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Review of benefits and challenges of vehicle-to-grid technology

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Abstract

Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) can behave either as loads or as distributed energy sources in a concept known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G). The V2G concept can improve the performance of the electricity grid in areas such as efficiency, stability, and reliability. A V2G-capable vehicle offers reactive power support, active power regulation, tracking of variable renewable energy sources, load balancing, and current harmonic filtering. These technologies can enable ancillary services, such as voltage and frequency control and spinning reserve. Costs of V2G include battery degradation, the need for intensive communication between the vehicles and the grid, effects on grid distribution equipment, infrastructure changes, and social, political, cultural and technical obstacles. Although V2G operation can reduce the lifetime of PEVs, it is projected to be more economical for vehicle owners and grid operators. This paper reviews these benefits and challenges of V2G technology for both individual vehicles and vehicle fleets.

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... EVSC can effectively manage EVs' charging process, particularly during the night, to meet the network technical constraints. Based on statistics, on average, the vehicles travel for only 4-5 % of the time, and the rest of the day, they are parked in home garages or parking lots [15]. The aggregated batteries of such vehicles could be seen as large-scale, but distributed energy storage systems [16] and are beneficial for improving the network characteristics through EVSC. ...
... EVs have an important role in future power networks since they act as both energy consumers and producers, called prosumers [122]. Using power electronics devices, intelligent grid connection, and interactive charger control, EVs can be seen as mobile energy storage resources [15]. EVs can also be integrated into energy systems supporting both stand-alone and grid-connected applications. ...
... There are different challenges in implementing EVSC. In general, the EVSC challenges include the battery depreciation cost, the needed intensive communication between the EVs and the power network, infrastructure changes, charging impact on power distribution network facilities, and also security, social, political, cultural, and technical barriers [15]. In general, technological, economic, and social aspects should be considered in EVSC. ...
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The role of electric vehicles (EVs) in energy systems will be crucial over the upcoming years due to their environmental-friendly nature and ability to mitigate/absorb excess power from renewable energy sources. Currently, a significant focus is given to EV smart charging (EVSC) solutions by researchers and industries around the globe to suitably meet the EVs' charging demand while overcoming their negative impacts on the power grid. Therefore, effective EVSC strategies and technologies are required to address such challenges. This review paper outlines the benefits and challenges of the EVSC procedure from different points of view. The role of EV aggregator in EVSC, charging methods and objectives, and required infrastructure for implementing EVSC are discussed. The study also deals with ancillary services provided by EVSC and EVs' load forecasting approaches. Moreover, the EVSC integrated energy systems, including homes, buildings, integrated energy systems, etc., are reviewed, followed by the smart green charging solutions to enhance the environmental benefit of EVs. The literature review shows the efficiency of EVSC in reducing charging costs by 30 %, grid operational costs by 10 %, and renewable curtailment by 40 %. The study gives key findings and recommendations which can be helpful for researchers and policymakers.
... • Vehículos eléctricos VE [34]. ...
... • Seguridad en SG [34]. ...
... • Simuladores y sistemas de información [34]. ...
... In the first place, we can discuss the Vehicle to Grid (V2G) strategies. This means that the electric vehicles are seen as distributed energy sources that usually can have IP based communication between the EV owner and the grid operator [25,26]. This communication is required to remotely manage the vehicles to control the charging hours based on the grid conditions. ...
... In this case, EV can be seen as a contribution load of the residential system by providing energy to the grid when needed in a bidirectional V2G structure. It is to remark that in this category, strategies such as the use of aggregated and clustering load management systems can deal with the voltage over-loading or under-loading situations, which have been identified as voltage instability problems for the grid [25,28]. ...
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... Higher computational cost Requires advance driving cycle information Global optimality may not be obtained [3,62,[107][108][109][110][111][112] Practical Swarm Optimization (PSO) Sizing, Pricing, Scheduling the Energy Storage Unit (ESU) for the Photovoltaic (PV) grid-connected charging system and the optimum size of the PV array Very fast convergence Robustness to the choice of parameters Premature convergence [101,[113][114][115][116][117][118] Genetic algorithm (GA) Summarizing, analyzing, optimizing, scheduling, controlling of HEVs, and minimizing the cost of operation of the cogeneration system Information exchange between the population to create new individuals Highly susceptible to the choice of values of the operators [31,60,71,75,115,[119][120][121][122] Linear programming (LP) ...
... A summary of comparative analysis between unidirectional and bidirectional power flow is reported by Salam and Bhatti [177]. Table 5. presents the power flow architecture of EV with its associated characteristics [49,79,114], which consists of the power flow direction (unidirectional and bidirectional), charging power levels that refer to the speed of charging using level 1,2 and 3. Similarly, the impacts of the power flow on the battery and the distribution system, as well as the associated benefits and effects, are presented [15,153,167,197]. ...
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In transportation, Electricity plays a key role in modern dependency techniques, which researchers are concentrating their studies on. Electric Vehicles (EVs) and industrial machinery will continue to significantly increase in the coming years with the advent of Smart Grid (SG) with EVs integration system. The changeable increase of EVs makes them a valuable device in the modern era. SG is principally defined as the use of information technology with the electric by transferring electricity in both directions. This means to import and export to the grid via EVs, i.e Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operation. Recent literature demonstrated the significance of EVs to overcome power and environmental issues using energy management strategy (EMS). This article reviews the achievement of EMSs in the EV system reducing fuel consumption and carbon dioxide emission. To close the gap between the existing bodies of knowledge, this article focuses on the up-to-date and state-of-the-art standards of EV technology, energy resources, charging topologies and infrastructure, EMS classification, power conditional units, and electric load management. Recommendations are given as future research work to address the challenges affecting the V2G technology. The novelty of this article is the update on the state-of-the-art in the area of V2G and EMS.
... It is evident from Fig. 3. that Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC), Lithium Iron Phosphate (LFP), and Lithium Manganese Oxide (LMO) possess the best overall characteristics. From [41] we get to know research is carried out to improve batteries and reduce the downsides of materials used such as, (a) Li metal electrode has great electrochemical potential that may decrease the mass of battery but holds some safety issues due to dendrite formation across electrolyte.(b) aqueous electrolytes have a high level of safety and environmental benefits but their electrochemical voltage limit (c) silicon-based electrodes are going to be in markets but their high electrical strain and resistivity are still a matter of concern whereas ceramic electrolytes have shown some promising result, due to their higher conductivity at grain boundary. ...
... aqueous electrolytes have a high level of safety and environmental benefits but their electrochemical voltage limit (c) silicon-based electrodes are going to be in markets but their high electrical strain and resistivity are still a matter of concern whereas ceramic electrolytes have shown some promising result, due to their higher conductivity at grain boundary. All these materials and other [41] are under research phase and would be commercialized when a proper solution will be devised. ...
Article
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Continuous degradation in environment due to pollution has encouraged the idea of implementation of electrified transportation in day-today life. Hence it becomes a necessity to develop an infrastructure which supports the upcoming need of the consumer. This paper reviews thetechnology that is presently used for charging such as conductive method which is classified into ON board and OFF board charging, further categorized into Level 1(basic), Level 2 (primary), Level 3 (fast charging) and inductive method of charging. Comparison of different types of current and future battery types is discussed. An emerging technology which enable to transfer power to grid, V2G or vehicle to grid technology is also conferred in following sections.
... The maximum power of EV chargers varies depending on where they are used. The power rate of chargers used in areas such as shopping centers, business centers or car parks varies between 4 kW and 19.2 kW [18]. In this study, the maximum power of the chargers is assumed as 12.5 kW. ...
... which are equipped with EV chargers.  The type of arriving/departing vehicles in the specified time interval: typeEV : Binary (1=EV, 0=ICE)  Maximum charging power = 12.5 kW [18]. ...
... Currently, Li-ion batteries represent the most promising technology candidate for V2G because of their high efficiency, good energy density, Badenhorst et al. (2022) and long cycle lives. For example, lithium-ion batteries can be recharged 2,000-4,000 times, and a mass-production Li-ion battery will cost approximately $200-$500 per kWh (Yilmaz and Krein, 2012). Batteries have an investment cost of $300 per kWh over 3,000 cycles, so their degradation costs are estimated to be $130 per MWh at 80% discharge depth . ...
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... As shown in Figure 9, the charging of EVs may be done from the primary power grid or the distributed energy source (renewable or nonrenewable energy sources). In Figure 10, the penetration of EVs in six different networks is shown, and in the following sections, the penetration of EVs in these six networks is studied for the smart charging of EVs [62]. ...
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Due to the rapid expansion of electric vehicles (EVs), they are expected to be one of the main contributors to transportation. The increasing use of fossil fuels as one of the most available energy sources has led to the emission of greenhouse gases, which will play a vital role in achieving a sustainable transportation system. Developed and developing countries have long-term plans and policies to use EVs instead of internal combustion vehicles and to use renewable energy to generate electricity, which increases the number of charging stations. Recently, to meet the charging demand for EVs, the main focus of researchers has been on smart charging solutions. In addition, maintaining power quality and peak demand for grids has become very difficult due to the widespread deployment of EVs as personal and commercial vehicles. This paper provides information on EV charging control that can be used to improve the design and implementation of charging station infrastructure. An in-depth analysis of EV types, global charging standards, and the architectures of AC-DC and DC-DC converters are covered in this review article. In addition, investigating the role of EV collectors, as well as EV penetration, in electric energy systems to facilitate the integration of electric energy systems with renewable energy sources is one of the main goals of this paper.
... As a more economical solution, with V2G technology [7], EVs batteries can operate as mobile energy storage systems (ESSs) by storing power from the grid and surplus energy from PV to tackle PV's volatility and non-dispatchable power generation [8]. The effective implementation of V2G offers a variety of services, including load balancing [9], reactive power compensation and voltage control [10,11], frequency regulation [12], and spinning reserve [13]. Properly controlling the bidirectional power flow between EVs and grid-using V2G technology in combination with RESs provides a promising solution for managing power generation and consumption while minimizing the need for network infrastructure upgrades. ...
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This paper introduces a new bidirectional vehicle-to-grid (V2G) control strategy for energy management of V2G charging points equipped with photovoltaic systems (PVs), considering the interaction between V2G chargers, electric vehicle (EV) owners, and the network operator. The proposed method aims to minimize peak load, grid infeed power, feeder loading, and transformer loading by scheduling EVs charging and discharging. The simulation experiments take into account three EV battery capacities as well as two levels of EV penetration. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, five scenarios are studied in a single feeder of a low-voltage (LV) distribution network in DIgSILENT PowerFactory, which comprises a combination of residential and commercial loads as well as PV systems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed V2G strategy improves the paper’s objectives by providing ancillary services to the grid.
... Using the V2G technique, distribution grid stability, efficiency, and reliability can be improved [11]. Active and reactive power support, grid voltage support, frequency support, and current harmonics reduction are several services that EVs can provide through V2G, which are called grid ancillary services [12][13][14][15][16]. Through these ancillary services, the grid operation cost, and the cost of service reduction, revenue increase, emission reduction, and load factor improvement are possible [11,17]. Power flow from G2V and V2G is facilitated together in an EV charging station using an electric vehicle grid integration (EVGI) system. ...
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Electric vehicle grid integration (EVGI) is one of the most important parts of transportation electrification. However, large-scale EV charging/discharging can have an adverse effect on the distribution grid, due to a large amount of load being drawn from or fed back to the power grid. Additionally , the power electronics used in the grid interaction may impose additional complications, such as voltage and frequency deviation, harmonic distortion, etc. With proper control scheme designs for the grid-connected inverters, such complications can be mitigated, and several grid ancillary services, such as voltage and frequency support, reactive power support, and harmonic miti-gation, can be facilitated from large-scale EVGI. In this study, a large-scale EVGI system is developed where the vector control implementation of a grid-connected inverter in the d-q reference frame is presented for providing different grid ancillary services using the EVGI system. The EVGI system is operated in different control modes to ensure multiple ancillary services of the power grid. The study is supported by the electromagnetic transient simulation performed in Matlab/Simulink of a large-scale EVGI system. The simulation shows that with the proper control mechanism of grid-connected inverters, EVGI can be used to provide several useful grid ancillary services.
... This can be overcome by coordinated scheduling of vehicles, which inherently involves solving an optimization problem, where the charging power is carefully modulated to provide optimal schedules [12]. Moreover, the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology also allows for feeding the power back to the grid (by discharging the vehicles) to reduce the peak load, which could be further incorporated in the problem to come up with desirable schedules [13]. ...
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With the increasing uptake of electric vehicles (EVs), the need for efficient scheduling of EV charging is increasingly becoming important. A charging station operator needs to identify charging/discharging power of the client EVs over a time horizon while considering multiple objectives, such as operating costs and the peak power drawn from the grid. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) are a popular choice when faced with problems involving multiple objectives. However, since the objectives and constraints of this problem can be expressed using linear functions, it is also possible to come up with improvised multi-objective formulations which can be solved with exact techniques such as mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). With both approaches having their potential strengths and pitfalls, it is worth investigating their use to inform the algorithmic choices, which the current study aims to address. In doing so, it makes a number of contributions to the topic, including extension of an existing EV charging problem to a multi-objective form; observing some interesting properties of the problem to improve both the MILP and EA solution approaches; and comparing the performance of MILP and EA. The study provides some useful insights into the problem, initial results and quantitative basis for selecting solution approaches, and highlights some areas of further development.
... As depicted in the figure below, the distribution system's metering side has received the majority of recent infrastructure investments [11]. ...
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A smart grid is an electricity system that uses digital communications technology to detect, respond to, and take appropriate action in response to changes in demand and a variety of other problems. The secret to effective utilization of distributed energy resources is smart grid technology. Opportunities for renewable energy systems to address electricity generation appear to be growing, especially in light of the importance of climate change, the rising cost of petroleum products, and the falling cost of renewable energy power systems. However, an effective energy management strategy of system must be addressed in order to achieve commercialization and widespread use. Electric power networks have recently benefited from the effective application of the smart grid idea. This research work examines the overview of smart grid technology as a renewable energy source. The concept of a smart grid as well as the advantages and disadvantages of a smart grid renewable energy. The success of promoting renewable energy is significantly influenced by pricing. As a result, it is crucial to evaluate the distinctive qualities connected with alternative sources of renewable energy in order to get insight into the pricing of renewable energy. A survey of recent work in renewable smart grid systems shows the exciting future potential of such research traits. Both policymakers and those who create and use renewable energy systems would benefit from this.
... In another study, the work in Ref. [19] gives information about impediments and barriers in V2G systems through battery degradation, EV load profile, impacts of penetration levels, impacts of charging on distributed networks, and impacts on distribution parameters. The study [20] also examines the difficulties like battery degradation, effects on distribution equipment, investment costs, and energy losses on the V2G concept. Besides, in Ref. [21], the impacts of V2G technology on distribution systems are expressed in terms of environmental advantages on the grid, ancillary services, renewable energy supporting and balancing, and effects on distribution equipment. ...
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Global factors such as energy consumption and environmental issues encourage the utilization of electric vehicles (EVs) as alternative energy sources besides transportation. Recently, the development of virtual power plants integrated with clean energy sources has also enhanced the role of EVs in the transportation industry. Vehicle-grid integration (VGI) provides a practical and economical solution to improve energy sustainability and feed consumers on the user side. Although technical developments in the field show that the energy sector supports the effective use of EVs in stationary applications, the research studies confirm that scientific and industrial developments continue to improve the performance of using EVs as virtual power plants. However, a comprehensive study is needed to demonstrate the concepts, interfacing, and marketing of virtual power plants integrated with EVs for researchers and scientists working in this field. To this end, the current study aims to provide an extensive overview on the system configurations, interface topologies, marketing, and future perspectives in integrating EVs as virtual power plants. In this context, the integration concepts of VGI are investigated under the headings of stand-alone, grid-connected, transitional, and grid-supported operations. Then, VGI topologies are examined in terms of energy generation/storage units used in EVs, single-stage/two-stage/hybrid-multi-stage based systems, and grid-connection types & parameters. In the following section, the research projects and marketing values based on a large number of target data are introduced to show the current status of the VGI field. Lastly, future aspects, including charging strategies, intelligent technologies, and technical issues, are addressed and clarified.
... Many serious issues have cropped up due to the sudden surge in EV integration. Many technical, socio-economical, and environmental challenges must be overcome to optimize the EV-DSM technology, which is almost the same as encountered in terms of V2G and G2V operations (Yilmaz and Krein, 2012), as illustrated in Fig. 6. ...
Article
Full-text available
The shift of transportation technology from internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) in recent times due to their lower emissions, fuel costs, and greater efficiency has brought EV technology to the forefront of the electric power distribution systems due to their ability to interact with the grid through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) infrastructure. The greater adoption of EVs presents an ideal use-case scenario of EVs acting as power dispatch, storage, and ancillary service-providing units. This EV aspect can be utilized more in the current smart grid (SG) scenario by incorporating demand-side management (DSM) through EV integration. The integration of EVs with DSM techniques is hurdled with various issues and challenges addressed throughout this literature review. The various research conducted on EV-DSM programs has been surveyed. This review article focuses on the issues, solutions, and challenges, with suggestions on modeling the charging infrastructure to suit DSM applications, and optimization aspects of EV-DSM are addressed separately to enhance the EV-DSM operation. Gaps in current research and possible research directions have been discussed extensively to present a comprehensive insight into the current status of DSM programs employed with EV integration. This extensive review of EV-DSM will facilitate all the researchers to initiate research for superior and efficient energy management and EV scheduling strategies and mitigate the issues faced by system uncertainty modeling, variations, and constraints.
... In this sense, the vehicle participates in the stabilization of the grid. V2G technology offers a flexible service and plays a very important role for the ability to support renewable energies, when there is a lack of electricity production and weather changes, which influence the exploitation of renewable energies [13]. V2G technology subsets include the Vehicle-To-House (V2H) (when the electric vehicle is in the owner's residence) or the Vehicle-To-Building (V2B) (when the electric vehicle is in a commercial building). ...
Conference Paper
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The transition to the electrification of transport has become increasingly an unavoidable reality thanks to its numerous advantages intended for consumers and public services. The most widespread benefits are the systematic reduction of dependence on oil imports and the significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. Several governments have launched financial incentive programs to encourage the purchase of Electric Vehicles (EVs). The electrification of transport seems very promising. However, this transition will obviously face many obstacles, both social and commercial. The solution to manage the demand for energy added to the electrical system, following the integration of EVs, is linked to the evolution of intelligent electrical networks (Smart Grids) and to the design of techniques for controlling recharging and discharging of PEVs. In other words, the PEVs can be recharged and discharged following an intelligent coordination strategy to mitigate the negative effect of the future deployment of a large number of these vehicles. Vehicle to Grid (V2G) networks are systems based on the communication of one or more EVs with a Power Grid (PG) in order to exchange energy. In the case of a Smart Grid (SG), energy can be sent in both directions, this is called a two-way network. V2G network focuses on the messages exchanged between the electric vehicle and the charging station. These different messages can involve several types of data, some of which are private, so it is necessary to secure the different messages in order to protect them against possible attacks. In this work, we describe the network security architecture to support V2G and we present the security requirements and challenges of V2G networks. We focus in this study in different security aspects and features such as privacy preservation, mutual authentication, data confidentiality and integrity.
... Another important consideration nowadays has been to impart the capability of bidirectional power flow to the charging interface so as to allow both G2V and V2G modes [9]. V2G systems can provide additional opportunities for grid operators [10], including reactive power support, active power regulation, load-balancing [11], peak shaving, and current harmonic filtering. They can also improve the technical performance of the grid in areas such as efficiency, stability, and reliability [12]. ...
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AC-to-DC conversion is integral to the two-stage charging interface of electric vehicle (EV) batteries. For such chargers, the use of multilevel rectifiers (MLRs) reduces voltage ratings of power switches, while achieving a high-quality input voltage waveform. Balancing of capacitors in MLRs, however, is an important challenge. In this work, a power factor correction (PFC) five-level rectifier with self-balanced switched capacitors is proposed. Each leg of the presented topology comprises five power switches and one switched capacitor, where the voltage ratings of power switches are equal to the output dc voltage. It does not require an additional filter capacitor on the dc side, as the load appears in parallel always with a switched capacitor of one of the legs. The five-level operation with continuous conduction leads to the elimination of the capacitive filter on the ac-side and inductive filter on the dc-side. This article presents the operating principle, modulation strategy, closed-loop control, and design aspects of the proposed rectifier. The proposed topology is validated through experimental results and a comparison is made with other topologies. Following three features of the proposed topology make it suitable for EV battery charging applications—buck operation with a wide output regulation, the possibility of bidirectional flow of power needed for vehicle-to-grid systems, and easy realization of its three-phase version by simply adding one more leg. These features too have been demonstrated with experimental results.
... Benefits of additional services that EVs can provide: These are consistent with the benefits of the V2G concept, including reducing grid congestion concerns (peak shaving and load balancing through valley filling). They offer ancillary services such as voltage and frequency regulation through cheap and fast energy storage, possible support for renewable energy sources, and use as spinning reserves [51,52]. ...
Article
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Integrating fleets of electric vehicles (EVs) into industrial applications with smart grids is an emerging field of important research. It is necessary to get a comprehensive overview of current approaches and proposed solutions regarding EVs with vehicle-to-grid and smart charging. In this paper, various approaches to battery modeling and demand response (DR) of EV charging in different decentralized optimization scenarios are reviewed. Modeling parameters of EVs and battery degradation models are summarized and discussed. Finally, optimization approaches to simulate and optimize demand response, taking into account battery degradation, are investigated to examine the feasibility of adapting the charging process, which may bring economic and environmental benefits and help to alleviate the increasing demand for flexibility. There is a lack of studies that comprehensively consider battery degradation for EV fleets in DR charging scenarios where corresponding financial compensation for the EV owners is considered. Therefore, models are required for estimating the level of battery degradation endured when EVs are utilized for DR. The level of degradation should be offset by providing the EV owner with subsidized or free electricity provided by the company which is partaking in the DR. This trade-off should be optimized in such a manner that the company makes cost savings while the EV owners are compensated to a level that is at least commensurate with the level of battery degradation. Additionally, there is a lack of studies that have examined DR in smart grids considering larger EV fleets and battery degradation in multi-criteria approaches to provide economic and environmental benefits.
... A V2G-capable vehicle can provide reactive power assistance, active power regulation, tracking of variable renewable energy sources, load balancing, and current harmonic filtering. These technologies can provide auxiliary services like as voltage and frequency control and spinning reserve [3]. V2G expenses include battery deterioration, the demand for intense communication between automobiles and the grid, effects on grid distribution equipment, infrastructure upgrades, and social, political, cultural, and technological hurdles. ...
Article
Full-text available
World energy consumption is quickly rising as a result of population and economic expansion, particularly in big emerging economies, which will account for 90% of energy demand increase through 2035. Electric vehicles (EVs) are critical components of the electrification revolution aimed at reducing the carbon footprint. In this case study, a completely different side of EVs is explored where EVs can be used as an energy storage unit that has the potential to meet the demands of high energy needs in a variable electricity tariff setting. The study proposed in this work suggests that energy stored in EVs can also be used back in the smart grid at the time of high energy requirements which can significantly decrease the load shedding in both urban and rural areas. The simulation model presented on MATLAB shows a significant dip in energy demand after electricity stored in the Electric vehicles is used back in the smart grid. The study also proposed an ensemble model that is able to predict the overload in the Grid. The ensemble model achieving the R2 score of 0.87 and RMSE value of 0.06.
... Multifunctional OBCs will incorporate smart features to the grid. Moreover, bidirectional OBCs will enable vehicle-to-grid (V2G) functionalities, such as peak shaving, reactive power compensation, frequency regulation and spinning reserve [6][7][8]. Expanding V2G technologies will change the dynamics by turning EVs from a consumer of electricity into a power provider [1]. ...
Article
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This paper proposes a single-stage AC-DC rectifier with power factor correction (PFC), high-frequency isolation and bidirectional power conversion capability for on-board battery charger (OBC) applications. The proposed converter is based on the interleaving technique and the Dual Active Bridge (DAB) operation, applying the phase-shift control to regulate the power flow. In addition to topology, this article presents a control strategy for reducing low-frequency power ripples transferred to the secondary side without any additional component and hence maintaining overall size and cost. The single-phase OBC can interchange active power with the grid to charge batteries while performing grid-to-vehicle (G2V) functionality or transferring energy back to the grid via vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode. The theoretical analysis of the converter including modulation strategy and feedback control scheme are presented. The proposed topology and control strategy have been verified by experimental results of a 650 W SiC-based prototype.
... Many security schemes have been proposed in the past few years to address security and privacy concerns in V2G network. The idea of secure key exchange scheme for V2G was proposed in [11] that prevents the MITM attack and security in V2G networks was introduced in [12]. Two exchange key schemes based on the ECC and symmetric key algorithm was suggested by Nicanfar and Leung [13]. ...
... Studies demonstrate that the ESR battery increases at the low battery and severe battery charging status (SoC) (Mali and Tripathi, 2021). To minimize the rate of growth in ESR, it is necessary to keep the battery SoC in the intermediate ranges (Yilmaz, M. and Krein, P.T., 2012). Another critical aspect in reducing battery deterioration is the DOD of the battery. ...
Article
Since a significant number of electric vehicles (EVs) are progressively hitting the market, vehicle to grid (V2G) technology has gotten a lot of attention. Electric vehicles can be employed as mobile storage devices to assist in load balancing in the power grid as a specialised electricity load. In addition, the EVs development will have a number of impacts and benefits on the grid, including load leveling, voltage and frequency regulation, peak load shaving, smooth integration of renewable energies, and reactive power compensation. However, it has some negative impacts on the grid. The literature reviews the impact of V2G technologies and charging strategies along with their operations, control, and issues are sufficiently covered in a comprehensive manner. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to discuss and investigate the opportunities, challenges, and technologies of EVs in a V2G connecting system. Moreover, the V2G topologies, operations, applications, issues, control systems, main features, updated details, pros, cons, and related applications are comprehensively reviewed. This paper discusses the benefits of both the EV owners and the power grid. This paper concludes with potential recommendations for future research directions to solve the existing research gaps and issues.
... [17] Therefore, the bidirectional energy flow method is costly as it requires smart tools. [17,18] For the reasons mentioned, the costs of extra components, circuits and systems are major barrier for optimization of EV charger. ...
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With the increase in the number of electric vehicles,requirement of the electric vehicle battery chargers (EV) areincreased too. The EV battery chargers have many features whichshould be examined for optimization operation. The chargingtime and bad impacts of EV battery chargers to grid are twoof that features. The EV chargers should optimized in terms ofdifferent aspects for optimal results on grid and vehicle sides.This article aims to minimizing the EV battery charging timeand minimizing the bad impacts of EV chargers to grid. Solutionadvices were presented for optimal results in this article. Alsobenefits and barriers of optimization of the EV battery chargerswere explained.
... (Uddin, Dubarry, & Glick, 2018). Once connected, a range of services can be designed to allow electric vehicles to contribute to storage and grid stabilisation, increasing grid efficiency, stability and reliability (Yilmaz & Krein, 2012). The physical connectivity between vehicles and the electricity grid will likely allow for discharging of power from transit and other vehicles when not in use, to respond to times of peak demand, referred to as "peak shaving". ...
... V2G has shown to be a good potential load balancing assistant scheme [38]. However, users might be hesitant to allow V2G on their vehicles due to fear of leaving with low SoC, battery degradation, and security and privacy concerns [39]. Therefore, an assumption is made that the operator may offer appealing incentives to encourage users to participate in V2G. ...
Article
The repercussion of increased electric vehicle (EV) charging demand is notable at the distribution grid especially during the cold morning, while users tend to precondition their vehicles before leaving their premises. Moreover, due to the price declination, a tendency of installing level 2 chargers in residential premises is anticipated, which should stimulate the appearance of a new peak to the residential load profile. Hence, multiple scenarios of preconditioning are simulated, and the corresponding network’s quality metrics (e.g., voltage level and power losses) are assessed to analyze the impact. And a remarkable consequence is observed. As a consequence, to mitigate the consequences and manage the new peak load, the optimal reconfiguration of network is implemented, and unfortunately, with a larger number of EVs, this technique fails to attain the minimum voltage level. Therefore, leveraging this high number of EVs, instead of relying on the network reconfiguration, power is assumed to be injected from idle EVs through vehicle-to-grid (V2G) energy transmission. An integer linear program is formed to schedule a set of EVs in participating in V2G, and the outcome indicates that V2G alone could not compensate for the disturbance in the network. Accordingly, a hybrid method of V2G and reconfiguration is proposed and evaluated to assist the network in handling the new peak load, and this hybrid solution reduces power losses in the network by 50% on average and maintains the voltage level above the operational threshold of 0.95 p.u.
... Battery reserves through EV discharge are another benefit favoring V2G adoption to adhere to congestion in the grid during peak-demand hours. Lastly, V2G enables renewable energy integration by power quality conditioning, especially for wind energy [74]. Wind energy is more variable than sun, and EV battery systems can provide the necessary power quality conditioning for this variable power generation. ...
Article
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For sustainable electrification of surface transportation, a viable charging infrastructure is necessary. Firstly, this paper focuses on emphasizing the viability of a free fuel-based photovoltaics and/or wind turbines and lithium-ion battery-based power network to enable sustainable electric power. The importance of power electronics for a DC-based power network and extremely fast charger based on DC power is presented. Finally, the core design concepts of intelligent charging infrastructure using an intelligent energy management system are discussed. The paper aims to cover all aspects associated with a clean, reliable, efficient, and cost-effective solution to the novel charging infrastructure.
... where H indicates the inertia constant of the power system, R g is the equivalent droop rate of generators, P g,m is the mechanical power, P g,e is the electrical power, and P ev denotes the power of the EV The integration of FRSM EV charging into the power system is conceptually depicted in Figure 8 and with the parameters in Table 1. This block diagram of the governor droop control can be expressed as (18), and the conventional generators can be equivalently formulated with (19), which implies droop control in the governor and generator block diagram including the inertia constant. The EV control block can be expressed as a form of state-space matrix based on (17) or transfer function in (16), which has multiple inputs (Δ f and P ref ) and a single output (P ev ). ...
Article
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Abstract This paper proposes a vehicle‐to‐grid (V2G) operation methodology of electric vehicles (EVs) for frequency regulation, EV charging, and state‐of‐charge (SOC) management. This V2G operation methodology exhibits multifunctionality in regard to instantaneous power adjustment of EVs for primary frequency control during charging. The proposed method can stabilize grid frequency under the high penetration of renewable energy by simultaneously managing the desired state‐of‐charge (SOC) of the batteries. The results indicate that both charging and charged EVs can assist in frequency regulation so that V2G services can help embracing renewable energy sources and stabilize a power system. The feasibility of this method is verified by a practical power grid model to demonstrate the efficacy of EV charging control for SOC management using DIgSILENT/PowerFactory.
... Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) is a technology whose objective is to better integrate electric cars into the power systems, can provide EV battery energy to the grid. V2G technology offers active power regulation, voltage and frequency control [10], [11], [12], [13]. With the help of these can improve grid efficiency, stability, and reliability. ...
Article
This publication examines the impact of electric vehicles on the grid. Electric cars are becoming more and more popular in the world. The annual sales quantity of electric cars in the world has an upward trajectory which has some serious implications on the electric grid as well. Both passenger and freight transport are being influenced by this current trend. In addition to various methods of transport, electric cars have the potential to transform traditional grids into smart ones. The primary objective of this study is to examine to what extent the voltage at the nodes changes when electric cars are connected to the network and also sets out to provide us with some overview of the effects on active power loss in the network.
... The existing hydraulic pumped-storage plants will be most likely extended with variable speed drives [52]. The expansion of EV may support the energy storage thanks to the concept of vehicle-to-grid [196]. The energy storage elements like capacitors, supercapacitors or batteries that are considered for distributed storage systems will require a DC interface. ...
Thesis
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The evolutions in power systems and electric vehicles, related to the economic opportunities and the environmental issues, bring the need of high power galvanically isolated DC-DC converter. The medium frequency transformer (MFT) is one of its key components, enabled by the increasing switching frequency of modern power semiconductors like silicon carbide transistors or diodes. The increased operating frequency offers small converter size, leading to the decrease in raw material usage. Most likely this will result in the converter cost reduction what will further increase the demand for solid state transformer solutions. The modelling and analysis are essential in the development of the MFT technology which is attracting lots of research and industrial interest.In this dissertation the isolated DC-DC converter topologies are introduced with the particular focus on the dual active bridge (DAB). The key components of the isolated DC-DC converters, power semiconductors and medium frequency transformer are reviewed.A mathematical model of a 3-phase MFT in the isolated DC-DC power converter, suitable in electromagnetic transient and steady state simulation is developed. The transformer modelling methods are reviewed and the Lagrange energy method is used to derive a physically motivated model for circuit analysis. The model involves a matrix of nonlinear magnetizing inductances and a matrix of linear leakage inductances, both including self and mutual values. The macroscopic models of magnetic hysteresis are reviewed and the feedback Preisach model is developed.The design of a 3-phase 20 kHz transformer for a 100 kW 1.2 kV isolated DC-DC power converter is presented. The particular focus is put on the winding and core design, and power loss and thermal calculations which are the most critical aspects of the high-power density transformer. The design results in two 3-phase MFT prototypes, first of its kind worldwide.A finite element model of the transformer is developed allowing to determine the magnetic flux characteristic Φ(Θ) and the related inductances required in the circuit model. The finite element model is based on the measured equivalent B(H) and homogenized material properties. Other model parameters are calculated analytically and compared against the measurement on the prototype MFT.The dissertation is concluded showing the technical feasibility and benefits of the 3-phase MFT. The developed MFT prototype operating at 20 kHz is more than 10 times lighter than the equivalent 50 Hz transformer. The 3-phase 100 kW DC-DC converter efficiency is measured 99.2% what is an impressive result. The efficiency of the 3-phase DC-DC is higher than its equivalent single-phase variant.A challenge of high power MFT design related to the parasitic air gaps in the core is highlighted. The influence of the air gaps on core power loss is confirmed showing that the increase in the air gap size in a certain range causes a decrease in the core power loss. In the 3-phase MFT prototype the parasitic air gaps do not cause any measurable effect on winding power loss and temperature. It is shown that the relative magnetic permeability is nonlinearly decreasing with the increase of the number of parasitic air gaps. An exponential interpolation function is proposed allowing to estimate the equivalent magnetic permeability, average air gap length and magnetizing inductance for any high-power ferrite core MFT with a similar core assembly.The proposed MFT equivalent circuit model is proven accurate in steady state and transient analyses. The no-load inrush test confirms the importance of the magnetic cross saturation involved in the magnetizing inductance model. The influence of the mutual leakage inductance on the operation of the DAB converter is shown. The feedback Preisach model of hysteresis is proven accurate in the modelling of hysteresis loops in the multi air gap ferrite core MFT.
... Previously vehicles were only able to charge and were not able to discharge, so supporting the grid was not possible at that time [131][132]. Reviews of technologies, benefits, costs, and challenges of the vehicle to grid technology have been mentioned by [133][134][135][136].The optimal management of V2G system and a residential micro grid and the feasibility of electric vehicle contribution to grid ancillary services have been presented by [137][138][139][140][141] presented a case study in the US where the Plugin Electric vehicle is compared with hybrid electric vehicles, where it is seen that the CO 2 emissions are reduced by 25% in the short term and 50% in the long term basis by using a mix of generating power plants. ...
Article
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Electric vehicles are an important option for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. Electric vehicles not only reduce the dependency on fossil fuel but also diminish the impact of ozone depleting substances and promote large scale renewable deployment. Despite comprehensive research on the attributes and characteristics of electric vehicles and the nature of their charging infrastructure, electric vehicle production and network modelling continues to evolve and be constrained. The paper provides an overview of the studies of Electric Vehicle, Hybrid Electric Vehicle, Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicle and Battery Electric Vehicle penetration rate into the market and discusses their different modelling approach and optimisation techniques. The research on the essential barriers and insufficient charging facilities are addressed for a developing country like India that makes the study unique. The development of new concept of Vehicle-to-Grid has created an extra power source when renewable energy sources are not available. We conclude that taking into account, the special characteristics of electric vehicles are so important in their mobility.
... Most of papers consider a bidirectional power exchange between EVs and the grid. The bidirectional "vehicle to grid" technology (V2G) has higher performances with respect to the unidirectional one (V1G) [13], but on the other hand, the regulation required, and the charging station infrastructures, are up to now critical problems in the V2G implementation [14]. In this regard, with a precautionary approach, in the present work, only the initial starting time of the EVs charging is managed by the control architecture, while no preemption nor V2G are considered. ...
Article
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In the present paper, the charging of an electric vehicles fleet is scheduled in order to provide power balance regulation to the electric grid. The starting of e-cars charging can be optimized according to predetermined limits set by users, in order to adjust the power exchange profile of the aggregated fleet. Ancillary services are sold on the Ancillary Services Market. Therefore, an analysis of the Italian Ancillary Services Market is provided to check the performance of the strategy proposed according to the actual market requirements. In this way, useful figures are provided to the reader in order to evaluate the technical and economic viability of the approach. 
... A domestic consumer can consume the stored electric energy, where the lithium-ion batteries in an EV perform as a peak shaver; this is called vehicle-to-home (V2H). These interesting concepts were proposed in [1][2][3][4][5][6]. A bidirectional battery charger (BBC) using three-leg-structured isolated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), which consists of a single-phase two-leg pulse-width-modulated (PWM) rectifier and a bidirectional DC-DC converter, is used in V2G and V2H. ...
Article
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This paper deals with power quality compensation in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders using a constant DC-capacitor voltage-control (CDCVC)-based strategy of the previously proposed bidirectional battery charger (BBC) for electric vehicles under the distorted source-voltage and load-current conditions. Instantaneous active power flowing into the three-leg pulse-width-modulated (PWM) rectifier in the BBC is discussed. The instantaneous power flowing into the three-leg PWM rectifier demonstrates that the CDCVC-based strategy obtains balanced and sinusoidal source currents at a unity power factor, where the source-side active power is balanced with the load-side active power. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate that balanced and sinusoidal source currents at a unity power factor are attained in single-phase three-wire distribution feeders with both battery-charging and -discharging operations for electric vehicles even though both source voltage and load currents are distorted.
... In this case, two working modes are possible: the conventional grid-to-vehicle mode (G2V), that allows the recharge of the battery for traction mode; and the vehicle-to-grid mode (V2G) for supplying energy to the grid. Particularly, several studies [1][2][3] have illustrated how the V2G mode allows the provision of ancillary services to both the transmission (frequency regulation, spinning reserve, black start provision) and distribution networks (voltage drop [4], load shifting [5], peak shaving [6], valley filling [7]). These services can also be provided in a differentiated way based on the features of the EV parking areas [8]. ...
Article
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Energy demand associated with the ever-increasing penetration of electric vehicles on worldwide roads is set to rise exponentially in the coming years. The fact that more and more vehicles will be connected to the electricity network will offer greater advantages to the network operators, as the presence of an on-board battery of discrete capacity will be able to support a whole series of ancillary services or smart energy management. To allow this, the vehicle must be equipped with a bidirectional full power charger, which will allow not only recharging but also the supply of energy to the network, playing an active role as a distributed energy resource. To manage recharge and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operations, the charger has to be more complex and has to require a fast and effective control structure. In this work, we present a control strategy for an integrated on-board battery charger with a nine-phase electric machine. The control scheme integrates a fuzzy logic controller within a voltage-oriented control strategy. The control has been implemented and simulated in Simulink. The results show how the voltage on the DC-bus is controlled to the reference value by the fuzzy controller and how the CC/CV charging mode of the battery is possible, using different charging/discharging current levels. This allows both three-phase fast charge and V2G operations with fast control response time, without causing relevant distortion grid-side (Total Harmonic Distortion is maintained around 3%), even in the presence of imbalances of the machine, and with very low ripple stress on the battery current/voltage.
... Additionally, whenever is needed, EVs can supply with electricity local loads. In this way, the electric transmission congestion is constrained and revenue for the EV owners can be generated [11]. However, the charging/discharging algorithms must take into consideration the EVs owners' needs and the limited cycles of electric batteries [12,13]. ...
Article
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Currently, environmental and climate change issues raise a lot of concerns related to conventional vehicles and renewable energy generation methods. Thus, more and more researchers around the world focus on the development and deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES). Additionally, due to the technological advancements in power electronics and electrical batteries, Electrical Vehicles (EVs) are becoming more and more popular. In addition, according to the Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G) operation, the EV batteries can provide electrical energy to the power grid. In this way, many ancillary services can be provided. A Direct Current (DC) nanogrid can be composed by combining the aforementioned technologies. Nanogrids present high efficiency and provide a simple interaction with renewable energy sources and energy storage devices. Firstly, the present study describes the design considerations of a DC nanogrid as well as the control strategies that have to be applied in order to make the V2G operation feasible. Furthermore, the provision of voltage regulation toward the power grid is investigated though the bidirectional transfer of active and reactive power between the DC nanogrid and the power grid. Afterwards, the voltage regulation techniques are applied in an Alternating Current (AC) radial distribution grid are investigated. The proposed system is simulated in Matlab/Simulink software and though the simulation scenarios the impact of the voltage regulation provided by the DC nanogrid is investigated.
Chapter
The growing cost of fossil fuels and the increasing environmental health hazard impacts of the fossil fuels in the conventional vehicles have drawn the attention of the researchers, investors, and the governments to electric vehicles (EVs). For the last few decades, the automotive industry of any country is important not only for the economy but also for research and development. Due to modernity, a large number of vehicles have appeared on the roads. However, the increase in the number of vehicles has increased air pollution around the world. According to the European Union, 28% of carbon dioxide emissions come from the transport sector, while 70% come from road transport. Therefore, the world is looking for ways to make the environment greener by reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Developed countries are trying to encourage people to use EVs to reduce air pollution. Meanwhile, people are showing interest in EVs because they are environmentally friendly, improve performance, are reliable, and have low electricity costs.
Chapter
Emerging ambitious and viable scheduling business models for of scheduling of electric vehicles aggregator (EVA) ensures smart electrification of transportation with renewables through coordinated and efficiently deployed V2G driving the transformation of energy services. Proposed work models an integrated DR framework for vehicle-to-grid (V2G) energy management by EVA for efficient use of photovoltaic (PV) generation by smart harmonization among involved entities EV users, grid/system operator (SO) and EVA. EVA regulates V2G (charge/discharge) strategy for dropping vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operational cost and maximizing its revenue through regulation services and modulating charging/discharging rates according to real-time monitored data of self PV generation unit. Battery ageing cost is modelled to compensate EV users against V2G regulation. Different integrated frameworks considered for V2G scheduling case studies are RTP-DR, electricity company TOU DR and Designed TOU DR. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of anticipated business model from the perspective of V2G operational cost reduction and PV generation utilization.
Chapter
The blockchain technology is recently gaining a huge popularity due to a wide variety of use cases, where it can be adopted, and the benefits it provides. As already said, the widespread of renewable and distributed generation requires a rethinking of the management of the energy flows in the power system. The blockchain technology in the energy field is now a realistic perspective, particularly for microgrids, in which energy production is intrinsically distributed. The decentralized structure of a blockchain can be perfectly adapted to the control of production/consumption/storage within microgrids. It is thus understood that this technology can guarantee the traceability and security of energy transactions. As introduced in the first chapter, in recent times in this sector the blockchain applications are mainly oriented at P2P electricity trading, electric vehicles or DR. In this chapter, the features of blockchain technology that are useful for the energy system are addressed in more detail looking at the main applications in the energy field and the suitability of the blockchain for these applications.
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The growing number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has resulted in increasing availability of battery storage capacities. When PEVs are idle and plugged-in, secondary applications such as energy trading, frequency and load control can use this storage capacity. The existing literature on economic benefits of such applications shows inconsistent and contradictory results. To shed light on the reasons behind these different results, this paper uses a quantitative meta-analysis to identify key drivers of the economic benefits, based on 340 cases published between 2010 and 2018. The analysis shows that the two applications load leveling and participation in the secondary frequency market provide the highest economic benefits for PEV controlled charging applications. Increased charging power and efficiency as well as bi-directional charging capability significantly improve the economic benefits even when taking battery degradation into account. These findings highlight the importance of the charging technology and the last-mile charging infrastructure. Policymakers and grid operators should focus on integrating this technology into the existing infrastructure. Automakers can draw on our results to improve the charging technology of PEVs.
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In this study we have investigated the consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV:s) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. A fleet of PHEV:s with an electricity consumption corresponding to 3%, 12% and 20% of the total electricity consumption has been integrated to the system (i.e. the total electricity consumption remains unaffected while the non-PHEV consumption is 97%, 88% and 80% in the three cases). Four PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated by means of a mixed integer model which can model the effects of the new load profiles on the dispatch of the units in the system and, thus, on the CO 2 -emissions from the system. The study shows that PHEV:s can reduce the CO 2 -emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The model simulations give that CO 2 emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEV:s. If the reduction in emissions is allocated to the electricity consumed by the PHEV:s, the emissions from generation of this electricity are reduced from 588 kgCO 2 /MWh (wind-thermal system without PHEV:s) down to 367 kgCO 2 /MWh (PHEV:s actively integrated). Under the assumption that electric mode is about 3 times as efficient as standard gasoline operation, emissions from PHEV:s would then be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.
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With the increasing popularity of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), they will be able to help the power grid by providing various ancillary services. In fact, recent studies have suggested that PEVs can participate in frequency regulation. In this paper, we consider offering both, i.e., combined, frequency and voltage regulation by PEVs. In this regard, we first investigate a set of constraints that need to be taken into account on PEVs' active and reactive power flow to offer ancillary services. Next, we formulate two joint optimization problems, based on different pricing and contract scenarios, that can be solved for optimal combined offering of frequency and voltage regulation by PEVs. They address both day-ahead command-based and day-ahead price-based models. Simulation results show that the proposed designs can benefit both users and utilities.
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This paper present the transient stability analysis of a power grid, which integrates both superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and gridable vehicles (GVs). Also, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) operation is devised to control GVs to charge from or discharge to the grid. Simulations of various faults are carried out under different penetration proportions of SMES and V2G power. The results of load angle response and system voltage response are given to illustrate that both SMES and GVs can enhance transient stability of the power grid. Moreover, the simultaneous use of SMES and GVs can further improve the system dynamic performances.
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The electrification of the vehicle fleet will result in an additional load on the power grid. Adequately dealing with such pluggable (hybrid) electrical vehicles (PHEV) forms part of the challenges and opportunities in the evolution towards Smart Grids. In this paper, we investigate the potential benefits of using control mechanisms, that could be offered by a Home Energy control box, in optimizing energy consumption stemming from PHEV charging in a residential use case. We present smart energy control strategies based on quadratic programming for charging PHEVs, aiming to minimize the peak load and flatten the overall load profile. We compare two strategies, and benchmark them against a business-as-usual scenario assuming full charging starting upon plugging in the PHEV. The first, local strategy only uses information at the home where the PHEV is charged: as a result the charging is optimized for local loads. The local strategy is compared to a global iterative strategy which controls the charging of multiple vehicles based on global load information over a residential area. Both strategies control the duration and rate of charging and result in charging schedules for each vehicle. We present quantitative simulation results over a set of 150 homes, and discuss the strategies in terms of complexity and performance (esp. resulting energy consumption), as well as their requirements concerning infrastructure and communication.
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IntroductionBattery ParametersLead Acid BatteriesNickel-based BatteriesSodium-based BatteriesLithium BatteriesMetal Air BatteriesBattery ChargingThe Designer's Choice of BatteryUse of Batteries in Hybrid VehiclesBattery ModellingIn Conclusion References
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Modernization of the power grid to meet the growing demand requires significant amount of operational, technological, and infrastructural overhaul. The Department of Energy's “Grid 2030” strategic vision outlines the action plan to alleviate the concerns through the development of a “Smart Grid” (SG). Key emphasis is placed on demand side management and consumer interaction with market operations. Demand response (DR), distributed generation (DG) and distributed energy storage (DES) are some of the areas within the smart grid paradigm where consumers are expected to play a very active role. Majority of the DR programs are currently being supported by commercial and industrial sectors. With the introduction of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), a new avenue for residential consumers to participate in DR programs is expected to open up. In order to have effective demand side management, controlled charging of PHEVs becomes an important DR strategy that can mitigate the adversarial impacts of PHEV charging. In addition, DR programs such as time of use (TOU) pricing and real time pricing (RTP) can provide the PHEV owner with additional economic incentives apart from the benefits of fuel cost and emissions reduction while driving. In this paper, impact of PHEV charging on the distribution system using a case study based on a small residential distribution network is comprehensively analyzed. For two different charging rates (level I and level II) and charging times (night and evening charging), the economic implications of PHEV charging under different electricity pricing options along with the impact on demand factor, load factor and utilization factor are thoroughly evaluated.
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An economic assessment of the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) frequency regulation is performed regarding the battery degradation. To generalize the results, we utilize the requirements of the electric vehicle and plug-in hybrid electric vehicle prepared by USABC - the energy storage division of the consortium of three major U. S. automakers. During the assessment, actual regulation signal is analyzed to estimate the amount of energy transferred for the V2G regulation. The profits are then calculated and compared with the battery prices to assess the economic feasibility of the V2G regulation. In order to match the end-of-life criterion in the requirements, the profiles prescribed in the battery test manuals are applied. Specifically, a shallow and a deep cycle profiles are applied simultaneously for PHEV batteries, while only a deep cycle profile is applied for EV battery. Considering that the actual regulation signal will cause just a small deviation in the battery state-of-charge and the degradation is far more predominant at a deep cycling, the profits obtained from the deep cycle profile should be regarded as conservative value. Nevertheless, the profits still exceed the current battery prices and it appears likely that the V2G regulation will become a prospective service.
Conference Paper
In the coming years, the Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) will strongly penetrate in the French car fleet. This needs to estimate their impact on each element of the distribution electric grid. Based on house and transformer Daily Loads Profiles (DLPs) model's generator and probabilistic algorithms of PHEVs connections, this paper proposes the VTR_PHEV index to calculate the aging rate caused by the integration of PHEVs correlated with the load rate without PHEVs of MV/LV transformer. It is shown that aging rate of the transformer is quadratic in presence of PHEVs.
Article
For fuel economy of power system, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) should be charged late at night to level a load curve. This paper proposes an electricity pricing algorithm for load leveling, using variation method. Variation method is a mathematical technique that can bring a value of integral functional to the extreme value. We formulate a cost minimization problem of PHEV owners, regarding the integral functional as an electric bill. By solving the problem, we get the electricity price curve that can realize the ideal bottom charge while PHEV owners minimize their electric bill. We analyze the difference in results between the proposal and the target case, where PHEVs are ideally charged to raise bottom demand. The ratio of the reduction of the proposal case to the target case resulted in 99.8%. It is verified that the proposed algorithm is effective in bottom-up of daily load curve.
Article
This paper presents a method to estimate the normal load and the cold-load pickup caused by the recharging of electric vehicle (EV) on the distribution transformers. The Monte Carlo simulation method is used to make the estimate in both conditions. The model can calculate the charging load profile with different numbers of customers and different ratios of battery capacity, chargers and car penetration. The model establishes a forecast of the power on transformer and helps for designing strategy that enables electric utilities to avoid new investments on distribution grid, especially during the restoration after a power failure.
Article
Hybrid electric vehicles with the capability of being recharged from the grid may provide a significant decrease in oil consumption. These ''plug-in'' hybrids (PHEVs) will affect utility operations, adding additional electricity demand. Because many individual vehicles may be charged in the extended overnight period, and because the cost of wireless communication has decreased, there is a unique opportunity for utilities to directly control the charging of these vehicles at the precise times when normal electricity demand is at a minimum. This report evaluates the effects of optimal PHEV charging, under the assumption that utilities will indirectly or directly control when charging takes place, providing consumers with the absolute lowest cost of driving energy. By using low-cost off-peak electricity, PHEVs owners could purchase the drive energy equivalent to a gallon of gasoline for under 75 cents, assuming current national average residential electricity prices.
Article
Vehicle-to-grid (V2G) describes a system where electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) can connect to the electric grid an participate in markets managed by grid system operators. This paper evaluates the opportunities for V2G-enabled EVs and PHEVs to realize revenues from the regulation market that offset operating costs, making them more cost competitive with conventional vehicles. We built a ten-year net cash flow model for a fleet of delivery trucks to assess the costs and benefits of adopting this technology. To project potential V2G revenue, we modified and adapted a simulation model developed by a grid system operator. Based on exploration of numerous scenarios we determined which combination of factors produced the lowest total cost of ownership. Additionally, we conducted sensitivity analysis on battery size. Our results indicate that EV and PHEV fleets offer lower operating expenses for urban pickup and delivery services than internal combustion engine vehicles (ICE). In addition, fleet managers can expect to offset 5–11% of the total cost of ownership with V2G revenue.
Article
Hybrid electric vehicles are growing in popularity and significance in our marketplace as gasoline prices continue to rise. Consumers are also increasingly aware of their carbon “footprint” and seek ways of lowering their carbon dioxide output. Plug-in hybrid and electric vehicles appear to be the next wave in helping transition from a gasoline-based transportation infrastructure to an electric-grid-sourced mode, though most plug-in scenarios ultimately rely on having the electric utilities converted from fossil sources to renewable generation in the long run. At present, one of the key advantages of plug-in hybrid/electric vehicles is that they can be charged at home, at night, when lower off-peak rates could apply. The present analysis considers a further advancement: the impact of daytime recharging using solar arrays located at commuters’ work sites. This would convert large parking areas into solar recharge stations for commuters. The solar power would be large enough to supply many commuters’ needs. The implications for electric car design in relation to commuter range are discussed in detail.
Article
This report examines a measure that may potentially reduce oil use and also more than proportionately reduce carbon emissions from vehicles. The authors present a very preliminary analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) that can be charged from or discharged to the grid. These vehicles have the potential to reduce gasoline consumption and carbon emissions from vehicles, as well as improve the viability of renewable energy technologies with variable resource availability. This paper is an assessment of the synergisms between plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and wind energy. The authors examine two bounding cases that illuminate this potential synergism.
Article
In this paper, wavelet transform and S-transform based approach is proposed for islanding detection and disturbance due to load rejection in distributed generation (DG) based hybrid system. The two types of distributed generation technology: inverter based and rotating machine based, that consists of photovoltaic, fuel cell and wind systems are considered in hybrid system configuration. The negative sequence voltage signal is analyzed through wavelet transform and S-transform for islanding detection of these resources from the grid. The above two approaches are also used in study of voltage profile at point of common coupling (PCC) with a non-linear load connected. The study for different scenarios in operation of DG system is presented in the form of time–frequency analysis. The energy content and standard deviation (STD) of S-transform contour and wavelet transform signal is also reported for both islanding detection and disturbance due to load rejection.
Article
This paper explores the potential financial return for using plug-in hybrid electric vehicles as a grid resource. While there is little financial incentive for individuals when the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) service is used exclusively for peak reduction, there is a significant potential for financial return when the V2G service is used for frequency regulation. We propose that these two uses for V2G technology are not mutually exclusive, and that there could exist a “dual-use” program that utilizes V2G for multiple uses simultaneously. In our proposition, V2G could be used for regulation on a daily basis to ensure profits, and be used for peak reduction on days with high electricity demand and poor ambient air quality in order to reap the greatest environmental benefits. The profits for the individual in this type of dual-use program are close to or even higher than the profits experienced in either of the single-use programs. More importantly, we argue that the external benefits of this type of program are much greater as well. At higher V2G participation rates, our analysis shows that the market for regulation capacity could become saturated by V2G-based regulation providers. At the same time, there is plenty of potential for widespread use of V2G technology, especially if the demand for regulation, reserves, and storage grows as more intermittent renewable resources are being incorporated into the power systems.
Article
Recently plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are emerging as one of the promising alternative to improve the sustainability of transportation energy and air quality especially in urban areas. The all-electric range in PHEV design plays a significant role in sizing of battery pack and cost. This paper presents the evaluation of battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler for different all-electric ranges. An analytical vehicle model and MATLAB simulation analysis has been discussed. The MATLAB simulation results estimate the impact of driving cycle and all-electric range on energy capacity, additional mass and initial cost of lead-acid, nickel-metal hydride and lithium-ion batteries. This paper also focuses on influence of cycle life on annual cost of battery pack and recommended suitable battery pack for implementing in plug-in hybrid electric two-wheelers.Research highlights► Evaluates the battery energy and power requirements for a plug-in hybrid electric two-wheeler. ► Simulation results reveal that the IDC demand more energy and cost of battery compared to ECE R40. ► If cycle life is considered, the annual cost of Ni-MH battery pack is lower than lead-acid and Li-ion.
Article
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) can be connected to the power grid. The power flow of this connection can be bidirectional, so vehicles can charge and discharge. This vehicle-to-grid option can aid to improve grid efficiency and reliability. A simulation covering an entire day is essential to obtain an accurate assessment of the impact of PHEVs. It is important to know when, statistically, vehicles are available for charging or discharging. In this work is shown that uncoordinated charging of PHEVs in distribution grid can lead to local grid problems. Therefore, coordinated charging and discharging is investigated and a voltage constraint is implemented. These vehicles can support the grid in terms of voltage control and congestion management. In that way, the distribution grid can handle more PHEVs without reinforcements. Distributed generation units are more common nowadays in the distribution grid with some of these generation units based on intermittent renewable resources. This paper shows that there could be a good combination with PHEVs as they can provide storage to take care of the excess of produced energy and use it for driving or release it into the grid at a later time. In that way, consumption and generation are more efficiently matched.
Article
Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that it is also important to understand what impact PHEVs will have on distribution networks nationwide. This paper finds that the impact of PHEVs on the distribution network can be determined using the following aspects of PHEVs: driving patterns, charging characteristics, charge timing, and vehicle penetration. The impacts that these aspects of PHEVs will have on distribution networks have been measured and calculated by multiple authors in different locations using many different tools that range from analytical techniques to simulations and beyond. While much work has already been completed in this area, there is still much to do. Areas left for improvement and future work will include adding more stochasticity into models as well as computing and analyzing reliability indices with respect to distribution networks.
Article
This study investigates consequences of integrating plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a wind-thermal power system supplied by one quarter of wind power and three quarters of thermal generation. Four different PHEV integration strategies, with different impacts on the total electric load profile, have been investigated. The study shows that PHEVs can reduce the CO2-emissions from the power system if actively integrated, whereas a passive approach to PHEV integration (i.e. letting people charge the car at will) is likely to result in an increase in emissions compared to a power system without PHEV load. The reduction in emissions under active PHEV integration strategies is due to a reduction in emissions related to thermal plant start-ups and part load operation. Emissions of the power sector are reduced with up to 4.7% compared to a system without PHEVs, according to the simulations. Allocating this emission reduction to the PHEV electricity consumption only, and assuming that the vehicles in electric mode is about 3 times as energy efficient as standard gasoline operation, total emissions from PHEVs would be less than half the emissions of a standard car, when running in electric mode.
Conference Paper
Stressed and less secure power system operating conditions have encouraged both power utilities and large power consumers to look for bulk energy storage systems. Battery energy storage systems (BESS) have excellent records and are used for decades in power systems. This paper describes a methodology for a monetary value analysis of the BESS for load leveling, control power and peak shaving applications. The purpose of this value analysis is to highlight the application with the highest financial benefit for the owner of the BESS. To determine the overall economic viability, revenue of each application has been compared with capital and operating costs over the BESS lifetime. The results of the value analysis show that primary control power is the application that most likely will be asked for by utilities during next 3-5 years
Conference Paper
This paper describes a research developed to identify management procedures to deal with the charging of Electric Vehicles (EVs) batteries in scenarios characterized by a large scale deployment of this new kind of load. Three approaches were studied: dumb charging, dual tariff policy and smart charging. To assess the efficacy of such procedures, the grid integration of EVs was pushed to its limit for each of the adopted charging management approaches. A Medium Voltage (MV) grid, representative of a residential area distribution grid in Portugal, was used as testing environment. Several shares of EVs technologies were considered for different integration scenarios. Voltage profiles and branch congestion levels were evaluated, for the peak load hour, for grid technical limits checking. Losses were also evaluated for a typical daily load profile.
Conference Paper
The main objective of this paper is to design and analyze a residential photovoltaic system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle load, in addition to regular residential requirements. This system is a combination of two subsystems which are cascaded through a DC link. First subsystem is the solar energy harvesting part with PV array, current controlled boost converter and maximum power point tracking (MPPT) system. The second subsystem is the energy storage system with battery packs and a current controlled bidirectional DC/AC inverter. All the current controllers are selected as sliding mode controller which is more robust against parametric uncertainties. A power management algorithm is introduced to control the power flow between grid and battery packs according to load profile. The operation and reliability of the system is presented for simulations within one year period.
Conference Paper
In a power system with a high share of wind energy the wind fluctuation causes a variation in the power generation, which must be compensated from other sources. The situation in Denmark with a penetration of more than 20% wind in yearly average is presented. The introduction of electric drive vehicles (EDV) as flexible loads can improve the system operation. Bidirectional power exchange through batteries (vehicle to grid) can be seen as a storage system in the grid. An analysis of possible economical incentives for the vehicle owners will be shown. By control of EDV charging through a price signal from the day ahead market the economical incentives for an EDV-owner will be small. If the EDV's can participate in the regulation of the grid through ancillary services the incentives will be increased to an attractive level.
Conference Paper
There is a growing interest in Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) concepts for private, public, and utility services across the USA. This has encouraged the establishment of a number of small companies providing expertise and components for evaluation and demonstration system vehicles, and interest by auto manufacturers in future mass-produced PHEVs. In this paper, we present the principles of Plug-in hybrid electric operation, discuss the practical implementation issues associated with the various technology platforms, and propose power-train options for various classes of vehicle. We also discuss current US hybrid and PHEV trends, summarize major national and state projects, the charging impact on the power grid, vehicle-to-grid technology (V2G) and other related technologies.
Conference Paper
Strong dependency on crude oil in most areas of modern transportation coupled with increased demand for electric power generation lead to a significant consumption of fossil fuel resources over many decades. Homes and cars represent the biggest personal impact on the increasing energy demand, global warming and air quality; furthermore, electric power utilities spend a tremendous amount of capacity to continuously balance supply and demand across the grid or provide backup electricity during outages and peak demand periods. As a consequence, research is quickly moving towards interconnected renewable energy based systems for transportation and residential/commercial buildings. Thus, this paper deals with an energy and economic evaluation of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) and their interaction with the power grid and the energy market. A multi-configurable personal eco-system with a plug-in hybrid vehicle is modeled. The model uses a set of data for the State of Ohio, including cost of energy, potential photovoltaic capacity, wind patterns and government regulations and incentives. The PHEV can draw electricity either from the power grid or from a personal eco-system consisting of a hybrid wind/photovoltaic generating system. Simulations are carried out starting from hourly local load demand, wind speed data, approximate solar radiation, energy market and state regulations. Various configurations and various available contracts for buying/selling energy from/to the grid are analyzed and compared. Results show the potential for reduction of energy cost, pollutant and dependency on the grid, along with substantial economic benefits.