns need to be reformed due to the great contribution to rising carbon emissions. The customers are also becoming aware of the various environmental issues. The current research developed and tested a conceptual framework to scrutinize the antecedents of customers' intentions to adopt environmentally sustainable banking services and activities. Following the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), this paper incorporated the constructs namely trust, environmental consciousness, and perceived behavioural outcomes in addition to its basic variables. The data were gathered from a cross-sectional sample of 440 Indian bank customers using a survey method. PLS-based structural equation modelling technique was employed to test the research model. The results indicated that TPB constructs exert significant influence on customers’ behavioural intention. The environmental consciousness was marked as a highly significant predictor of perceived behavioural outcomes which in turn was found to be a significant determinant of trust as well as behavioural intention. Moreover, the attitude was found to be a significant outcome of trust and environmental consciousness. This research puts forth the theoretical as well as managerial implications and provides directions for further research in the concerned thrust area.
... According to the theory of Values Beliefs Norms (VBN), values, especially biospheric values, determine environmental attitude (Stern et al., 1993(Stern et al., , 1995Hansla et al., 2008;Lee, 2011;Papagiannakis and Lioukas, 2012;van Riper and Kyle, 2014). The theory also confirmed that a person with altruistic values is more likely to act pro-environmentally (Stern, 2000 as cited by Prager, 2012). ...
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This study reveals that strong feelings of altruism were found to be statistically significant in explaining prosocial and pro-environmental behaviors. However, this was not the case for the latent trait biosphere in explaining pro-environmental behavior (e.g., past volunteering in clean-up activities). Regardless of whether they are overseas graduates or not, subjects in this study are more altruistic than biospheric by nature. Using the Graded Response Model (GRM) approach, the study found that the biosphere and altruism are obviously independent of each other and merging them into one dimension, in this instance referred to as “self-transcendence,” makes the construct less reliable. That is why this study in consistence with previous studies could not detect the effect of self-transcendence statistically, as it affects both the past volunteering in environmental affairs and the past volunteering in social welfare.
... The real significance of public open spaces lies in their ability to facilitate the interaction between people and their environment. However, although neighbourhood parks (NPs) are crucial places for socialisation (Kashef, 2016), within the neighbourhoods' social networks and in the context of planned residential areas, they are still not being fully utilised for the users' benefits (Moulay et al., 2017;Riper and Kyle, 2014;Peters et al., 2010). Such conditions deprive the residents of the opportunity to socialise, which is considered as a crucial human need (Ellis and Roberts, 2016;Kazmierczak, 2013). ...
Article
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Despite neighbourhood parks meet residents’ social needs, provide visual enjoyment, and create passive and active recreational opportunities, most of them are underutilised. To understand this issue, research focused on the social and physical aspects of parks using mainly quantitative methods. Few explored the psychological aspect in terms of motivation and dependence. Hence, this qualitative research aims to provide a more in-depth understanding of resident’s functional needs that foster their dependence towards neighbourhood parks. The study involved purposively 29 park users living in the neighbourhood of Precinct 9, Putrajaya, Malaysia. In-depth semi-structured interviews were used then verbatim transcribed. Based on the interpretative phenomenological analysis approach, results revealed that the contextual dimensions and the incentives for park utilisation constitute the major themes, where gathering outdoors, physical activity, emotional, functional, and environmental motivation variables are the sub-themes. The practical and theoretical implications are outlined regarding park users’ expectations and experiences for enhanced park utilization.
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Bali is one of the destinations with the highest tourist visiting in Indonesia. One concern is food waste produced by tourists during the holiday. Most of the food waste comes from consumers level. Thus, needed to understand what factors influence of tourist’s intention to reduce food waste during the holiday. This study aims to understand tourist behavioural intention of reducing food waste during the holiday. The conceptual model was built based on the new environmental paradigm scale and environmental psychology approach. There are six hypotheses designed through environmental attitude, feeling personal responsibility, knowledge and intention to reduce food waste during vocation. Correlation and multiple regression were chosen to analyse the data. Environmental attitude did not have a direct association of tourist’s intention to reduce food waste (p-value=.23). Meanwhile, feeling personal responsibility and knowledge to reduce food waste has a significant relationship with the outcome (p-value=.001). In the environmental attitude, both local and foreign tourists are not profoundly correlated with the understanding of tourist’s intention to reduce food waste during the holiday. Overall, the study concludes that tourists can figure out the intention of reducing food waste, even though they do not concern about general environmental attitude.
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Riverine biodiversity in Europe is under threat from a range of anthropogenic factors. Key to effective biodiversity conservation is the public's willingness to support restoration efforts. Based on value-belief-norm (VBN) theory and using a longitudinal survey design with n = 1,000 respondents per each of four countries (France, Germany, Norway, Sweden) we measured individual conservation-oriented behaviors in natural settings over time (e.g., signing a petition, donating money) that benefit native river fish biodiversity. We also examined sociopsychological determinants of these behaviors. In addition to behavioral intentions and self-reported behaviors, we measured actual behavior (monetary donations). We found broad support for the VBN theory but also relevant cultural diversity. In France, Norway, and Sweden fish value orientations affected conservation-oriented behaviors, whereas in Germany general ecological worldviews had more explanatory power. Conservation-oriented outreach and information campaigns will be most effective when taking between-country differences in the relationship between beliefs and behaviors into account.
Article
Awe is an expected experience in tourism; it influences intention to revisit, satisfaction, and tourists' behavior. This study establishes a framework from which to discuss how awe encourages pro-environmental behavior of religious tourists by integrating awe into the VBN model. We use this model to explore whether the pro-environmental behavior of tourists persists in their daily life. The results indicate that perceived religious ambience is a factor that encourages awe, which potentially influences tourists' pro-environmental behavior through mediators (i.e., NEP, AC, AR, and PN). The study is an empirical exploration of tourism ritual theory from the perspective of tourists’ pro-environmental behavior. Finally, the theoretical contribution and practical implications are discussed.
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El estudio de los servicios ecosistémicos (SE) en entornos urbanos ha tenido un gran crecimiento en los últimos años, debido a su relación con el bienestar de los ciudadanos y la manera en que estos perciben y valoran la naturaleza. En este estudio, se analizó la percepción de 674 personas pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá sobre los servicios ecosistémicos urbanos (SEU) proporcionados por el campus, utilizando encuestas semiestructuradas. Las respuestas fueron comparadas a nivel de facultades y grupos de interés (estudiantes, docentes y personal administrativo), identificando espacialmente las áreas importantes en oferta de SEU. Se comparó la percepción de los encuestados entre dos escenarios: previo a ser informados sobre el concepto de los SEU (a priori) y posterior a esto (a posteriori). Un 77,23% de los entrevistados desconocía el término “servicio ecosistémico”; sin embargo, reconocen los beneficios de la naturaleza en su diario vivir. Los servicios culturales y de regulación recibieron las mayores valoraciones (principalmente recreación, salud física y mental, calidad del aire) asociados a las zonas verdes o arboladas dentro del campus. Se evidenciaron diferencias en la importancia de los servicios en relación con la facultad, y, en menor medida, de acuerdo con su tipo de vinculación. Finalmente, los encuestados reconocieron la importancia del campus universitario como proveedor de SEU en el entorno local y como parte de la matriz urbana bogotana, haciendo hincapié en los beneficios obtenidos de los espacios naturales al interior de la ciudad.
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Species invasions contribute to global environmental change and cause declines in populations of threatened and endangered species. Significant government funds are expended on invasive species management (ISM) actions each year. Public support and compliance are critical to the success of these actions. We conducted a study to assess determinants of the general public’s support for ISM actions to identify potential barriers to ISM. We administered an online questionnaire to the general public (n = 1,561) in Florida, a state severely affected by species invasions. We presented respondents with 12 different non-native animals from 4 different taxa (birds, rodents, herpetofauna, fish) to test whether their support for ISM actions depended on the animals to be managed or their perceptions of risk. We utilized structural equation models to explore how different variables directly and indirectly influenced support for management actions. Respondents tended to oppose management actions targeted towards birds and charismatic species. Respondents’ support for government-implemented ISM actions was positively correlated with their awareness of the risks associated with different animals and species invasions in general, their awareness of the consequences of species invasions, and their recognition of the importance of taking actions to mitigate invasion threats. Efforts to promote public support for ISM actions should emphasize the different risks associated with invasive species and the consequences of species invasions to offset opposition to ISM actions that target charismatic species.
Article
Purpose – This paper aims to explore pro-environmental behavior (PEB) in Azerbaijan. Therefore, the authors used value-belief-norm (VBN) theory, extended by the construct of social norms (SN), as a basis. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected by establishing a link within various social media platforms. The final sample consisted of 407 respondents. The authors analyzed four dimensions of PEB using higher-order structural equations. The authors also examined both direct and (serial) indirect effects for cross-cultural validation of the extended VBN theory. Findings – The authors were able to confirm the VBN theory in its entirety. However, SN, which are influential in collectivistic and Sunni-majority states, do not contribute significantly to explaining PEB in predominantly Shiite Azerbaijan. Research limitations/implications – The authors could not establish a direct effect of SN on PEB within this study. However, the authors observed an indirect “values-beliefs-norms-behavior” effect. The different (partly abbreviated) effect channels of the four tested value antecedents provide interesting insights for marketing research. Practical implications – Based on the results, it seems crucial to make Muslim consumers aware of the negative outcomes of their consumption behavior and to emphasize individual responsibility. However, SN may not need to be addressed depending on cultural and/or religious values. Originality/value – The authors examined PEB in Azerbaijan by testing the serial mediation effects in the VBN model. Further, the authors tested the influence of SN within the framework of the original VBN theory, contributing to a better understanding of the possibility of integrating components of the theory of planned behavior.
Article
Pro-environmental behaviors play a key role in the management and sustainability of parks and protected areas. An understanding of the antecedents of visitors' pro-environmental behaviors is vitally important in advancing knowledge, encouraging sustainability, and bettering management practice. This study developed and tested a behavioral model which integrated personal norms and social norms as normative influences, with connectedness to nature as a personality trait, as antecedents of pro-environmental behaviors. Data were collected through a visitor survey across three protected areas in Western Australia and analyzed via structural equation modelling. Results indicated that personal norms and connectedness to nature had a positive effect on pro-environmental behaviors, whereas social norms did not. The results highlight to protected area managers the need to consider moral obligations and personal identification with nature to foster on-site pro-environmental behaviors and encourage a positive spill-over effect off-site.
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El estudio de los servicios ecosistémicos (SE) en entornos urbanos ha tenido un gran crecimiento en los últimos años, debido a su relación con el bienestar de los ciudadanos y la manera en que estos perciben y valoran la naturaleza. En este estudio, se analizó la percepción de 674 personas pertenecientes a la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, sede Bogotá sobre los servicios ecosistémicos urbanos (SEU) proporcionados por el campus, utilizando encuestas semiestructuradas. Las respuestas fueron comparadas a nivel de facultades y grupos de interés (estudiantes, docentes y personal administrativo), identificando espacialmente las áreas importantes en oferta de SEU. Se comparó la percepción de los encuestados entre dos escenarios: previo a ser informados sobre el concepto de los SEU (a priori) y posterior a esto (a posteriori). Un 77,23% de los entrevistados desconocía el término “servicio ecosistémico”; sin embargo, reconocen los beneficios de la naturaleza en su diario vivir. Los servicios culturales y de regulación recibieron las mayores valoraciones (principalmente recreación, salud física y mental, calidad del aire) asociados a las zonas verdes o arboladas dentro del campus. Se evidenciaron diferencias en la importancia de los servicios en relación con la facultad, y, en menor medida, de acuerdo con su tipo de vinculación. Finalmente, los encuestados reconocieron la importancia del campus universitario como proveedor de SEU en el entorno local y como parte de la matriz urbana bogotana, haciendo hincapié en los beneficios obtenidos de los espacios naturales al interior de la ciudad.
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La thèse part d’un double constat sur les pratiques récréatives de montagne. D’une part, il se développe un intérêt croissant pour les sports de nature, qui amène chaque année un nombre de plus en plus élevé de pratiquant·es dans le milieu naturel (Lefèvre et Thiery 2015). D’autre part, malgré des conséquences négatives avérées sur les milieux et notamment sur la faune (Boyle et Samson 1985, Steven et al. 2011, Sato et al. 2013, Larson et al. 2016), les usager·ères récréatif·ves ne sont pas toujours conscient·es des conséquences que peut entrainer leur présence dans la nature (Gruas et al. 2020). Ce travail a donc pour objectif d’interroger le rapport des amateur·rices d’activités hivernales (ski de randonnée et raquette) et estivales (randonnée pédestre et trail), à la faune sauvage de montagne. L’analyse est basée sur quatre terrains (massifs des Bauges, Belledonne, Aiguilles Rouges et Vanoise) et sur des données récoltées par questionnaires (n = 2559) et par entretiens (n = 33). Quatre axes de recherche sont développés. Le premier concerne l’origine sociale des pratiquant·es. Contrairement à l’idée communément répandue, les données quantitatives de l’enquête excluent l’hypothèse d’une réelle démocratisation de la montagne tant lespratiquant·es sont homogènes dans leurs origines sociales. Le deuxième axe vise à analyser les modalités de pratique différenciées au sein de chaque sport ainsi que leurs éventuelles affinités avec les groupes sociaux dont sont issu·es leur pratiquant·es. Si chaque sport hébergebien différents styles de pratique, ceux-ci ne sont pas reliés de manière aussi évidente que l’on aurait pu le penser aux origines sociales des sportif·ves. Ces deux premiers axes mettent également en évidence de fortes inégalités d’accès aux sports de montagne, et à leurs modalitésde pratiques les plus engagées, pour les femmes. Le troisième axe porte sur les attitudes et comportements éco-responsables propres aux individus en dehors de leur pratique sportive, dans la vie quotidienne. Les pratiquant·es interrogé·es dans le cadre de cette enquête sonten effet plus soucieux·ses de la question environnementale que leurs concitoyen·nes. Des différences marquées apparaissent cependant au sein de l’échantillon, notamment en fonction du genre et du milieu social. Le quatrième axe est dédié à la question du rapport à la faune sauvage. Si le genre et le domaine d’étude influencent en partie le lien affectif à la faune et sa connaissance, ils n’expliquent aucunement la perception du dérangement et le respect des zones de quiétude qui sont davantage liés aux valeurs environnementales.Cette analyse structuraliste des sports de montagne vise in fine à proposer une approche de la sociologie des pratiques sportives en milieu naturel sous le triple rapport de la pratique sportive, de la relation au milieu de pratique et de la perception du dérangement de la faunesauvage.
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In this investigation, we developed a model of the psychological drivers of landowners’ decisions to implement prescribed fire on their properties. The Southern Great Plains in the USA evolved with fire and prescribed fire is an important management tool aimed at maintaining and enhancing ecological and economic resilience in the region. The conceptualized model is reflective of a decision-making paradigm that considers decision making to be a process inclusive of a variety of factors and their inter-relationships to arrive at judgments on whether or not to utilize prescribed fire. The approach considered a spectrum of inputs, obstacles, and their associations to capture the complexity of decision making that is often lost when modeling single factors in dynamic social-ecological settings. Further, we considered the decision to use prescribed fire as a multifactor process that incorporates not only individual barriers to fire implementation but inter-barrier associations and other inputs (e.g., sociodemographic variables). Path analysis revealed five statistically significant relationships within the hypothesized model. For prescribed fire decision making, women tended to be more analytical whereas men were more inclined to rely on heuristics. Additionally, those who indicated owning their property for non-consumptive recreation-related reasons were also more inclined to rely upon heuristics. Texans reported more experience with prescribed fire as did respondents who indicated owning property for livestock product. Alternately, those owning their property for an investment and non-consumptive recreation opportunities reported less experience with prescribed fire. Last, ownership for crop and livestock production was positively associated with past wildfire experience. Findings have implications for three issue areas: (1) the provision of an evolved conceptualization through which prescribed fire implementation decisions can be examined, (2) enhancing the approach of prescribed fire outreach to a changing landowner population, and (3) improving the content and delivery of prescribed fire education efforts.
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Thesis
Fundamental interactions between buildings and their occupants have a multitude of significant impacts. First, built environments critically affect occupants’ health and wellness, especially given that people spend more than 90% of time indoors. Among several environmental factors, the lack of thermal comfort is a common problem despite nearly half of the building energy being consumed by heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Humans, in turn, closely influence the sustainable operation of buildings through various occupant energy-use behaviors. Recent studies indicate that actions performed or abstained by occupants have a major influence on building energy performance and can negate the benefits of investing in energy-efficient building systems. This dissertation focused on these two primary interplays of human-building interactions. First, uncertainties in occupants’ thermal comfort due to the varying human physiological, psychological, and behavioral factors lead to significant thermal dissatisfaction and often result in sick building syndrome. A potential solution is the human-in-the-loop approach to sense thermal comfort and provide more personalized environments. However, existing comfort assessing approaches have several key limitations including the need for continuous human input to adjust setpoints, lack of actionable human data in comfort prediction, intrusiveness and privacy concerns, and difficulty in integrating within HVAC operations. To address these issues, this research first investigated the integration of environmental data with human bio-signals collected from wristbands and smartphones for thermal comfort prediction and achieved 85% classification accuracy. This approach however required humans to provide their information from wearable devices and respond to a polling app. To address these limitations, the research further explored low-cost infrared thermal camera networks to non-intrusively collect facial skin temperature for real-time comfort assessment in both single and multi-occupancy spaces. Similar prediction accuracy is achieved without using any personal devices. Building on these comfort sensing approaches, this dissertation demonstrates how to bridge personal comfort models and physiological predictive models to determine optimum setpoints for improved overall satisfaction or reduced energy use while maintaining comfort. The proposed sensing and optimization methods can serve as a basis for automated environment control to improve human experience and well-being. The second part of this research addressed why behavior interventions result in different energy reduction rates and identified two important gaps: lack of fundamental understanding of behavioral determinants of occupants, and lack of methods to quantitatively describe the varying occupant characteristics which affect the effectiveness of interventions. To address these gaps, the research developed a conceptual framework which explains occupant behaviors with three determining factors - motivation, opportunity, and ability (MOA) incorporating insights from building science and social psychology. Based on MOA levels, clustering analysis and agent-based modeling were applied to classify occupancy characteristics and evaluate the effectiveness of a chosen intervention. The framework was improved by integrating MOA factors with two classical behavioral theories to address the challenges in defining and measuring MOA factors. The results showed an improved explanatory power over a single theory and suggested that favorable behaviors can be promoted by motivating occupants, removing environmental constraints, and improving occupants’ abilities. This framework enables decision-makers to develop effective and economical interventions to solicit behavioral change and achieve building efficiency. Building upon these two perspectives of human-building interactions, future studies can investigate how personalized thermal environments will improve occupant behaviors in interacting with HVAC systems and the corresponding impacts on building energy consumption.
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Last chance tourism (LCT) has received significant attention within the academic literature and popular press because of its controversial nature of bringing travelers to threatened places. However, little theory has been applied to understand why travelers gravitate toward this controversial type of tourism. Hence, this work combines the value–belief–norm (VBN) model and theory of planned behavior (TPB) framework to explain intentions to participate in LCT. Survey data were collected from a national panel ( n = 436) of US travelers in 2019. A two-step modeling approach (confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling) was followed to examine psychometrics and hypothesized relationships between VBN constructs, TPB constructs, and intentions to participate in LCT. Of the 11 hypotheses examined, 10 were supported, with both theories combining to explain 61% of the variance in travelers’ intentions. The TPB construct of “social norms” was the best predictor of LCT intentions, emphasizing the conspicuous nature of LCT’s influence on demand.
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Managing wildlife in landscapes under private ownership requires partnership between landowners, resource users, and governing agencies. Agencies often call on landowners to voluntarily change their practices to achieve collective goals. Landowner support for management action is partially a function of normative beliefs about managing wildlife. Understanding factors that support development of normative beliefs is important for program design, with implications beyond deer. Drawing on norm activation theory, identity theory , and community attachment, we hypothesized that landowners' ascription of responsibility to manage deer were a function of their identity as a wildlife steward and attachment to their community. We tested our hypotheses using structural equation modeling with data from a survey of southeast Minnesota landowners. Results revealed ascribed responsibility to be a function of identity. In turn, identity was predicted by affect toward the community. Findings suggest community-based approaches to wildlife management could improve goal achievement.
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Central to the theoretical model I have presented is the idea that altruistic behavior is causally influenced by feelings of moral obligation to act on one's personally held norms. Research supporting this central tenet of the model has demonstrated associations between personal norms and behavior, rather than causal relations. I have argued that these associations are at least partly causal, however, because: (1) the associations appear primarily in the presence of personality conditions conducive to norm activation and are absent when personality conditions are conducive to deactivation; and (2) attributes of personal norms (e.g., centrality, ·stability, intensity) relate to altruism singly and' in combination in ways predicted when we assume the causal impact of anticipated moral costs on behavior. A third critical link in this argument would be forged by studies showing that variations in situational conditions conducive to activation of moral obligation also influence the relationship between personal norms and behavior. There is ample evidence that variables which foster movement through the activation process, according to the theoretical model, are themselves related to altruistic behavior (e.g., seriousness of need, uniqueness of responsibility). What remains to be determined is whether the impact of these variables on altruism is mediated by personal norms. Evidence relevant to the sequential nature of the steps in the theoretical model is sparse. Both the ·distinctiveness and ordering of the postulated steps rests largely on logical rather than empirical grounds. The role of feedback among the steps, with new input of information from later redefinitions or overt actions in a chain of decisions, also merits investigation. It is worth noting that study of how personal norms are related to altruism is part of a larger enterprise, the investigation of attitude-behavior relations in general. Personal norms are a subtype of attitudinal variable, i.e., evaluations of acts in terms of their moral worth to the self. Techniques developed to discover whether the impact of personal norms on altruism is causal might profitably be imported into general attitude-behavior research. Reasoning like that employed to identify personality and situational moderators of the impact of personal norms on altruism might be used to track down the elusive moderators of other attitudinal variables. Characteristics of personal norms and the normative structure which influence their impact (e.g., centrality, stability) might also suggest characteristics of attitudes which warrant consideration. Equally important, the extensive research on attitude-behavior relations may yield leads for understanding the workings of personal norms. Next steps in developing the theory will have to address three issues given cursory treatment here. First, how do emotional arousal and feelings of moral obligation jointly influence altruism? Under what conditions and in what ways do they enhance 9r blunt each other's effects? How might emotional arousal modify the perception and processing of need-relevant information, for example? And how might rapidity of onset and deterioration in need cues affect shifting between empathic and morally mediated responsiveness? Second, how do perceived social norms and personal norms complement or supplement each other in their impact on altruistic behavior? Under what conditions do social norms have any influence? And do these effects ever interact with those of personal norms? Finally, how, if at all, do personal norms mediate boomerang effects on helping? What are the differences between conditions which elicit feelings of moral obligation and those which induce a sense of undue pressure or manipulation? Speculations and hypotheses regarding some of these questions, offered in my discussion of past research, may suggest directions for approaching these three issues. Experimental social psychologists, with their chariness toward individual differences, have conducted most of the research on prosocial behavior. Attention to internalized norms and values has consequently been restricted, and normative explanations have received short shrift (Darley & Latane, 1970; Krebs, 1970). I hope that the theory and research presented here will strengthen the credibility of normative approaches. Altruism-in contrast to the more inclusive "prosocial behavior" -implies purposes based in the person's value system. Hence altruism cannot be understood fully in the absence of studies which consider individual differences in values and norms as they interact with situational variables.
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This paper presents a theory of potentially universal aspects in the content of human values. Ten types of values are distinguished by their motivational goals. The theory also postulates a structure of relations among the value types, based on the conflicts and compatibilities experienced when pursuing them. This structure permits one to relate systems of value priorities, as an integrated whole, to other variables. A new values instrument, based on the theory and suitable for cross-cultural research, is described. Evidence relevant for assessing the theory, from 97 samples in 44 countries, is summarized. Relations of this approach to Rokeach's work on values and to other theories and research on value dimensions are discussed. Application of the approach to social issues is exemplified in the domains of politics and intergroup relations.
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Dunlap and Van Liere's New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in 1978, has become a widely used measure of proenvironmental orientation. This article develops a revised NEP Scale designed to improve upon the original one in several respects: ( 1 ) It taps a wider range of facets of an ecological worldview, ( 2 ) It offers a balanced set of pro- and anti-NEP items, and ( 3 ) It avoids outmoded terminology. The new scale, termed the New Ecological Paradigm Scale, consists of 15 items. Results of a 1990 Washington State survey suggest that the items can be treated as an internally consistent summated rating scale and also indicate a modest growth in pro-NEP responses among Washington residents over the 14 years since the original study.
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Place attachment provides insight on why and to what extent individuals value a particular setting. Most investigations involving place attachment and environmental attitudes have been conducted in terrestrial settings; little work has addressed proenvironmental behavior in marine settings. The purpose of the current investigation was to extend Stern et al.’s work, which indicates that individuals’ environmental worldviews (EWVs) influence their attitudes toward anthropogenic impacts on the environment. We hypothesized a model wherein place attachment partially mediates the relationship between recreational visitors’ EWV and their awareness of consequences of negative impacts on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef. We then compared this model with competing models. Our results suggest that place attachment is a useful addition to studies that use Stern et al.’s value-belief-norm model.
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Place attachment is a multidimensional construct comprising place dependence, place affect, place identity, and place social bonding. Yet, studies investigating the relationships between place attachment, place satisfaction, and pro-environmental behaviour have not investigated its pluralistic nature. Using data from 452 visitors to the Dandenong Ranges National Park, Australia, this study investigates these four dimensions of place attachment and their relationships with place satisfaction and pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Findings suggest that the four place attachment constructs are significantly associated with place satisfaction. Results suggest that it is necessary to consider pro-environmental behavioural intentions as a two-factor structure construct, comprising low and high effort pro-environmental behaviour. Place satisfaction is associated with low effort pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Place affect is significantly associated with both types of environmental behavioural intentions. Place identity is not associated with either type of environmental behavioural intentions. A significant association is also noted between low effort and high effort pro-environmental behavioural intentions. Practical applications of the study include marketing aimed at encouraging repeat visitation, with sophisticated message development and delivery building emotional attachment, a sense of belonging, and enhanced personal meaning. Heritage interpretation could use affect and emotion to enhance visitor satisfaction and experience, coupled with an outcomes-focused communication plan.
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The New Environmental Paradigm (NEP) Scale, published in The Journal of Environmental Education by R. E. Dunlap and K. D. Van Liere (1978), has become the most widely used measure of environmental concern in the world and been employed in hundreds of studies in dozens of nations. This article tells the story of the NEP Scale, beginning with how the author developed the notion of an environmental paradigm and then decided to measure it. The author describes the original NEP Scale and its 3 revisions, 1 of which is rapidly replacing the 1978 version in most studies. The author then reviews current uses of the various NEP Scales and examines major criticisms of them. Last, the author discusses the failure of an ecological worldview to become institutionalized in the United States, stemming from intense opposition to it since the 1990s, and the need to understand the sources of this opposition and monitor the situation.
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This article builds on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior and on Stern et al.'s value-belief-norm theory to propose and test a model that predicts proenvironmental behavior. In addition to relationships between beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors, we incorporate Inglehart's postmaterialist and Schwartz's harmony value dimensions as contextual antecedents at the national level. Structural equation modeling analyses of a 27-country sample provide almost full support for the mediation model. Postmaterialistic values, but not harmony, affect environmental concern; in turn, environmental concern, perceived threat, and perceived behavioral control affect willingness to sacrifice, which then affects a variety of proenvironmental behaviors. The findings emphasize the contribution of cultural conditions to the shaping of individuals'actions vis-à-vis environmental issues, alongside individual-level social-psychological variables.
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The purpose of the study was to test a hierarchical model of the effects of general values, environmental values, problem awareness, and personal norms on general proenvironmental behavior. The model starts with the effects of the relatively stable structures of general values and moves toward effects of more specific environmental values, environmental problem awareness, and personal norms. A personal norm was expected to mediate the effects of values and problem awareness on proenvironmental behavior. Survey data from a Swedish sample of 1,400 individuals were used in a path analysis to test the model, which was supported, and the results showed that the personal norm could be seen as derived from self-transcendent and ecocentric values and activated by problem awareness. The personal norm mediated the effects from general values, environmental values, and problem awareness on proenvironmental behavior.
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A simple model was tested in which attitudinal factors and external conditions act in combination to influence behavior. The model predicts that behavior is a monotonic function of attitudes and external conditions and that the strength of the attitude-behavior relationship is a curvilinear function of the strength of the external conditions, with extreme values setting boundary conditions on the applicability of attitude models. The model also allows for interactions in which perceived costs enter into the attitudinal process. Evidence is taken from a natural experiment in recycling in which collection bins for curbside pickup had been provided to 26% of 257 survey respondents. Consistent with the model, main effects of attitudes and external conditions were found, as was an interaction effect in which the Schwartz norm-activation model predicted recycling behavior only for households without bins. Interactive models such as the one developed here can yield better policy-relevant analyses by clarifying the relationships between external and internal influences on behavior change.
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In this study, the role of values in the field of household energy use is investigated by using the concept of quality of life (QOL). Importance judgments on 22 QOL aspects could be summarized into seven clearly interpretable value dimensions. The seven value dimensions and general and specific environmental concern contributed significantly to the explanation of policy support for government regulation and for market strategies aimed at managing environmental problems as well as to the explanation of the acceptability of specific home and transport energy-saving measures. In line with earlier research, home and transport energy use were especially related to sociodemographic variables like income and household size. These results show that it is relevant to distinguish between different measures of environmental impact and different types of environmental intent. Moreover, the results suggest that using only attitudinal variables, such as values, may be too limited to explain all types of environmental behavior.
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Proponents of ecotourism within protected areas believe that tour design and interpretation can help mitigate the negative impacts of tourism, human and environmental, and build an educated and motivated constituency that supports environmental conservation and social improvements. However, ecotourism's claims to achieve those objectives are largely untested, and linkages between tourism's operational characteristics and positive changes in tourists” environmental knowledge, attitudes and behaviours are largely unexplored. This exploratory research investigated the efforts of one Galapagos National Park tour operator to explore whether a well-conceived interpretation/ecotourism product could influence tourists” educational outcomes and support of environmental conservation. Results suggest that well-designed and delivered interpretation during the ecotourism experience can increase knowledge of the host-protected area, supportive attitudes towards resource management issues facing the host-protected area, general environmental behavioural intentions and philanthropic support of conservation.
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Recent research has examined the relationship between values and attitudes about environmental issues. Findings from these studies have found values of self-transcendence (positively) and self-enhancement (negatively) to predict general concern for environmental problems. Other recent findings have differentiated between environmental attitudes based on concern for self (egoistic), concern for other people (social-altruistic), and concern for plants and animals (biospheric).This article reports the results from a study of the relationship between values and environmental attitudes in six countries: Brazil, Czech Republic, Germany, India, New Zealand, and Russia. Results show strong support for the cross-cultural generalizability of the relationship between values and attitudes and on the structure of environmental concern. In addition, analyses of the relationship between values and environmental behavior show evidence for norm activation only for self-transcendence; results for self-enhancement show a consistently negative relationship.
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Criticisms of normative explanations of helping behavior are examined, and an explanation responsive to these criticisms is proposed. This explanation specifies conditions which affect the activation of personal norms and hence their influence on behavior. One hypothesis based on the explanation was tested: the impact of norms on behavior is a function of the tendency to deny or to ascribe responsibility to the self (AR). AR and personal norms toward donating bone marrow to a stranger were measured in a mailed questionnaire. Three months later, 132 women received mailed appeals to join a pool of potential donors from an unrelated source. As predicted, volunteering was a function of the AR × personal norm interaction (p < .0001). Personal norms had no impact on volunteering among those low on AR (deniers), but a substantial impact among those high on AR. Neither intentions to donate, attitudes toward transplants, nor various sociodemographic variables added to the variance in volunteering accounted for by the AR × personal norm interaction.
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This article examines the value attitude behavior cognitive hierarchy as it pertains to wildland preservation. Data for this investigation were obtained from a random sample of Colorado residents (n=960). A biocentric/anthropocentric value orientation continuum was developed and examined empirically. Consistent with previous research, confirmatory factor analysis and reliability analysis suggested that a respondent's value orientation toward wildlands can be positioned along this single continuum. As predicted by theory, a structural equation analysis demonstrated that the biocentric/anthropocentric value orientation continuum predicted a respondent's attitude toward the preservation of wildlands, and that the attitude fully mediated the relationship between value orientation and behavioral intention to vote for wildland preservation. Overall, this article provides empirical support for using the cognitive hierarchy when attempting to understand and predict responses to natural resource issues.
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Environmental protection may be described as a social dilemma. That is, collectively, we are better off If the environment Is protected, but rational self-interest often dictates environmental exploitation. The role of personal values in influencing pro-environmental behavior Is gaining Increasing attention relative to other solutions, such as monetary incentives and punitive sanctions. Using Schwartzks measure of values, I examine the influence of values on environmental behavior. Based on Schwartz s theory, values found to have a positive influence on environmental behavior are self-transcenden Vopenness to change and universalisn/blospheric. Values found to have a negative influence Include self-enhancement conservation.
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There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951). Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano. Highly developed skills of this kind typically no longer require conscious formulation of a behavioral plan. Nevertheless, at least in general outline, we are normally well aware of the actions required to attain a certain goal. Consider such a relatively routine behavior as typing a letter. When setting this activity as a goal, we anticipate the need to locate a typewriter, insert a sheet of paper, adjust the margins, formulate words and sentences, strike the appropriate keys, and so forth. Some parts of the plan are more routine, and require less conscious thought than others, but without an explicit or implicit plan to guide the required sequence of acts, no letter would get typed.
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The predictive power of the Ajzen, Triandis, and Schwartz models are compared in the context of car use for university routes. Two hundred fifty-four students filled out a questionnaire designed to measure the components of the three models. In the prediction of intention to use a car, results indicated that one variable from the Trinandis model—role beliefs—increased the explanatory power offered by the components of the Ajzen model. In the prediction of self-reported car use, one variable of the Triandis model—car use habit—significantly increased the predictive power of the Ajzen model. The central variable of the Schwartz model—personal norm—exerted no significant effect either on intention or on behavior. The implications of the findings for interventions to reduce the car use of students for university routes are discussed.
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Numerous theoretical frameworks have been developed to explain the gap between the possession of environmental knowledge and environmental awareness, and displaying pro-environmental behavior. Although many hundreds of studies have been undertaken, no definitive explanation has yet been found. Our article describes a few of the most influential and commonly used analytical frameworks: early US linear progression models; altruism, empathy and prosocial behavior models; and finally, sociological models. All of the models we discuss (and many of the ones we do not such as economic models, psychological models that look at behavior in general, social marketing models and that have become known as deliberative and inclusionary processes or procedures (DIPS)) have some validity in certain circumstances. This indicates that the question of what shapes pro-environmental behavior is such a complex one that it cannot be visualized through one single framework or diagram. We then analyze the factors that have been found to have some influence, positive or negative, on pro-environmental behavior such as demographic factors, external factors (e.g. institutional, economic, social and cultural) and internal factors (e.g. motivation, pro-environmental knowledge, awareness, values, attitudes, emotion, locus of control, responsibilities and priorities). Although we point out that developing a model that tries to incorporate all factors might neither be feasible nor useful, we feel that it can help illuminate this complex field. Accordingly, we propose our own model based on the work of Fliegenschnee and Schelakovsky (1998) who were influenced by Fietkau and Kessel (1981).
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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We present a theory of the basis of support for a social movement. Three types of support (citizenship actions, policy support and acceptance, and personal-sphere behaviors that accord with movement principles) are empirically distinct from each other and from committed activism. Drawing on theoretical work on values and norm-activation processes, we propose a value-belief-norm (VBN) theory of movement support. Individuals who accept a movement's basic values, believe that valued objects are threatened, and believe that their actions can help restore those values experience an obligation (personal norm) for pro-movement action that creates a predisposition to provide support; the particular type of support that results is dependent on the individual's capabilities and constraints. Data from a national survey of 420 respondents suggest that the VBN theory, when compared with other prevalent theories, offers the best available account of support for the environmental movement.
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Psychological research involving scale construction has been hindered considerably by a widespread lack of understanding of coefficient alpha and reliability theory in general. A discussion of the assumptions and meaning of coefficient alpha is presented. This discussion is followed by a demonstration of the effects of test length and dimensionality on alpha by calculating the statistic for hypothetical tests with varying numbers of items, numbers of orthogonal dimensions, and average item intercorrelations. Recommendations for the proper use of coefficient alpha are offered.
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This study explores the relationship between Australian’s attitudes toward climate change impacts on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and environmentally responsible behavior (ERB). We hypothesize that general attitudes toward climate change, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control predict intended and reported behavior, and that attitude negatively influences constraints on adopting ERB. The moderating effect of residential condition (urban vs. rural contexts) was tested across these hypothesized relationships. We randomly selected 200 individuals from eight regions: Five within 50 km of the GBR Coastline and three from the Statistical Metropolitan Areas in Australia. We yielded 1,623 surveys by telephone interviews. Findings confirm our hypotheses and suggest the most important predictor of intentions is perceived behavioral control. The two groups of respondents (urban vs. rural) illustrate different relationships. This study offers insight on how managers of the GBR can effectively shape residents’ behavioral tendencies that minimize human impacts on the natural environment.
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As communities continue to engage in debate surrounding land use and preservation, insight into stakeholder knowledge and concern with local species becomes increasingly important. This project explores the association between individual knowledge/concern with species diversity as related to environmental perspective, measured through the New Ecological Paradigm scale. We aim to understand whether concern with local species diversity is associated with species-specific knowledge and/or ecocentric outlooks more generally. Results from a mail survey in Boulder, CO reveal that individuals with ecocentric perspectives place greater priority on species preservation relative to those with anthropocentric perspectives, regardless of species knowledge. These results imply that to engage local publics in issues of biodiversity, outreach should not simply provide background specific to local species, but also demonstrate the significance of ecological integrity and biological diversity more broadly.
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An empirically corroborated model of proenvironmental commitments is outlined. According to this model, willingness to contribute to the saving of global commons (atmosphere, oceans, etc.) is motivated by the awareness of global ecological risks, by perceived injustices of the distributions of benefits and costs resulting from exploiting and polluting activities, and by the conviction that many actors-ordinary citizens as well as powerful authorities in business and politics-have both effective means and responsibilities to contribute to the protection of the environment. Political implications are drawn from the typical attributional pattern of multi-responsibility for environmental protection and from the perception of distributive injustices of the current overuse and pollution of commons. Basic issues of ecological justice are discussed. Cet article presente un modele d'engagements envers l'environnement qui a ete corrobore par des donnees empiriques. Selon ce modele, la volonte de contribuer a sauver les ressources (atmosphere, oceans, etc.) est motivee par la conscience des risques ecologiques globaux, par l'injustice percue dans la distribution des couts et benefices lies a l'exploitation et a la pollution ainsique par la conviction que plusieurs intervenants-citoyens ordinaires aussi bien que les puissants de l'economie et de la politique-ont les moyens et les responsabilites pour contribuer a la protection de l'environnement. Le pattern typique d'attribution d'une responsabilite partagee pour la protection de l'environnement tout comme la perception des injustices dans la surexploitation et la pollution actuelle des ressources ont tout deux des implications politiques qui sont discutees dans ce texte. Des problemes fondamentaux de justice ecologique sont egalement abordes.
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This article aimed to demonstrate that hedonic values are important for understanding environmentally relevant beliefs, preferences, and actions, next to egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric values. In four studies, the authors found consistent support for their hypothesis that hedonic, egoistic, altruistic, and biospheric values can be distinguished empirically, suggesting that the distinction between the four types of values is not only theoretically meaningful but also recognized by individuals. Importantly, in line with the authors’ expectations, hedonic values appeared to be significantly and negatively related to a range of environmentally relevant attitudes, preferences, and behaviors, even when the other values were controlled for. This suggests that it is indeed important to include hedonic values in environmental studies and that interventions aimed to promote proenvironmental actions should consider hedonic consequences of actions, as these may be important barriers for behavior change.
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The determinants of individual behaviors that provide shared environmental benefits are a longstanding theme in social science research. Alternative behavioral models yield markedly different predictions and policy recommendations. This paper reviews and compares the literatures from two disciplines that appear to be moving toward a degree of convergence. In social psychology, moral theories of pro-environmental behavior have focused on the influence of personal moral norms while recognizing that external factors, such as costs and incentives, ultimately limit the strength of the norm-behavior relationship. Rational choice models, such as the theory of planned behavior in social psychology and the theories of voluntary provision of public goods in economics, have sought to incorporate the effects of personal norms and to measure their importance in explaining behaviors, such as recycling and the demand for green products. This paper explores the relationship between these approaches and their implications for the theory and practice of ecological economics.
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This research investigates the potential dimensionality of environmental worldviews using a scale derived from the New Environmental Paradigm (NEP). It delineates the substantive consequences of dimensionality for our understanding of environmental behavior and both demographic and religious correlates of environmentalism. We found that our NEP-based Scale of Worldview contained two distinct dimensions that were differentially predicted by demographic and religious variables. Of particular importance was the relationship of religious fundamentalism to the two subscales thereby highlighting the inherent religious implications of NEP item wording. In general, we found that Worldviews do not contribute substantially to the prediction of Environmental Behavior. Additionally, Worldviews do not allow us to account for demographic differences in the performance of Environmental Behavior. We concluded that environmental worldviews have limited policy implications given the lack of correspondence to behavior but that they remain an important prerequisite to such behavior which is deserving of careful study.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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First published in 1949 and praised in The New York Times Book Review as "a trenchant book, full of vigor and bite," A Sand County Almanac combines some of the finest nature writing since Thoreau with an outspoken and highly ethical regard for America's relationship to the land. Written with an unparalleled understanding of the ways of nature, the book includes a section on the monthly changes of the Wisconsin countryside; another part that gathers informal pieces written by Leopold over a forty-year period as he traveled through the woodlands of Wisconsin, Iowa, Arizona, Sonora, Oregon, Manitoba, and elsewhere; and a final section in which Leopold addresses the philosophical issues involved in wildlife conservation. As the forerunner of such important books as Annie Dillard's Pilgrim at Tinker Creek , Edward Abbey's Desert Solitaire , and Robert Finch's The Primal Place , this classic work remains as relevant today as it was forty years ago.