Article

Neurocognitive Impairment in Whipple Disease with Central Nervous System Involvement

Cognitive and behavioral neurology: official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology (Impact Factor: 0.95). 03/2014; 27(1):51-6. DOI: 10.1097/WNN.0000000000000016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Young-onset dementias pose a major challenge to both clinicians and researchers. Cognitive decline may be accompanied by systemic features, leading to a diagnosis of "dementia plus" syndromes. Whipple disease is a rare systemic illness characterized by arthralgias, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever, and abdominal pain. Central nervous system involvement, including severe cognitive deterioration, may precede systemic manifestations, appear during the course of the disease, or even be the only symptom. We report a previously highly functional 48-year-old man whom we first suspected of having early-onset neurodegenerative dementia but then diagnosed with Whipple disease based on a detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Initial neuropsychological evaluation revealed marked impairment in the patient's fluid intelligence and severe cognitive deficits in his information processing speed, complex attention, memory, visuomotor and construction dexterities, problem solving, and executive functions. At neuropsychological follow-up 21 months later, his information processing speed had improved only slightly and deficits persisted in his other cognitive functions. Repeat brain magnetic resonance imaging at that time showed that he had responded to antibiotic treatment. Because Whipple disease can cause young-onset "dementia plus" syndromes that may leave patients with neurocognitive deficits even after apparently successful treatment, we recommend comprehensive neuropsychological assessment for early detection of residual and reversible cognitive processes and evaluation of treatment response.

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    • "In addition to the gastrointestinal tract or joints, several other organs can be affected by Whipple's disease. For example, Whipple's disease can lead to endocarditis [1] [9] [10] [14] [15], neurologic disorders [1] [9] [16] [17], and pulmonary hypertension [18]. Due to the non-specific nature of the symptoms associated with Whipple's disease and the difficulty in achieving successful cultivation of T. whipplei, as well as limited resources to perform these specialized techniques [5], it is essential that other methods of diagnosis be investigated and utilized. "
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    ABSTRACT: Whipple's disease, a systemic, chronic infectious disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei, is extremely rare in Asian populations. A correct diagnosis is necessary due to its high mortality rate. Unfortunately, patients are apt to be misdiagnosed with connective tissue diseases since they typically present with arthritis or arthralgia. There are three diagnostic tools for Whipple's disease using intestinal tissues: 1) periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive macrophages; 2) electron microscopic observation; and 3) polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It is challenging to diagnose this disease in the absence of histological findings, especially in Japan, where the clinical protocol currently used to make the diagnosis needs improvement, although symptomology and PCR results may be sufficient. Herein, we investigated a 24-year-old Japanese woman who had suffered from intermittent fever, migratory arthralgia, and watery diarrhea for several months. Her biopsied intestinal tissue was negative for foamy macrophages and PAS-positive cells, and electron microscopy did not provide diagnostic insight. PCR amplification of the specimens, however, successfully revealed T. whipplei. Whipple's disease was diagnosed based on a positive PCR result and strong clinical suspicion. The patient was treated parenterally with ceftriaxone (2 g daily) for two weeks, followed by oral treatment with 160 mg trimethoprim and 800 mg sulfamethoxazole twice per day. After one month of treatment, her symptoms disappeared and inflammatory markers returned to normal levels. This case illustrates the practicality and effectiveness of a PCR-based diagnostic test in combination with clinical suspicion to correctly diagnose Whipple's disease, especially in cases when a histological examination does not provide insight.
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