Professionalism of Future Medical Professionals in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) Medical Centre

Article (PDF Available)inInternational Medical Journal (1994) 19(3):224-228 · September 2012with 282 Reads 
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Abstract
Introduction: Professionalism is a multidimensional concept but there· are fundamental elements of professionalism which are unique for all professions and are the aspects of humanism. Medical professionalism is at the top of discussion woelddwide. The objective of this study was to investigate professionalism of UKM medical students. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 323 students, selected by stratified random sampling from year 1-5 of academic session 2010-2011. Data was collected using a validated instrument which contained nine core humanistic elements of professionalism such as honesty, accountabiiity, communication etc. with four open-ended questions. There were a range of items under each element, measured by a 5-point Likert scale; the internal consistency of the instrument was adequate. Results: The sample constituted 18% by 1'' year students while subsequent years constituted 17%, 23%, 23%, and 19% respectively. Total males were 37% while females ·were 63%. Out of total 220 scores, mean professionalism scores of students was 173.5, where female contributed 174 and male contributed 173. There· was no significant difference of professionalism between gender (p = 0.458) and year of study (p = 0.210. Nevertheless, 10% respondents- were unaware of professionalism. Professionalism development through formal education although is now heavily recognizcd, this study-results prioritized experi­ence and role modeling in teaching-learning of professionalism. Conclusion: Lack of focus is a challenge to develop student-professionalism. Educators need to address fundamental elements of professionalism with simplicity and specificity. Professionalism assessment on fundamental elements is also necessary among all future professional-students for public good and to become responsible scientific literate citizens.
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  • ... Unfortunately, professionalism is a multidimensional social construct with no simple and universally accepted definition. It is easy to recognize professionalism, but it is hard to measure because it is kaleidoscopic (APTA, n.d.-2; Balogun, 2015;Cruess & Cruess, n.d.;Salam et al., 2012). Professionalism was defined in this study as the consistent demonstration of behaviors that exemplify clinical competence, innovation, and visionary, a spirit of inquiry, ethics and value, accountability, collegiality and collaboration with the other members of the healthcare team to achieve optimal health and wellness in individuals and communities (APTA,. ...
    ... Outside of the physiotherapy literature, it has been reported by several studies that the personality of a faculty member has a strong influence on the behavior and attitude of students towards professionalism (Gillespie, 2002;Haghdoost & Shakibi, 2006;Salam et al., 2012). Unfortunately, there is often a schism between what students learn in the classroom and what they observe in the clinical setting as outstanding professionalism attributes to uphold and emulate. ...
    ... It has been reported in dental education that the attributes of professionalism vary widely with gender, age, between professions, the level of education and social background (Nath, Schmidt, & Gunel, 2006). It has also been speculated in the medical literature that professionalism is modulated by cultural and socioeconomic factors (Cruess & Cruess, n.d.;Salam et al., 2012). Therefore, it is rationale based on the extant literature cited above that professionalism reference values (norms) should be established across different cultures, socioeconomic backgrounds and between professions. ...
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    Background: It has been reported in the extant literature that the attributes of professionalism vary widely with gender, age, the level of education, cultures, and socioeconomic backgrounds and between professions. This study evaluated Nigerian physiotherapists’ knowledge and attributes of professionalism and also examined the influence of demographic variables on their professionalism. Methods: One hundred and forty-nine physiotherapists recruited from four randomly selected University Teaching Hospitals completed a Professionalism Inventory that assesses demographic variables, knowledge of professionalism and attributes of professionalism – clinical competence, a spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collegiality and collaboration, and ethics/value. Results: The physiotherapists’ average knowledge of professionalism score was 62%, and the average attributes of professionalism score were 63/80 (79%). The physiotherapists who are married, older than 40 years, and with a doctorate, with 16–20 years of work experience, and employed in the neurology practice setting demonstrated significantly (p < 0.01) higher knowledge of professionalism than their respective counterparts. Similarly, married physiotherapists and those with a doctorate, employed in the orthopedic/sports practice setting embodied higher attributes of professionalism than their counterparts. Conclusions: The poor knowledge of professionalism reported for the physiotherapists in this study has implications for curricula and licensure reforms in Nigeria.
  • ... Stress among college students can be viewed as the bodies' reaction both neurologically and physiologically to adapt to the new condition [6,7]. In the same way, the cross-sectional studies done in Malaysia showed that 41% of the participants suffered from psychological stress which correlated directly with depressive symptoms and 84% of respondents were in severe stress, particularly with the academic related stressors [8] and [9], 2 Psychiatry Journal respectively. Similarly, in the other studies done in Malaysia and Thai medical schools, the prevalence of stress among medical students was up to 41.9% and 61.4% [10], respectively. ...
    ... The recent result was below the study done on Pakistan medical students in which the prevalence of stress was 90% [11,14]. A survey conducted on 179 University Kabangsaan Malaysia medical students revealed prevalence of stress being 84% due to academic related problems [9]; it was also below the result of the crosssectional study done in medical college of Kerala among 96 medical students using different tools like MSSQ, PSS-10, and GHQ-12, and the prevalence of stress was 93.75%, 69.79%, and 65.62%, respectively [8]. In a cross-sectional study done at College of Medicine at King Saud University, Riyadh, female students were 75.7% and male students were 57% stressed [11]. ...
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    Background Stress is very common among medical students across the globe with the prevalence of 80%. In Ethiopia, the prevalence is 47.7% among college students. Unless it is managed early, it leads to deterioration of academic performance and overall dissatisfaction with life and different serious health problems including anxiety, depression, and suicide. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of academic related stress among Debre Birhan governmental and nongovernmental health science college regular students 2015/16. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 422 health science students selected by stratified proportional random sampling at Debre Birhan governmental and nongovernmental health science colleges in North Shewa zone, Amhara region, Ethiopia in 2016. Data was collected using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scaling (DASS-21). The level of significance of association for multivariable was determined at P value <0.05. Result Prevalence of stress among Debre Birhan governmental and nongovernmental health science college regular students is 4.1%. There is a significant association between stress and sex AOR = 8.525 (1.023, 71.077), fear of examination AOR = 5.096 (1.183, 21.96), living in uncomfortable environment AOR = 14.86 (3.84, 57.515), and perceived present illness AOR = .030 (0.003, 0.286). Depression and anxiety were also seen among 19.7% and 23.6%, respectively. Conclusion According to this study, the prevalence of stress among governmental and nongovernmental health science college regular students is not high. However, depression and anxiety were found to be higher than stress and they need immediate management plan. Colleges had better prepared simple screening tool and support students to prevent stress before they cause severe mental health problems.
  • ... Another point is the pioneering role of study countries in introducing criteria for selecting a nursing manager who often has a clear history in applying these concepts (27). The findings of Salam et al. also indicated that there are organizational structures in professional associations for the formulation of criteria that are consistent with the findings of the present study (50). Stern also showed that the task of policy-making in selecting nursing managers is better to be relegated to health system organizations and it is consistent with the current research in this regard (46). ...
    ... In this regard, the findings of Birden et al. are in line with the results of the present research (51). Salam et al. findings regarding training indicated that academic courses are conducted taking into account training (50). It seems that the lack of research with conforming findings is often due to the weakness of evidence and the lack of relevant research in health systems, and this cannot be regarded as a disagreement over the effectiveness of different teaching methods. ...
  • ... In dental and medical education, it has been reported that gender, age, specialty, level of education, social, cultural background, and socioeconomic factors are determinant of professionalism (Nath, Schmidt, & Gunel 2006;Salam et al., 2012;Cruess & Cruess, n.d.). Based on the existing literature, it is rationale to speculate that varied cultural experiences will modulate the attributes of professionalism of nurses in different countries. ...
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    This non‐interventional study sets out to investigate the attributes of professionalism of Haitian nurses and to compare their professionalism with the Ethiopian nurses. Background Globally, the issue of professionalism has taken center stage in nursing because of the rapid changes in nursing education and the global merging of professional boundaries among nations. Design We designed a comparative cross-national study by distributing a professionalism inventory to consenting registered nurses employed in both public and private hospitals in Haiti between November 2017 and February 2018. Methods Data were collected from a convenient sample of 60 Haitian nurses who completed the professional inventory used to study the attributes of professionalism of Ethiopian nurses (Fantahun et al., 2014). Subsequently, a one-sample binomial non-parametric test was used to explore differences between the data reported for Ethiopian nurses with those obtained in this study for Haitian nurses. Results Both the cumulative professionalism score and the eight subscales (knowledge, a spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collegiality and collaboration, and ethics and value) scores for the Haiti nurses were significantly higher (p<.001) than the Ethiopian nurses. The observed differences were of "strong or large" practical effect (Cohen's d values range from 0.55 for collaboration and collegiality up to 1.37 for innovation and visionary). Conclusion The findings suggest that the Haitian nurses imbibe higher core values of professionalism than Ethiopian nurses. KEYWORDS Attributes of professionalism, nurses, nursing professionalism, Haiti, Ethiopia
  • ... In order to get the success from this new pedagogical approach to create an active learning environment, it requires support from the top management, either in giving full commitment to the development of video lectures or other material using instructional tools, using learning platforms or designing detailed lesson plans to implement the changes. Time is changing, perspectives are changing, teachers' role is changing from deliverer to a designer facilitator of learning experiences (Salam et al., 2011;Salam et al., 2012). The most important change is the traditional learning culture and environment that has been practiced since the beginning of teaching and learning (Jamaludin et al., 2016). ...
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    Objectives: The flipped classroom is a popular method of instruction for teaching all grades of students. Depending on the individual lecturers, flipped classrooms vary subject to the elements of the class, needs of students and the level of involvement. The objectives of this study were to compare the students learning outcomes achieved through the flipped classroom model and traditional lecture based instructions. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted among 50 first-year dental students of a private University, Malaysia, who were divided into two groups consisting of 25 students each. Dental Ergonomics topic was taught to both groups using flipped classroom model to one group and lecture based instruction to other group in morning and afternoon sessions. At the end of each instruction, a mini-test was done using the same MCQ questions. Percent of mean scores achieved by the flipped group of students with lectured group of students were compared. Results: Flipped group of students achieved 91.67% and lectured group of students achieved 89.58% with no significant differences (p = 0.28). However, students expressed their positive perception on flipped classroom model. They suggest all topics are not suitable which is similar to the opinion of the teachers. Conclusion: Success of flipped teaching method depends on the proper development of the resource materials, delivery methods, assessment strategy and adequate facilities. Proper planning of the educational managers is essential to train and change the teachers' mindset towards using of more flipped classes than the traditional lecture and to make them competent in developing resources and guide the students properly.
  • ... The internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that has revolutionized the information age, allowing human to gain access to unlimited amount of information as well as changing the way human communicates with each other 1,2) . Affordable access to internet allows for rapid growth of users worldwide. ...
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    Introduction: Internet has revolutionized the information age. However, excessive internet use has led to health issues among users and the most commonly reported psychological problem is depression. Yet, there is dearth of research in this area among college students in Malaysia. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression and anxiety among college students. Methods: Students age 18-24 from allied health colleges who were doing attachment and posting in Hospital Tengku Ampuan Rahimah, Klang were recruited into the study. IA was assessed using the internet addiction test (IAT), whilst depression and anxiety by using the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) Results: IA was significantly associated with depression (p < 0.001) and male gender (p = 0.047). In addition, IA was also associated with internet use characteristics such as using computer outside home (p = 0.008), using the internet for surfing (p = 0.016) and e-mailing (p = 0.025), and spending more time online during the weekends (p = 0.003). IA was not associated with anxiety (p = 0.365). Conclusions: Internet addiction is associated with depression and male gender among Malaysian college students. Further study on psychological factors such as personality traits and coping styles is recommended in order to understand the underlying mechanism in IA and propose possible interventions.
  • ... Professionalism is a multi-dimensional social construct with no simple and universally accepted definition. It is easy to recognize professionalism, but it is difficult to measure because it is kaleidoscopic [16,17]. Different terms such as attributes of professionalism [18,19] fundamental elements of professionalism [20,21] attitudinal/behavioral professionalism [12] and professionalism core values [4] are used in the literature to describe professional behaviors and attitudes of health workers. ...
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    Background and Purpose: There is currently no culturally appropriate instrument to assess Nigerian physiotherapists " knowledge and attributes of professionalism. This study sets out to develop a psychometric instrument to assess the knowledge and attributes of professionalism of Nigerian physiotherapists and to investigate the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency. Methods: A Professionalism Inventory with eight demographic questions, ten knowledge of professionalism questions and sixteen attributes of professionalism perception-based statements were developed. The attributes of professionalism scale assess clinical competence, a spirit of inquiry, accountability, autonomy, advocacy, innovation and visionary, collegiality and collaboration, and ethics and values. The Inventory was completed on two occasions, after the two-week interval, by 91 Nigerian physiotherapists. Results: The Inventory " s average grade reading level was 10. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3, 1) for the knowledge of professionalism scale ranged from " moderate " (0.421, p<0.001) to " substantial " (0.770, p<0.001). The Kendall's coefficient of concordance for the attributes of professionalism scale ranged from " fair " (0.368, p<0.001) to " moderate " (0.547, p<0.001). The Cronbach alpha for the knowledge of professionalism scale was " almost perfect " (0.813, p<0.0001); and " substantial " (0.780, p<0.001) for professionalism attributes scale. Conclusion: The knowledge and attributes of professionalism scales are stable and internally consistent. The availability of this psychometric instrument will promote studies of professionalism in physiotherapy. Contribution/Originality: This study is the first psychometric instrument developed to assess Nigerian physiotherapists " knowledge and attributes of professionalism and also the first to document the instrument's readability, stability, and internal consistency statistical properties.
  • ... As compared to our study, their study showed no significant difference between professionalism and gender. 16 N Sivalingam reported that professionalism in medicine should no longer remain a hidden curriculum but be enhanced and taught in an explicit way in view of the changing trends in medical care and the barriers to professionalism. 17 ...
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    Introduction: The Medical Faculty of Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) aims to produce good Muslim doctors (GMD) who are able to practise medicine that is integrated with Islamic values. Islamic courses and Medical Ethics are integrated into the curriculum in its effort to provide adequate Islamic knowledge and nurturing professionalism as a process of personal and professional development (PPD) within the framework of Islamic teaching. The objective of the study was to evaluate the perception of graduates and students of characteristics of a GMD. Method: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the participants. The respondents were asked to rate their level of agreement or disagreement on the statements that represent the characteristics of a GMD. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using SPSS version 18.0. The mean, median and inter quartile ranges of the characteristics were determined and differences between the groups were analysed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Results showed significant difference between gender for the item " Conscious of professional ethics " (p=0.021). Significant differences were seen in the median scores between the graduates and the final year students in four out of six items for personal characteristic. Conclusion: Islamic input in the medical curriculum and the teaching of professionalism has an impact on graduate perception of characteristics of a GMD. Further improvement in the teaching of professionalism among undergraduates is necessary in order to promote greater impact on the understanding and internalization of characteristics of a GMD. The Islamic input in the medical curriculum can thus be regarded as the blueprint for PPD of medical undergraduates to become a GMD.
  • ... Medical professionalism is defined as "commitment to carrying out professional responsibilities, adherence to ethical principles and sensitivity to a diverse patient population" by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, USA. 1 The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines professionalism as "the conduct, aims, or qualities that characterize or mark a profession or a professional person"; and it defines a profession as "a calling requiring specialized knowledge and often long and intensive academic preparation". 2 It also defined as "as a vocation or calling, especially one involving a degree of skill, learning or science. Another helpful description is that of a trade or occupation pursued for higher motives, to a proper standard". ...
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    Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA). This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were collected using a validated instrument. The data were then compiled and analyzed using SPSS Version 21. Out of 165 questionnaires distributed randomly among Year I to Year V medical students of UniSZA, 144 returned, giving a response rate of 87%. Among the study participants, 38% (54) and 62% (90) were males and females, respectively. The grand total score was 170.92±19.08. A total of 166.98±20.15 and 173.49±18.09 were the total professionalism score of male and female study participants, respectively, with no statistically significant (P=0.61) differences. This study found almost similar levels of familiarity with all fundamental issues of professionalism with no statistically (P>0.05) significant differences. Medical faculty members should give more effort for the professional development of medical doctor. Henceforth, researchers believe and expect that the country will produce more rational and holistic medical doctors.
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