ArticlePDF Available

Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores and the Framing of Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwe



This article reviews: (i) the role of natural and human-induced controls in influencing large her-bivore populations, (ii) how human controls (i.e., policy instruments, incentives and provisions) influence human activities and wildlife conservation, and (iii) media framing of wildlife conservation using Zimbabwe as a case study, in particular Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas. The review shows that: droughts are important in influencing large herbivore populations in semi-arid ecosystems; political instability and economic collapse does not necessarily lead to increased illegal hunting in situations where policy instruments, such as laws, are enforced; a higher perceived effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources was partly associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts; and there was a spill-over effect of frames from the political domain into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in 2000. It is concluded that natural bottom-up processes (e.g., droughts) influence large herbivore population dynamics whereas policy instruments, incentives, provisions and societal frames mainly have a top-down effect on wild large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems.
Open Journal of Ecology, 2014, 4, 411-420
Published Online May 2014 in SciRes.
How to cite this paper: Gandiwa, E. (2014) Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores and the Framing of Wildlife Conserva-
tion in Zimbabwe. Open Journal of Ecology, 4, 411-420.
Population Dynamics of Large Herbivores
and the Framing of Wildlife Conservation in
Edson Gandiwa1,2,3,4
1Resource Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
2Knowledge, Technology and Innovation Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3Scientific Services, Gonarezhou National Park, Chiredzi, Zimbabwe
4School of Wildlife, Ecology and Conservation, Chinhoyi University of Technology, Chinhoyi, Zimbabwe
Received 5 March 2014; revised 5 April 2014; accepted 12 April 2014
Copyright © 2014 by author and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY).
This article reviews: 1) The role of natural and human-induced controls in influencing large her-
bivore populations; 2) how human controls (i.e., policy instruments, incentives and provisions) in-
fluence human activities and wildlife conservation; and 3) media framing of wildlife conservation
using Zimbabwe as a case study, in particular Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas. The
review shows that droughts are important in influencing large herbivore populations in semi-arid
ecosystems; political instability and economic collapse does not necessarily lead to increased il-
legal hunting in situations where policy instruments, such as laws, are enforced. A higher per-
ceived effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources was
partly associated with a decline in human-wildlife conflicts and there was a spill-over effect of
frames from the political domain into wildlife conservation following Zimbabwe’s land reforms in
2000. It is concluded that natural bottom-up processes (e.g., droughts) influence large herbivore
population dynamics whereas policy instruments, incentives, provisions and societal frames
mainly have a top-down effect on wild large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems.
Bottom-Up Control, Illegal Hunting, Law Enforcement, Media Framing, Top-Down Control
1. Introduction
This article presents insights from a novel attempt to understand wildlife conservation issues in Zimbabwe
E. Gandiwa
through focusing on scientific findings generated from interdisciplinary research [1] [2]. More specifically, this
review primarily draws insights from a PhD research conducted in Zimbabwe, whose fieldwork covered the
Gonarezhou National Park and the adjacent areas [3]. Generating information that help improve wildlife con-
servation and management through assessing the role of natural and human-induced top-down and bottom-up
control of large herbivore populations and how policy instruments influence benefits and costs associated with
community-based wildlife conservation in semi-arid savanna ecosystems is increasingly becoming important [4]
[5]. Moreover, investigating the framing of wildlife conservation in the mass media following a political crisis
and economic decline is essential in changing environments [6]. This article, therefore, specifically reviews the
role of natural and human-induced controls, effectiveness of Communal Areas Management Programme for In-
digenous Resources (CAMPFIRE) and human-wildlife conflicts and media framing in wildlife conservation us-
ing a case study of Zimbabwe.
In natural ecosystems, animal population sizes are largely controlled by two processes, namely top-down and
bottom-up controls [7] [8]. Top-down control refers to processes whose effects flow down the food chain such
as the herbivore populations being controlled by direct predation, and thus, carnivores indirectly influencing
plant abundance. Bottom-up control refers to processes that control animal communities from the bottom of the
food chain upward to higher trophic levels since plant primary production fuels the animal biota, plants, along
with nutrients and light. Moreover, humans can also alter the terrestrial ecosystem structure and composition
through actions such as setting fires and livestock grazing (human-induced bottom-up control), and by acting as
a generalist super predator that can top-down harvest any animal species [4]. Figure 1 shows a model of rela-
tions of human-induced top-down and bottom-up controls of large herbivore populations in terrestrial ecosystems.
Community-based natural resources programs, such as the CAMPFIRE program developed in Zimbabwe,
have been implemented to allow for the sustainable use of natural resources in areas bordering protected areas
[9]. CAMPFIRE is a government initiative that was implemented in 1989 specifically to stimulate long-term
development, management and sustainable use of natural resources in Zimbabwes communal farming areas ad-
Figure 1. A schematic representation indicating the top-down and bottom-up controls of human activities (at global bi-
ome level) particularly on wild large herbivore community in the arctic, temperate grasslands, tropical savannas and trop-
ical rainforests. Data sources: [21]-[23]. Notes: H = high negative impact, M = medium negative impact, and L = low
negative impact. Impact refers to negative human influence on specifically wild large herbivore populations and composi-
tion occurring in the various biomes, if and only if the outlined respective biome characteristics are satisfied. Source: [4].
Tropical savanna
1) Rainfall: 400-1300 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: 2800-4500 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Very high (> 40 species)
4) Relative abundance: Very high
1) Rainfall: ~ 250 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Mean biomass: <1000 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Low (< 10 species)
4) Relative abundance: Low
Tropical rainforest
1) Rainfall: >1300 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: ~ 2600 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
High (20-30 species)
4) Relative abundance: Medium
Temperate grassland
1) Rainfall: ~ 800 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: 1000-2000 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Medium (10-20 species)
4) Relative abundance: High
Human hunting
L (-) H (---)M (--)H (---)
H (---)L (-)
fire frequency
00H (---)M (--)H (---)L (-)
Bottom-up control
Top-down control
E. Gandiwa
jacent to state protected areas [10]. However, the effectiveness of the CAMPFIRE programs remains largely
unknown due to the differences in human communities and the recent policy changes in Zimbabwe following
the land reforms that occurred since 2000 which were largely published in both the local and international media,
hence the importance of further research on CAMPFIRE effectiveness and also media framing of wildlife con-
2. Natural Large Herbivore Population Controls
Rainfall, in particular droughts, play a major role in influencing large herbivore population dynamics in semi-
arid savanna ecosystems with high rainfall variability [3]. Rainfall is a key driver of primary production in terre-
strial ecosystems [11]-[13] and thus its influence on large herbivore population developments. Droughts are as-
sociated with a reduced primary production [13]-[15], which results in large animal die-offs due to forage
shortages and also reduced surface water availability [16]-[18]. According to [3], evidence of a weak synchrony
in the occurrence patterns of droughts and wet years was recorded in areas adjacent to the Gonarezhou National
Park, Zimbabwe between 1970 and 2009. Populations of some large herbivore species declined following the
1992 drought in Gonarezhou National Park and subsequently increased after the drought. A similar trend in
large herbivore population declines following the 1992 drought was also recorded in the adjacent Kruger Na-
tional Park, South Africa [19] [20], suggesting a synchrony in large herbivore population development between
these two adjacent protected areas [3]. Moreover, there was evidence to suggest that population growth was high
when rainfall was average to above average for some consecutive period since the exceptionally wet periods did
not lead to sudden increase in populations [3].
3. Top-Down Human Control of Animal Populations
Issues of illegal hunting have received considerable attention in recent years, particularly, in the tropical rain-
forest and savanna ecosystems [24]-[28], therefore, advancing our understanding of the negative impacts asso-
ciated with human bushmeat hunting on animal communities and how law enforcement can influence such hu-
man bushmeat hunting in times of political crisis and economic collapse is of importance. Gandiwa et al. [29]
used data gathered from 236 local people on perceptions of illegal hunting and wildlife protection in the north-
ern Gonarezhou National Park and adjacent areas together with data collected from law enforcement patrols
covering the period from 2000 and 2010, which coincided with the land reforms, political crisis and economic
collapse in Zimbabwe. Main drivers of illegal hunting included bushmeat consumption at household level and
the need to raise income for family or personal use as also reported by other authors [30]-[32]. Snaring was
mostly used to catch a wide range of wild animals for bushmeat whereas firearms were used for large herbivore
species such as elephant (Loxodonta africana), primarily for ivory. However, there was no evidence of massive
large herbivore declines in Gonarezhou National Park between 2000 and 2010. This suggests that the negative
impacts of the land reforms were low in Gonarezhou National Park, despite the fact that a small section (about
90 km2) of the northern part of the park had an illegal settlement since 2000 [33] [34].
Adaptation to New Situations: Changes in Law Enforcement
An increase in recorded illegal activities, i.e., hunting and fishing, was associated with reduced law enforcement
efforts, between 2000 and 2003, as a result of few rangers and inadequate financial resources in Gonarezhou
National Park [29]. However, when law enforcement staff numbers were increased in 2004 following the trans-
formation of the wildlife authority into a parastatal and increased funding from the Frankfurt Zoological Society
in the park, increased law enforcement efforts led to a decline in the numbers of arrested illegal hunters [29]. Il-
legal hunters appeared to have switched to snaring methods which are difficult to detect with increases in law
enforcement as also reported by other authors [35]-[37]. This suggests that paying more attention to the detec-
tion of snares and their removal in protected areas is important, especially, when law enforcement efforts are in-
Thus, [29] have shown that the variation in the recorded illegal activities in the northern Gonarezhou National
Park ecosystem corresponds with the variations in law enforcement efforts. These findings, therefore, confirms
that law enforcement is an important component of wildlife conservation in protected areas [38]-[40]. The in-
creased law enforcement efforts inside Gonarezhou National Park and existence of community-based wildlife
E. Gandiwa
conservation programs in adjacent areas could also have helped in maintaining large herbivore populations in-
side the protected area [41] [42]. Further, there was no evidence in Gonarezhou National Park to suggest that il-
legal hunting had increased following the Zimbabwe’s political crisis and economic collapse between 2000 and
2008. Similarly, the local people also attributed the perceived decline in illegal hunting between 2000 and 2010
to increased law enforcement by the wildlife authority [29]. This is in contrast to the media reports on general
increase in illegal hunting across wildlife areas in Zimbabwe since 2000 [27].
4. Socio-Ecological Systems and Wildlife Conservation
The model shown in Figure 1 outlined the human-induced top-down and bottom-up controls of large herbivore
populations in terrestrial ecosystems. However, the model does not include two important elements: 1) human
controls which influences human behaviour, and 2) decision-making and framing processes, in particular media
framing, which influences societal debates. Human controls are important in understanding the impact of human
activities on large herbivore populations and also wildlife conservation hence the need to include this element in
the model. Moreover, societal debates and decision making related to wild large herbivore population dynamics
and associated wildlife conservation are informed not only by science but also by communication in, e.g., the
mass media, thus, signifying the importance of including the element of decision-making and framing processes
in the research model.
4.1. Wildlife Conservation: Policy Instruments, Incentives and Provisions
The findings of [43] suggest that human-wildlife conflicts are common even in communities with integrated
conservation and development projects (ICDPs) as reported by other authors [44]-[46]. ICDPs play an important
role in reducing human-wildlife conflicts through enabling communities to actively participate and derive eco-
nomic benefits from natural resources management [47]-[49]. Community benefits under the CAMPFIRE pro-
gram include infrastructural development, employment opportunities, cash dividends and a well-informed com-
munity on wildlife management issues and practices [43].
Of particular importance was the perceived increase in human-wildlife conflicts as a result of increasing wild-
life populations in communities adjacent to the northern Gonarezhou National Park, e.g., elephant [3]. Similar,
perceived increases in human-wildlife conflicts associated with increasing wildlife populations have been re-
ported in northern Zimbabwe [50]. However, a high involvement of local people in the day-to-day running of
CAMPFIRE was associated with lower perceived increase in human-wildlife conflicts since the local people
were involved in decision making on aspects such as how to manage wildlife, income and human-wildlife con-
flicts [43].
Contextual factors, such as size (area) of the community, human population density and previous success of
the CAMPFIRE programs across the local communities appeared to influence the perceived effectiveness of
CAMPFIRE programs and attitudes towards problematic wildlife species in communities bordering the northern
Gonarezhou National Park [43]. Moreover, the reduced benefits from CAMPFIRE programs associated with the
hands-off reaction through the withdrawal of financial support by international donors following the recent land
reforms in Zimbabwe appeared to have influenced perceptions of effectiveness of CAMPFIRE programs. This
was also compounded by the high inflationary environment which led to the economic collapse in Zimbabwe,
resulting in low response by safari operators or the local authorities to reported human-wildlife conflict cases,
together with low benefits from CAMPFIRE in the local communities adjacent to the park [51] [52]. Low re-
sponse rate incidences to human-wildlife conflicts to some extent led to the poisoning or hunting of problem
animals [43] [53]. Carnivores, e.g., leopard (Panthera pardus), lion (Panthera leo) and spotted hyena (Crocuta
crocuta), were more likely to be poisoned after livestock losses to large carnivores. Poisoning has also been re-
ported in retaliation of human-wildlife conflicts across different ecosystems [53]-[55].
More favourable attitudes towards wildlife appeared to be associated with success of CAMPFIRE programs
[43]. It can be hypothesised that the involvement of local people in decision making related to wildlife manage-
ment issues and associated benefits accrued by the community from natural resources management programs
plays an important role in influencing local people’s attitude towards problem animal species. For instance, bene-
fits and costs associated with wildlife-related conservation programs have been reported to influence attitudes
towards animal species in some ecosystems [56]-[58].
E. Gandiwa
4.2. Decision-Making and Framing Processes
Gandiwa et al. [6] concluded that images that exist in society are not necessarily congruent with reality on the
ground, and that these images are influenced by other issues. In particular, findings by [42] [59] were at odds
with the image of Zimbabwe mostly in the international media, thus it was valuable to better understand the role
of mass media in framing wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe. This is important since societal decisions about
wildlife conservation and management are not only taken on the basis of scientific information but also on what
the mass media publishes. Using newspapers from countries with different relations to Zimbabwe, i.e., political,
historical and conservation relations, [6] demonstrated that framing of wildlife conservation in the international
media (United Kingdom and United States of America) was positive between 1989 and 1999 and then changed
between 2000 and 2010, to being more negative. This change in framing was related to the land reforms that
started in 2000 and legalized by the Zimbabwean Government in 2002. Thus, [6] concluded that a spill-over ef-
fect from a political-related phenomenon, i.e., land reforms, to a less political related issue, wildlife conserva-
tion, occurred. Between 2000 and 2010, newspaper articles in the international media blamed the Zimbabwean
Government for the demise of wildlife and also challenges related to wildlife conservation in the country. How-
ever, the local Zimbabwean newspaper did not show any change in media frames before and after 2000.
Moreover, large herbivore population studies in Zimbabwe have showed that wildlife populations in state
protected areas have either increased or remained stable [41] [59], whereas major wildlife declines were re-
ported to have occurred in private-owned wildlife ranches or conservancies since the land reforms in year 2000
[60]-[62]. However, in the international newspaper articles, little attempt was made to distinguish this pattern of
wildlife population decline with respect to land ownership following the land reforms in Zimbabwe. Hence, this
type of misrepresentation of wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe in the international media is likely to have an
influence on societal debates and decision making related to wildlife conservation issues and large herbivore
population dynamics as shown in Figure 2.
5. Practical Implications
5.1. Science-Society Interaction
Gandiwa’s [3] study inferred that there may be clear differences between dominant perspectives in society and
the reality on the ground from a scientific investigation about wildlife conservation. The relationship between
science and society is important in shaping people’s views and also scientific research. Mass media is one way
in which information from science is brought to the society and/or vice versa. Thus, [3] deduced that state pro-
tected areas were less negatively affected by the land reforms, political crisis and economic collapse between
2000 and 2010 than were private-owned wildlife areas. Therefore, the published international newspaper articles
may not be accurate on the facts relating to wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe after the year 2000, due to the
spill-over effect of a highly political related issue into a less political related issue of wildlife conservation [3] [6].
The media often neglect certain angles or frames of stories or neglect to provide evaluations of related events
or issues [63]. Hence, the way that issues are framed can have a profound effect on the practical business of
conservation because it defines agendas and limits the range of potential strategies that can be used to address
problems [64]. There is need to address the negative image of wildlife conservation in Zimbabwe through: 1)
ensuring that appropriate information is given in the international media so as to allow for support to conserva-
tion efforts by the international donors; 2) increased scientific research and dissemination of results in both
scholarly and public media in order to really show the failure or success of conservation efforts in different land
categories; and 3) hiring professional advertisement companies to counter publish representative wildlife con-
servation information about Zimbabwe into the opposing media.
Moreover, knowledge on large herbivore population trends, role of law enforcement and the need for local
people involvement in decision making processes regarding problem animals generated by [3] is important in
the societal arenas particularly in negotiations relating to natural resource use [2] and resource protection under
the CAMPFIRE programs.
5.2. Wildlife Management
Management of wildlife in savanna ecosystems requires information on the factors controlling large herbivore
populations, human interactions with ecosystems and how to control illegal activities. Gandiwa [3] recorded that
E. Gandiwa
Figure 2. An adapted schematic representation indicating the natural and human-induced top-down and bottom-up
controls (at global biome level) particularly on wild large herbivore communities in the arctic, temperate grasslands,
tropical savannas and tropical rainforests. Improvements to the model in Figure 1: 1) rainfall acts as a natural con-
trol in the tropical savanna (highlighted in red and bold); 2) policy instruments, e.g., law enforcement, help in re-
ducing human hunting (top-down human control), livestock grazing in protected areas and anthropogenic fires
whereas incentives and provisions help in dealing with problem animals; and 3) decision-making and framing
processes about terrestrial ecosystems and wildlife conservation influences societal debates and wildlife manage-
ment systems. Data sources: [21]-[23]. Notes: H = high negative impact, M = medium negative impact, and L =
low negative impact. Impact refers to negative natural and human process influence on specifically wild large her-
bivore populations and composition occurring in the various biomes, if and only if the outlined respective biome
characteristics are satisfied. Source:[3].
wet and drought occurrence patterns can vary in areas relatively close to each other (i.e., areas in the same cli-
matic region). By identifying animal movement patterns and routes across different land-uses, managers could
effectively remove or establish fences so as to allow free animal movements in wildlife areas during periods of
resource scarcity. Currently, CAMPFIRE communities in Zimbabwe act as sinks for animals whereas the pro-
tected areas act as the sources, thereby expanding the habitat ranges of wildlife. Moreover, an understanding of
animal movements is useful for managing cases of human-wildlife conflicts in CAMPFIRE communities [43]
[65]. In addition, transboundary management of large herbivores [66] would also allow animals to move to less
affected areas during droughts.
Research in Gonarezhou National Park shows that snaring becomes a major illegal hunting method with in-
creasing law enforcement efforts [27] [29]. Thus, specifically having rangers trained in snare detection and re-
moval would help reduce the negative impacts of snaring on wildlife. Further, management need to reduce the
use of poisons in illegal hunting and retaliatory killing of wildlife through influencing policy to include stiffer
penalties on use of pesticide and herbicides in wildlife killings since some of the illegally killed animals falls
within the Near Threatened, Vulnerable and Lower Risk categories of the International Union for Conservation
of Nature Red List of Threatened Species.
A high involvement of local people in decision making is important for the overall perceived effectiveness of
CAMPFIRE programs [43]. Therefore, by ensuring that local people genuinely participate in community-based
Tropical savanna
1) Rainfall: 400-1300 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: 2800-4500 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Very high (> 40 species)
4) Relative abundance: Very high
1) Rainfall: ~ 250 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Mean biomass: <1000 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Low (< 10 species)
4) Relative abundance: Low
Tropical rainforest
1) Rainfall: >1300 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: ~ 2600 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
High (20-30 species)
4) Relative abundance: Medium
Temperate grassland
1) Rainfall: ~ 800 mm
2) Secondary productivity:
Biomass: 1000-2000 kg km
3) Large wild herbivore diversity:
Medium (10-20 species)
4) Relative abundance: High
Human hunting
Wildlife conservation
1) Policy instruments
2) Incentives and provisions
Decision-making and framing processes
Human controls
(policy instruments)
L (-) H (---)M (--)H (---)
H (---)L (-)
fire frequency
00H (---)M (--)H (---)L (-)
Bottom-up control
Top-down control
E. Gandiwa
conservation programs, policy makers and wildlife managers may, thus, need to develop structures and policy
instruments that enable local people to fully participate in conservation programs [67]. An investigation of local
people involvement in decision making in wildlife conservation is needed for CAMPFIRE programs as this will
allow for drawing lessons from both successful and unsuccessful CAMPFIRE communities which would help
strengthen CAMPFIRE programs.
6. Conclusion
This review has provided valuable insights on understanding the influence of rainfall, particularly droughts, on
large herbivore populations in savanna ecosystems. Wet and drought occurrence patterns somehow varied with-
in the same climatic region with the 1992 severe drought having a negative impact on some large herbivore
populations within a semi-arid savanna ecosystem [3]. Political crisis and economic collapse does not necessar-
ily lead to increased illegal hunting in situations where law enforcement is strengthened [29]; and local people
involvement in decision-making in natural resources conservation was highlighted as important in the perceived
success of community-based natural resources programs [43]. Moreover, framing of wildlife conservation in
changing environments, i.e., from a stable political and economic situation to political crisis and economic de-
cline, was associated with the misrepresentation of wildlife issues due to a spill-over of political related issues to
less politically related issues [6]. Thus, interdisciplinary research is valuable in understanding wildlife conserva-
tion issues in African savanna ecosystems which are dominated by human activities. To conclude, it is therefore
suggested that natural controls (rainfall) influence large herbivore population dynamics whereas policy instru-
ments, incentives, provisions and societal frames influence the human activities that affect wild large herbivore
populations in savanna ecosystems.
The author is greatly indebted to Prof. Dr. Herbert H. T. Prins, Prof. Dr. Cees Leeuwis and Dr. Ignas M. A.
Heitkönig for the valuable comments, suggestions and guidance. Comments from an anonymous reviewer are
highly appreciated. This research was funded by the International Research and Education Fund of Wageningen
University, The Netherlands.
[1] Marzano, M., Carss, D.N. and Bell, S. (2006) Working to Make Interdisciplinarity Work: Investing in Communication
and Interpersonal Relationships. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 57, 185-197.
[2] Giller, K.E., Leeuwis, C., Andersson, J.A., Andriesse, W., Brouwer, A., Frost, P., Hebinck, P., Heitkönig, I., Van It-
tersum, M.K., Koning, N., Ruben, R., Slingerland, M., Udo, H., Veldkamp, T., van de Vijver, C., van Wijk, M.T. and
Windmeijer, P. (2008) Competing Claims on Natural Resources: What Role for Science. Ecology and Society, 13, 34.
[3] Gandiwa, E. (2013) The Numbers Game in Wildlife Conservation: Changeability and Framing of Large Mammal
Numbers in Zimbabwe. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen.
[4] Gandiwa, E. (2013) Top-Down and Bottom-Up Control of Large Herbivore Populations: A Review of Natural and
Human-Induced Influences. Tropical Conservation Science, 6, 493-505.
[5] Grange, S. and Duncan, P. (2006) Bottom-Up and Top-Down Processes in African Ungulate Communities: Resources
and Predation Acting on the Relative Abundance of Zebra and Grazing Bovids. Ecography, 29, 899-907.
[6] Gandiwa, E., Sprangers, S., van Bommel, S., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Leeuwis, C. and Prins, H.H.T. (2014) Spill-Over Ef-
fect in Media Framing: Representations of Wildlife Conservation in Zimbabwean and International Media, 1989-2010.
Journal for Nature Conservation, in Press.
[7] Hairston, N.G., Smith, F.E. and Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Community Structure, Population Control, and Competition.
American Naturalist, 94, 421-425.
[8] Slobodkin, L.B. (1960) Ecological Energy Relationships at the Population Level. American Naturalist, 94, 213-236.
[9] Martin, R.B. (1986) Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources (CAMPFIRE). CAMPFIRE
Working Document No. 1/86. Branch of Terrestrial Ecology, Department of National Parks and Wild Life Manage-
E. Gandiwa
ment, Harare.
[10] Child, G. and Chitsike, L. (2000) Ownershipof Wildlife. In: Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Dolan, T.T., Eds.,
Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, 247-266.
[11] Coe, M.J., Cumming, D.H. and Phillipson, J. (1976) Biomass and Production of Large African Herbivores in Relation
to Rainfall and Primary Production. Oecologia, 22, 341-354.
[12] East, R. (1984) Rainfall, Soil Nutrient Status and Biomass of Large African Savanna Mammals. African Journal of
Ecology, 22, 245-270.
[13] Prins, H.H.T. and Loth, P.E. (1988) Rainfall Patterns as Background to Plant Phenology in Northern Tanzania. Journal
of Biogeography, 15, 451-463.
[14] Drent, R.H. and Prins, H.H.T. (1987) The Herbivore as Prisoner of Its Food Supply. In: Andel, J.V., Bakker, J. and
Snaydon, R.W., Eds., Disturbance in Grasslands: Species and Population Responses, Dr. W. Junk Publishing Compa-
ny, Dordrecht, 131-147.
[15] Vicente-Serrano, S.M., Gouveia, C., Camarero, J.J., Beguería, S., Trigo, R., López-Moreno, J.I., Azorín-Molina, C.,
Pasho, E., Lorenzo-Lacruz, J. and Revuelto, J. (2013) Response of Vegetation to Drought Time-Scales across Global
Land Biomes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110, 52-57.
[16] Knight, M.H. (1995) Drought-Related Mortality of Wildlife in the Southern Kalahari and the Role of Man. African
Journal of Ecology, 33, 377-394.
[17] Foley, C., Pettorelli, N. and Foley, L. (2008) Severe Drought and Calf Survival in Elephants. Biology Letters, 4, 541-
[18] Duncan, C., Chauvenet, A.L.M., McRae, L.M. and Pettorelli, N. (2012) Predicting the Future Impact of Droughts on
Ungulate Populations in Arid and Semi-Arid Environments. PloS ONE, 7, Article ID: e51490.
[19] Seydack, A.H., Grant, C.C., Smit, I.P., Vermeulen, W.J., Baard, J. and Zambatis, N. (2012) Large Herbivore Popula-
tion Performance and Climate in a South African Semi-Arid Savanna. Koedoe, 54, Article ID: 1047.
[20] Owen-Smith, N. and Ogutu, J. (2003) Rainfall Influences on Ungulate Population Dynamics in the Kruger National
Park. In: du Toit, J.T., Rogers, K.H. and Biggs, H.C., Eds., The Kruger Experience: Ecology and Management of Sa-
vanna Heterogeneity, Island Press, Washington DC, 310-331.
[21] Barnes, R.F.W. and Lahm, S.A. (1997) An Ecological Perspective on Human Densities in the Central African Forest.
Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 245-260.
[22] Du Toit, J.T. and Cumming, D.H.M. (1999) Functional Significance of Ungulate Diversity in African Savannas and the
Ecological Implications of the Spread of Pastoralism. Biodiversity and Conservation, 8, 1643-1661.
[23] Sala, O.E., Austin, A.T. and Vivanco, L. (2001) Temperate Grassland and Shrubland Ecosystems. In: Levin, S.A., Ed.,
Encyclopedia of Biodiversity, Academic Press, San Diego, 627-635.
[24] Brashares, J.S., Arcese, P., Sam, M.K., Coppolillo, P.B., Sinclair, A.R.E. and Balmford, A. (2004) Bushmeat Hunting,
Wildlife Declines, and Fish Supply in West Africa. Science, 306, 1180-1183.
[25] Hayward, M.W. (2009) Bushmeat Hunting in Dwesa and Cwebe Nature Reserves, Eastern Cape, South Africa. South
African Journal of Wildlife Research, 39, 70-84.
[26] Nielsen, M. (2011) Improving the Conservation Status of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania? The Effect of Joint Fo-
rest Management on Bushmeat Hunting in the Kilombero Nature Reserve. Conservation and Society, 9, 106-118.
[27] Gandiwa, E., Zisadza-Gandiwa, P., Mango, L. and Jakarasi, J. (2014) Law Enforcement Staff Perceptions of Illegal
Hunting and Wildlife Conservation in Gonarezhou National Park, Southeastern Zimbabwe. Tropical Ecology, 55, 119-
[28] Lindsey, P.A., Balme, G., Becker, M., Begg, C., Bento, C., Bocchino, C., Dickman, A., Diggle, R.W., Eves, H., Hen-
schel, P., Lewis, D., Marnewick, K., Mattheus, J., Weldon McNutt, J., McRobb, R., Midlane, N., Milanzi, J., Morley,
R., Murphree, M., Opyene, V., Phadima, J., Purchase, G., Rentsch, D., Roche, C., Shaw, J., Westhuizen, H.V.D., Vliet,
N.V. and Zisadza-Gandiwa, P. (2013) The Bushmeat Trade in African Savannas: Impacts, Drivers, and Possible Solu-
tions. Biological Conservation, 160, 80-96.
E. Gandiwa
[29] Gandiwa, E., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Lokhorst, A.M., Prins, H.H.T. and Leeuwis, C. (2013) Illegal Hunting and Law En-
forcement during a Period of Economic Decline in Zimbabwe: A Case Study of Northern Gonarezhou National Park
and Adjacent Areas. Journal for Nature Conservation, 21, 133-142.
[30] Holmern, T., Mkama, S., Muya, J. and Røskaft, E. (2006) Intraspecific Prey Choice of Bushmeat Hunters Outside the
Serengeti National Park, Tanzania: A Preliminary Analysis. African Zoology, 41, 81-87.[81:IPCOBH]2.0.CO;2
[31] Kümpel, N.F., Milner-Gulland, E.J., Cowlishaw, G. and Rowcliffe, J.M. (2010) Incentives for Hunting: The Role of
Bushmeat in the Household Economy in Rural Equatorial Guinea. Human Ecology, 38, 251-264.
[32] Macdonald, D.W., Johnson, P.J., Albrechtsen, L., Seymour, S., Dupain, J., Hall, A. and Fa, J.E. (2012) Bushmeat Trade in
the Cross-Sanaga Rivers Region: Evidence for the Importance of Protected Areas. Biological Conservation, 147,
[33] Mombeshora, S. and Le Bel, S. (2009) Parks-People Conflicts: The Case of Gonarezhou National Park and the Chitsa
Community in South-East Zimbabwe. Biodiversity and Conservation, 18, 2601-2623.
[34] Gandiwa, P., Matsvayi, M., Ngwenya, M.M. and Gandiwa, E. (2011) Assessment of Livestock and Human Settlement
Encroachment into Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa, 13,
[35] Tumusiime, D.M., Eilu, G., Tweheyo, M. and Babweteera, F. (2010) Wildlife Snaring in Budongo Forest Reserve,
Uganda. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 15, 129-144.
[36] Wato, Y.A., Wahungu, G.M. and Okello, M.M. (2006) Correlates of Wildlife Snaring Patterns in Tsavo West National
Park, Kenya. Biological Conservation, 132, 500-509.
[37] Becker, M., McRobb, R., Watson, F., Droge, E., Kanyembo, B., Murdoch, J. and Kakumbi, C. (2013) Evaluating Wire-
Snare Poaching Trends and the Impacts of By-Catch on Elephants and Large Carnivores. Biological Conservation, 158,
[38] Fischer, F. (2008) The Importance of Law Enforcement for Protected Areas: Dont Step Back! Be HonestProtect!
GAIAEcological Perspectives for Science and Society, 17, 101-103.
[39] Jachmann, H. and Billiouw, M. (1997) Elephant Poaching and Law Enforcement in the Central Luangwa Valley, Zam-
bia. Journal of Applied Ecology, 34, 233-244.
[40] Holmern, T., Muya, J. and Røskaft, E. (2007) Local Law Enforcement and Illegal Bushmeat Hunting outside the Se-
rengeti National Park, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 34, 55-63.
[41] Gandiwa, E., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Gandiwa, P., Matsvayi, W., Van Der Westhuizen, H. and Ngwenya, M.M. (2013)
Large Herbivore Dynamics in Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Tropical Ecology, 54, 345-354.
[42] Dunham, K.M., van der Westhuizen, E., van der Westhuizen, H.F. and Gandiwa, E. (2010) Aerial Survey of Elephants
and Other Large Herbivores in Gonarezhou National Park (Zimbabwe), Zinave National Park (Mozambique) and Sur-
rounds: 2009. Zimbabwe Parks and Wildlife Management Authority, Harare.
[43] Gandiwa, E., Heitkönig, I.M.A., Lokhorst, A.M., Prins, H.H.T. and Leeuwis, C. (2013) CAMPFIRE and Human-
Wildlife Conflicts in Communities Adjacent to the Northern Gonarezhou National Park, Zimbabwe. Ecology and So-
ciety, 18, 7.
[44] Michalski, F., Boulhosa, R.L.P., Faria, A. and Peres, C.A. (2006) Human-Wildlife Conflicts in a Fragmented Amazo-
nian Forest Landscape: Determinants of Large Felid Depredation on Livestock. Animal Conservation, 9, 179-188.
[45] Anthony, B.P., Scott, P. and Antypas, A. (2010) Sitting on the Fence? Policies and Practices in Managing Human-
Wildlife Conflict in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Conservation and Society, 8, 225-240.
[46] Gore, M.L. and Kahler, J.S. (2012) Gendered Risk Perceptions Associated with Human-Wildlife Conflict: Implications
for Participatory Conservation. PloS ONE, 7, Article ID: e32901.
[47] Child, B. (2000) Making Wildlife Pay: Converting Wildlifes Comparative Advantage into Real Incentives for Having
Wildlife in African Savannas, Case Studies from Zimbabwe and Zambia. In: Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Do-
lan, T.T., Eds., Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, 335-387.
[48] Prins, H.H.T., Grootenhuis, J.G. and Dolan, T.T. (2000) Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use. Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston.
E. Gandiwa
[49] Heitkönig, I.M.A. and Prins, H.H.T. (2009) Land Use in Zimbabwe and Neighbouring Southern African Countries. In:
Boersema, J.J. and Reijnders, L., Eds., Principles of Environmental Sciences, SpringerNetherlands, Berlin, 445-457.
[50] Mutandwa, E. and Gadzirayi, C.T. (2007) Impact of Community-Based Approaches to Wildlife Management: Case
Study of the CAMPFIRE Programme in Zimbabwe. International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecol-
ogy, 14, 336-344.
[51] Balint, P. and Mashinya, J. (2006) The Decline of a Model Community-Based Conservation Project: Governance, Ca-
pacity, and Devolution in Mahenye, Zimbabwe. Geoforum, 37, 805-815.
[52] Balint, P.J. and Mashinya, J. (2008) CAMPFIRE during Zimbabwes National Crisis: Local Impacts and Broader Im-
plications for Community-Based Wildlife Management. Society & Natural Resources, 21, 783-796.
[53] Gandiwa, E. (2011) Preliminary Assessment of Illegal Hunting by Communities Adjacent to the Northern Gonarezhou
National Park, Zimbabwe. Tropical Conservation Science, 4, 445-467.
[54] Kalaivanan, N., Venkataramanan, R., Sreekumar, C., Saravanan, A. and Srivastava, R.K. (2011) Secondary Phorate
Poisoning of Large Carnivores in India. European Journal of Wildlife Research, 57, 191-194.
[55] Mateo-Tomás, P., Olea, P.P., Sánchez-Barbudo, I.S. and Mateo, R. (2012) Alleviating Human-Wildlife Conflicts:
Identifying the Causes and Mapping the Risk of Illegal Poisoning of Wild Fauna. Journal of Applied Ecology, 49, 376-
[56] Gillingham, S. and Lee, P.C. (1999) The Impact of Wildlife-Related Benefits on the Conservation Attitudes of Local
People around the Selous Game Reserve, Tanzania. Environmental Conservation, 26, 218-228.
[57] Scanlon, L.J. and Kull, C.A. (2009) Untangling the Links between Wildlife Benefits and Community-Based Conserva-
tion at Torra Conservancy, Namibia. Development Southern Africa, 26, 75-93.
[58] Karanth, K.K. and Nepal, S.K. (2012) Local Residents Perception of Benefits and Losses from Protected Areas in India
and Nepal. Environmental Management, 49, 372-386.
[59] Valeix, M., Fritz, H., Chamaillé-Jammes, S., Bourgarel, M. and Murindagomo, F. (2008) Fluctuations in Abundance of
Large Herbivore Populations: Insights into the Influence of Dry Season Rainfall and Elephant Numbers from Long-
Term Data. Animal Conservation, 11, 391-400.
[60] Lindsey, P.A., Romanãch, S.S., Matema, S., Matema, C., Mupamhadzi, I. and Muvengwi, J. (2011) Dynamics and Un-
derlying Causes of Illegal Bushmeat Trade in Zimbabwe. Oryx, 45, 84-95.
[61] Chaumba, J., Scoones, I. and Wolmer, W. (2003) From Jambanja to Planning: The Reassertion of Technocracy in
Land Reform in Southeastern Zimbabwe? The Journal of Modern African Studies, 41, 533-554.
[62] Wolmer, W., Chaumba, J. and Scoones, I. (2004) Wildlife Management and Land Reform in Southeastern Zimbabwe:
A Compatible Pairing or a Contradiction in Terms? Geoforum, 35, 87-98.
[63] Entman, R.M. (2004) Projections of Power: Framing News, Public Opinion, and US Foreign Policy. University of Chi-
cago Press, Chicago.
[64] Ferrier, E.A. and Larson, B.M.H. (2012) Biodiversity and Conservation Framing in Canada: A Case Study of the Oak
Ridges Moraine. Zeitschrift für Kanada-Studien, 32, 107-125.
[65] Ogutu, J.O., Reid, R.S., Piepho, H.P., Hobbs, N.T., Rainy, M.E., Kruska, R.L., Worden, J.S. and Nyabenge, M. (2014)
Large Herbivore Responses to Surface Water and Land Use in an East African Savanna: Implications for Conservation
and Human-Wildlife Conflicts. Biodiversity and Conservation, 23, 573-596.
[66] van Aarde, R.J. and Jackson, T.P. (2007) Megaparks for Metapopulations: Addressing the Causes of Locally High Ele-
phant Numbers in Southern Africa. Biological Conservation, 134, 289-297.
[67] Rihoy, E. and Mugaranyanga, B. (2007) Devolution and Democratisation of Natural Resource Management in South-
ern Africa: A Comparative Analysis of CBNRM Policy Processes in Botswana and Zimbabwe. Commons Southern
Africa, Paper No. 18, 62 pp., CASS/PLAAS Occasional Paper Series.
... The key drivers to the increase in the hippo population in the period 2008-2012 comprise intensification of anti-poaching patrols in the rivers in GNP, and normal to above normal rainfall levels in the period 2008-2012, which ensured establishment of permanent suitable hippo habitats and availability of palatable grass (Mazvimavi 2010;Zisadza et al. 2010;Gandiwa et al. 2013;2014;Chinho et al. 2015;Mhuriro-Mashapa et al. 2018;Matseketsa et al. 2018). Of note is that the annual variation in hippo numbers for the different protected areas in Zimbabwe are as a result of the different sampling techniques, but the overall trend can still be useful. ...
... Moreso, in Zimbabwe, to date, data on hippo poaching and subsequent illegal trade of hippo products to local, regional and international cartels are scarce, and in most cases tend to be too fragmented to provide insight into the threats facing the species. This hampers conservation efforts towards sustainable exploitation of hippos Gandiwa 2014). ...
Full-text available
This review explores some ecological aspects of the common hippopotamus (hippo), Hippopotamus amphibius L, threats to its population and contextual peculiarities affecting its conservation in selected water systems in Zimbabwe. Scoping surveys of literature and thematisation of common issues related to hippo ecology, human-hippo conflict and conservation were used for data collection. Hippos play integral ecological roles, such as habitat engineering through track creation in water systems, nutrient recycling by swirl spread of highly organic faeces, harbouring commensal water birds, parasites and leeches. Regardless, the hippo population is not well documented for the country with indications of sharp declines in freshwater systems during the period 1982 to 1992 and gradual recovery thereafter. Habitat degradation, water pollution, climate change, drought-induced extreme water level fluctuation, poaching and deliberate culling, as part of problem-hippo control (PHC), are key drivers of hippo population declines. However, it appears much of the attention is on human-hippo conflict and its consequences, resulting in negative perceptions among human communities. Commercial breeding of hippos for non-consumptive tourism, and export-orientated meat, and ethnomedical mimics of hippo sweat and milk products are new, potentially viable, but unexplored options for conserving and increasing the population of the species in Zimbabwe. Currently, it appears more anti-hippo poaching patrols and awareness campaigns especially in water systems outside protected areas may be key to sustaining the current hippo population. For the future, it is essential to increase the scope for hippo census data to include water systems inside and outside protected areas for sustainable conservation of the species in the country.
... However, with the establishment of the ecotourism venture, incidences of poaching declined (Murphree 2001;Gandiwa 2011). Strengthened law enforcement also ensured that illegal hunting did not increase significantly in the post-2000 period characterized by socioeconomic and political instability (Gandiwa et al. 2013a;Gandiwa 2014). ...
... Further, there were challenges emanating from climate change as the trophy hunting quota was not achieved during drought years resulting in lower revenues accruing to communities, for example, from trophy elephant (Murphree 2001). Gandiwa (2014) also note that drought has a negative effect on some large herbivore populations in tropical savanna ecosystems. These challenges did not, however, result in the degeneration of CAMPFIRE projects and the program was able to withstand these stresses throughout the 1990 s (Murphree 2001). ...
Full-text available
The sustainability of ecotourism ventures under the Community Based Natural Resources Management in Zimbabwe is under stress due to environmental changes emanating from effects associated with socioeconomic factors, climate change and epidemic diseases. Using an in-depth analysis of the Mahenye ecotourism venture from the year 1982 to 2020 as a case study, this study sought to propose a management framework for ecotourism ventures in a changing environment by examining the sustainability of community conservation initiatives in Zimbabwe. Research methods included expert opinion from two natural resources governance academics, desktop research and authors’ experiences about Mahenye ecotourism venture. Results indicated that the Mahenye ecotourism venture has faced significant challenges but has been resilient to withstand the shocks such as population increase, exclusion of youths and women, climate change, hyperinflation, donor fatigue, reduced international ecotourist visitation and international hunting bans emanating from socioeconomic and political environmental changes. These shocks have a negative effect on the main elements of an ecotourism venture such as the wildlife resources, amenities, attraction, accessibility, management system, marketing, beneficiaries and linkages. The management framework highlights the interventions that can be made to enable ecotourism ventures in changing environments to remain sustainable. The interventions are promoting strong community cohesion, developing sustainable self-funding mechanisms, promoting multiple sources of income, carrying targeted environmental education programs, capacity building in managing ecotourism in periods of hyperinflation, improved marketing and offering a unique experience, promoting climate smart ecotourism, promoting domestic ecotourism visits, implementing effective feedback systems among stakeholders to decrease uncertainties and lobbying to have hunting bans removed.
... The Mahenye ecotourism project also faces the challenge of insecure tenure of natural resources (Balint and Mashinya, 2008;Frost and Bond, 2008) as is the case in most parts of Africa where property rights are not clearly defined (Mbaya, 2010;Romano and Reeb, 2010). Climate change and its adverse affects large herbivore populations (Prato, 2009;Gandiwa, 2014) and infrastructure (Chigonda, 2014) also poses a challenge to community ecotourism. The development of climate change compatible ecotourism is therefore key. ...
Full-text available
FAO’s Action Against Desertification was conceived by an understanding that development challenges are interlinked and require integrated solutions. In support of the implementation of Africa’s Great Green Wall Initiative, the project addresses the three pillars of sustainable development – environmental protection, economic viability, and social equity.
... The Mahenye ecotourism project also faces the challenge of insecure tenure of natural resources (Balint and Mashinya, 2008;Frost and Bond, 2008) as is the case in most parts of Africa where property rights are not clearly defined (Mbaya, 2010;Romano and Reeb, 2010). Climate change and its adverse affects large herbivore populations (Prato, 2009;Gandiwa, 2014) and infrastructure (Chigonda, 2014) also poses a challenge to community ecotourism. The development of climate change compatible ecotourism is therefore key. ...
Full-text available
The study was based on the review of literature and authors’ experiences of the study area. The opportunities include the awareness by local people of the importance of conserving nature due to environmental education, availability of unique and diverse natural resources that are attractive to ecotourists, wildlife viewing within the Jamanda community game ranch and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA) initiative. The challenges include insecure tenure over natural resources, withdrawal of donor funding leading to local failures of leadership, increased incidences of droughts and frequent cyclones associated with climate change and the international anti-hunting lobby. The paper concludes that community ecotourism at Mahenye needs to continue relying on both safari hunting and non-consumptive ecotourism while also further diversifying income generating activities in order for the approach to end perpetual reliance on aid donors and government subventions. The paper also recommends that the ecotourism players should lobby the Zimbabwean government to devolve authority to sub-Rural District Council (RDC) institutions by granting de jure ownership of natural resources to local communities while ensuring communities are capacitated to effectively manage and market the resources in the face of socioeconomic and climate change.
... In contrast, sapling density was higher in Chibwedziva Communal Area than the GNP with the Chizvirizvi Resettlement Area having the lowest sapling density. The lower sapling density within the GNP suggests that other forms of disturbance may be affecting the species, e.g., herbivory from wild animal species such as impala, the influence of veld fires (Tafangenyasha, 1997;Gandiwa & Kativu, 2009), and past droughts (Gandiwa, 2014). Field observation in the communal and resettlement areas showed that local people left marula saplings in their fields for them to grow and recruit into higher tree levels. ...
Full-text available
This study assessed the population density and structure of marula (Sclerocarya birrea) in the Gonarezhou National Park (GNP) and adjacent areas, southeast Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 15 belt transects using a stratified random sampling technique (with study sites located in the northwestern Gonarezhou National Park, adjacent communal and resettlement areas) in November 2014. The study results showed that marula tree and shrub densities were highest in the Gonarezhou National Park compared to the communal and resettlement areas. The diameter size class generally showed a reverse J shape in all the land use categories implying that there was a high regeneration and low recruitment into mature marula trees. Anthropogenic uses and herbivory may likely have influenced the density and population structure of marula in the study area. Thus, continuous monitoring and adaptive management is essential in ensuring that marula species is not locally extirpated in areas of high use or damage.
Zimbabwe’s community-based natural resource management programme, called CAMPFIRE, was aimed at integrating biodiversity conservation with community livelihoods. This integration is far from simple, especially when two ethnic groups with different livelihood practices are drawn into one project under local political leadership. Such is the case in Chapoto Ward, in the north of Zimbabwe, where the Doma and Chikunda ethnic groups co-exist. Thus, the focus of this chapter is on how the livelihoods of the minority Doma group have been affected by the local CAMPFIRE project. Specific objectives include: identifying the livelihood practices of the Doma; assessing the impact that CAMPFIRE has had on their livelihood practices; and demonstrating the negative reinforcement of politics and ethnic bias regarding Doma livelihoods. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using in-depth interviews with heads of households and key informant interviews, as well as document analysis. Thematic analysis was used to code responses using both Open and Axial procedures. Findings demonstrate the variety of livelihood practices in existence and show how these practices were hampered by the CAMPFIRE initiative. Ethnic discrimination and stigmatisation, which placed the Doma in a subordinate position vis-a-vis other dominant groups, further demonstrate their restricted circumstances.
Community-based conservation embedded in the Communal Areas Management Programme for Indigenous Resources, as exemplified by the Mahenye ecotourism project, faces numerous challenges due to climate change. It, therefore, becomes imperative to adopt community-based conservation models for the changing global climatic dynamics. The specific objectives of the research were to do the following: (i) identify the shocks emanating from climate change at Mahenye ecotourism project, (ii) indicate adaptations to make the ecotourism model at Mahenye more resilient in the face of shocks emanating from climate change, and (iii) develop a management intervention framework for ecotourism projects in a changing global climate. We approached the research from a qualitative perspective. The shocks emanating from climate change at the Mahenye ecotourism project included a shortage of water and forage for wild animals during drought years, flood-induced damage of buildings and roads due to increased incidence and severity of tropical cyclones, reduced bioclimatic comfort due to temperature rises, and increased theft of flora and fauna due to climate change-related socio-economic deprivation. The adaptations include recalibrating variables ranging from amenities, income streams, marketing, and linkages. The research results could inform environmental planners on strategies for ensuring the sustainability of community ecotourism in a changing climate.
Full-text available
Here we present research findings on the policies and practices of damage-causing animal (DCA) control in Limpopo Province, South Africa.
One of the major challenges of sustainable development is the interdisciplinary nature of the issues involved. To this end, a team of conservation biologists, hunters, tourist operators, ranchers, wildlife and land managers, ecologists, veterinarians and economists was convened to discuss whether wildlife outside protected areas in Africa can be conserved in the face of agricultural expansion and human population growth. They reached the unequivocal - if controversial - conclusion that wildlife can be an economic asset, especially in the African savannas, if this wildlife can be sustainably utilized through safari hunting and tourism. Using the African savannas as an example, Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use shows that in many instances sustainable wildlife utilization comprises an even better form of land use than livestock keeping. Even when population pressure is high, as in agricultural areas or in humid zones, and wild animal species can pose a serious cost to agriculture, these costs are mainly caused by small species with a low potential for safari hunting. Although ranching has a very low rate of return and is hardly ever profitable, the biggest obstacle to the model of sustainable wildlife use outlined in Wildlife Conservation by Sustainable Use is from unfair competition from the agricultural sector, such as subsidies and lack of taxation, resulting in market distortion for wildlife utilization. This book thus gives valuable evidence for a different way of working, providing arguments for removing such distortions and thereby facilitating financially sound land use and making it a rationally sound choice to conserve wildlife outside protected areas. The expert team of authors, most of whom came together at a workshop to thrash out the ideas that were then developed into the various chapters, has written a superb account of recent research on this complex subject, resulting in a book that is a major contribution to our understanding of sustainable use of land. The important conclusion is that wildlife conservation can be possible for landholders and local communities if they have a financial interest in protecting wildlife on their lands.
“Ownership of Wildlife” explores the importance of resource proprietorship to the conservation of the African macrofauna and its habitats, outside national Protected Areas. This is done against a brief review of the possible effects of land ownership as opposed to communally held resource rights because landholders determine the fate of wildlife outside State managed parks and reserves. This leads to the conclusion that wildlife, and the biological diversity that it spearheads, depends on the resource being able to generate human benefits that are competitive with the returns from alternative land use options. Realising these returns depends on institutional arrangements that enable wildlife to achieve its inherent economic advantage where land is in any way marginal for conventional agriculture. The usual type of game laws found in most of Africa south of the Sahara, which are a legacy of the colonial era, do not meet this need and the centrally managed protectionism that they embody has probably been counter-productive to their aims. It has undervalued the resource and marginalised the landholders who decide the future of wildlife on their land. The Chapter concludes by suggesting that legislation is needed that maintains wildlife as a wild resource without prejudicing its ability to compete financially with other land uses. This requires freedom to trade in it, that landholders and managers have security of tenure over the rights to use the resource, and that costly regulation is reduced to an absolute minimum.
In this review we consider the asymmetry in the relation between the herbivore and its food supply: successively we will touch upon the limits to feasible exploitation as the food supply is depleted, the repercussions for the reproductive performance of the herbivore when a mismatch between requirement and food on offer occurs, and finally the universal feature of seasonal habitat shifts in grazing systems, with the herbivore tracking the availability of forage of adequate quality. All of these features, taken together, imply a close fit between herbivore numbers and the food supply in a given grazing system; we will provide an example of this from a region where climatic vagaries are sufficiently restricted to allow a review of animal biomass statistics to be undertaken against a backdrop of assumed constant forage production.
This chapter is about establishing mechanisms that price wildlife, how these mechanisms work and how they can be valuable for promoting economic development and conservation simultaneously. It uses several examples, mainly from Zimbabwe, to describe how wildlife was converted from a public good with little or even a negative value to landholders, into a private good which landholders or communities have a positive incentive to produce. It explains why wildlife has a comparative economic advantage and is often a better use of agriculturally marginal savannahs than more conventional livestock monocultures, and provides data from the private ranching sector in Zimbabwe to support this argument. The central assertion in the chapter is that both wildlife conservation and economic development are best served in much of savanna Africa by converting wildlife into a commercial asset. This is achieved by modifying macro-economic institutions and legislation so that mechanisms develop to ensure prices more closely reflect scarcity or value, and resources are allocated more efficiently. This would ensure that where wildlife has a comparative advantage, it would be reflected in incentive structures and landholders would produce wildlife rather than livestock which owes much of its past prominence to fiscal and environmental subsidisation.
The rainfall pattern in time and space within the Masai Ecosystem of northern Tanzania was studied using rainfall data of sixteen stations within the area. Annual amounts of rainfall were found to be unpredictable, and the annual deviations of the long-term mean annual rainfall were without cyclic trends for the individual stations. However, the pooled rainfall data of the different stations show that series of wet and dry years alternate. Total annual rainfall increases with altitude and the variability in rainfall decreases with altitude. It appears that rainfall in the dry season is caused by thunderstorm activity, and no relation between rainfall and altitude exists during this time of the year. Rainfall in the wet season shows a very different spatial relationship, indicating the effects of the monsoon, and, especially during the long rains, rainfall increases with altitude. Different seasons can be discerned, and the data indicate that the amount of rain in the long rainy season is more predictable than the amount in the short rainy season. The differences are discussed briefly with regard to plant phenology patterns and grass growth.
This study examines the effect of Joint Forest Management (JFM) in a component of the Kilombero Nature Reserve recently gazetted to improve the conservation status of high biodiversity forests in the Udzungwa Mountains of the Eastern Afromontane biodiversity hotspot. The evaluation is based on a temporal comparison spanning seven years of JFM and establishment of a Tanzania National Parks (TANAPA) ranger station, using bushmeat hunting as an indicator. Results reveal that the number of active hunters had declined, primarily due to TANAPA's patrolling. But hunting effort had been displaced from hunting with firearms in the grassland to hunting with traps and dogs in the forests, thus increasing the threat to endemic species. Hunters perceived few benefits from JFM, and the new opportunities were largely unused, inaccessible and communal in nature. Suspicions of embezzlement of JFM funds, and high village development contributions were important drivers of continuing hunting. Dissatisfied with JFM, most inactive hunters actually preferred that TANAPA manage the forest instead. Considerable attention to correcting these problems is required before this model of JFM should be scaled up and implemented in the remaining villages surrounding the Kilombero Nature Reserve.