Article

Anti-inflammatory activity of aronia berry extracts in murine splenocytes

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Aronia berries are a rich source of dietary polyphenols, with diverse polyphenol profiles among its genotypes. The objective of this work was to characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of underutilized aronia berries and their polyphenols using primary C57/BL6 mouse splenocytes. At 125 μg gallic acid equivalents/mL, the commercial ‘Viking’ aronia berry and underutilized aronia extracts inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6 to a similar extent. ‘Viking’ extracts inhibited IL-6 predominately in CD4− lymphocytes. The primary polyphenol constituents of extracts were subsequently evaluated for inhibition of LPS-stimulated IL-6. Cyanidin-3-arabinoside, but not the primary aronia anthocyanin cyanidin-3-galactoside, inhibited IL-6 at 10 μg/mL. Quercetin, but not its 3-galactoside or glucoside, inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6. Quercetin also inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-10, whereas ‘Viking’ extract increased splenocyte IL-10 in the absence of LPS. Thus, the capacity of aronia extracts to modulate LPS-stimulated splenocyte IL-6 and IL-10 in vitro was not attributed to its principal polyphenols.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Similarly, the chokeberry extract down-regulated inflammation in LPSinduced uveitis (Ohgami et al., 2005). Versatile commercial and laboratory-made extracts also exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in vitro: chokeberry inhibits IL-6 and up-regulates interleukin 10 (IL-10) production in mouse splenocytes (Martin et al., 2014) and decreases NO, IL-6 and TNF production in macrophages and microglia (Lee et al., 2018;Thi & Hwang, 2018b). These anti-inflammatory effects were primarily due to particular polyphenols (cyanidin-3-arabinoside and quercetin) that are represented as a minor fraction of total polyphenols of chokeberry (Martin et al., 2014). ...
... Versatile commercial and laboratory-made extracts also exhibited anti-inflammatory effect in vitro: chokeberry inhibits IL-6 and up-regulates interleukin 10 (IL-10) production in mouse splenocytes (Martin et al., 2014) and decreases NO, IL-6 and TNF production in macrophages and microglia (Lee et al., 2018;Thi & Hwang, 2018b). These anti-inflammatory effects were primarily due to particular polyphenols (cyanidin-3-arabinoside and quercetin) that are represented as a minor fraction of total polyphenols of chokeberry (Martin et al., 2014). Some of the extracts display their anti-inflammatory nature through inhibition of leukocyte transmigration from the blood into the tissue by lowering the expression of adhesive molecules on endothelial cells (Zapolska-Downar et al., 2012). ...
... Generally, chokeberry extracts contain mixtures of biologically-active substances that inhibit inflammation. Polyphenol compounds, more precisely anthocyanins, are responsible for the anti-inflammatory properties of berries (Joseph, Edirisinghe, & Burton-Freeman, 2014;Martin et al., 2014). According to literature, the main anthocyanin compounds in chokeberry extracts -cyanidin and its glucosides show an extremely potent anti-inflammatory activity (Jung, Kwak, & Hwang, 2014;Wang et al., 1999). ...
Article
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is known for its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties. Since the effects of chokeberry extract on the immune response have been only sporadically assessed, our aim was to investigate chokeberry fruit water extract on the immune response in vivo and in vitro. When administered orally to healthy mice, the extract exerted immunomodulatory effects in the gut evidenced by the altered proportion of macrophages, dendritic cells and T cells. Importantly, oral consumption of the chokeberry extract resulted in blood glucose level increase in C57BL/6 mice with chemically-induced diabetes. These in vivo results were corroborated by observed up-regulation of nitric oxide and interelukin-1β production in macrophages and dendritic cells, up-regulated phagocytic activity of macrophages, increased T and B lymphocytes proportions and differentiation of interferon-γ-producing T cells in vitro. The obtained results imply that our chokeberry extract stimulates pro-inflammatory properties in immune cells of innate and adaptive immunity.
... Polyphenols appear to modulate immune function in a cell-and cytokine specific-manner. For example, aronia berry extracts inhibited IL-6 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated primary murine splenocytes and increased IL-10 excretion only in unstimulated splenocytes (Martin et al., 2014). Furthermore, aronia berry polyphenols are extensively catabolized by gut microbiota and metabolized by host tissue (Xie et al., 2016). ...
... However, aronia consumption did not significantly inhibit the ex vivo response to LPS stimulation in healthy mice. Our prior work using ex vivo primary mouse splenocytes, incubation with aronia extract also increased the production of anti-inflammatory IL-10 (Martin et al., 2014). Therefore, it appears that aronia polyphenols can directly stimulate immunocyte IL-10 production, which may explain the higher levels of this cytokine in the mouse colon. ...
... Therefore, it appears that aronia polyphenols can directly stimulate immunocyte IL-10 production, which may explain the higher levels of this cytokine in the mouse colon. In contrast, aronia extract and isolated polyphenols inhibited IL-6 ex vivo in PI-stimulated CD4 − and CD4 + lymphocyte populations (Martin, et al., 2014). However, aronia consumption did not inhibit ex vivo stimulation of IL-6 by LPS in the present study. ...
Article
Aronia berries are rich in polyphenols with anti-inflammatory activity. We hypothesized that aronia berry consumption modulates intestinal immune function and T cells. The aims of the present work were to assess the immunomodulatory potential of ‘Viking’ aronia berry (black chokeberry, Aronia mitschurinii) in vivo and to determine the extent aronia berry polyphenols or known microbial polyphenol catabolites inhibit T cell tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Aronia berry consumption increased colonic IL-10 secretion in healthy mice, but did not inhibit ex vivo cytokine secretion of lipopolysaccharide-stimulated spleen and colon tissue. Aronia berry consumption inhibited wasting associated with T cell adoptive transfer and dextran sulphate sodium induced colitis. Aronia extracts, neutral phenols fraction, and the polyphenol catabolites 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylpropionic acid inhibited TNF-α production in Jurkat T cells. Therefore, T cells and microbial catabolism partly mediate the anti-inflammatory effects of aronia consumption in the colon.
... The MTT tetrazolium dye test is widely used to test the cytotoxicity of the tested substances before any experiments involving cell lines [7,49,50]. The MTT test results are shown in Table 2. ...
... Aronia extract inhibited also tumor necrosis factor TNF-α-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation [44]. In a study conducted by Martin and coworkers [49], it was shown that extracts from various species of chokeberry, despite significant differences in their composition, similarly inhibit LPS-induced interleukin-6 (IL-6) secretion by murine splenocytes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Aronia fruits contain many valuable components that are beneficial to human health. However, fruits are characterized by significant variations in chemical composition dependent on the growing conditions and harvesting period. Therefore, there is a need to formulate the extracts with a precisely defined content of health-promoting substances. Aronia dry extracts (ADE) were prepared from frozen pomace applying water extraction, followed by purification and spray-drying. Subsequently, the content of anthocyanins, phenolic acids, and polyphenols was determined. The high-quality chokeberry pomace enabled obtaining extracts with anthocyanin content much higher than the typical market standards. Moreover, it was found that the antioxidant capacity of aronia extracts exceeded those found in other fruit preparations. Antioxidant and free-radical scavenging properties were evaluated using a 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy (DPPH-EPR) test and Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) assay. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation and the level of inflammatory markers have been also investigated using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264 cells. It was revealed that ADE standardized to 25% of anthocyanins depresses the level of markers of inflammation and lipid peroxidation (Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) in in vitro conditions. Additionally, it was confirmed that ADE at all analyzed concentrations did not show any cytotoxic effect as demonstrated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
... Numerous studies have demonstrated that polyphenols are protective against pathologies caused by oxidative stress, such as metabolic disorders. Flavonoids and phenolic acids have demonstrated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities (Coppin et al., 2013;González et al., 2011;Martin et al., 2014;Moon, Yang, & Park, 2006;Soobrattee, Neergheen, Luximon-Ramma, Aruoma, & Bahorun, 2005;Wang et al., 2014). Flaxseeds are the richest dietary source of lignans; they contain secoisolariciresinol and trace quantities of matairesinol (Adlercreutz, 2007) which, during consumption, are converted to enterodiol and enterolactone. ...
... Chokeberry is rich in nutritious ingredients including dietary fiber, organic acids, sugar, fat, protein, minerals and vitamins [18,19]. Specifically, the polyphenols content of chokeberry is higher than those of others berries (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry crops), which exhibits various physiological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, treatment of cardiovascular diseases and so on [20][21][22][23]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. Chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa L.) are rich in polyphenols with various physiological and pharmacological activities. We determined serum physiological parameters and fecal microbial components by using related kits, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing every 10 days. Real-time PCR analysis was used to measured gene expression of bile acids (BAs) and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. We analyzed the effects of different Chokeberry polyphenol (CBPs) treatment time on obesity and lipid metabolism in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rat. The results indicated that CBPs treatment prevents obesity, liver steatosis and improves dyslipidemia in HFD-fed rat. CBPs modulated the composition of the gut microbiota with the extended treatment time, reducing the Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) and increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides , Prevotella , Akkermansia and other bacterial species associated with anti-obesity properties. We found that CBPs treatment gradually decreased the total BAs pool and particularly the reduced the relative content of cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and enhanced the relative content of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). These changes were positively correlated Bacteroides , Prevotella and negatively correlated with Clostridium , Eubacterium , Ruminococcaceae . In liver and white adipose tissues, the gene expression of lipogenesis, lipolysis and BAs metabolism were regulated after CBPs treatment in HFD-fed rat, which was most likely mediated through FXR and TGR-5 signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism. In addition, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, UCP1 and PGC-1α were upregulated markedly in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) after CBPs treatment. We confirmed that CBPs could reduce the body weight of HFD-fed rat by accelerating energy homeostasis and thermogenesis in iBAT. Finally, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment results demonstrated that FMT from CBPs-treated rat failed to reduce the weight of HFD-fed rat. However, FMT from CBPs-treated rat improved dyslipidemia and reshaped gut microbiota in HFD-fed rat. In conclusion, CBPs treatment improved obesity and complications by regulating gut microbiota in HFD-fed rat. The gut microbiota plays a important role in BAs metabolism after CBPs treatment, and BAs have therefore emerged as major effectors in microbe-host signaling events that influence host lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and thermogenesis.
... However, the immune-metabolic modulation by the diet reduces the impairment of homeostasis; nevertheless, the intake of foods containing biologically active molecules improves the health status and reduces pathologies associated immunometabolic disorders (Jung et al., 2014;Ko, Lo, Wang, Chiou, & Lin, 2014;Komprda, 2012;Martin et al., 2014). Thus, a variety of bioactive food components have been shown to modulate the inflammatory response, including procyanidins and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by different molecular mechanisms. ...
Article
Nutrition can be considered as a two-side coin: although an imbalance in the energy content is associated with obesity, a healthier state can be promoted through the intake of immunologically active compounds. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the immunomodulatory properties of grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in cafeteria (CAF) diet-fed rats. Rats were fed either a standard diet (STD) or a CAF diet for 13 weeks. During the last 3 weeks the group fed with CAF diet was divided depending on CAF diet supplementation with GSPE and/or DHA. The healthy properties of GSPE and DHA diet supplementation include the suppression of diet-induced inflammation by promoting a phenotypic switch in the molecular and cell profile of mesenteric adipose tissue, the boost of immune system through the modulation of cell-mediated immunity, involving macrophages and T lymphocyte subsets, and the stimulation of the thymus and spleen functionality to counteract the obesity-induced weakened immune response. Moreover, the combination of GSPE and DHA bioactivities potentiate the immunomodulatory properties of each compound administered individually.
... However, in vivo studies in mice have shown anti-inflammatory activity of acetone-water chokeberry extract at a concentration of 125 mg GAE/mL. It inhibited by 58% the activity of interleukin-6, which participates in the development of autoimmune inflammatory diseases [31]. Our comparative research with indomethacin (at a concentration of 4 mg/mL) an anti-inflammatory drug of the NSAID group (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)has shown that it inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 activity by approx. ...
Article
The study of ethanol extracts as potential dietary supplements has shown that extracts of chokeberry (IC50 24.6 µg/ml) and, to a lesser extent, blackcurrant, rosehip and hawthorn (IC50 30.9, 33.5 and 45.9 µg/ml) are good antioxidants in relation to UVB-oxidized phosphatidylcholine liposomes. All tested fruit extracts protect the bilayer against oxidation by reducing fluidity of the membrane hydrophilic/hydrophobic region (in the presence of extracts the generalized polarization of the Laurdan probe and fluorescence anisotropy of DPH and TMA-DPH increased). The major phenolic compounds were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS). The extracts caused inhibition of the pro-inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2, the highest for blackcurrant (77.6% and 70.5% respectively) and rosehip (64.9% and 72.5%). Another aspect of the research demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical stability of the extracts during 12-month storage. With the exception of hawthorn, they stabilized the profile of unsaturated fatty acids of linseed oil during storage. The investigated fruit extracts in combination with polyunsaturated fatty acids may provide stable and effective dietary anti-inflammatory and antioxidant benefits.Practical applications By combining two different groups of bioactive compounds (fruit extracts + omega-3 fatty acids), a new attractive product has been obtained of broad biological activity, which could potentially be useful as a functional food ingredient. The study enabled us to specify the regions where fruit extracts become imbedded in the membrane, based on changes in physical parameters induced in the regions, and will allow us to explain at the molecular level a possible way to protect lipid membranes against attack by free radicals.
... 아로니아에서 짙은 보랏빛을 나타내는 주 요 안토시아닌 성분은 시이아니딘(cyanidins)과 펠라고니딘(pelargonidins) 등이며 건물 중량 당 약 1%의 안토사이아닌 색소를 함 유하고 있어 다른 베리류에 비해 안토시아닌 함량이 매우 높다(2). 또한 비타민 C, 폴리페놀 및 플라보노이드 화합물을 함유하 고 있어 산화방지 및 항염증 효능, 암예방, 면역증진 등과 같은 다양한 생리활성 보고되고 있다(3,4).국내에서 재배되는 아로니 아는 8월 말부터 9월초에 걸쳐 수확하고 있는데 저장성 등의 문 제로 생과로 이용할 수 있는 기간이 짧기 때문에 가공을 통해 다 양한 용도로 활용할 수 있는 방안을 모색하는 것이 필요하다. ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of jelly prepared with different amounts of aronia juice. Aronia juice was incorporated into jelly at concentrations of 3, 6, and 9%, based on the total weight of water. While the total water content of the jelly in different groups was not significantly different, the sugar content significantly increased with increasing levels of aronia juice. In the chromaticity measurements, L∗ and b∗ values decreased, whereas the a∗ values increased with increasing levels of aronia juice in the jelly. Further, the hardness and chewiness of jelly increased with increasing amounts of aronia juice. On the other hand, resilience, cohesiveness, and gumminess of the jelly were nearly similar for the control and samples treated with aronia juice. The total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanin contents increased proportionally with increasing levels of aronia juice. In addition, the antioxidant activity measured in terms of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging activities of the jelly extracts were significantly higher for the samples containing aronia juice compared to the control and increased proportionally with increasing concentrations of aronia juice. In the sensory evaluation, the sample containing 6% aronia juice was perceived to have the best color, taste, texture, chewiness, flavor, and overall acceptance. These results suggest that aronia juice may be a useful ingredient in jelly for improving its quality as well as sensory and antioxidant potential.
... For instance, positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on cellular oxidative damage suggests its putative role in the protection against oxidative stress (Kardum et al., 2014). Anti-inflammatory activity of chokeberry extracts was reported in murine splenocytes (Martin et al., 2014), while chokeberry juice inhibited mouse embryonal carcinoma stem cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and triggered apoptosis (Sharif et al., 2013). In general, the products derived from chokeberry are claimed to be beneficial in attenuating disorders associated with oxidative stress: bioavailability and antioxidant activity of chokeberry polyphenols, possible mechanisms of action in vivo in the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-related diseases (Denev, Kratchanov, Ciz, Lojek, & Kratchanova, 2012). ...
Article
Black chokeberry is well-known for its high anthocyanin content and strong antioxidant capacity; however, due to their undesirable flavour, chokeberry fruits are processed into various products such as juice and fruit wine. Pressing juice results in high amounts of pomace, which is frequently discarded as waste. This study aimed at valorizing chokeberry pomace as a source of valuable functional ingredients. Conventional and high pressure extraction methods were applied; the yields of extracts were in the range of 3-48%. Some extracts possessed high antioxidant potential as determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) which was in the range of 0.21-15 mmol Trolox equivalents per gram; ethanol extract rendered the strongest antioxidant effect. Twenty-nine constituents were identified in pomace extracts by chromatography/mass spectrometry with high concentrations of chlorogenic acid, cyanidin derivatives and quinic acid. Thus, chokeberry pomace is a good source of bioactive constituents that might be used for various applications, particularly functional food ingredients and nutraceuticals.
... Martin et al. [105] characterized the anti-inflammatory effects of Aronia berries and their polyphenols using primary C57/BL6 mouse splenocytes. The berries of commercial Aronia cultivar 'Viking' and extracts inhibited LPS-stimulated IL-6. ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, growing attention has been focused on the utilization of natural sources of antioxidants in the prevention of chronic diseases. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) represents a lesser known fruit species utilized mainly as juices, purees, jams, jellies and wine, as important food colorants or nutritional supplements. The fruit is valued as a great source of antioxidants, especially polyphenols, such as phenolic acids (neochlorogenic and chlorogenic acids) and flavonoids (anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, flavanols and flavonols), particularly cyanidin-3-galactoside and cyanidin-3-arabinoside, as well as (−)-epicatechin units. The berries of A. melanocarpa, due to the presence and the high content of these bioactive components, exhibit a wide range of positive effects, such as strong antioxidant activity and potential medicinal and therapeutic benefits (gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiproliferative or anti-inflammatory activities). They could be also contributory toward the prevention of chronic diseases including metabolic disorders, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, because of supportive impacts on lipid profiles, fasting plasma glucose and blood pressure levels.
... Regarding the anti-inflammatory function, Martin found that chokeberry polyphenols could inhibit the spleen cells C57/BL6 of mice to produce IL-6 by LPS induction [22]. IL-6 is associated with autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, arthritis and enteritis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was the purification process of polyphenols from Aronia melanocarpa (chokeberry), and the purification parameters were optimised by adsorption and desorption tests. By comparing adsorption and desorption ability of polyphenols from chokeberry on six kinds of macroporous resin, XAD-7 resin was selected. Experiments prove that the best purification parameters of static adsorption and desorption were sample pH = 4.0 with 4 h of adsorption; and desorption solvent is 95% ethanol (pH = 7.0) with 2 h of desorption. The best dynamic parameters were 9.3 bed volume (BV) of sample loading amount at a feeding flow rate of 2 BV/h, and washing the column with 5.8 BV of water, followed by subsequent elution with an eluent volume of 5.0 mL at an elution flow rate of 2 BV/h. Next the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of polyphenols from chokeberry, blueberries, haskap berries was studied on HepG2 human liver cancer cells. The results show that polyphenol from chokeberry has a strong antioxidant effect. Taking into account the content of polyphenols in fruit, polyphenols from chokeberry represent a very valuable natural antioxidant source with antiproliferative products.
... But it is less known as an edible fruit because of its bitterness and astringency [13]. Fruits of blue honeysuckle are not only rich in nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, organic acids and so on, but also contain a number of anthocyanins and flavonols that potentially contribute to their color and human health-promoting properties [14][15][16][17], including protection against cancer [18,19] and ischemic heart disease [20], and other properties [10,[21][22][23][24]. ...
Article
In this study, the anthocyanin from Lonicera caerulea 'Beilei' fruit (ABL) was extracted and purified. The purified component (ABL-2) was then evaluated for its anti-tumor properties on human hepatoma cells (SMMC-7721) in vitro and the murine hepatoma cells (H22) in vivo. In vitro, ABL-2 not only significantly inhibited the growth of SMMC-7721 cells, but also remarkably blocked the cells' cycle in G2/M phase, inducing DNA damage and eventually leading to apoptosis. In vivo, ABL also killed tumor cells, inhibited tumor growth, and improved the survival status of H22 tumor-bearing mice. These effects were associated with an increase in the activities of antioxidase and a decrease in the level of lipid peroxidation, as evidenced by changes in SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and MDA levels. In addition, ABL-2 also regulated the levels of immune cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. These results revealed that ABL-2 exerts an effective anti-tumor effect by dynamically adjusting the REDOX balance and improving the immunoregulatory activity of H22 tumor-bearing mice. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside (8.16 mg/g), cyanidin-3-glucoside (387.60 mg/g), cyanidin-3-rutinoside (23.62 mg/g), and peonidin-3-glucoside (22.20 mg/g) were the main components in ABL-2, which may contribute to its anti-tumor activity.
... The positive impacts of aronia on oxidative stress are potentially beneficial to prevent chronic diseases and slow their progression. the major effective anthocyanin [215]. These studies demonstrate that aronia berries exhibit anti-inflammatory activity by suppressing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. ...
Article
Diabetes is a global health problem. The consumption of dietary polyphenols may help to decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes and slow the progression of diabetic complications. Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) and elderberry (Sambucus nigra L. ssp. canadensis) fruits are rich in polyphenols and exhibit health-promoting properties, but they are underutilized. Aronia and elderberries are rarely consumed raw due to the astringent mouth feel. New food products are needed to increase their consumption. Kefir, a fermented dairy beverage, was chosen to be the matrix for incorporating berries due to: 1) the protein matrix can help mask the astringency; 2) an acidic environment is beneficial for the stability of phenolic compounds; 3) fermentative microorganisms may be able to increase the bioavailability of polyphenols. The first objective of this research was to develop new palatable products using underutilized berries and different sweeteners (sucrose, stevia and monk fruit extracts). Sensory evaluations were conducted to assess consumer acceptability of berry-containing kefirs. The results showed that aronia and elderberry kefirs sweetened with stevia or sucrose were all accepted by consumers where sucrose was the best-accepted sweetener. The second objective was to assess the health-promoting characteristics of the berry-containing kefirs. Aronia kefirs contained high levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins. Elderberry kefirs were moderate in total phenolics. All kefirs exhibited antioxidant capacity. The third objective was to evaluate the diabetes-beneficial properties of aronia kefir using an in-vitro digestion model. The impacts of fermentation on aronia polyphenols were also assessed. The results showed that the levels of bioaccessible polyphenols were elevated during digestion and the antioxidant capacity increased. Fermentation enhanced the inhibitory activity of aronia kefir on α-glucosidase but did not alter its weak inhibition on pancreatic α-amylase. Specific inhibition of α-glucosidase may decrease the absorption of carbohydrates and contribute to blood glucose control without side effects compared to pharmaceutical agents, such as acarbose. In conclusion, new berry-containing kefirs were well-accepted by the consumers and the consumption of berry-containing kefirs may help to reduce oxidative stress and aid in blood glucose control. In addition, fermentation may be a good strategy to increase the bioavailability of dietary polyphenols.
... In both studies, the more immature berries were effectively inhibited inflammatory responses compared to ripe fruits. These results may be due to the dietary polyphenols, which reduce inflammatory responses by reducing oxidative stress (Ellis, Edirisinghe, Kappagoda, & Burton-Freeman, 2011;Martin et al., 2014). Kim et al. (2011) observed that unripe R. coreanus raspberry had more cinnamic acid, ferulic acid, epicatechin, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid, and vanillic acid compared to ripe R. coreanus raspberry. ...
Article
Rubus L. (Rosaceae) berries have received worldwide attention, mainly for their nutritional and bioactive value. The raspberries and blackberries of this genus contain nutrients and bioactive compounds such as vitamins, minerals, proteins, sugars, and polyphenols. This review summarizes available data on the physical-chemical characteristics, nutritional composition, biologically active compounds, and biological activities of Rubus raspberries (Rubus idaeus L., R. ellipticus Smith, R. niveus Thunb., R. coreanus Miquel and R. occidentalis L.) and blackberries (R. ulmifolius Schott, R. fruticosus L., R. adenotrichus Schltdl., R. glaucus Benth). The composition and the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive, and antimicrobial activities, as well as the positive effects on blood lipids and atherosclerosis of the Rubus berries showed that these fruits are important sources of biologically active compounds, and their biological effects suggest potential uses for human health.
... Latterly, due to numerous health prompting effects, for example, antimicrobial [6], neuro-protective [7], antioxidant [8], cardioprotective [9], anti-inflammatory [10] and cancer preventive [11] properties, phenolic compounds have much of the attention of the researchers. Phenolic compounds possess different derivatives which have a potential application in the prevention or treatment of these aliments [12]. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
As potential agents for preventing different oxidative stress-related diseases, phenolic compounds have attracted increasing attention with the passage of time. Intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals in higher quantities is linked with decreased chances of chronic diseases. In plant-based foods, phenolic compounds are very abundant. However, bio-accessibility and biotransformation of phenolic compound are not reviewed in these studies; therefore, a detailed action mechanism of phenolic compounds is not recognized. In this article, inclusive concept of different factors affecting the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and their metabolic processes is presented through which phenolic compounds go after ingestion.
... Chokeberry extracts exert high antioxidant potential, which is comparable to that of prednisolone [11]. Consistently, their anti-inflammatory properties were documented in numerous experimental models, e.g., inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW macrophages [13], inhibition of TNFα, IL-6, and IL-8 in human peripheral monocytes, inhibition of NF-κB activation in RAW macrophages [14], and inhibition of IL-6 in mouse splenocytes [15]. ...
... Now this species has been tested as a source of antioxidant activity due to the high content of polyphenols (Mayer-Miebach et al., 2012;Bräunlich, 2013;Taheri, 2013), namely cyanidin anthocyanins, proanthocyanins, flavonols, chlorogenic acid and neochlorogenic acid (Oszmiański and Wojdylo, 2005;Slimestad et al., 2005;Koponen et al., 2007). The juice from fruits of Aronia has an antimutagenic activity (Gasiorowski et al., 1997), a gastroprotective effect (Matsumoto et al., 2004), hepatoprotective activity (Valcheva- Kuzmanova and Belcheva, 2006), anticancer activity (Sharif et al., 2012), cardioprotective and antidiabetes effects (Kulling and Rawel, 2008;Denev et al., 2012), an anti-inflammatory effect (Martin et al., 2014), and antiatherogenic activity (Daskalova et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
Useful wild plants usually decrease the content of biologically active substances in culture. However, there are no studies on the reverse process and no evidence whether the level of biologically active compounds increases in plants escaping from culture and becoming invaded in natural communities (invasive species). We studied Aronia melanocarpa, A. arbutifolia, A. × prunifolia, 2 samples of cultivated A. mitschurinii in the arboretum of the Main Botanical Garden (Moscow, Russia) and one sample of invasive A. mitschurinii from the Moscow region. The task of the study was to determine the degree of heritability of macro-and micromorphological characters of North American plants introduced to Europe. The identification of the samples most promising for further broad cultivation by their antioxidant activity and the content of microelements in leaves was also our research purpose. The diagnostic features of the introduced North American Aronia were found to be inherited under culture conditions. The mass of fruits increases in this order: A. arbutifolia → naturalised A. mitschurinii → A. × prunifolia → A. melanocarpa → cultivated A. mitschurinii. An original table was compiled to compare the studied taxa on 21 biomorphological features. Naturalising plants have a higher antioxidant activity of alcohol extracts than cultivated plants, and, on the contrary, lower antioxidant activity of water extracts. The leaves of A. mitschurinii have the highest content of 10 microelements: Fe, Mn, Sr, Zn, Se, Cu, Mo, Cr, As and Sb; A. × prunifolia has the highest content of 6 microelements: Ni, Co, V, Cd, Pb, and Sn; and A. arbutifolia has the highest content of B. Our observations suggest that naturalising plants of Aronia have a potential source of useful bioactive compounds.
... Aronia berry (A. mitschurinii 'Viking'), is a rich source of dietary anthocyanins and other phenolics, which can inhibit intestinal inflammation in mouse models of IBD [10,13,14]. ...
Article
The objective of this work was to determine how aronia berry polyphenols and its microbial catabolites improve intestinal barrier function. Caco-2 cells were cultured on transwell plates and allowed differentiate to form a model intestinal barrier, having baseline transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) ≥ 300 Ω cm². Barrier function of differentiated Caco-2 cells was compromised by the addition of an inflammatory cocktail (IC: TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ to the basolateral media and lipopolysaccharide to the apical media). Polyphenol-rich aronia berry powder or individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or catabolites were applied to the basolateral media concurrently with IC. TEER was determined subsequently by chopstick electrode or continuous analysis. Permeability was determined by application of 4 kDa FITC-dextran or Lucifer yellow. Expression of tight junction proteins was assessed by qRT-PCR analysis. Application of the IC to differentiated Caco-2 cells routinely reduced TEER by ∼40% within 24 h. Individual polyphenols representative of parent compounds or phenolic microbial catabolites at 100 μM did not inhibit IC reduction of TEER in Caco-2 cells. Whole aronia berry powder inhibited loss of TEER by ∼50% at 24 h after application of the IC. Furthermore 5 mg/mL of aronia berry powder prevented an IC-induced barrier permeability of FITC-dextran and Lucifer yellow. After 12 h of IC treatment, Caco-2 cells had increased claudin 1 (CLDN1) relative to the untreated control. Application of aronia berry powder inhibited CLDN1 and also increased expression of zonula ocludens-1 (ZO-1) after 12 h. In summary, aronia berry, but not its microbiota-derived catabolites improved intestinal barrier function in a cellular model of chronic colonic inflammation. In this case, improved barrier function was associated with modulation of tight junction expression.
... Speci cally, the polyphenols content of chokeberry is higher than those of other berries (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry crops), which exhibits various physiological activities such as antioxidant, antiin ammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cardiovascular diseases and so on [20][21][22][23]. Based on abundant phenolic substances content and various physiological effects of chokeberry, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the polyphenols extract from chokeberry (CBPs) on improvement obesity and associated lipid metabolism disorders in HFD-fed rats, as well as comprehensive investigating the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the effects of the CBPs on host metabolism. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The gut microbiota plays a critical role in obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. Chokeberry ( Aronia melanocarpa L . ) are rich in polyphenols with various physiological and pharmacological activities. We determined serum physiological parameters and fecal microbial components by using related kits, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing every 10 days. Real-time PCR analysis was used to measure gene expression of bile acids (BAs) and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. We analyzed the effects of different Chokeberry polyphenol (CBPs) treatment time on obesity and lipid metabolism in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. The results indicated that CBPs treatment prevents obesity, liver steatosis and improves dyslipidemia in HFD-fed rats. CBPs modulated the composition of the gut microbiota with the extended treatment time, reducing the Firmicutes / Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) and increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides , Prevotella , Akkermansia and other bacterial species associated with anti-obesity properties. We found that CBPs treatment gradually decreased the total BAs pool and particularly reduced the relative content of cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and enhanced the relative content of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). These changes were positively correlated Bacteroides , Prevotella and negatively correlated with Clostridium , Eubacterium , Ruminococcaceae . In liver and white adipose tissues, the gene expression of lipogenesis, lipolysis and BAs metabolism were regulated after CBPs treatment in HFD-fed rats, which was most likely mediated through FXR and TGR-5 signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism. In addition, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, UCP1 and PGC-1α were upregulated markedly in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) after CBPs treatment. We confirmed that CBPs could reduce the body weight of HFD-fed rats by accelerating energy homeostasis and thermogenesis in iBAT. Finally, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment results demonstrated that FMT from CBPs-treated rats failed to reduce the weight of HFD-fed rats. However, FMT from CBPs-treated rats improved dyslipidemia and reshaped gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. In conclusion, CBPs treatment improved obesity and complications by regulating gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. The gut microbiota plays an important role in BAs metabolism after CBPs treatment, and BAs have therefore emerged as major effectors in microbe-host signaling events that influence host lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and thermogenesis.
... Chokeberry is rich in nutritious ingredients including dietary fiber, organic acids, sugar, fat, protein, minerals and vitamins [18,19]. Specifically, the polyphenols content of chokeberry is higher than those of other berries (blueberry, cranberry and lingonberry crops), which exhibits various physiological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anti-cardiovascular diseases and so on [20][21][22][23]. Based on abundant phenolic substances content and various physiological effects of chokeberry, the aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of the polyphenols extract from chokeberry (CBPs) on improvement obesity and associated lipid metabolism disorders in HFD-fed rats, as well as comprehensive investigating the role of the gut microbiota in mediating the effects of the CBPs on host metabolism. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The gut microbiota plays a critical role in obesity and lipid metabolism disorder. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) are rich in polyphenols with various physiological and pharmacological activities. We determined serum physiological parameters and fecal microbial components by using related kits, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and 16S rRNA gene sequencing every 10 days. Real-time PCR analysis was used to measure gene expression of bile acids (BAs) and lipid metabolism in liver and adipose tissues. We analyzed the effects of different Chokeberry polyphenol (CBPs) treatment time on obesity and lipid metabolism in high fat diet (HFD)-fed rats. The results indicated that CBPs treatment prevents obesity, liver steatosis and improves dyslipidemia in HFD-fed rats. CBPs modulated the composition of the gut microbiota with the extended treatment time, reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio (F/B ratio) and increasing the relative abundance of Bacteroides, Prevotella, Akkermansia and other bacterial species associated with anti-obesity properties. We found that CBPs treatment gradually decreased the total BAs pool and particularly reduced the relative content of cholic acid (CA), deoxycholic acid (DCA) and enhanced the relative content of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA). These changes were positively correlated Bacteroides, Prevotella and negatively correlated with Clostridium, Eubacterium, Ruminococcaceae. In liver and white adipose tissues, the gene expression of lipogenesis, lipolysis and BAs metabolism were regulated after CBPs treatment in HFD-fed rats, which was most likely mediated through FXR and TGR-5 signaling pathway to improve lipid metabolism. In addition, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, UCP1 and PGC-1α were upregulated markedly in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) after CBPs treatment. We confirmed that CBPs could reduce the body weight of HFD-fed rats by accelerating energy homeostasis and thermogenesis in iBAT. Finally, the fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiment results demonstrated that FMT from CBPs-treated rats failed to reduce the weight of HFD-fed rats. However, FMT from CBPs-treated rats improved dyslipidemia and reshaped gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. In conclusion, CBPs treatment improved obesity and complications by regulating gut microbiota in HFD-fed rats. The gut microbiota plays an important role in BAs metabolism after CBPs treatment, and BAs have therefore emerged as major effectors in microbe-host signaling events that influence host lipid metabolism, energy metabolism and thermogenesis.
... 8,9 Chokeberry may affect the functions of immune cells by exerting anti-inflammatory effects or, in some conditions, stimulating immune reactions. Anti-inflammatory activities of chokeberry in animal models of ulcerative colitis and neuroinflammation were mediated by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO) production, cyclooxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production, along with the reduction of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). [10][11][12][13] However, chokeberry extract was also shown to stimulate NO secretion from macrophages and dendritic cells and stimulate T helper 1 lymphocyte differentiation, thus evidently exerting pro-inflammatory effects. 14 Listeria monocytogenes is an opportunistic pathogen causing infection after the ingestion of contaminated food. ...
Article
Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) fruit extracts (CE) are rich in polyphenols and usually exhibit immunomodulatory, anti-viral and anti-bacterial effects. We have previously shown that the CE used in this study activated macrophages and stimulated effector T cell differentiation in vitro. When applied orally to healthy mice, CE increased the proportion of CD11c⁺ dendritic cells in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue. CE-pretreated BALB/c mice readily eradicated orally ingested Listeria monocytogenes as evidenced by a slighter decrease in body weight and number of bacteria recovered from the spleen and reduced spleen size compared to the control infected mice. CE pretreatment in infected mice resulted in higher proportions of CD11b+ macrophages and CD8⁺ cytotoxic T cells both in the gut and the spleen. Phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production and the proportions of activated CD86⁺ macrophages (CD11b⁺) and dendritic cells (CD11c⁺) was also enhanced in CE-pretreated infected mice. Further, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and IL-6 was increased in CE-pretreated infected mice and the similar results were obtained in peritoneal macrophages in vitro. This effect of CE was associated with increased phosphorylation of IκB and Notch1 production. Finally, CE pretreatment elevated the proportion of perforin-producing cells in the spleen compared to control infected mice. This study demonstrates that prophylactic treatment with CE leads to more rapid eradication of bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes predominantly through increased activity of myeloid cells in the gut and in the spleen.
Article
Four flavonoids (epicatechin, rutin, diosmin and luteolin) and 11 phenolic acids (gallic acid, gentisic acid, p-hydroxybezoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, syringic acid, p-anisic acid and rosmarinic acid) were determined in the ethanolic extract of M. calabura Linn. fruit gathered in Taiwan. The extract suppressed the lipopolysaccharide-stimulated expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 as well as the productions of nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumour necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6] in RAW264.7 macrophages. The extract modulated the inflammatory processes through inactivation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2), and Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3). Moreover, the activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) followed by inducing the production of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is also related to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The work is a essentially a continuation of the work done by the author in the field of Medical Science, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and Computer Science. In the current world we are suffering from the critical issue of COVID. The pandemic has a great impact on some of the countries of the world. The pandemic has affected the whole world. Apart of COVID in the current time the world is suffering from diseases like thyroid, diabetes etc. which is also a major challenge for the People in the World. In the current work the author is interested in the study and elaboration of ways to face the disease named Thyroid. In the current paper the author made study and implementation of the ML paradigm to prepare a System that can detect Thyroid. In the current paper the author made a usage of the Programming Language named Python. The author made effective usage of the libraries available in Python. In the current research article the author studied and created System that used the algorithms namely Light Gradient Boosting Machine, Gradient Boosting Classifier, Decision Tree Classifier, Extra Tree Classifier, Dummy Classifier, Logistic Regression, KNeighbors Classifier, ADA Boost Classifier, SVM-Linear Kernel, Linear Discriminant Analysis, Ridge Classifier, Naïve Bayes and Quadratic Discriminant Analysis. The work done by the author is an approach that still is lagging in some vital areas like the output user interface is not that interactive which would have made the research work more popular among the end users. The dataset used for Experimentation purpose is taken from Kaggle. The availability of rows and columns in the dataset of Kaggle is not that wealthy although the accuracies that are generated after execution of the implemented code is extremely nice. At this point from the Experiment Carried it would be said that the approach would have been more efficient if the data set that was Considered for Doing the Experimental Analysis and had some limitation would have been more effective and efficient from the point of Early Diagnosis if the Data-Set would be having more number of Records and might have Considered some more Features in the Landscape.
Article
The goal of this work was to characterize how the date of harvest of 'Viking' aronia berry impacts juice pigmentation, sugars, and antioxidant activity. Aronia juice anthocyanins doubled at the fifth week of the harvest, and then decreased. Juice hydroxycinnamic acids decreased 33% from the first week, while proanthocyanidins increased 64%. Juice fructose and glucose plateaued at the fourth week, but sorbitol increased 40% to the seventh harvest week. Aronia juice pigment density increased due to anthocyanin concentration, and polyphenol copigmentation did not significantly affect juice pigmentation. Anthocyanin stability at pH 4.5 was similar between weeks. However, addition of quercetin, sorbitol, and chlorogenic acid to aronia anthocyanins inhibited pH-induced loss of color. Sorbitol and citric acid may be partially responsible for weekly variation in antioxidant activity, as addition of these agents inhibited DPPH scavenging 13-30%. Thus, aronia polyphenol and non-polyphenol components contribute to its colorant and antioxidant functionality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This Research Article is basically a continuation of the Work done by the Author in the Field of Artificial Neural Network. In this work the Author Presented a Mathematical Derivation of the Relation between the Input Signal and Output Signal for Artificial Neural Network Having Feedback. As the people those who are having proficiency in the Field of Artificial Neural Network are Aware of the Basic Elements of the Artificial Neural Network. Out the Basic Elements of the Artificial Neural Network one Basic Element is the Network Topology. In Network Topology there is a Concept of Recurrent Networks. So this Paper is a Research Article which basically presents a Survey Report on the Mathematical Representation between the Input Signal and the Output Signal. The paper comprises of Section Titled Introduction where we make a brief Discussion on the Artificial Neural System Technology. Next we come to the Literature Survey Part where we made a Discussion on the various work done in the Past in the Area. Next we will be discussing the Problem Statement after which we will be Discussing the Mathematical Derivation than we will Observe the Result and Conclusion Section where the Mathematical Derivation Perspectives are Discussed.
Article
Four varieties of Lonicera caerulea berries - 'Wild', 'Beilei', 'No. 1', and 'No. 2' - were compared with respect to extraction yield, fruit weight, total soluble solids, polyphenol and anthocyanin contents, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and anthocyanin composition. Sixteen individual anthocyanins were identified in the selected varieties. Acylated anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-acetylhexoside and peonidin 3-acetylhexoside, were identified in L. caerulea berries for the first time. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the most prominent anthocyanin in all four tested varieties. Wild type of L. caerulea fruit ('Wild'), with the highest polyphenol content, contained 14 anthocyanins and the highest ORAC value. Eleven anthocyanins were found in 'Beilei' berries, which had a higher ORAC value than 'No. 1' and 'No. 2'. The highest total soluble solid content and extraction yield were found in 'No. 2' and 'Wild' berries, respectively.
Article
The effects of aronia powder on the rheological and sensory characteristics of Sulgidduk were investigated. The moisture content of Sulgidduk ranged from 40.86 to 44.40%; however, addition of aronia powder to Sulgidduk tended to decrease its moisture content. With regard to the rheological properties, the addition of aronia powder decreased the hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, chewiness, gumminess, and brittleness of Sulgidduk. Chromaticity determination revealed a decrease in L and b values, while the a value increased with the increasing amounts of aronia powder. Total polyphenol, total flavonoid and total anthocyanin contents increased with the increasing amounts of aronia powder. Antioxidant activity, measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities, was significantly higher than that of the control, and increased proportionally with the amount of aronia powder. During 4 day storage, the growth of total aerobic colony and coliform content significantly decreased with increasing levels of aronia powder in Sulgidduk. Sensory evaluation demonstrated the best score in color, taste and overall acceptance when aronia powder was added at 5% of rice powder. These results suggest that 5% aronia powder can be added for the preparation of Sulgidduk.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This Paper is a Continuation of the Work done by the Author in the Field of Artificial Neural Network and Computer Science and Engineering. In the Current Research Article the Author is engaged in the Study of the Biological Neuron and its Basic Working. In the Paper the Author Gave a Detailed Portrayal of the Major Constituents Present in the Biological Neuron, Working of Each of the Constituents of the Biological Neuron. Biological Neural Network Functioning is discussed in Detail in the Research Work. The Association between the Artificial Neural Network and Biological Neural Network is found so that we can form a bridge and can portray how Computer Science and Engineering and Working of Human Brain go Hand in Hand. The Research Article Comprises of Section named Introduction where we will discuss the constituents of the Biological Neuron. Next Comes the Literature Survey where we will discuss the Work done in the Past in the Field. Next Comes the Problem Statement After which come the Survey Report as to How the Brain Works. In this Section we will discuss the Major Organelles of the Biological Neuron. We will also be discussing the Major Parts that are going to be used as the basis for forming a bridge between the ANN and the BNN. Then in the Next Section that is Conclusion we will discuss the Bridge between the Artificial Neural Network and the Central Nervous System. The Research Article is a Collection of Figures that Explain the overall Working. Also the Na+ and K+ pump is Discussed in Detail.
Article
Lonicera caerulea fruit is a polyphenol-rich berry. The protective effects of L. caerulea berry extract before and after in vitro digestion on hepatitis were investigated using lipopolysaccharide-induced BRL-3A cell model in this study. The results demonstrated that both undigested extract and digested extract pre-treatment observably inhibited oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduction in the production of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine and protein carbonyls; significantly maintained energy metabolism and cellular structure, which were verified by the suppression of decline in the activities of ATP synthetase, cytochrome c oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase, and changes in histological structure; markedly modulated hepatic function by attenuating the enhancement in aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities and the decrease in acetylcholine esterase activity; and remarkably attenuated the production of pro-inflammatory factors such as interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. Taken together, the application of L. caerulea berry extract protects liver against the damage caused by lipopolysaccharide.
Article
Full-text available
Aronia melanocarpa L. (black chokeberry), belonging to the Rosaceae family, contains high amounts of polyphenolics and therefore exhibits one of the highest antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities among berry fruits. Chokeberries are used in the food industry for juice, nectar, and wine production and as colorants. We aimed to compare the phytochemical composition of three chokeberry juices commercially available in the local market as sources of beneficial phytochemicals. Using GC-MS and LC-MS/MS, we performed the identification and quantitation of polar compounds and polyphenolics. The concentrations of 13 amino acids, including 6 essential amino acids, 10 organic acids, 20 sugar alcohols and derivatives, 14 saccharides, 12 fatty acids and esters, and 38 polyphenols, were estimated. One of the analyzed juices had the highest polyphenolic content (5273.87 ± 63.16 µg/mL), possibly due to 2.9 times higher anthocyanin concentration compared to anthocyanins in other tested juices. This study provides new data concerning phytochemical composition in terms of amino acids, organic acids, sugar acids, fatty acids and their esters, and polyphenols as phytocomponents of commercially available chokeberry juices. Results show that after all processing techniques and possibly different plant growth conditions, chokeberry juices are a valuable source of health-promoting phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, pro-anthocyanins, and anthocyanins, thus considering them as functional foods. We demonstrated a diversity of the active substances in bioactive foods marketed as "same"; therefore, the standardized therapeutic effect could be expected only by the utilization of food supplements with guaranteed constant content.
Article
Background: Nowadays, the functional foods represent one the most promising, interesting and innovative areas in the food industry. Various components are being added to foods in order to render them functional. Methods: One example of these components are plant naturally occurring phenolic compounds, which are associated with a high antioxidant capacity and thus with benefits in relation to human health. Results: However, despite the huge number of scientific studies and patents on this topic and their natural presence in foods, namely in the ones from plant origin, there are still few marketable products enriched with these compounds. The commercialization of this type of functional products needs to go through various regulations, proving that they are safe and present the ascribed health benefits, conquering the target audience. In this review the growing interest of industry and consumers' appetence for functional foods and nutraceuticals is highlighted, focusing especially on phenolic compounds. Conclusion: Although several published works show the multitude of bioactive properties of these compounds, ensuring their use as bioactive ingredients in food, they present inherent stability issues needing to be solved. However, considerable research is presently ongoing to overcome this problem, making viable the development of new products to be launched in the market.
Article
Currently berry juice pressing residues are used inefficiently due to a lack of innovative processes of their valorisation. This study reports valorization of chokeberry pomace via combined high pressure fractionation and enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE), utilizing commercially available cellulolytic and xylanolytic enzyme preparations, namely Viscozyme L and CeluStar XL. The results obtained indicate that optimized enzyme treatment (E/S 6% v/w, 40 °C, pH 3.5, 7 hours), especially using Viscozyme L, facilitates pomace cell-wall breakdown and: (1) increases the yield of water-soluble fraction by 44-113%, monosaccharide content by 12-140%, total phenolic content by 29-41%, radical scavenging capacity by 20-39%; (2) promotes some alterations in phenolic acid and flavonol profiles of EAE-derived supernatants. For the first time antioxidant potential of solid residues from enzyme-treated berry pomaces was evaluated too, indicating that all fractions could be utilized as a low-cost source of high added value functional ingredients with various scientific and commercial applications.
Article
Lonicera caerulea L. berry extract has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The mechanism underlying the inhibitory effect of L. caerulea berry extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced toxicity in BRL-3A cells was investigated in this study. It was observed that post-treatment with L. caerulea berry extract inhibited LPS-elicited decreases in catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, total antioxidant capacity, acetylcholinesterase activity, the mRNA expression levels of interleukin-10, and the protein expressions of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and B-cell lymphoma-2. Furthermore, the extract significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase, the mRNA expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, and the protein expressions of caspase-3, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved PARP, and Bax. Moreover, the extract suppressed LPS-induced apoptosis of BRL-3A cells. Taken together, the L. caerulea berry extract attenuates LPS-induced liver toxicity via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic pathways. Additionally, cyanidin-3-glucoside contributes more to these activities of the extract.
Article
Anthocyanins is a natural edible pigment with many health benefits. The aim of this work was the identification of anthocyanins present in Aronia melanocarpa using mass spectrometric features. The anthocyanins of the A. melanocarpa were analyzed by UV-Vis, HPLC-DAD and LC-EIS/MS methods. The four important anthocyanins were identified as follows: cyanidin-3-galactoside (68.68%), cyanidin-3-arabinoside (25.62%), cyanidin-3-glucoside (5.28%) and cyanidin-3-xyloside (0.42%). Among the four anthocyanin monomers, three anthocyanins with the highest content of A. melanocarpa were selected, and the antioxidant activity was studied with the total anthocyanins. The antioxidant capacity was cyanidin-3-galactoside > total anthocyanin > cyanidin-3-arabinoside > cyanidin-3-glucoside. The activity of the four anthocyanin samples was greater than ascorbic acid. The methodology described in this study will provide an effective tool for anthocyanins identification. Our results suggested that anthocyanins from A. melanocarpa exhibited effective antioxidant activity. These findings may be crucial in future research concerning chokeberry based functional food products.
Article
Full-text available
Chokeberry (Aronia Medik.) is a non-traditional fruit plant known as a rich source of biologically active compounds and inhibits the numerous biological activities. We compared the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of fruits between widely cultivated Aronia mitschurinii (AM-TCH, from Tchekhov district; AM-D, from Dmitrov district; AM-OZ, from Orekhovo-Zuevsky district of Moscow region, Russia) and introduced North American Aronia species (Aronia arbutifolia (AA-M), A. melanocarpa (AML-M), A. × prunifolia (AP-M), which have not been planted yet in the arboretum of Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow). Studying samples were collected in their secondary distribution range. Ethanolic extracts were determined for antioxidant capacity (antioxidant activity by DPPH and phosphomolybdenum methods, the total content of polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids) and measured spectrophotometrically. As standards were used Trolox (TE) for antioxidant activities, gallic acid (GAE) for polyphenol content, quercetin (QE) for flavonoid content, caffeic acid (CAE) for phenolic acid content. The antioxidant activity by DPPH method in ethanol extracts of investigated plants was from 6.96 (AM-D) to 8.89 (AM-OZ) mg TE.g-1 DW. Reducing the power of investigated extracts exhibited activity from 151.47 (AM-OZ) to 297.8 (AA-M) mg TE.g-1 DW. The content of polyphenol compounds determined from 25.98 (AM-TCH) to 54.39 (AA-M) mg GAE.g-1 DW, phenolic acids content was from 7.76 (AP-M) to 11.87 (AM-D) mg CAE.g-1 DW and the content of flavonoids detected from 8.12 (AM-OZ) to 16.62 (AM-D) mg QE .-1 DW. Obtained data showed a strong correlation between the content of polyphenol compounds and reducing the power of extracts (r = 0.700), between flavonoids and phenolic acids (r = 0.771) and also between phenolic acids and reducing power (r = 0.753) in Aronia ethanol extracts. Fruits of investigated species of Aronia can be propagated as a source of polyphenol compounds with antioxidant activity and obtained results may use for farther pharmacological study.
Article
The polyphenolic profiles of four berries (blueberry, bilberry, mulberry, and cranberry) in China were investigated using Fourier transform-ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). Thirty-nine polyphenols including 26 anthocyanins, 9 flavonoids, and 4 phenolic acids were identified accurately. Cyanidin aglycones are common in four berries, and malvidin aglycones are the main compounds found in bilberry and cranberry. The anthocyanin level in blueberry are the highest with 739.6 ± 17.14 mg/g DW and presented the strongest antioxidant capacity in DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and ORAC assay. In α-glycosidase, the inhibition activity was in the following order: mulberry > bilberry > blueberry > cranberry. For the PTP1B inhibition assay, blueberry demonstrated the highest inhibitory effect with IC50 3.06 ± 0.02 µg/mL, followed by bilberry, mulberry, and cranberry. Molecular docking results showed that cyanidin aglycones had the highest inhibition activity to PTP1B.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to determine morphometric characteristics of fruits within some phenotypes of Aronia mitschurinii A.K. Skvortsov & Maitul. Their morphometric parameters were following: weight from 0.75 g (AM-03) to 1.52 g (AM-04), length from 9.46 mm (AM-03) to 12.73 mm (AM-04), diameter from 10.49 mm (AM-03) to 13.73 mm (AM-04), fruits number in the corymb from 11.33 (AM-07) to 20.13 (AM-03), cumulative weight of fruits in the corymb from 10.42 g (AM-07) to 21.73 g (AM-04), volume of fruits from 0.55 (AM-03) to 1.26 (AM-04) cm³. The shape index of the fruits was found in the range of 0.87 (AR-01, AR-05, AR-07) to 0.93 (AM-02). The analysis of coefficient of variation showed the difference of variability in morphological characteristics between Aronia mitschurinii samples. Data showed that the most variability of important selection characteristics are the average cumulative mass of fruits in a corymb - from 12.34 (AM-03) to 38.61 (AM-02) % and fruit number of fruits in the corymb - from 14.56 (AM-03) to 36.88 (AM-02) %. The other characteristics are more or less stable. The introduction population of the Aronia mitschurinii, was created in the M.M. Gryshko National Botanical Garden in Kyiv, has a sufficient potential for successful selection work. © 2017 Potravinarstvo Slovak Journal of Food Sciences, License.
Article
Full-text available
Researchers are attracted to the wide-ranging, useful components in Aronia melanocarpa berries. They are searching for the most effective ways to extract the active substances that can enhance the body’s protective properties. The current study presents detailed information about the extracts from A. melanocarpa fruits frozen and dried under mild conditions and their chemical composition. In Wistar rats with induced immunosuppression, the effect of chokeberry fruit extracts on the leukocyte formula, phagocytic activity, and cytokine system was studied. It was shown that the A. melanocarpa frozen fruit extract contains more anthocyanins, sugars, and ascorbic acid, and has a more pronounced antioxidant activity determined by the ability to bind APPH-radicals. Moreover, the extract showed membrane-protective and cytoprotective properties against RPMI-1788 cell line. The extract from dried raw material shows a higher antioxidant activity due to the ability to bind DPPH-radicals. It was revealed that extracts from A. melanocarpa fruits promote rapid immune system recovery in rats, normalize the leukocyte count, and improve monocyte and neutrophil phagocytic indicators. Research on the cytokine profile revealed that the anti-inflammatory properties in A. melanocarpa extracts were more pronounced in dried extracts. For several cytokines, a normalization of quantity was noted.
Article
Full-text available
The present study aimed to assess the immunomodulatory effects of fermented Aronia melanocarpa extract (FAME) on RAW 264.7 cells and BALB/c mice. Aronia melanocarpa fruit was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum EJ2014 by adding yeast extract and monosodium glutamate for 9 days at 30 °C to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). After fermentation, significant GABA production was noted, along with minerals, polyphenols, and flavonoids (p < 0.05). The polyphenol content was confirmed by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) analysis. RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 1 μg/mL) in the presence or absence of FAME, and proinflammatory cytokine contents were measured by qPCR. In the in vivo experiment, female BALB/c mice were administered 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of FAME for 21 days. FAME treatment increased neutrophil migration and phagocytosis (p < 0.05). It also increased splenocyte proliferation, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell expression, and lymphocyte proliferation. Furthermore, it increased IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-4 cytokine levels in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05). However, it decreased TNF-α and IL-6 levels (p < 0.05). These results indicate that FAME fortified with GABA including bioactive compounds exerts anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting proinflammatory cytokines in RAW 264.7 cells and modulates immune response in mice. Thus, FAME could be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders.
Article
Blueberry (Vaccinium spp., Vc) is inefficient in uptake and utilizing a single nitrogen (N) form (ammonium or nitrate), and prefers the presence of both N forms; however, its the preferential ammonium: nitrate ratios and the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. To reveal the mechanism of blueberry preference in the composition of N forms, blueberries had grown over three months in pure coconut bran irrigated with modified Hoagland nutrient solution contained ammonium N (NH4⁺-N) alone or nitrate N (NO3⁻-N) alone at two pHs (5.0 and 7.5), and NH4⁺-N:NO3⁻-N ratios of 4:1, 2:1 and 1:1 at pH 5.0. After three months, the physiological responses and the expression of key genesinvolved in N metabolism were analyzed. Afterwards, the genes were then genetically transformed into Arabidopsis thaliana for functional verification. The results showed that (i) plants grew better at pH 5.0 than pH 7.5; (ii) at pH 5.0, when NH4⁺-N:NO3⁻-N ratio was applied at 2:1, plant growth was at the best performance (i.e., 11% higher in the crown width compared to the control(nil-N applied). In the presence of both NH4⁺ and NO3⁻, the transcriptional levels of VcAMT3, VcNRT1.5, VcNRT2, VcNR and VcNiR were significantly upregulated. Its highest value appeared in the 2:1 of NH4⁺-N:NO3⁻-N ratio where, VcAMT3 and VcNRT2 were raised by 4 and 5 times, respectively. Hence, the results suggested that the mixed N forms at 2:1 NH4⁺-N:NO3⁻-N ratio at pH 5.0 induced the expression of the related gene, which may have increased root absorption and transportation of NH4⁺-N and NO3⁻-N, resulting in the better plant growth; and (iii) under NH4⁺-N alone treatments, the transgenic VcNiR Arabidopsis thaliana plants was the only survival; under NO3⁻-N alone treatments, compared to the wild-type (WT) plants, the transgenic VcAMT3 Arabidopsis thaliana had 11 and 2 times higher in the plant height and leaf disc size. The results showed that VcAMT3, VcNRT2, VcNiR gene could improve the nitrogen absorption ability of Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Our study improved the understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism of N speciation preference of blueberry, and the findings can be a great guidance for better N fertilizer management to promote blueberry productivity.
Article
Full-text available
Cyanidin 3-O-galactoside (Cy3Gal) is one of the most widespread anthocyanins that positively impacts the health of animals and humans. Since it is available from a wide range of natural sources, such as fruits (apples and berries in particular), substantial studies were performed to investigate its biosynthesis, chemical stability, natural occurrences and content, extraction methods, physiological functions, as well as potential applications. In this review, we focus on presenting the previous studies on the abovementioned aspects of Cy3Gal. As a conclusion, Cy3Gal shares a common biosynthesis pathway and analogous stability with other anthocyanins. Galactosyltransferase utilizing uridine diphosphate galactose (UDP-galactose) and cyanidin as substrates is unique for Cy3Gal biosynthesis. Extraction employing different methods reveals chokeberry as the most practical natural source for mass-production of this compound. The antioxidant properties and other health effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-toxicity, cardiovascular, and nervous protective capacities, are highlighted in purified Cy3Gal and in its combination with other polyphenols. These unique properties of Cy3Gal are discussed and compared with other anthocyanins with related structure for an in-depth evaluation of its potential value as food additives or health supplement. Emphasis is laid on the description of its physiological functions confirmed via various approaches.
Article
Scope: Increased fruit consumption is associated with reduced risk of colitis. We investigated whether the anti‐colitic effects of the polyphenol‐rich aronia berry (Aronia mitschurinii ‘Viking’) were mediated through Th17 and Treg. Methods and results: Colitis was induced in recombinase activating gene‐1 deficient mice injected with syngeneic CD4⁺CD62L⁺ naïve T cells. Mice consumed either 4.5% w/w aronia berry‐supplemented or a control diet concurrent with T cell transfer. The extent of colitis and immunocyte populations were evaluated at weeks 3 to 7 after transfer. Aronia consumption prevented colitic wasting and reduced colon weight/length ratios relative to the control diet at weeks 5 and 7. Compared to the control diet, aronia feeding increased Treg in mesenteric lymph node at all colitis stages. Treg and regulatory Th17 subpopulations (IL‐17A⁺IL‐10⁺ and IL‐17A⁺IL‐22⁺) were increased in lamina propria and spleen at week 5 in aronia‐fed mice. Aronia feeding also decreased total CD4⁺ cells but increased colonic Tregs. The ability of aronia to modulate colonic cytokines was associated with functional T cell IL‐10 and increased diversity of microbiota. Conclusions: Aronia berry consumption inhibits adoptive transfer colitis by increasing Treg and regulatory Th17 cells. Dietary modulation of T cells is dynamic and precede colitic wasting. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This is a Continuation to what the Author has done in the Field of Artificial Neural Network. In this Paper the Author Gave a Study Report of the Basic Methodologies Adopted for the Representation of the Artificial Neural Network. After Presenting the Basic Techniques the Author Gave a Detailed Description of the Basic Techniques. Out of the Techniques Presented the Author is more keen on the Technique Presented by Mason and the Author Gave a Detailed Description of the Technique. The Basic Properties that are shown when Neural Network is represented as a Directed Graph is Discussed. The Author gave a Description of the Rules that Guide the Portrayal of the Representation Technique. The Limitations of the Artificial Neural Network when viewed as a Directed Graph is discussed as well as the Advantages is also Discussed. The Paper Comprises of Sections namely Introduction where an Introduction to the Artificial Neural System Technology is Discussed. In the Next Section that is Literature Survey we made a Detailed Analysis of works done in the Past. Then in the Problem Statement we discussed the Problem for which we are actually going for the Techniques. In the Next Section the Survey Report of the Models is discussed and then comes the Result and Conclusion Sections.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Paper is a Continuation of the Work done by the Author in the Field of Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, Artificial Neural Network and so on in the Area of Computer Science and Engineering. In the Current Paper beside of the Reference Section there are Six More Sections. In Section One which is Introduction the Author gave a brief description on the disease that is Cancer. In the Next Section that which is Literature Survey we made inroads on the previous work done in the field discussed in the Paper. Next we elaborate the Statement on which we are actually focused in the Paper. Next the Proposed Algorithm is formulated after which we will have a discussion on the Results Obtained and the Conclusion. In the Introduction Section we basically discussed the Disease Cancer and also made a small Introduction of Python Programming Language. The Conclusion Section Comprise of the Classification Report Obtained for the Model Used for the Purpose of Detection and From the Classification Report it could be concluded that the Approach that we adopted gives us a very high degree of Efficiency in terms of the metrics used for assessment. The work done by the Author is Another Work in the Field of Medical Science. The Author had already done some work in the past which is discussed in the Literature Survey Part that is portraying that the Author has done a good amount of work in the field of Machine Learning and used the Machine Learning Approach in various Medical Fields. From the Research Article it could be easily identified that Python is a very useful Programming Language and the Results Shown Could be easily taken as a benchmark for going on for the Research work in various other field using the Programming Tool Python.
Data
Full-text available
A diet rich in plant-derived products is expected to have anticancer chemopreventive effects by acting on the appearance and growth of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Thus the effects of Aronia melanocarpa juice (AMJ) on the mouse embryonal carcinoma (EC) stem cell line P19 were investigated. AMJ inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest in S phase and triggered apoptosis. A pronounced upregulation of tumour suppressors p53 and p73 was observed in association with caspase-3 activation and a downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein UHRF1 and the stemness factor Oct-4. Overall the results strongly suggest that AMJ is functionally able to counteract the carcinogenesis process by targeting CSCs. Interestingly AMJ selectively kills undifferentiated EC cells, without sig-nificant effects on normal restricted pluripotent cells (i.e. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts) or even dif-ferentiated EC cells. This argues that a differentiation therapy might normalize the pathological phenotype of a CSC which becomes insensitive to further plant-derived phar-macological treatment.
Article
Full-text available
Treatment of BV2 microglial cells with blueberry extracts has been shown to be effective in reducing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proinflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). The current study explored the possibility that the down-regulation of iNOS and COX2 by blueberry extracts was mediated through NF-κB signaling pathway. A column-purified fraction of polyphenol-enriched blueberry extract (PC18) was used to treat LPS-activated BV2 cells. The results thus far showed that blueberry polyphenols significantly suppressed iNOS and COX2 promoter activities. In addition, blueberry polyphenols inhibited NF-κB nuclear translocation in LPS-activated BV2 cells. These findings suggested that the beneficial effects of blueberries may involve direct modulation of oxidative stress and/or inflammatory signaling cascades.
Article
Full-text available
The innate immune system provides organisms with rapid and well-coordinated protection from foreign pathogens. However, under certain conditions of metabolic dysfunction, components of the innate immune system may be activated in the absence of external pathogens, leading to pathologic consequences. Indeed, there appears to be an intimate relationship between metabolic diseases and immune dysfunction; for example, macrophages are prime players in the initiation of a chronic inflammatory state in obesity which leads to insulin resistance. In response to increases in free fatty acid release from obese adipose depots, M1-polarized macrophages infiltrate adipose tissues. These M1 macrophages trigger inflammatory signaling and stress responses within cells that signal through JNK or IKK β pathways, leading to insulin resistance. If overnutrition persists, mechanisms that counteract inflammation (such as M2 macrophages and PPAR signaling) are suppressed, and the inflammation becomes chronic. Although macrophages are a principal constituent of obese adipose tissue inflammation, other components of the immune system such as lymphocytes and mast cells also contribute to the inflammatory cascade. Thus it is not merely an increased mass of adipose tissue that directly leads to attenuation of insulin action, but rather adipose tissue inflammation activated by the immune system in obese individuals that leads to insulin resistance.
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Polyphenols comprise a diverse group of molecules with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. To compare the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory capacity of Aronia melanocarpa berries (chokeberries), recognized for their high content of anthocyanins, a noncytotoxic isolation method was developed to obtain high-purity anthocyanins in the extract. The antioxidative activity of the extract, the anthocyanin-rich fraction (AF) was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and ferric-reducing ability of plasma along with resveratrol as a reference. The immunomodulation properties were assessed in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human monocytes mono mac 6. The isolated AF, containing six different anthocyanins, exhibited a stronger antioxidative capacity compared to resveratrol. Resveratrol enhanced tumor necrosis factor-α and reduced interleukin-10 (IL-10) production by LPS, whereas AF only had a slight effect in reducing IL-10. These results demonstrated that there was no major relationship between the antioxidative effect and immunomodulation capacities of AF and resveratrol. The immunomodulatory activity of the extract is associated with bioactive compounds in Aronia other than its anthocyanins.
Article
Full-text available
Rhododendron ponticum L. (Ericaceae) is used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and to alleviate rheumatic pain and against toothache in Turkish traditional medicine. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Rhododendron ponticum leaves using in vivo models, and isolation and chemical characterization of the biologically active constituents through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures. Carrageenan-induced hind paw edema model was used for anti-inflammatory activity and p-benzoquinone induced abdominal contractions model for the antinociceptive activity assessment. The ethylacetate fraction displayed marked anti-inflammatory (28.4-40.7% inhibition) and antinociceptive (50.7% inhibition) effects as compared to reference compounds. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation procedures flavonol glycosides [a mixture of hyperoside and isoquercitrin (1) and quercitrin (2)] along with one flavanone glycoside [6-C-glycosylnaringenin (3)] were isolated as the active ingredients of ethylacetate extract against carrageenan-induced edema and p-benzoquinone-induced writhes and their structures were elucidated by spectral techniques. 1 and 2 also showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoyl-13-acetate (TPA)- induced mouse ear edema model. Results of the present study supported the utilization of the plant in Turkish folk medicine and revealed that flavones are the major anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive principles of the leaves.
Article
Full-text available
Multiple sclerosis is the major inflammatory condition affecting the central nervous system (CNS) and is characterised by disseminated focal immune-mediated demyelination. Demyelination is accompanied by variable axonal damage and loss and reactive gliosis. It is this pathology that is thought to be responsible for the clinical relapses that often respond well to immunomodulatory therapy. However, the later secondary progressive stage of MS remains largely refractory to treatment and it is widely suggested that accumulating axon loss is responsible for clinical progression. Although initially thought to be a white matter (WM) disease, it is increasingly apparent that extensive pathology is also seen in the grey matter (GM) throughout the CNS. GM pathology is characterised by demyelination in the relative absence of an immune cell infiltrate. Neuronal loss is also seen both in the GM lesions and in unaffected areas of the GM. The slow progressive nature of this later stage combined with the presence of extensive grey matter pathology has led to the suggestion that neurodegeneration might play an increasing role with increasing disease duration. However, there is a paucity of studies that have correlated the pathological features with clinical milestones during secondary progressive MS. Here, we review the contributions that the various types of pathology are likely to make to the increasing neurological deficit in MS.
Article
Full-text available
Mechanisms regulating intestinal T-cell accumulation during inflammation have considerable therapeutic value. In this study, LPS increased Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A-specific T cells in the gut through induction of IL-12 family members. Mice deficient in IL-12 (p35(-/-)) favored T(h)17 differentiation in lamina propria, whereas mice lacking both IL-12 and IL-23 (p40(-/-)) produced significantly fewer T(h)17 cells. However, serum analysis revealed that IL-27p28 was much higher and sustained following LPS injection than other IL-12 family cytokines. Strikingly, WSX-1 (IL-27Rα) deficiency resulted in log-fold increases in lamina propria T(h)17 cells without affecting T(h)1 numbers. These results may be explained by increased expression of α4β7 on WSX-1-deficient T cells after immunization. WSX-1-deficient regulatory T cells (Tregs) were also perturbed, producing more IL-17 and less IL-10 than wild-type Tregs. Thus, IL-27 blockade may provide a new pathway to improve mucosal vaccination.
Article
Full-text available
The Aronia genus (Rosaceae family, Maloideae subfamily) includes two species of native North American shrubs: Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. (black chokeberry) and Aronia arbutifolia (L.) Pers. (red chokeberry). The fruits of A. melanocarpa have been traditionally used by Potawatomi Native Americans to cure colds. In the first half of the 20(th) century, cultivars of black chokeberry were introduced to the Soviet Union and other European countries, providing fruits used by food industry. At present, it is used mainly for juice, jam, and wine production, as well as an ornamental plant. Among other substances, the berries of A. melanocarpa contain anthocyanins and procyanidins, possessing strong antioxidative potential. Numerous health-promoting activities-namely, antioxidative, antimutagenic, anticancer, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, radioprotective, and immunomodulatory-have been demonstrated for black chokeberry extracts by both in vitro and in in vivo studies. The presented review summarizes the information concerning botany, cultivation, chemical composition, and pharmacological activities of Aronia plants.
Article
Chlorogenic acid, which belongs to the polyphenols, is an anti-oxidant and anti-obesity agent. In this study, we investigated the role of chlorogenic acid in inflammation. Anti-inflammatory effects of chlorogenic acid were examined in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and BV2 microglial cells. We observed the level of various inflammation markers such as nitric oxide (NO), inducible NO synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) under LPS treatment with or without chlorogenic acid. To clarify the specific effect of chlorogenic acid, we evaluated the adhesion activity of macrophages and ninjurin1 (Ninj1) expression level in macrophages. Finally, we confirmed the activation of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway, which is one of the most important transcription factors in the inflammatory process. Chlorogenic acid significantly inhibited not only NO production but also the expression of COX-2 and iNOS, without any cytotoxicity. Chlorogenic acid also attenuated pro-inflammatory cytokines (including IL-1β and TNF-α) and other inflammation-related markers such as IL-6 in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, endotoxin-induced adhesion of macrophages and the expression level of ninjurin1 (Ninj1) were decreased by chlorogenic acid. Finally, chlorogenic acid inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Chlorogenic acid may be beneficial for the prevention and treatment of anti-inflammatory diseases.
Article
Estrogen loss predisposes postmenopausal women to a 60% greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome. We examined the dose dependent effects of whole blackberries containing 87% cyanidin-3-O-β-d-glucoside (C3G), a powerful antioxidative and anti-inflammatory anthocyanin, in ovariectomized rats. Nine-month-old female Sprague–Dawley rats were either sham-operated or ovariectomized (OVX) and divided four groups, Sham + control diet, OVX + control diet, OVX + 5% blackberry and OVX + 10% blackberry (OVX-BB10%). After 100 days of treatment, serum, liver lipids, insulin and C-reactive protein, serum antioxidant capacity, low density lipoprotein oxidation and gene expression of inflammatory markers were measured. Final body weights of blackberry treatments were lower than the OVX controls, and BB10% (w/w) diet decreased hepatic nuclear factor-kappa B, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression levels. Thus, consumption of C3G-rich blackberries is protective against weight gain and inflammation associated with ovariectomy-induced menopause in a rat model.
Article
Polyphenols from underutilized black, purple, and red aronia (Aronia melanocarpa, prunifolia, and arbutifolia) and 'Viking' (A. mitschurinii) berries were characterized. Anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin flavonoids were quantitated by UHPLC-DAD-MS, and proanthocyanidins by normal-phase HPLC. On a dry weight basis, anthocyanins were mainly cyanidin-3-galactoside, highest in black aronia (3.4 to 14.8 mg/g) and lowest in red aronia (0.5 to 0.8 mg/g) as cyandin-3-galactoside equivalents. Berries from 'Viking' and the red accession UC021 had substantially more proanthocyanidins than the other accessions, with 3.3 and 3.8 mg catechin equivalents/g, respectively. Chlorogenic acids and quercetin glycosides were most abundant in purple UC047 berries, at 17.3 and 1.3 mg/g, respectively. In contrast to anthocyanin content, total phenol values were highest in berries from red and purple accessions, and attributed to phenolic acid and proanthocyanin content. Thus, red, purple, and black aronia berries are rich sources of polyphenols with varying levels of polyphenol classes.
Article
The blood pressure-lowering properties of lyophilized chokeberry juice and polyphenols were monitored using in vitro angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition measurement and a 10day in vivo study with spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Juice and polyphenols indicated weak ACE-inhibitory activity. The IC50 values for polyphenols and juice were 1.5–2.5 and 4.5mg dry matter/ml, respectively. In the SHR study the blood pressure-lowering effects of juice and polyphenol extract seemed to be short-term and were generally highest after 3h from administration (50mg/kg/day) when mean reductions in systolic blood pressure were 20±8 and 15±7mmHg, respectively. Corresponding mean decreases in diastolic blood pressure were 23±6 and 13±2mm Hg in juice and polyphenol groups, respectively. It was concluded that both chokeberry juice and polyphenols had blood pressure-lowering effects. We hypothesize that chokeberry polyphenols enhance endothelial nitric oxide production with an ACE-independent mechanism, e.g. by activation of endothelial nitric oxidase enzyme; this is yet to be verified.
Article
Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) is a rich source of polyphenols. The hypolipidemic effects of polyphenol-rich black chokeberry extract (CBE) have been reported, but underlying mechanisms have not been well characterized. We investigated the effect of CBE on the expression of genes involved in intestinal lipid metabolism. Caco-2 cells were incubated with 50 or 100 μg/ml of CBE for 24 h for quantitative realtime polymerase chain reaction analysis. Expression of genes for cholesterol synthesis (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and sterol regulatory element binding protein 2), apical cholesterol uptake (Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 and scavenger receptor class B Type 1) and basolateral cholesterol efflux [ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1)] was significantly decreased by CBE compared with control. Western blot analysis confirmed that CBE inhibited expression of these proteins. In contrast, CBE markedly induced mRNA and/or protein levels of ABCG5 and ABCG8 that mediate apical cholesterol efflux to the intestinal lumen. Furthermore, CBE significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor, and cellular LDL uptake. Expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and lipoprotein assembly, including sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase and acyl-CoA oxidase 1, was significantly decreased by CBE in a dose-dependent manner. Concomitantly, CBE significantly increased sirtuin 1, 3 and 5 mRNA levels, while it decreased SIRT-2. Our data suggest that hypolipidemic effects of CBE may be attributed, at least in part, to increased apical efflux of LDL-derived cholesterol and to decreased chylomicron formation in the intestine; and specific isoforms of SIRT may play an important role in this process.
Article
Quercetin represents antioxidative/antiinflammatory flavonoids widely distributed in the human diet. Quercetin is efficiently metabolized during absorption to quercetin-3-O-glucuronide. This study aims to parallelly investigate whether quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide exert protection against palmitate (PA)-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in the endothelium. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were pretreated with quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide for 30 min, and then incubated with 100 μM PA for 30 min or 12 h with or without insulin. PA stimulation led to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production with collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm). Quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide inhibited ROS overproduction and effectively restored Δψm, demonstrating their chemorpotection of mitochondrial function through antioxidative actions. Also, quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide inhibited ROS-associated inflammation by inhibition of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α production with suppression of IKKβ/NF-κB phosphorylation. Inflammation impaired insulin PI3K signaling and reduced insulin-mediated nitric oxide (NO) production. Quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide facilitated PI3K signaling by positive regulation of serine/tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and restoration of downstream Akt/eNOS activation, leading to an increased insulin-mediated NO level. The above-mentioned evidence indicates that quercetin and quercetin-3-O-glucuronide are equally effective in inhibiting ROS-associated inflammation and ameliorating insulin resistant endothelial dysfunction by beneficial regulation of IRS-1 function.
Article
Polyphenolic compounds have been regarded as one of the most promising dietary agents for the prevention and treatment of inflammation-related chronic diseases; however, the anti-inflammatory activities of flavonoids, such as quercetin, are not completely characterized, and many features remain to be elucidated. In this study, we showed the molecular basis for the downregulation of TLR4 signal transduction by quercetin. Quercetin markedly elevated the expression of the Toll-interacting protein, a negative regulator of TLR signaling. Lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of cell surface molecules (CD80, CD86, and MHC class I/II) and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12p70) were inhibited by quercetin, and this action was prevented by Toll-interacting protein silencing. In addition, quercetin-treated macrophages inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, such as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and the translocation of nuclear factor-κB and p65 through Toll-interacting protein. Treatment with quercetin resulted in a significant decrease in prostaglandin E(2) and cyclooxygenase-2 levels as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase-mediated nitric oxide production induced by lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, these findings represent new insights into the understanding of negative regulatory mechanisms of the TLR4 signaling pathway and effective therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory disease.
Article
There have been substantial advances in cancer diagnostics and therapies in the past decade. Besides chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy, approaches now include targeting cancer cell-intrinsic mediators linked to genetic aberrations in cancer cells, in addition to cancer cell-extrinsic pathways, especially those regulating vascular programming of solid tumors. More recently, immunotherapeutics have entered the clinic largely on the basis of the recognition that several immune cell subsets, when chronically activated, foster tumor development. Here, we discuss clinical and experimental studies delineating protumorigenic roles for immune cell subsets that are players in cancer-associated inflammation. Some of these cells can be targeted to reprogram their function, leading to resolution, or at least neutralization, of cancer-promoting chronic inflammation, thereby facilitating cancer rejection.
Article
Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is a type of polyphenol with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities. Our previous studies showed CGA could efficiently inhibit carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis in rats. However, the specific underlying mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of CGA on liver inflammation and fibrosis induced by CCl(4) and whether they are related to inhibition of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling pathway. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were administrated CCl(4) together with or without CGA for 8 weeks. Histopathological and biochemical analyses were carried out. The mRNA and protein expression levels of proinflammatory and profibrotic mediators were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. The levels of serum proinflammatory cytokines were detected by ELISA. CGA significantly attenuated CCl(4)-induced liver damage and symptoms of liver fibrosis, accompanied by reduced serum transaminase levels, collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression. As compared with the CCl(4)-treated group, the expression levels of TLR4, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were reduced in the treatment group of CCl(4) and CGA, whereas bone morphogenetic protein and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (Bambi) expression was increased. CGA also suppressed CCl(4) induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. Moreover, the hepatic mRNA expression and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were significantly increased in CCl(4)-treated rats and attenuated by co-treatment with CGA. Our data indicate that CGA can efficiently inhibit CCl(4)-induced liver fibrosis in rats and the protective effect may be due to the inhibition of TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathway.
Article
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the analysis of total phenols and other oxidation substrates and antioxidants by means of Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Analyses of the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) type are convenient, simple, and require only common equipment and have produced a large body of comparable data. Under proper conditions, the assay is inclusive of monophenols and gives predictable reactions with the types of phenols found in nature. Because different phenols react to different degrees, expression of the results as a single number—such as milligrams per liter gallic acid equivalence—is necessarily arbitrary. Because the reaction is independent, quantitative, and predictable, analysis of a mixture of phenols can be recalculated in terms of any other standard. The assay measures all compounds readily oxidizable under the reaction conditions and its very inclusiveness allows certain substances to also react that are either not phenols or seldom thought of as phenols (e.g., proteins). Judicious use of the assay—with consideration of potential interferences in particular samples and prior study if necessary—can lead to very informative results. Aggregate analysis of this type is an important supplement to and often more informative than reems of data difficult to summarize from various techniques, such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that separate a large number of individual compounds .The predictable reaction of components in a mixture makes it possible to determine a single reactant by other means and to calculate its contribution to the total FC phenol content. Relative insensitivity of the FC analysis to many adsorbents and precipitants makes differential assay—before and after several different treatments—informative.
Article
To determine anti-inflammatory effects of pigments from red cabbage, red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var.) juice was prepared, characterized by UV-vis absorption spectra, partially purified by Sephadex LH-20 column, analyzed by HPLC, and administered to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine splenocyte cultures. The study showed that red cabbage juice (RC) exhibited anti-inflammatory effects against LPS-induced inflammation of splenocytes via increasing anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10 and decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 secretions. The maximum absorption peaks of RC and its heated products, but not activated charcoal-adsorbed products, appeared at 280nm with a small shoulder around 310-330nm while there existed a minor peak at 560nm (range from 480 to 630nm), reflecting red cabbage juice included phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanins. The lyophilized powder of chromatographic fractions F2, F3, and F4 through Sephadex LH-20 column were rich in phenolics (5.9±0.2%, 4.4±0.0%, and 3.9±0.0%, respectively) and flavonoids (1.8±0.3%, 1.8±0.3%, and 1.1±0.3%, respectively). The results suggest that anti-inflammatory pigment compounds in red cabbage juice were heat stable. Further analysis of chromatograms from HPLC suggests malvidin glycosides including malvidin 3-glucoside (oenin), malvidin 5-glucoside and malvidin 3,5-diglucoside in red cabbage juice could inhibit IL-6 secretion of LPS-stimulated splenocytes. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
Interleukin 10 (IL-10) is a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties that plays a central role in limiting host immune response to pathogens, thereby preventing damage to the host and maintaining normal tissue homeostasis. Dysregulation of IL-10 is associated with enhanced immunopathology in response to infection as well as increased risk for development of many autoimmune diseases. Thus a fundamental understanding of IL-10 gene expression is critical for our comprehension of disease progression and resolution of host inflammatory response. In this review, we discuss modes of regulation of IL-10 gene expression in immune effector cell types, including signal transduction, epigenetics, promoter architecture, and post-transcriptional regulation, and how aberrant regulation contributes to immunopathology and disease progression.
Article
Inflammation and oxidative stress plays a critical role in cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome often occurs with these two variables. The aim of the study is to estimate variations on cardiovascular risk factors in Metabolic Syndrome patients after consume of a citrus-based juice compared with control groups. The study comprised 20 healthy subjects and 33 patients with Metabolic Syndrome. 18 patients consume daily 300 mL of a citrus-based juice during 6 month and 15 patients consume 300 mL of a placebo beverage. The control group consumes a citrus-based juice. Before, at fourth month and at sixth month after treatment the following parameters were determined: lipid profile, oxidized LDL, C-Reactive Protein and Homocysteine. The study was carried out in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, and the Ethical Committee of the San Antonio Catholic University and approved the protocol (6 November 2006, register number: 1424). After six months of citrus-based juice consuming, there is significant differences at 95% confidence in oxidized LDL, C-Reactive Protein, and Homocysteine in Metabolic Syndrome patients who consume citrus-based juice. We have not found significant differences in other groups. Consume of citrus-based juice improve lipid profile and inflammation markers in Metabolic Syndrome patients.
Article
Quercetin is a typical anti-oxidative flavonoid ubiquitously distributed in vegetables. It is likely to act as a bioactive compound by exerting reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity and/or binding to specific proteins such as oxidative enzymes and transcriptional factors in signal transduction pathways. Its absorption and metabolism (as well as its molecular targets) have been extensively explored from the viewpoint of its potential for disease prevention. It is known that glucuronide and/or sulfate conjugates with or without O-methylation exclusively circulate in the human bloodstream after intake of a quercetin-containing diet. We propose that glucuronide conjugates of quercetin function not only as detoxified metabolites but hydrophilic bioactive agents to various ROS-generating systems and precursors of hydrophobic aglycone. Quercetin aglycone is assumed to emerge in the target site by the action of β-glucuronidase activity under oxidative stress such as inflammation. The cardiovascular system and central nervous system seem to be the major targets of conjugated quercetin glucuronides circulating in the human bloodstream.
Article
Flavonoids are a family of polyphenolic compounds which are widespread in nature (vegetables) and are consumed as part of the human diet in significant amounts. There are other types of polyphenols, including, for example, tannins and resveratrol. Flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds have significant antiinflammatory activity, among others. This short review summarizes the current knowledge on the effects of flavonoids and related polyphenolic compounds on inflammation, with a focus on structural requirements, the mechanisms involved, and pharmacokinetic considerations. Different molecular (cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase) and cellular targets (macrophages, lymphocytes, epithelial cells, endothelium) have been identified. In addition, many flavonoids display significant antioxidant/radical scavenging properties. There is substantial structural variation in these compounds, which is bound to have an impact on their biological profile, and specifically on their effects on inflammatory conditions. However, in general terms there is substantial consistency in the effects of these compounds despite considerable structural variations. The mechanisms have been studied mainly in myeloid cells, where the predominant effect is an inhibition of NF-κB signaling and the downregulation of the expression of proinflammatory markers. At present there is a gap in knowledge of in vitro and in vivo effects, although the pharmacokinetics of flavonoids has advanced considerably in the last decade. Many flavonoids have been studied for their intestinal antiinflammatory activity which is only logical, since the gastrointestinal tract is naturally exposed to them. However, their potential therapeutic application in inflammation is not restricted to this organ and extends to other sites and conditions, including arthritis, asthma, encephalomyelitis, and atherosclerosis, among others.
Article
The modern rise in obesity and its strong association with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes have elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies. The discovery that obesity itself results in an inflammatory state in metabolic tissues ushered in a research field that examines the inflammatory mechanisms in obesity. Here, we summarize the unique features of this metabolic inflammatory state, termed metaflammation and defined as low-grade, chronic inflammation orchestrated by metabolic cells in response to excess nutrients and energy. We explore the effects of such inflammation in metabolic tissues including adipose, liver, muscle, pancreas, and brain and its contribution to insulin resistance and metabolic dysfunction. Another area in which many unknowns still exist is the origin or mechanism of initiation of inflammatory signaling in obesity. We discuss signals or triggers to the inflammatory response, including the possibility of endoplasmic reticulum stress as an important contributor to metaflammation. Finally, we examine anti-inflammatory therapies for their potential in the treatment of obesity-related insulin resistance and glucose intolerance.
Article
Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), which is the antioxidant derived from grape seeds, has been reported to possess a variety of potent properties. We have previously shown that GSPE attenuates collagen-induced arthritis. However the mechanism by which GSPE regulates the immune response remains unclear, although it may involve effects on the regulation of pathogenic T cells in autoimmune arthritis. To clarify this issue, we have assessed the effects of GSPE on differential regulation of Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells subsets in vitro in mouse and human CD4(+) T cells. We observed that GSPE decreased the frequency of IL-17(+)CD4(+)Th17 cells and increased induction of CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3)(+) Treg cells. In vivo, GSPE effectively attenuated clinical symptoms of established collagen-induced arthritis in mice with concomitant suppression of IL-17 production and enhancement of Foxp3 expression (type II collagen-reactive Treg cells) in CD4(+) T cells of joints and splenocytes. The presence of GSPE decreased the levels of IL-21, IL-22, IL-26 and IL-17 production by human CD4(+) T cells in a STAT3-dependent manner. In contrast, GSPE induces Foxp3(+) Treg cells in humans. Our results suggest that GSPE possesses a reciprocal control over IL-17 and Foxp3. By potently regulating inflammatory T cell differentiation, GSPE may serve as a possible novel therapeutic agent for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
In the present study the effect of quercetin and its major metabolites quercetin-3-glucuronide (Q3G) and isorhamnetin on inflammatory gene expression was determined in murine RAW264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Quercetin and isorhamnetin but not Q3G significantly decreased mRNA and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Furthermore a significant decrease in mRNA levels of interleukin 1β, interleukin 6, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α and inducible nitric oxide synthase was evident in response to the quercetin treatment. However Q3G did not affect inflammatory gene expression. Anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin and isorhamnetin were accompanied by an increase in heme oxygenase 1 protein levels, a downstream target of the transcription factor Nrf2, known to antagonize chronic inflammation. Furthermore, proinflammatory microRNA-155 was down-regulated by quercetin and isorhamnetin but not by Q3G. Finally, anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin were confirmed in vivo in mice fed quercetin-enriched diets (0.1 mg quercetin/g diet) over 6 weeks.
Article
After the discovery of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), innate immune mechanisms came back in the focus of scientific research. With more and more mechanisms of TLR biology known, it has become clear that these and also other innate immune receptors are not only of crucial importance in the immune response to invading pathogens, but also play a role in the homeostasis of commensal flora and in the response to stress and danger signals. In this respect, increasing evidence is found that inappropriate quantity or quality of TLR ligands or aberrant response to TLR activation plays a role in a variety of chronic inflammatory diseases. In this review, an overview of the currently known TLRs and their signaling pathways is given and reports about their expression and activation in chronic inflammatory diseases are recapitulated.
Article
To examine whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) which is known to act as an antioxidant has therapeutic effect on collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice, an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. Mice were treated with an intraperitoneal injection of GSPE (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg) or saline. Clinical, histological, and biochemical parameters were assessed. The effects of GSPE on osteoclastogenesis were determined by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining of the inflamed joints and bone-marrow cells cultured with the receptor activator of nuclear factor B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide were determined using carboxy-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated the severity of CIA in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the histology scores for synovial inflammation, cartilage erosion, bone erosion, and the number of TRAP+ osteoclasts. GSPE treatment significantly reduced the numbers of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha)- or interleukin 17 (IL-17)-producing cells in the synovial tissue and the spontaneous production of TNF-alpha and IL-17 by splenocytes compared with those in the control mice. The serum levels of type-II-collagen-specific IgG2a and plasma levels of 8-isoprostane in the GSPE-treated mice were significantly lower than those in the control mice. GSPE dose-dependently suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. GSPE significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide production by anti-CD3-monoclonal-antibody-stimulated CD4+ splenocytes. These results indicate that intraperitoneal injection of GSPE attenuated CIA in mice. GSPE may be useful in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Article
Quercetin (QUER) and luteolin (LUTE) are dietary flavonoids capable of regulating the production of cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). However, their mechanisms of action are not fully understood. In lipopolysaccharide-triggered (LPS)-triggered signaling via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), QUER and LUTE suppresses not only the degradation of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB), with resultant activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), but also the phosphorylation of p38 and Akt in bone marrow-derived macrophages that have been stimulated with LPS. We report here that, in TNF-alpha-induced signaling, QUER and LUTE significantly suppressed the production of IL-6 and activation of NF-kappaB. Accumulation of lipid rafts, the initial step in the signaling pathway, was significantly inhibited when macrophages were treated with QUER or with LUTE prior to exposure to LPS. Similarly, the accumulation of lipid rafts was inhibited by the flavonoids when B cells were activated via the membrane IgM and when T cells were activated via CD3. In contrast, QUER and LUTE did not inhibit the activation of phorbol myristate acetate-induced NF-kappaB in macrophages. Our observations suggest that QUER and LUTE interact with receptors on the cell surface and suppress the accumulation of lipid rafts that occurs downstream of the activation of the receptors.
Article
Quercetin is one of the most widely distributed flavonoids present in fruits and vegetables. The present experiments were performed on rats adapted for 3 wk to a semipurified diet supplemented with 0.2% quercetin. The major part of the circulating metabolites of quercetin (91.5%) are glucurono-sulfo conjugates of isorhamnetin (3'-O-methyl quercetin; 89.1 +/- 2.1 microM) and of quercetin (14.7 +/- 1.7 microM); the minor part (8.5%) is constituted by glucuronides of quercetin and its methoxylated forms (9.6 +/- 2.3 microM). Conjugated dienes formation, resulting from Cu2+-catalyzed oxidation of rat very low density lipoproteins + low density lipoproteins (LDL), was effectively inhibited in vitro by conjugated metabolites of quercetin. These metabolites appeared to be four times more potent than trolox in inhibiting LDL oxidation. Moreover, the plasma from rats adapted to a diet containing 0.2% quercetin exhibited a total antioxidant status markedly higher than that of control rats (+60%). This study shows that ubiquitous quercetin is conjugated in vivo, yielding metabolites that exhibit antioxidant properties. Thus the health benefits of flavonoids in foods can be due to the antioxidant properties of their metabolites.
Article
This working group sought to translate the rapidly growing body of evidence for inflammation as a key process in atherosclerosis into clinical and public health practice. Basic science and epidemiological studies have developed an impressive case that atherogenesis is essentially an inflammatory response to a variety of risk factors and the consequences of this response lead to the development of acute coronary and cerebrovascular syndromes. Although several cytokines, acute-phase reactants, and cellular responses to inflammatory stimuli potentially might be predictive of clinical disease, the laboratory tests to assess inflammation are limited to those that are employable in clinical settings, have commercially available assays that can be standardized, and have adequate precision. On the basis of these considerations, it is most reasonable to limit current assays of inflammatory markers to hs-CRP, measured twice, either fasting or nonfasting, with the average expressed in mg/L, in metabolically stable patients. Relative risk categories (low, average, high) correspond to approximate tertiles of values (<1.0, 1.0 to 3.0, and >3.0 mg/L, respectively), based on an aggregation of population studies. hs-CRP has been studied in nested case-control and prospective studies, which have shown graded, dose-response relationships to clinical CVD that remain after adjustment for other risk factors, with moderately strong associations between the lower and upper tertiles (RR ≈2.0). hs-CRP seems to add predictive value above that of currently established risk factors. The evidence, however, is not entirely consistent across published studies, and in particular, additional prospective studies are needed to more precisely define risk at various strata and to assure consistency in other age, sex, and race-ethnicity groups. On the basis of the available evidence, the Writing Group recommends against screening of the entire adult population for hs-CRP as a public health measure. The Writing Group does conclude that it is reasonable to measure hs-CRP as an adjunct to the major risk factors to further assess absolute risk for coronary disease primary prevention. At the discretion of the physician, the measurement is considered optional, based on the moderate level of evidence (Evidence Level C). In this role, hs-CRP measurement appears to be best employed to detect enhanced absolute risk in persons in whom multiple risk factor scoring projects a 10-year CHD risk in the range of 10% to 20% (Evidence Level B). However, the benefits of this strategy or any treatment based on this strategy remain uncertain. The finding of a high relative risk level of hs-CRP (>3.0 mg/L) may allow for intensification of medical therapy to further reduce risk and to motivate some patients to improve their lifestyle or comply with medications prescribed to reduce their risk. Individuals at low risk (<10% per 10 years) will be unlikely to have a high risk (>20%) identified through hs-CRP testing. Individuals at high risk (>20% risk over 10 years) or with established atherosclerotic disease generally should be treated intensively regardless of their hs-CRP levels, so the utility of hs-CRP in secondary prevention appears to be more limited. In patients with stable coronary disease or acute coronary syndromes, hs-CRP measurement may be useful as an independent marker for assessing likelihood of recurrent events, including death, myocardial infarction, or restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention. However, secondary preventive interventions with proven efficacy should not be dependent on hs-CRP levels. Further, serial testing of hs-CRP should not be used to monitor effects of treatment. These recommendations should not be interpreted to mean that the scientific evidence is fully adequate. Randomized trials in which inflammatory marker testing was the primary intervention have not been performed to provide Level A evidence, nor have cost-effectiveness analyses been completed to assess additional costs or cost savings through the use of such tests. The currently available evidence was assessed in the formulation of these recommendations. A long list of recommendations for further research reflects the need to clarify numerous issues. Nonetheless, basic and epidemiological studies suggest that this will be a fertile topic for investigations and will help define the most effective and efficient use of inflammatory markers in the prediction of CVD.
Article
Unlabelled: Recent studies have shown, that chronic flavonoids treatment improves vascular function and cardiovascular remodeling by decreasing superoxide anion production as well as by increasing NO realize from endothelial cells. A progressive decrease in systolic blood pressure and reduction of low-density lipoprotein oxidation (Ox-LDL) has also been reported. However, none of these studies were done in patient with coronary artery disease treated with statins. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel trial. Forty-four patients (11 women and 33 men, mean age 66 years) who survived myocardial infraction and have received statin therapy for at least 6 months (80% dose of 40 mg/day simvastatin) were included in the study. The subjects were randomised to receive either 3 x 85 mg/day of chokeberry flavonoid extract (Aronia melanocarpa E) or placebo for a period of 6 weeks. The study extract was a commercially-available (OTC) product of the following declared composition: anthocyans (about 25%), polymeric procyanidines (about 50%) and phenolic acids (about 9%). Compared to placebo (ANOVA and Tukey's test), flavonoids significantly reduced serum 8-isoprostans (p<0.000) and Ox-LDL levels (p<0.000) (by 38 and 29%, respectively), as well as hsCRP (p<0.007) and MCP-1 (p<0.001) levels (by 23 and 29%, respectively). In addition, significant increase in adiponectin (p<0.03) levels and reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure by a mean average of 11 and 7.2 mmHg, respectively were found. Conclusion: In view of the fact that chokeberry flavonoids reduce the severity of inflammation, regardless of statins, they can be used clinically for secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease.
Aronia melanocarpa) extract regulates the expression of genes critical for intestinal cholesterol flux in Caco-2 cells
  • Polyphenol-Rich
  • Black
Polyphenol-rich black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) extract regulates the expression of genes critical for intestinal cholesterol flux in Caco-2 cells. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 24(9), 1564–1570.
Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the
  • T A Pearson
  • G A Mensah
  • R W Alexander
  • J L Anderson
  • R O Cannon
  • M Criqui
  • Y Y Fadl
  • S P Fortmann
  • Y Hong
  • G L Myers
  • N Rifai
  • S C Smith
  • Jr
  • K Taubert
  • R P Tracy
  • F Vinicor
Pearson, T. A., Mensah, G. A., Alexander, R. W., Anderson, J. L., Cannon, R. O., Criqui, M., Fadl, Y. Y., Fortmann, S. P., Hong, Y., Myers, G. L., Rifai, N., Smith, S. C. Jr, Taubert, K., Tracy, R. P., & Vinicor, F. ( 2003). Markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease: application to clinical and public health practice: a statement for healthcare professionals from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Heart Association. Circulation, 107(3), 499–511.
Variations on cardiovascular risk factors in metabolic syndrome after consume of a citrus-based juice
  • J Mulero
  • J Bernabe
  • B Cerda
  • C Garcia-Viguera
  • D A Moreno
  • M D Albaladejo
  • F Aviles
  • S Parra
  • J Baellan
  • P Zafrilla
Mulero, J., Bernabe, J., Cerda, B., Garcia-Viguera, C., Moreno, D. A., Albaladejo, M. D., Aviles, F., Parra, S., Baellan, J., & Zafrilla, P. (2012). Variations on cardiovascular risk factors in metabolic syndrome after consume of a citrus-based juice. Clinical Nutrition, 31(3), 372-377.
The polyphenolic-rich Aronia melanocarpa juice kills teratocarcinomal cancer stern-like cells, but not their differentiated counterparts
  • T Sharif
  • M Stambouli
  • B Burrus
  • F Emhemmed
  • I Dandache
  • C Auger
  • N Etienne-Selloum
  • V B Schini-Kerth
  • G Fuhrmann
Sharif, T., Stambouli, M., Burrus, B., Emhemmed, F., Dandache, I., Auger, C., Etienne-Selloum, N., Schini-Kerth, V. B., & Fuhrmann, G. ( 2013). The polyphenolic-rich Aronia melanocarpa juice kills teratocarcinomal cancer stern-like cells, but not their differentiated counterparts. Journal of Functional Foods, 5(3), 1244-1252.