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Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: A cross-over study

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Objetivo Investigar los efectos agudos de la crioterapia en la expresión de la enzima creatina fosfoquinasa (CPK), lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), percepción del dolor y fuerza muscular en los miembros superiores de competidores de jiu-jitsu. Método Diez luchadores altamente entrenados fueron sometidos a dos sesiones de competición simulada (4 × 7-minutos y 15 minutos de intervalo). Después del primer día, cinco atletas fueron elegidos para la inmersión en piscina con hielo (5 ± 1 °C) durante 19 minutos, los demás fueron asignados al grupo control. Resultados Para LDH se observó efecto de la condición (F1,18 = 7,91, P = 0,012; η2 = 0,31) con valores más bajos (P = 0,012) en la crioterapia en comparación con el control (crioterapia = 533,2 ± 55,4 y 671,2 ± 61,0, respectivamente para inicial y final; control = 528,5 ± 63,7 y 759,8 ± 85,7 UI/l; respectivamente para inicial y final). El delta del CPK fue significativamente distinto entre las condiciones (crioterapia = 138,0 ± 95,1 UI/l; t = 1,72; P = 0,119; control = 231,3 ± 135,8 UI/l; tamaño del efecto = 0,75). Para el dolor percibido también hubo efecto de la condición (F1,18 = 12,35, P = 0,003; η2 = 0,41) con valores más bajos (P = 0,003) en la crioterapia (2,4 ± 1,4 frente a 4,4 ± 1,8). La temperatura corporal posrecuperación fue más baja en grupo crioterapia (P = 0,005) que la obtenida después en el control (34,5 ± 1,9°C frente a 37,6 ± 1,3°C). Se encontró correlación significativa entre la percepción del dolor y las concentraciones de CPK (r = 0,314) y LDH (r = 0,546). Las concentraciones de CPK y LDH se correlacionaron negativamente con la fuerza dinámica (r = 0,525). Conclusión La recuperación usando la inmersión después de la competición resulta de un menor daño muscular e hipoalgesia.
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Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
Revista Andaluza de
Medicina del Deporte
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
www.elsevier.es/ramd
Revista Andaluza de
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Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte
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Volumen. 7 Número. 1 Marzo 2014
Volumen. 7 Número. 1 Marzo 2014
ISSN: 1888-7546
RAMD
Originales
Thermographic profile of soccer players’ lower limbs
Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after
competition: a cross-over study
Perfomance da equipe do Barcelona e seus adversários nos jogos finais
da Champions League e da Copa do Mundo de Clubes FIFA 2010
Espessura carotídea, idade vascular e treinamento físico na síndrome metabólica
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Evidencias científicas sobre la eficacia y seguridad de la dieta proteinada.
Dieta proteinada y ejercicio físico
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obesidad infantil y adolescente
Caso clínico
Fatiga percibida y características psicológicas relacionadas con el rendimiento
en la rehabilitación de una lesión futbolística: estudio de un caso
Reconocida por:
Incluida en:
RESUMEN
Influencia de la crioterapia en la expresión de marcadores de daño muscular en luchadores de
jiu-jitsu después de simulación de competición: estudio cruzado
Objetivo. Investigar los efectos agudos de la crioterapia en la expresión de la enzima creatina fosfoquinasa (CPK),
lactato deshidrogenasa (LDH), percepción del dolor y fuerza muscular en los miembros superiores de compe-
tidores de jiu-jitsu.
Método. Diez luchadores altamente entrenados fueron sometidos a dos sesiones de competición simulada (4 ×
7-minutos y 15 minutos de intervalo). Después del primer día, cinco atletas fueron elegidos para la inmersión en
piscina con hielo (5 ± 1 °C) durante 19 minutos, los demás fueron asignados al grupo control.
Resultados. Para LDH se observó efecto de la condición (F1,18 = 7,91, P = 0,012; η2 = 0,31) con valores más bajos
(P = 0,012) en la crioterapia en comparación con el control (crioterapia = 533,2 ± 55,4 y 671,2 ± 61,0, respectivamente
para inicial y final; control = 528,5 ± 63,7 y 759,8 ± 85,7 UI/l; respectivamente para inicial y final). El delta del CPK
fue significativamente distinto entre las condiciones (crioterapia = 138,0 ± 95,1 UI/l; t = -1,72; P = 0,119; control
= 231,3 ± 135,8 UI/l; tamaño del efecto = 0,75). Para el dolor percibido también hubo efecto de la condición (F1,1 8
= 12,35, P = 0,003; η2 = 0,41) con valores más bajos (P = 0,003) en la crioterapia (2,4 ± 1,4 frente a 4,4 ± 1,8). La
temperatura corporal posrecuperación fue más baja en grupo crioterapia (P = 0,005) que la obtenida después en
el control (34,5 ± 1,9oC frente a 37,6 ± 1,3oC). Se encontró correlación significativa entre la percepción del dolor y
las concentraciones de CPK (r = 0,314) y LDH (r = 0,546). Las concentraciones de CPK y LDH se correlacionaron
negativamente con la fuerza dinámica (r = -0,525).
Conclusión. La recuperación usando la inmersión después de la competición resulta de un menor daño muscular
e hipoalgesia.
© 2013 Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte.
Correspondence:
C. J. Brito.
NEDES - Núcleo de Estudos em Desempenho
Esportivo e Saúde.
Departamento de Educação Física.
Universidade Federal de Sergipe.
Campus José Aloísio Campos - São Cristovão -
Sergipe - Brasil
CEP: 49100-000
E-mail: cirojbrito@gmail.com
Palabras clave:
Artes marciales.
Crioterapia.
Creatina quinasa.
L-lactato deshidrogenasa.
Fuerza muscular.
History of the article:
Received February 12, 2013
Accepted January 15, 2014
Keywords:
Martial arts.
Cryotherapy.
Creatine kinase
L-lactate dehydrogenase.
Muscle strength.
ABSTRACT
Objetive. The acute effects of cryotherapy on creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)
expression, perceived pain and upper limb muscle strength in jiu-jitsu competitors were investigated.
Method. Ten highly trained athletes underwent two simulated competition sessions composed by four 7-minute
combats with a 15-minute interval between them. Athletes were randomly allocated to receive either cold water
immersion (5 ± 1 °C for 19 minutes) or no intervention (control) after competition simulation in a crossover
counterbalanced fashion.
Results. For LDH, there was an effect of condition (F1,18= 7.91, P = 0.012; η2 = 0.31), with lower values being found
in cryotherapy as compared to control (criotherapy = 533.2 ± 55.4 and 671.2 ± 61.0 for pre- competition and post-
recuperation, respectively; control = 528.5 ± 63.7 e 759.8 ± 85.7 UI/l for pre- competition and post-recuperation,
respectively). Delta CPK differed significantly between conditions (criotherapy = 138.0 ± 95.1 UI/l; control = 231.3
± 135.8 UI/l t = -1,72; P = 0,119; effect size = 0.75). For perceived pain there was also an effect of condition (F1,18 =
12.35, P = 0.003; η2 = 0.41), with lower values being found following cryotherapy (2.4 ± 1.4 versus 4.4 ± 1.8, P =
0.003). Pre-competition skin temperature was lower than that measured after recovery (34.5 ± 1.9 oC. versus 37.6
± 1.3 oC, P = 0.0005). There were significant correlations between perceived pain and CPK (r = 0.314) and LDH (r
= 0.546). The concentrations of CPK and LDH were negatively correlated with dynamic strength (r = - 0.525).
Conclusion. Recovery via cold water immersion after simulated competition resulted in less muscle damage and
hypoalgesia compared to the control.
© 2013 Revista Andaluza de Medicina del Deporte.
Original
Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters
after competition: a cross-over study
E. A. Pinho Júnior a, C. J. Brito b, W. O. Costa Santos a, C. Nardelli Valido b, E. Lacerda Mendes c and E. Franchini d
a Programa de Pós-graduação lato-senso. Universidade Gama Filho. Rio de Janeiro. Brasil.
b Programa de Pós-graduação Stricto Senso em Educação Física. Universidade Federal de Sergipe. Aracaju. Brasil.
c Programa de pós-graduação em Stricto Senso Educação Física. Universidade de Federal do Triângulo Mineiro. Uberaba. Brasil.
d Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Lutas, Artes Marciais e Modalidades de Combate. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo. Brasil.
ARTÍCULO EN INGLÉS
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8E. A. Pinho Júnior et al. / Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: a cross-over study /
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
in international contests volunteered to take part in the present study.
The athletes were selected using the following criteria: a) at least three
years of training experience, and b) participation in at least three com-
petitions in the year preceding this study. Prior to participation, all ath-
letes were informed about the procedures to be followed, potential risks
and benefits; each participant provided signed informed consent. All
athletes were in the final stage (30 days) of preparing for a state jiu-jitsu
championship, trained 5-6 days each week in 90-minute sessions and
did not undergo rapid body mass reductions during the week preceding
the data collection.
Pretest procedures
Before the experimental phase, anthropometric measurements were
conducted. Body mass was measured with a scale calibrated with a ma-
ximum capacity of 200-kg and 100-g precision (Soehnle®, São Paulo, SP,
Brazil). Height was measured using a stadiometer coupled to the scale
(accurate to 1 cm). Body composition was estimated indirectly by equa-
tions that used skinfold thickness (caliper Lange, MA, USA). Body densi-
ty was estimated with the Thorland et al.10 equation for university wres-
tlers, and body fat (% BF) was estimated by the Brozek et al. equation11.
The International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry
(ISAK)12 manual was used as a reference for the anthropometric measu-
rements, which were performed by a single trained investigator and
performed in the 24-hours preceding the experimental phase.
Data collection
The fighters were advised to avoid training or any strenuous physical ac-
tivity 48 h before the experiment. On the first day, five athletes were
randomly chosen to perform cryotherapy after competing, and the others
remained lying down. The treatments were reversed in the second com-
petition simulation. Immediately after the last fight, the athletes were
immersed in cold water (5 ± 1°C) for 19 min (four 4-min immersion
cycles with 1-min intervals). During this period, the fighters in the con-
trol remained lying down at passive rest at room temperature (26°C).
Muscle damage markers
The serum levels of CPK and LDH were used as muscle damage indica-
tors. For this process, blood samples were drawn before the first fight (15
min), and immediately after recovery (cryotherapy or rest). We collected
2 ml of venous blood from the arm and deposited it in tubes containing
gel coagulant (Vacuette®, Greiner Bio-one, Campinas, SP, Brazil). The
blood remained at rest for 30-min at room temperature for coagulation.
Then, the blood was centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 8 min to separate the
serum. The biochemical determinations were performed using an auto-
mated analyzer (Vitros® 5.1, Ortho-Clinical Dianostics, Johnson & John-
son Company, Rochester, NY, USA) using dry chemistry methodology.
The LDH was measured using the multi-point kinetic technique (reading
range: 101-825 IU/l). CPK was determined by the rate of multiple points
(reading range: 41-1154 IU/l). Blood collection was performed by a rese-
arch assistant trained for this function.
Upper limb strength
Before the competition and after recovery, all fighters completed the ki-
mono grip strength endurance test, as proposed by Franchini et al.13 . The
INTRODUCTION
The muscle damage caused by exercise is an important tool for measuring
the intensity of training, and it also affects the recovery period. The cre-
atine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzymes,
muscle soreness and performance measures, such as strength and power,
are widely used as indirect markers of muscle damage after exercise1-3.
Recovery time depends on the type of training, duration, intensity and
familiarity of the athlete with the exercise being performed. High-intensi-
ty exercises are associated with high catabolism of substrates, hyperther-
mia, muscle damage, oxidative stress and central nervous system fatigue4.
High-intensity intermittent effort reportedly has high mechanic and
metabolic costs4, while eccentric exercise requires only elevated mecha-
nical overload5. Recovery strategies must consider the approach and cha-
racteristics of stress associated with the applied exercise.
Recently, cryotherapy has been tested extensively in studies invol-
ving recovery after exercise in athletes, particularly in the form of cold
water immersion2,6-7. Several physiological mechanisms that have been
proposed to explain the effects of cryotherapy are related to the induc-
tion of vasoconstriction6, which can limit vascular permeability and,
thus, the inflammatory process, thereby reducing muscle pain2,8. A me-
ta-analysis conducted by Leeder el al.8 demonstrated that cryotherapy
contributes to the recovery of muscle power, reduces the efflux of CPK
and alleviates pain symptoms pain 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after exercising.
Recently, Santos et al.7 demonstrated that cryotherapy benefited jiu-
jitsu athletes undergoing specific training sessions, as the cold water im-
mersion attenuated the concentrations of the CPK and LDH enzymes,
decreased perceived pain and reduced isometric strength endurance in
tests performed under specific intervention conditions (i.e., cryotherapy
versus control). Thus, athletes involved in competitive grappling combat
sports, such as jiu-jitsu, in which there is a predominance of high-inten-
sity efforts interspersed with brief periods of low and moderate inten-
sity and a large number of competitions on sequential weekends, could
benefit from cold water immersion as a recovery strategy, allowing a
faster return to training. The fast recovery time is desirable for high per-
formance athletes as they return to the training cycle immediately after
the competitions9. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the
acute effects of cryotherapy on the blood concentration of CPK and LDH
the enzymes, perceived pain, and endurance strength of the upper limbs
of jiu-jitsu competitors after a simulated competition. The hypothesis of
this study was that the ice intervention would minimize muscle dam-
age, decrease perceived pain levels and led to better preservation of iso-
metric resistance and dynamic strength.
METHOD
The present study used a crossover design with two simulated competi-
tions spaced two days apart. There were four 7-min fights with 15-min
intervals. All subjects were previously familiarized with the procedures
being employed. This study was approved by local human research
ethics committee (protocol CAAE-0330.0.107.000-12).
Sample
Ten highly trained males (age 23.3 ± 4.1 years; body weight, 70.0 ± 3.3
kg; height, 175.3 ± 2.0 cm; body fat, 14.1 ± 2.9 %; jiu-jitsu competition
experience 5.4 ± 2.0 years) who were members of a team that competes
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9E. A. Pinho Júnior et al. / Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: a cross-over study /
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
Therefore, fight time aligned with that of the greatest percentage of the
sample. The fighters were divided into two fight contest groups: a) blue
and purple, and b) brown and black. This competition format aimed to
ensure that the participants faced opponents with equivalent technical
levels, thus minimizing the bias associated with the level of effort.
Statistical analysis
Data normality was tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and
Bartlett’s homoscedasticity criterion. We adopted a two-way (treatment
x time) analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. For vali-
dation of the repeated measures, we used Mauchly’s sphericity test, and
the Greenhouse-Geisser correction was applied, as necessary. If a signi-
ficant difference was observed in the ANOVA, the Bonferroni correction
was used post-hoc. Cohen’s d16 was used to estimate the magnitude
of the effects of treatments across conditions. To compare the effects of
CPK and LDH cryotherapy under controlled conditions, we calculated
the deltas of these variables, which were compared with Student’s t test
for dependent samples. The magnitude of treatment effects calcula-
ted for CPK and LDH deltas was determined using the mean of the con-
trol minus the mean of the cryotherapy condition divided by the stan-
dard deviation of the two combined conditions (i.e., effect size = [mean
control condition - average cryotherapy condition]/standard deviation
of the two conditions combined). Pearson’s correlation was used to ve-
rify the relationship between the adopted variables. All analyses were
conducted by SPSS (version 16.0), and P < 0.05 indicated the level of
significance.
RESULTS
Table 1 shows the values of CPK and LDH pre-competition and post-re-
covery under the two experimental conditions.
For CPK, there was an effect of time of measurement (F1,18 = 11.75, P =
0.003; η2 = 0.40), with lower values at pre compared to post-competition
(P = 0.003). However, a significant difference was observed when the
delta CPK was compared between conditions (t = -2.43, P = 0.038, effect
size = 0.79), with lower values observed for cryotherapy (48.5 ± 146.5
IU/l) compared to the control condition (166.8 ± 134.1 IU/l). LDH was
affected by condition (F1,18 = 7.91, P = 0.012, η2 = 0.31) and time (F1,1 8 =
49.60, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.73). Regarding the effect of condition, the values
were lower (P = 0.012) for the cryotherapy condition versus the control.
However, the delta concentration of LDH did not differ significantly be-
test consists of a static strength exercise and another dynamic test. Ini-
tially, the fighters held a kimono wrapped around a horizontal bar and
remained with their elbow flexed for as long as possible. After a 15-min
break, the dynamic test began. During this test, the athletes performed
the maximum number of repetitions from a fully extended to a fully
flexed elbow position, with the same grip position used in the previous
test. Both tests were performed to fatigue. This tests showed good repro-
ducibility (dynamic test, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99, limits
of agreement = -2.9 to 2.3 repetitions; isometric, intraclass correlation
coefficient = 0.97, limits of agreement = -6.9 to 2.4 s)14.
Perceived pain
Athletes indicated the perception of pain using the visual analogue scale
of pain, which is characterized by a 10-cm horizontal scale in which 0 =
no pain, 1 to 3 = low intensity pain, 4 to 6 = moderate pain, 7 to 9 = seve-
re pain and 10 = unbearable pain intensity. This measurement was per-
formed before the first fight, after the last fight, after recovery and after
the kimono grip strength endurance test, according to the methodology
described by Carvalho and Kovacs15.
Body temperature
As a complementary measure, the axillary epithelium temperature was
measured three times: before (10 min) the simulated competition, im-
mediately after and during recovery. A digital thermometer was used
(G-Tech®, RI, USA) with amplitude measured between 32.0 and 43.9°C
(0.2°C accuracy). For all measurements, the thermometer was attached
to the right side of the body. Figure 1 shows a flow chart with the mea-
sured variables and their periods.
Simulated competition
The simulated competition followed the rules of the International Brazi-
lian Jiu-jitsu organization, except for submissions and the contest time.
No fight was stopped before the preset time, even if there were submi-
ssions (e.g., arm lock or choke). This procedure was adopted to ensure the
maximum physical effort and to maintain the same fighting times for all
competitors in both conditions. Each fight lasted 7 min, in alignment
with purple belt competitions. It is hoped that this procedure ensured
greater validity for the practical application of the results obtained here.
Moreover, the sample was composed of athletes with the following skill
levels: two blue belt, four purple belt, two brown belt and two black belt.
Rest
Baseline 07 22 29 44 51 66 73 92 min.
Rest Rest
Cryotherapy
or control
(Cross-over)
3
5
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
1
Fig. 1. Schematic representation of the data collection procedures. The numbers in the bars refer to the procedures used before, during and after the competition
sessions.
1: anthropometry; 2: Judogi Handgrip Test; 3: body temperature; 4: blood collection; 5: scale of perceived pain.
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10 E. A. Pinho Júnior et al. / Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: a cross-over study /
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
For temperature there were significant condition (F1,18 = 18.35, P <
0.001; η2 = 0.51), moment (F2,36 = 15.87, P < 0.001; η2 = 0.47) and in-
teraction effects (F2,36 = 13.44, P < 0.001; η2 =.43). The pre-competi-
tion temperature in the cryotherapy condition was lower than that
obtained after the competition in the same condition (P = 0.003),
after the competition (P = 0.009), and after recovery (P = 0.005) in
the control condition. The post-competition temperature in the
cryotherapy condition was higher than that after recovery in the same
condition (P < 0.001), but higher than that of the control condition
during the pre-competition period (P = 0.008). In the control condi-
tion, the temperature during the post-recovery moment (P < 0.001)
was lower than that of the cryotherapy condition after the competi-
tion (P < 0.001). Finally, during the pre-competition period, the tem-
perature in the control condition was lower than that obtained after
competition (P = 0.022) and after recovery (P = 0.012) in the same
condition.
Table 5 presents the correlations between the different variables in-
vestigated.
There was a moderate significant correlation between perceived
pain and the concentrations of CPK and LDH and between the two en-
zymes (i.e., CPK and LDH). The LDH concentrations showed a moderate
inverse correlation with performance in the endurance test evaluating
static and dynamic strength. Additionally, there was a high correlation
between the performances of both tests.
tween the conditions (t = -1.72, P = 0.119, effect size = 0.75). Additionally,
the values measured before the competition were lower (P < 0.001)
than the values measured after the competition.
Table 2 shows the results for isometric and dynamic strength endu-
rance performance.
Only moment of measurement affected (F1,18 = 10.33, P = 0.005, η2 =
0.37) the isometric strength endurance performance, with higher values
(P = 0.005) measured in pre-moment compared to post-moment. A
similar result was observed for the dynamic strength endurance perfor-
mance (i.e., there was no effect of moment; F1,18 = 9.46, P = 0.007, η2 =
0.35), with a greater number of repetitions (P = 0.007) at pre-moment
compared to post-moment.
Table 3 shows the estimated perceived pain values.
Perceived pain was affected by condition (F1,18 = 12.35, P = 0.003, η2 =
0.41) and moment (F3,54 = 19.46, P < 0.001, η2 = 0.52). The cryotherapy
values were lower than those in the control condition (P = 0.003). Re-
garding the effect of the moment of measurement, the pre-competition
values were lower than the values measured after the competition (P <
0.001), post-recovery (P = 0.001) and after the strength tests (P < 0.001).
Additionally, the post-competition values were higher than those values
measured after the recovery (P = 0.005) and post-strength tests (P =
0.028).
Table 4 shows the epithelium body temperature measurements at
different moments.
Table 1
Serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) pre-contest (Pre) and after recovery (Post)
CPK (UI/l) LDH (UI/l)
Time Pre PostaPre Posta
Cryotherapyb494.0 ± 125.4 542.5 ± 137.4 48.5 ± 146.5 533.2 ± 55.4 671.2 ± 61.0 138.0 ± 95.1
Control 451.7 ± 100.1 618.5 ± 143.4 166.8 ± 134.1 528.5 ± 63.7 759.8 ± 85.7 231.3 ± 135.8
a:significant difference from Pre (P < 0.05) for concentrations of CPK and LDH; b: significant difference from the control condition for the LDH concentration (P < 0.05).
Table 2
Resistance to static and dynamic strength pre-contest and post-recovery in the
control and cryotherapy conditions
Resistance strength
Pre-
competitiona
Post-
recuperation ∆
Isometric (s)
Cryotherapy 61 ± 19 49 ± 10 -12 ± 20
Control 61 ± 19 39 ± 16 -22 ± 27
Dinamic (rep)
Cryotherapy 15 ± 2 13 ± 1 -2 ± 2
Control 15 ± 2 12 ± 3 -3 ± 5
a:different from the post-recuperation (P < 0.05) for each test.
Table 3
Subjective perceptions of pain pre-, post-competition, after recovery and post-
resistance exercise force in the control and cryotherapy conditions
Pain
Cond.
Pre-
competitionb
Post-
competitionc
Post-
recuperation
Post-
strength
Cryotherapya1.5 ± 1.3 5.0 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 1.8 3.0 ± 1.5
Control 1.3 ± 1.1 5.1 ± 1.0 4.4 ± 1.8 4.5 ± 1.4
Cond: condition; a different from control (P < 0.05); b: different from the other times
(P<0.05); c: different from the post-recovery time and post-strength test (P < 0.05).
Table 4
Body temperature pre-, post-competition and post- recovery under the two
experimental conditions
Temperature
Condition
Pre-
competition
Post-
competition
Post-
recuperation
Cryotherapy (oC) 35.7 ± 0.4a37.7 ± 0.7c 34.5 ± 1.9b
Control (oC) 35.8 ± 0.5b 37.5 ± 0.7 37.6 ± 1.3
a: different from cryotherapy post-competition, control after competition and post-reco-
very (P<0.05); b: different from control post-competition and post-recovery (P < 0.05); c:
different cryotherapy post-recovery and control pre-competition (P < 0.05).
Table 5
Pearson’s correlation analysis for the measured variables
Pain LDH Isometric Dinamic Temperature
CPK 0.31a0.53a- 0.09 - 0.05 - 0.10
Pain 0.55a- 0.17 - 0.32a0.28
LDH - 0.53a- 0.53a- 0.29
Isometric 0.73a- 0.13
Dinamic - 0,13
a Significant correlation (P < 0.05).
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11E. A. Pinho Júnior et al. / Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: a cross-over study /
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
muscle power, although the authors did not present the possible mecha-
nisms involved.
As observed in previous studies, the perception of pain was lower in
cases of recovery using cryotherapy8,17. A similar result was observed by
Poiton et al.27 in a study in which the application of ice packs (0.5oC for
20-min) decreased perceived pain after exercise. According to Gregson
et al.6, a possible mechanism that explains this fact would be decreased
osmotic pressure of the exudate (metabolites resulting from inflamma-
tion), which in turn result in lower neural signal signaling and pain
stimuli propagation. Associated with this effect, the vasoconstriction
tends to decrease the overflow of liquid, which in turn reduces muscle
inflammation6. Strength endurance tests performed in the present study
were meant to exhaustion and the discomfort is great in the final mo-
ments of the exercise. Thus, it was expected that a lower perception of
pain would assist in the performance of isometric strength endurance
test, which did not occur. After recovery, the cryotherapy condition has
decreased the skin temperature close to 3°C in skin temperature when
compared to the control condition. Having a body temperature of
approximately 34°C peripheral vasoconstriction occurs28, which may
have contributed to a decreased perception of pain.
In fact, cryotherapy results in lower rhabdomyolysis29, which is
associated with greater perceived pain30. The results showed in this
study indicated an association between the serum levels of CPK and LDH
and perceived pain. Importantly, the enzyme levels that are indicative of
muscle damage have been directly correlated with delayed onset mus-
cle soreness8,31-32, but not immediately after exercise. However, cryothe-
rapy also appears to influence acute pain. Ascensão et al.18 observed
lower perceptions of acute pain (30-min after cryotherapy) and late on-
set (24 and 48-hours). Although there was an inverse correlation be-
tween serum LDH and the result of isometric and dyamic grip strength
endurance tests, no studies were found that measured the strength of
the association between these variables. However, when muscle
strength and LDH were measured simultaneously, there were smaller
force levels (-12 %) when the serum LDH levels were elevated (+163 %
compared to baseline)33.
Although little attention has been given to combat sports, this study
emphasizes the short-term metabolic benefits of cryotherapy after simu-
lated competition jiu-jitsu. These findings are consistent with previous
studies that have observed decreased muscle soreness after immersion
with intermittent sprints34-35. Ingram et al.30 showed that after 80 min of
exercise that simulated team sports, cryotherapy preserved more maxi-
mal voluntary contractions compared to a placebo or contrast therapy.
This study indicates the need for further research regarding the applica-
tion of cryotherapy in combat sports, and future studies should follow
the late effects of immersion, because the concentrations of CPK and
LDH exhibit peaks between 48 and 72 hours post-exercise36; other
methods, such as massage therapy37, may also be used to improve the
recovery of athletes.
It is concluded that the immersion after competition results in lower
body temperature, hypoalgesia, lower serum LDH, and lower CPK eleva-
tion when compared to the control situation, although the performance
in tasks involving isometric or dynamic grip strength endurance were
not affected. This knowledge can be used by coaches who have athletes
involved in competitive cycles with a high number of competitions.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
DISCUSSION
Recent studies have investigated strategies to assist the recovery of
athletes after training sessions, games and competitions17 -18. Howe-
ver, there have been no studies investigating cold water immersion
after competition in combat sports. Recently, Santos et al7. found that
cryotherapy reduced muscle damage in jiu-jitsu after 90 min of trai-
ning. The results of current study indicated that jiu-jitsu competition
resulted in increased concentrations of CPK and LDH, reduced perfor-
mance on isometric and dynamic grip strength endurance tests, and
increased perceived pain. Intervention with cryotherapy was effecti-
ve in altering the temperature after the recovery period compared to
the control. Lower levels of LDH were found in the cryotherapy con-
dition compared to the control, although the delta increase of this
enzyme did not differ between the conditions. However, the cryothe-
rapy intervention resulted in a lower increase of CPK concentration
and a lower perceived pain value compared to the control condition.
However, even with the positive effects shown above, the performan-
ces on isometric and dynamic grip strength endurance tests did not
differ between conditions. Shorter recovery course is desirable for
competitors because they must often return to the training cycle im-
mediately after the competitions19.
The increase observed in the markers of muscle damage is explained
by the intensity of effort expended during fights jiu-jitsu20. Cryotherapy
attenuated the release of LDH into the blood, which indicates lower im-
pairment in the integrity of the skeletal muscle compared to passive rest
(control). These findings were also found after a soccer match21. How-
ever, it is important to note that in our study, the delta of the concentra-
tion of LDH did not differ between the conditions.
Consistent with the results shown here, Banfi et al.22 observed a lo-
wer serum CPK in elite rugby players after cryotherapy compared to the
active and passive recoveries. Similar results were observed in exposure
to cold (-110°C for 2 min)23. In contrast, Hausswirth et al.2 observed that
CPK levels did not differ from control after eccentric exercise. Note
that the different methodological procedures, time of exposure to ice,
water temperature and submerged part of the body all hinder compari-
sons between studies. Jakeman et al.24 investigated 18 physically active
female volunteers who performed 10 sets of 10 repetitions of jumps
with counter-movements; immediately after exercise, the women
placed their lower limbs in cryotherapy 10°C. The authors observed an
effect of time but no interaction between time and the treatment mar-
kers of muscle damage.
The time between the end of the competition and the dynamic grip
strength endurance test was 34 min (19-min interval dedicated to the
recovery and 15-min after the isometric test). However, this interval was
not sufficient to restore the dynamic grip strength endurance. This result
is contrary to that obtained in highly-trained judo athletes, in which it
was observed that 15 min was enough for full recovery even after high-
intensity intermittent stimuli.25-26. Thus, considering that both isometric
and dynamic strength endurance are relevant to performance in jiu-jit-
su competitions, where the final match is preceded by four fights, it is
possible to infer the need for longer than 19-min and 34-min interval
between the last and the final fight for the restoration of isometric and
dynamic grip strength endurance, respectively, to allow for better phy-
sical performance of athletes. Future studies could be conducted to de-
termine the minimum time required for recovery of these variables. In
turn, Leeder et al.8 demonstrated that cryotherapy had no effect on the
restoration of maximum strength but helped to maintain the levels of
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12 E. A. Pinho Júnior et al. / Influence of cryotherapy on muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters after competition: a cross-over study /
Rev Andal Med Deporte. 2014;7(1):7-12
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... 2 In combat sports such as Brazilian jiu-jitsu (BJJ), quick recovery is crucial since the athlete usually performs several long fights in competitions of about 10 minutes each on the same day with short rest intervals of <20 minutes between fights. 3 It is well documented in the literature that strenuous exercises are capable of prompting important biochemical changes, which contributes to the impairment of the capacity to perform vigorous muscular actions and intense exercises, thus affecting negatively the sporting performance. 4 In addition, the muscle's ability to produce mechanical work is inversely related to the concentration of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the blood, 5 since this enzyme is responsible for the nonaerobic conversion of pyruvate into lactate. ...
... 7,8 Evidence about the use of CWI in jiu-jitsu athletes involved in intense training and competition has proven sparse and equivocal. A number of authors have highlighted the benefits of CWI, such as reduction of LDH levels, reduction of muscle pain and enhanced recovery of muscle strength in functional tests, 5 lowered concentration of creatine kinase, 3 reduction of muscle damage markers, and preservation of isometric force 9 , while a few others have demonstrated that CWI did not influence strength in specific functional tests, 3,10 in isokinetic lower limb tests, or in the plasma concentration of muscle damage markers. 10 The controversial findings may be the result of factors such as the variety of recovery protocols used, the wide variety of immersion temperatures and duration, and the different muscle groups assessed. ...
... Contrary to previous evidence on the effects of CWI on restoring dynamic strength in specific tests, 3,9,10 this study is the first to show the benefits of this recovery strategy in DKGS in BJJ athletes. Although there was no group effect, there were an interaction (F = 9.075; P = .002) ...
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Purpose: To compare the effect of static stretching (SS) and cold-water immersion (CWI) on strength performance and blood lactate levels of jiu-jitsu athletes. Methods: A total of 21 male Brazilian jiu-jitsu fighters were randomly assigned to SS (9 × 30-s carpal extension), CWI (3 × 3 min at 10°C), or a control group (CG); their maximal handgrip strength, handgrip muscle endurance, dynamic kimono grip strength test, and blood lactate concentration were assessed before and after a simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu fight and after one of the recovery interventions. Results: There was an interaction (F = 9.075; P = .002) and a time effect (F = 11.792; P = .003) for dynamic kimono grip strength test, showing a decrease in performance for the CG (P = .0001; effect size [ES] = 0.52, moderate) and after SS (P = .006; ES = 0.43, small). There was an interaction (F = 3.592; P = .015) and a time effect (F = 122.631; P = .0001) for blood lactate concentration, showing lower levels after CWI versus CG (P = .028; ES = 0.93, moderate) and after CWI versus SS (P = .042; ES = 0.82, moderate). There was an interaction (F = 9.617; P = .001) for handgrip strength, showing an impairment in performance after SS (P = .001; ES = 0.67, moderate). Conclusion: CWI promoted restoration of muscle strength and endurance and reduction in blood lactate levels after the simulated fight and can thus be used by jiu-jitsu athletes as a recovery strategy between fights.
... Fonseca et al. 7 investigaram a IAF (~6°C, durante 19 minutos) e concluíram que a IAF pode ser benéfica em função da redução dos níveis de lactato desidrogenase (LDH), menor dor muscular e recuperação da força muscular em testes funcionais. Pinho Júnior et al. 8 ao estudarem a IAF (~5°C por 19 minutos), observaram que a IAF não influenciou a força em testes funcionais. Contudo, verificaram que a CQ apresentou menor elevação no grupo IAF quando comparado ao grupo controle. ...
... Avaliando atletas de jiu-jitsu, Fonseca et al. 7 também não encontraram diferenças nos valores de CQ, após a sessão de treinamento, quando compararam o grupo IAF e controle. Contudo, as investigações de Pinho-Junior et al. 8 e Santos et al. 9 contrastam com os achados do presente estudo, uma vez que a IAF resultou em um menor aumento da concentração de CQ após a sessão de treinamento em relação ao grupo controle. ...
... É interessante notar que os estudos de Fonseca et al., 7 Pinho-Junior et al. 8 e Santos et al. 9 adotaram o mesmo protocolo de IAF (5º C durante 19 minutos) e apresentaram desfechos diferentes para CQ. Contudo, observou-se que as concentrações de CQ no momento pré no estudo de Fonseca et al. 7 foram muito inferiores em relação aos estudos de Pinho-Junior et al. 8 e Santos et al. 9 Os valores foram pelo menos duas vezes maiores (200 UI/l versus 500 UI/l) no momento pré. ...
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... Following the removal of duplicates and ineligible articles, 52 studies were included in this review. Several studies met the inclusion criteria but were excluded due to missing/unusable data (where authors were not able to be contacted) or outcomes measured at timepoints not included in the meta-analysis [20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38]. A complete overview of the screening process can be found in Fig. 1. ...
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Background Studies investigating the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) on the recovery of athletic performance, perceptual measures and creatine kinase (CK) have reported mixed results in physically active populations. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the effects of CWI on recovery of athletic performance, perceptual measures and CK following an acute bout of exercise in physically active populations. Study Design Systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Methods A systematic search was conducted in September 2021 using Medline, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EmCare and Embase databases. Studies were included if they were peer reviewed and published in English, included participants who were involved in sport or deemed physically active, compared CWI with passive recovery methods following an acute bout of strenuous exercise and included athletic performance, athlete perception and CK outcome measures. Studies were divided into two strenuous exercise subgroups: eccentric exercise and high-intensity exercise. Random effects meta-analyses were used to determine standardised mean differences (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals. Meta-regression analyses were completed with water temperature and exposure durations as continuous moderator variables. Results Fifty-two studies were included in the meta-analyses. CWI improved the recovery of muscular power 24 h after eccentric exercise (SMD 0.34 [95% CI 0.06–0.62]) and after high-intensity exercise (SMD 0.22 [95% CI 0.004–0.43]), and reduced serum CK (SMD − 0.85 [95% CI − 1.61 to − 0.08]) 24 h after high-intensity exercise. CWI also improved muscle soreness (SMD − 0.89 [95% CI − 1.48 to − 0.29]) and perceived feelings of recovery (SMD 0.66 [95% CI 0.29–1.03]) 24 h after high-intensity exercise. There was no significant influence on the recovery of strength performance following either eccentric or high-intensity exercise. Meta-regression indicated that shorter time and lower temperatures were related to the largest beneficial effects on serum CK (duration and temperature dose effects) and endurance performance (duration dose effects only) after high-intensity exercise. Conclusion CWI was an effective recovery tool after high-intensity exercise, with positive outcomes occurring for muscular power, muscle soreness, CK, and perceived recovery 24 h after exercise. However, after eccentric exercise, CWI was only effective for positively influencing muscular power 24 h after exercise. Dose–response relationships emerged for positively influencing endurance performance and reducing serum CK, indicating that shorter durations and lower temperatures may improve the efficacy of CWI if used after high-intensity exercise. Funding Emma Moore is supported by a Research Training Program (Domestic) Scholarship from the Australian Commonwealth Department of Education and Training. Protocol registration Open Science Framework: 10.17605/OSF.IO/SRB9D.
... Branco et al. (2016) showed that HBO 2 therapy improved RPR, which is consistent with the findings reported in another study (Kim et al., 2011). However, with varying RPR being the only significant difference in this part of the systematic review, attention should be paid to the potential influence of the placebo effect, as demonstrated by previous research (Broatch et al., 2014;Pinho Júnior et al., 2014). PO 2 and/or tcPO 2 are reliable assessments of tissue oxygen availability (Sheffield, 1998). ...
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... Therefore, isolated or combined standing and groundwork judo combats, as well as traditional judo training sessions, result both in muscle damage. A possibility to compare the responses under the groundwork condition of our study with other studies is to consider the investigations focused on Brazilian jiu-jitsu, a grappling combat sport that utilizes techniques similar to judo, but which is performed basically under the groundwork condition (Andreato et al., 2012(Andreato et al., , 2015Branco et al., 2016;Fonseca et al., 2016;Pinho Júnior et al., 2014;Santos et al., 2012). One study with Brazilian jiu-jitsu indicated that a single 7-min combat resulted in increases in ALT and LDH, but not in CK and AST (Andreato et al., 2012). ...
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It is well known that different factors can contribute to muscle damage in judo matches or training. Previous research analyzed only the effects of simulated judo combat or judo training on biochemical markers of muscle damage without determining its specific causes. Our objective was to identify possible differences in biochemical markers of muscular damage in response to different training methods in youth judo athletes. Twelve high-level male judo athletes were randomly assigned to a standing (SP, n = 6, age = 16.6 ± 1.1 years) or a groundwork position (GP, n = 6, age = 17.8 ± 0.8 years) combat practice group. Both groups had the same protocol of four 4-minute combat practice bouts separated by 1-minute rest intervals. Before and immediately after combat practice blood samples were taken to assess muscle damage markers: creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). There were significant increases in AST, LDH, and CK after the standing and groundwork training sessions compared with resting values in both groups. Additionally, no significant differences in the enzyme's activity between SP and GP groups were found. These results showed that standing and groundwork randori training (free sparring or free practice) causes similar muscle damage in adolescent judo athletes. Future research should assess the effects of the same damage mechanisms over a longer period of time.
... Con respecto a los protocolos de ejercicio para inducir fatiga y daño muscular, se encontraron estudios que no reportaron el tipo de ejercicio realizado (6,17,21,23,24,29); otros protocolos consistieron en realizar contracciones excéntricas y concéntricas de diferentes grupos musculares (flexores de codo, flexores y extensores de rodilla) (20,22,25,(30)(31)(32)(33) adicionalmente, se reportaron protocolos con ejercicio de resistencia como la maratón (34,35), intervenciones realizadas posteriores a un partido de fútbol (27), para 4 partidos jugados en 4 días con 24 horas entre ellos (26) e intervenciones posteriores a un combate (18,19). ...
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Introducción. En la práctica deportiva, la fatiga muscular es un factor de riesgo para lesión muscular, constituyéndose en un problema que aparece cuando la carga mecánica a la cual se somete un músculo o grupo muscular es superior a la resistencia de este. Objetivo. Describir las intervenciones con crioterapia en Fatiga Muscular post esfuerzo, en individuos que realizan práctica deportiva, a través de una Revisión Sistemática. Método. Se realizó la búsqueda en bases de datos PUBMED/MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT, Registro Cochrane Central de Ensayos Controlados con la estrategia de búsqueda: Sports Medicine, Cryotherapy, Muscle Fatigue, Recovery of Function, Physical Exertion, Muscle Damage. La identificación y detección de las referencias fueron exportadas al gestor de referencias MENDELEY. La evaluación del Riesgo de Sesgo se realizó con el uso del software Review Manager y la calidad metodológica con lo reportado por la Base de Datos PEDro. Resultados. Se evaluaron 19 ensayos clínicos aleatorizados en los cuales se evidencia que la crioterapia reporta cambios en la fatiga muscular desde la disminución del dolor y biomarcadores. La inmersión en agua fría fue la modalidad más efectiva para acelerar la cinética de recuperación 72 horas después del ejercicio; demostró menor dolor y mayores niveles de recuperación, percibidos a lo largo de 24 a 48 horas después del ejercicio. Conclusión. De la totalidad de modalidades de crioterapia, la inmersión en agua fría es la que reporta mejores resultados en el proceso de recuperación de la fatiga muscular.
... However, in inexperienced athletes in the adult category (aged 18-29 years), a reduction in systolic blood pressure (SBP) is observed after the end of simulated jiu-jitsu matches [7,8]. Despite the many studies carried out to broaden the understanding of the physiological effects of a jiu-jitsu match [9][10][11], none of them clarified the impact of a training session on cardiovascular variables, whose changes may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events, such as acute myocardial infarction and stroke. ...
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open acess How to cite: Silva TLTB, Santos ALS, Barreto THLM, Macedo FN, Melo VU, Santana MNS, et al. Jiujitsu match elevates myocardial work and causes post-exercise hypotension in master category athletes. Rev Bras Fisiol Exerc 2020;19(3):224-231. https://doi.org/10.33233/rbfe.v19i3.4014 ABSTRACT Background: Jiujitsu is a sport that involves different techniques to lead the opponent to submission, combats are characterized by intermittent efforts with changes in important cardiovascular variables. Aim: to evaluate the acute effects of a simulated jiujitsu match on blood pressure (BP) and the double product (DP) of fighters in the master category. Methods: The heart rate (HR), BP, and DP of six experienced fighters were measured, before and after the protocol. The combat consisted of four six-minute sessions with intervals of three minutes for recovery and measurement of the variables. Measurements were taken every 15 minutes, after the end of the fight. Results: An increase in systolic (SBP) and mean BP (MAP) was observed after the last session. After 30 minutes, there was a decrease in MAP and SBP, until the end of the protocol. Diastolic BP (DBP) decreased after 30 minutes, returning to baseline after 45 minutes post-combat. HR remained high until 30 minutes of recovery. Despite the increase greater than 280% of the DP, verified immediately after the fight, 15 minutes of recovery was sufficient for this index to return to baseline values. Conclusion: The study shows that a jiujitsu match causes a significant increase in SBP and MAP, HR and PD with subsequent arterial hypotension. RESUMO Introdução: O jiujitsu é um esporte que envolve diferentes técnicas para levar o oponente à submissão, os combates são caracterizados por esforços intermitentes com alterações em importantes variáveis car-diovasculares. Objetivo: avaliar os efeitos agudos de um combate simulado de jiujitsu sobre a pressão arterial (PA) e o duplo produto (DP) de lutadores da categoria master. Métodos: Foi aferida a frequência cardíaca (FC), PA e DP de seis experientes lutadores, antes e após o protocolo. O combate foi composto por quatro sessões de seis minutos com intervalos de três minutos para recuperação e aferição das variáveis. As medidas foram feitas a cada 15 minutos, subsequentemente ao encerramento do combate. Resultados: Observou-se aumento da PA sistólica (PAS) e média (PAM) após a última sessão. Após 30 minutos, verifi-cou-se diminuição da PAM e PAS, até o fim do protocolo. A PA diastólica (PAD) reduziu aos 30 minutos, retornando ao basal a partir de 45 minutos pós-combate. A FC manteve-se elevada até os 30 minutos de recuperação. Apesar do aumento maior que 280% do DP, verificado imediatamente após o combate, 15 minutos de recuperação foram suficientes para que este índice retomasse os valores basais. Conclusão: O estudo mostra que um combate de jiujitsu , provoca aumento significativo da PAS e PAM, FC e DP com subsequente hipotensão arterial.
... In addition to isometric strength, upper body dynamic strength endurance is important during a BJJ fight due to the required complex and sustained movements that the athlete must undertake in trying to immobilize their opponent [12,29]. In this study, KGSTD presented with an expected decrease throughout the combat in both groups [13,30]. Previously, researchers have compared dynamic strength endurance in amateurs and professional BJJ athletes and found significant differences between these two groups, which favored the professionals [31,32]. ...
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Purpose This study aimed to analyze the effects of carbohydrate supplementation on strength parameters during a Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ) simulated tournament.Methods Fourteen male BJJ amateurs athletes took part in a simulated tournament (3 × 8min matches, 10-min rest), in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In two different sessions (7-day washout), BJJ athletes ingested 30g of maltodextrin (CARB) or placebo (PLA). Were evaluated: maximal isometric handgrip strength (MIH), dynamic strength endurance [Kimono grip strength test dynamic (KGSTD)], muscular power [horizontal countermovement jump, (HCMJ)], ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and lactate concentration.Results There was an interaction effect on MIH strength (p = 0.029 in right hand). MIH did not change during the tourna-ment simulation in the CARB group, but decreased in the PLA group in the right-hand post-match. An interaction effect in KGSTD was observed (p = 0.006). Both groups had a decrease in KGSTD performance over the match; however, in the second interval, the CARB group showed higher strength than PLA. There was an interaction effect on HCMJ (p = 0.003). HCMJ increased during the tournament in the both groups. Lactate level and RPE indicated that exercise was intense and similar between the groups.Conclusion Carbohydrate supplementation provides a mild improve in the BJJ athlete’s strength during a simulated tournament. Clinical Trials: NCT03203785.
... However, the literature shows that high values of CK are closely associated with increase in pain perception between 24 and 48 hours after exercise 10,17,18 . In this study, such phenomenon also occurred after the eccentric exercise session. ...
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Objetivo: analisar o efeito da crioterapia moderada com imersão (15º celsius - C), nas respostas inflamatórias musculares, nas variáveis bioquímicas e neuromotoras após uma sessão de exercício de força excêntrico. Procedimentos Metodológicos: 18 homens (18-25 anos) saudáveis, não praticantes de exercício físico e que participaram voluntariamente da pesquisa foram recrutados. Inicialmente foram randomizados em três grupos: Grupo Controle (GC), Grupo Exercício (GE) e Grupo Exercício + Crioterapia (EX + CT). Após a aleatorização, os voluntários seguiram para realização de testes: a) bioquímico (Creatina Quinase - CK), b) neuromotor (amplitude de movimento - ÂNGULO), c) escala de dor - DOR e d) um teste de força isométrica máxima. Em seguida, os grupos experimentais realizaram séries de ações excêntricas máximas para região anterior e posterior da perna no exercício sentadinha. Após a sessão analisou-se CK, ÂNGULO e DOR, nos momentos 24, 48, 72, 96 e 120 horas. Os sujeitos do EX + CT receberam tratamento crioterápico imediatamente após a sessão e nos momentos 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas subsequentes. Resultados: Em comparação com o repouso, os valores de CK, DOR e ÂNGULO apresentaram aumento significativo após as sessões nos grupos experimentais. O GE exibiu valores significativamente superior ao EX + CT em todas as variáveis analisadas. Conclusão: A crioterapia mostrou-se uma alternativa viável no tratamento da miopatia do exercício e da dor muscular tardia.
... Enfin, la libération de béta-endorphine, jouant un rôle sur l'antalgie et l'anxiété, apparaît dès la stimulation du système nerveux parasympathique et ne semble pas être affecté par l'appareil utilisé [25,26]. La plus grande partie des études sont faites dans le milieu du sport de haut niveau avec des études sur le rugby [27,28], le jiujitsu [29], la natation synchronisée [30], le kayak [31,32] ou encore le tennis [32], ce qui a tendance à standardiser les populations testées autour d'un morphotype athlétique. La résistance à la pénétration du froid ou la baisse de température est largement dépendante de la masse et de la composition corporelle et son évaluation est difficile dans les chambres cryogéniques [33,34]. ...
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Cet article pose les bases d’une modélisation théorique visant à déterminer une loi d’évolution de la température cutanée d’un sujet, au cours d’une séance de cryothérapie en corps entier (CCE). L’étude se focalise sur les quelques minutes pendant lesquelles le corps humain est soumis à un choc thermique. À notre connaissance, aucune donnée n’est documentée dans la littérature sur la température de la peau pendant la phase de refroidissement. La validation de cette démarche scientifique ouvre une voie large à des études de plus grande ampleur dans le but de proposer des protocoles de cryothérapie pouvant être à la fois individualisés mais également destinés à des populations cibles.
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Background and Study Aim: The ability to develop a strong grip and maintain it during a judo match has become an important element for judo athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine differences between measurements of maximal isometric time on judogi pull-up, and number of repetitions during dynamic judogi pull-up. Material/Methods: The sample was composed by two groups: 16 high-level judo athletes from the male Brazilian National Team and 12 male state-level judo athletes, with at least one athlete per weight category. The tests were compared through analysis of co-variance (body mass as co-variable), followed by a post-hoc test (Scheffé. Significance level was set at 5%. Results: No difference was found in the isometric test: Brazilian Team: 35±18s; Regional: 39±14s. However, the Brazilian Team performed a high number of repetitions (12±5 rep) compared to regional group (9±;4 rep) during the dynamic grip strength endurance test. Conclusions: Thus, dynamic grip strength endurance seems to be a discriminating variable between judo athletes, probably because judo combat involves many elbow extensions and flexions in order to avoid the opponent's grip and to subdue them.
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Background The grip strength endurance is important for Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu (BJJ). Thus, the aims of this study were: a) to test the reliability of two kimono grip strength tests named maximum static lift (MSL) and maximum number of repetitions (MNR) and b) to examine differences between elite and non-elite BJJ players in these tests. Material/Methods: Thirty BJJ players participated into two phases: “A” to test reliability and “B” to compare elite and non-elite. In phase A, twenty participants performed the MSL and, 15 min later, the MNR in two occasions with 24-h interval. In phase B, ten other BJJ practitioners (non-elite) and ten athletes (elite) performed the same tests. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) two way fixed model (3,1), Bland-Altman plot and the limits of agreement were used to test reliability, correlation between the tests were evaluated by Pearson correlations and independent T test (P<0.05) was utilized to compare elite vs. non-elite. Results: The ICC was high for repeated measurements on different days of phase A (MSL: r=0.99 and MNR: r=0.97). Limits of agreement for time of suspension were -6.9 to 2.4-s, with a mean difference of –2.3 s (CI: –3.3 to –1.2-s), while for number of repetitions the limits of agreement were –2.9 to 2.3-rep, with a mean difference of –0.3-rep (CI: –0.9 to 0.3-rep). In phase B, elite presented better performance for both tests (P<0.05) compared to nonelite (56±10-s vs. 37±11-s in MSL and 15±4-rep vs. 8±3-rep in MNR). Moderate correlation were found between MSL and MNR for absolute values during test (r=0.475; p=0.034), and retest phases (r=0.489; p=0.029), while moderate and high correlations in the test (r=0.615; p=0.004) and retest phases (r=0.716; p=0.001) were found for relative values, respectively. Conclusions: These proposed tests are reliable and both static and dynamic grip strength endurance tests seem to differentiate BJJ athletes from different levels
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Santos WOC, Brito CJ, Júnior EAP, Valido CN, Mendes EL, Nunes MAP, Franchini E. Cryotherapy post-training reduces muscle damage markers in jiu-jitsu fighters. J. Hum. Sport Exerc. Vol. 7, No. 3, pp. 629-638, 2012. Although widely used in sports, the efficiency of cryotherapy in reducing muscle damage has been questioned. The present study investigated the acute effects of post-exercise cryotherapy on the expression of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), perceived pain, and muscle strength of the upper limbs in Brazilian jiu-jitsu competitors. Nine highly trained fighters were subjected to two 90-minute training sessions. After the first session, five random subjects were immersed in a pool with ice (5±1°C) for nineteen minutes, and the remaining participants were allocated to the control group. The treatments were reversed in the second session (cross-over design). Analysis of covariance with repeated measures was used to compare outcomes between the groups, and pre-test measures were used as covariates. Pearson's correlation was adopted to check the strength of the associations between variables. The results showed lower serum CPK concentrations (P<0.05) in the cryotherapy group (504.0±138.7 IU/L) compared to the pre-exercise (532.6 ± 67.9 IU/L) group, and a similar result was observed for LDH (517.4±190.3 vs. 601.8±75.7 IU/L). Cryotherapy resulted in lower (P<0.05) perceived pain (2.2 ± 1.6 vs. 4.2 ± 1.9) and body temperature (34.2±1.3°C vs. 36.3±0.7°C), and an attenuated loss of isometric strength (53.1±18.1 s vs. 42.9±14.5 s). Perceived pain was directly associated (P<0.05) with CPK (r=0.59) and LDH (r=0.475) levels. The results show that post-exercise cryotherapy resulted in lower serum CPK and LDH, hypoalgesia, and greater preservation of isometric strength endurance when compared to the control condition.
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Whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) covers a wide range of therapeutic applications and consists of briefly exposing the body to extremely cold air. In sports medicine, WBC is used to improve recovery from muscle injury; however, empirical studies on its application to this area are lacking. To fill this gap, we compared changes in immunological parameters (C3, IgA, IgM, IgG, C-reactive protein, PGE2), cytokines (IL-2, IL-8, IL-10), adhesion molecules (sICAM-1), and muscle enzymes (creatine kinase [CK], lactate dehydrogenase [LAD]) before and after WBC in 10 top-level Italian National team rugby players. The subjects underwent five sessions on alternate days once daily for 1 week. During the study period, the training workload was the same as that of the previous weeks. Compared to baseline values, immunological parameters remained unchanged, while CK and LAD levels significantly decreased after treatment. No alterations in immunological function were observed but there is a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokine.As measured by changes in serum CK and LAD concentrations, and cytokines pathway, short-term cold air exposure was found to improve recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury and/or damage associated with intense physical training.
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Objectif Cette étude visait à estimer la consommation maximale d’oxygène, la force musculaire et la souplesse chez des athlètes d’élite de Jiu-Jitsu brésiliens. Méthode L’échantillon était composé de onze athlètes de Jiu-Jitsu (âge : 25,8 ± 3,3 ans) médaillés dans des compétitions au niveau national et/ou international. La puissance aérobie a été estimée par le test sur tapis roulant selon le protocole de Bruce. La force maximale isométrique (à la main, jambes et dos) a été mesurée par des tests spécifiques au dynamomètre. Sit-ups et push-ups ont été utilisés respectivement afin d’évaluer la force des muscles abdominaux et des membres supérieurs. Souplesse de la hanche, du dos et des muscles des jambes ont été déterminés par le test de flexion du tron (sit-and-reach test). Résultats Le VO2max sur test sur tapis roulant est de 49,4 ± 3,6 mL/kg par minute. On observe des valeurs de 43,7 ± 4,8 kgf sur la poignée droite et de 40,1 ± 3,8 kgf pour la force à la poignée gauche, 185.5 ± 36,0 de force maximale isométrique kgf pour le dos, et 153 ± 41,9 kgf pour la force isométrique des jambes. Pour évaluer la résistance du muscle, les athlètes ont effectué 52 ± 7 répétitions de sit-ups, et 40 ± 8 répétitions de push-ups. Lors du test de flexion du dos, les athlètes ont obtenu un score moyen de 36 ± 9 cm. Conclusion Il a été constaté que les athlètes d’élite de Jiu-Jitsu brésiliens ont une puissance aérobie et une souplesse moyennes, une grande force abdominale, des membres supérieurs et une force isométrique maximale du dos. Cependant, ils n’ont pas une force maximale de préhension ainsi qu’au niveau des jambes.
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There is inconclusive evidence for the effectiveness of cryotherapy for the treatment of exercised induced muscle damage (EIMD). Small sample sizes and treatment applications that did not correspond to evidence based practice are limitations in previous studies that may have contributed to these equivocal findings. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of daily multiple applications of ice on EIMD throughout the 72-hour recovery period, an icing protocol that more closely resembles current clinical practice. Thirty-three subjects were assigned to either the cryotherapy group (n=23) or control group (n=10). EIMD was induced through repeated isokinetic eccentric contractions of the right hamstring muscle group. The experimental group received ice immediately after induction of EIMD and continued to ice 3x/day for 20-minutes throughout the 72 hours; the control group received no intervention. Isometric torque, hamstring length, pain, and biochemical markers (CK, ALT, and AST) were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Both groups demonstrated a significant change (p < .05) in all dependent variables compared to baseline, but there was no difference between groups except for pain. The cryotherapy group had significantly (p= .048) less pain (3.0 cm ± 2.1) compared to the control (5.35 cm ± 2.5) at 48 hours. Although not statistically significant, the cryotherapy group had greater range of motion and lower CK and AST means at 72 hours compared to the control group. Repeated applications of ice can decrease the pain associated with EIMD significantly at 48 hours post EIMD. While the results may not be unique, the methodology in this study was distinctive in that we used a larger sample size and an icing protocol similar to current recommended treatment practice.