Conference Paper

Neem crude extract as Biomolluscicide for sustainable control of golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata

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Abstract

Golden apple snail, (Pomacea canaliculata) was reported could cause severe damage on food crop especially paddy, which is a staple food for more than 60% of the world population. The farmers mostly rely on chemical and synthetic molluscicides to overcome this problem which improper use of pesticide could give negative impact on environmental. Therefore, there is a need to determine the potential botanical molluscicides in order to ensure the low cost and efficient pest management control method along with protection of the environment. The present study investigated the toxicity of two different neem plant parts (leaves and seeds) against small (10-20mm) and large (20-40mm) sizes of golden apple snails using bioassay. The crude extract treatments were incorporated into the paddy seedlings as a food source of golden apple snails and the concentrations of the leaves and seeds crude extract, which killed 50% of the test population (LC50) determined the efficacy of selected extracts. From the result, both plant parts have ability in controlling golden apple snail but aqueous neem leaves crude extract was expressed the most effective controlled compared with aqueous seeds crude extract for both size of golden apple snails. It caused high rate of snail mortality after 96 hours with 93.33% and 84.17% compared to 71.67% and 73.33% for different sizes of golden apple snail, respectively. In addition, aqueous neem leaves crude extract also have the potency in controlling both sizes of golden apple snails with low concentration compared to aqueous neem seeds crude extract. In the observation of the toxicity effects, LC50 values was lower for neem leaves crude extract with of 44,196.9 ppm and 49,801.5 ppm followed by aqueous neem seeds crude extract with LC50 of 103,551 ppm and 104,475 ppm for both sizes of golden apple snails. The results of this study suggested that aqueous neem plant extract can be used for controlling golden apple snail and - - its application can be provided an alternative way for sustainable pest control in paddy field.

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Conference Paper
The golden apple snail, Pomacea canaliculata is an invasive alien pest that seriously affects rice cultivation in many Asian countries. These freshwater molluscs devour young rice seedlings, causing extensive damage to both transplanted and direct seed. Most Asian farmers resort to short-term solutions by using molluscicides that have negative impacts on non-target organisms, aquatic biodiversity, and the environment. Due to the toxic hazards of the synthetic insecticides, biological control through botanical pesticides is the best alternative for reducing the golden apple snail damage in paddy fields. Neem or also known as Azadiractha indica have been proven by present investigations that neem trees have the molluscicidal potential to the golden apple snails. The purposes of this study were to determine the most effective extraction of different fresh and dried neem seed and to identify LC50 value for fresh and dry neem seed by using methanol extraction for controlling golden apple snail. The LC50 of golden apple snail treated with different concentration of fresh and dried neem seeds using methanol extraction were determined using bioassay method. The dry neem seed with the methanol extract gave a high mortality rate compared to the fresh neem seed with the methanol extract to the golden apple snail. The LC50 of methanol extraction with dried neem seed for golden apple snails was 180,590 ppm with the 95% confidence limit range of 147,200 - 210,980. Meanwhile, the LC50 of methanol extraction with fresh neem seed for golden apple snails was 267,960 ppm with the 95% confidence limit range of 224,880 - 317,960. Based on finding, dried neem seed using methanol extraction have potential as biopesticide for management of golden apple snail and its application can be provided an alternative way for sustainable pest control in rice cultivation.
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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) seedlings are often destroyed by golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata Lamarck) after transplanting. Two field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of seedling age and seedling number per hill on snail damage, plant growth, and grain yield. The first experiment was unsprayed (snail-infested experiment) while the second experiment was sprayed with molluscicide to control snails (snail-free experiment). Increasing seedling age from 2 to 5 weeks resulted in significant reductions in snail damage in terms of missing hills. Increasing seedling number per hill from 1 to 8, 6, 4, and 2 for 2, 3, 4, and 5 week-old seedlings, respectively, also reduced snail damage significantly. In the snail-free experiment, grain yield was not affected significantly when seedling age was increased from 2 to 5 weeks. Increasing seedling number per hill decreased or increased grain yield depending on the season and seedling age. In general, transplanting 4–5 week-old seedlings at one seedling per hill or increasing the number seedlings per hill reduced snail damage in terms of missing hills and minimized yield losses from the snail damage.
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This study investigated the ecology and biology of the golden apple snail in rice fields. Egg masses were produced at inconsistent intervals with the number of eggs per cluster ranging from 92 to 592 (mean 272). Regardless of clutch size, hatching success ranged from 87 to 100% (mean 95.8%). In the field, mating took place 82 days after hatching. Mean shell length at this age was 38.2 mm with females bigger than males in general. The male to female ratio was ~1: 5. Peat soils reduced egg mass production significantly and egg masses submerged in water for more than 1 week reduced hatching success significantly.
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The neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides and could be applied to protect stored seeds against insects. However in addition to possible beneficial health effects, such as blood sugar lowering properties, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective effects, also toxic effects are described. In this study we present a review of the toxicological data from human and animal studies with oral administration of different neem-based preparations. The non-aqueous extracts appear to be the most toxic neem-based products, with an estimated safe dose (ESD) of 0.002 and 12.5 microg/kg bw/day. Less toxic are the unprocessed materials seed oil and the aqueous extracts (ESD 0.26 and 0.3 mg/kg bw/day, 2 microl/kg bw/day respectively). Most of the pure compounds show a relatively low toxicity (ESD azadirachtin 15 mg/kg bw/day). For all preparations, reversible effect on reproduction of both male and female mammals seem to be the most important toxic effects upon sub-acute or chronic exposure. From the available data, safety assessments for the various neem-derived preparations were made and the outcomes are compared to the ingestion of residues on food treated with neem preparations as insecticides. This leads to the conclusion that, if applied with care, use of neem derived pesticides as an insecticide should not be discouraged.
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