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Objectives: Previous studies have shown that essential oil containing (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, extracted from fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, exhibit anti-inflammatory activity. This work aimed to verify the antihyperalgesic and antidepressive actions of (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, and essential oil from S. terebinthifolius fruits in spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain in rats. Methods: In the present work, essential oil from fruits of S. terebinthifolius, as well as the pure (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene compounds, were assayed for their effects on SNI-induced mechanical and cold hyperalgesia, and depressive-like behavior (immobility in forced swim test) in rats. The locomotor activity was evaluated in open-field test. Results: Oral administration for up to 15 days of essential oil of S. terebinthifolius (100 mg/kg), (R)-(+)-limonene (10 mg/kg), α-phellandrene (10 mg/kg), and also subcutaneous 10 mg/kg dose of ketamine (positive control) significantly inhibited SNI-induced mechanical hyperalgesia and increased immobility in the forced swim test. On the 15th day of oral treatment, α-phellandrene, but neither the essential oil from S. terebinthifolius nor (R)-(+)-limonene, prevented the SNI-induced increase in sensitivity to a cold stimulus. The oral treatment with essential oil (100 mg/kg) or with compounds (10 mg/kg) did not interfere on locomotor activity. Discussion: Together, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive, while only α-phellandrene inhibited cold hyperalgesia in SNI rats.
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... Strongly anxiolytic, anti-depressant, antibiotic, and anti-cancer agent [7,29] β-Ocimene Anti-convulsant activity, anti-fungal activity, anti-tumor activity, and pest resistance [112,113] γ-Terpinene Anti-inflammatory activity, antioxidant, and anti-proliferative activity [114,115] α-Terpinene Antioxidant [29] α-Pinene Anti-inflammatory, bronchodilator, anti-microbial, and anxiolytic effects [7,11,29,116] Linalool Analgesic and anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, anti-depressant, anti-glutamatergic, anti-leishmanial activity, anticancer agent, anti-nociceptive, and anti-depressant effects [111,[117][118][119] α-Phellandrene Anti-nociceptive, anti-depressant, anti-arthritic and allergic, and anti-hyperalgesic effects [120][121][122] Terpinolene Anti-fungal and larvicidal, anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects [123,124] β-Caryophyllene ...
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Cannabis sativa is known among many cultures for its medicinal potential. Its complexity contributes to the historical application of various parts of the plant in ethno-medicines and pharmacotherapy. C. sativa has been used for the treatment of rheumatism, epilepsy, asthma, skin burns, pain, the management of sexually transmitted diseases, difficulties during child labor, postpartum hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal activity. However, the use of C. sativa is still limited, and it is illegal in most countries. Thus, this review aims to highlight the biological potential of the plant parts, as well as the techniques for the extraction, isolation, and characterization of C. sativa compounds. The plant produces a unique class of terpenophenolic compounds, called cannabinoids, as well as non-cannabinoid compounds. The exhaustive profiling of bioactive compounds and the chemical characterization and analysis of C. sativa compounds, which modern research has not yet fully achieved, is needed for the consistency, standardization, and the justified application of Cannabis sativa products for therapeutic purposes. Studies on the clinical relevance and applications of cannabinoids and non-cannabinoid phenols in the prevention and treatment of life-threatening diseases is indeed significant. Furthermore, psychoactive cannabinoids, when chemically standardized and administered under medical supervision, can be the legal answer to the use of C. sativa.
... The most interesting property of α-phellandrene is probably the in vivo antinociceptive activity in rodents [56]. A subsequent study confirmed this activity, by observing an antihyperalgesic action in a neuropathic pain model [57]. Furthermore, α-phellandrene, that apparently does not exert any interesting in vitro anti-microbial action, enhanced the macrophage phagocytosis and the activity of killer cells. ...
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... The testing of limonene in neuropathic models of pain has been limited. One study utilizing the sciatic nerve ligation (SNL) model demonstrated that limonene was moderately effective at reducing mechanical allodynia but ineffective at blocking cold allodynia at 10 mg/kg by the oral route (Piccinelli et al., 2015); this could be ascribed to the lower dose used versus other studies. A second study using an identical dose and route found limonene to be effective against gp120-induced mechanical allodynia (a model for human immunodeficiency virus pain), an effect attributed to reductions in TNF-a and IL-1b (Piccinelli et al., 2017). ...
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... The antidepressant activities of the D-limonene from EOs of S. terebinthifolius Raddi fruit was investigated using spared nerve injury (SNI) as an experimental model for hyperalgesia and depression in rats. The oral administration of D-limonene reduced the SNI-induced increase in immobility in the FST [125]. The inhalation of EOs can regulate brain health and functions associated with mood and neurodegeneration, reflecting their bioavailability in brain. ...
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... SchO also decreased the IT in TST, suggesting an antidepressant effect. Similar effects have also been reported for the essential oil of S. terebinthifolius fruits, 34 whereas components present in SchO, such as D-limonene, b-caryophyllene and apinene, have been reported for their antidepressant action. 26,29 In addition, since b-caryophyllene has shown a similar effect in TST (Table A5). ...
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... Phellandrene is found in cinnamon, lavender, eucalyptus, grand fir, dill garlic, parsley, ginger, and water fennel. It has analgesic and anti-depressive properties (Piccinelli et al., 2015). ...
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Schinus terebinthifolia is a species native to different ecoregions in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. The plant is listed on the National Relation of Medicinal Plants and recommended as phytomedicine, however while extractive exploitation prevails as the main route of raw material a significant variation of compounds will be detected. To assure the expansion of productive chain it is important to start by studying population diversity and chemical variations. We used SSR markers for studies of genetic structure among populations from dense ombrophilous forest (ES); the deciduous seasonal forest (SM); the savanna (DOU) and the sandbanks (ITA and MSP), and compared the results to their chemical profiles of essential oil. Genetic structure revealed differences among populations and significant fixation rates. Pairwise studies and Bayesian analysis showed similarities between ITA and SM and between DOU and MSP, proving that the patterns of distribution for the species do not follow the isolation by distance or similarity by environmental conditions. The comparison between PCA of genotypes and chemodiversity reinforces the unique profile for each population despite the environmental similarity observed and genetic analysis. The most divergent genotype and chemical group was found at the ombrophilous forest, strong evidence that we should undertake conservation efforts to prevent losses of biodiversity in that area.
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INTRODUCTION: The healing is a complex biological event that involves inflammation, chemotaxis, cells proliferation, differentiation and remodelation. In Brazilian popular medicine, the "Aroeira" is used to treat different situations The anastomotic healing is always a preoccupation among surgeons. The fail in intestinal anastomosis leads to fistulas and dehiscences. PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the hidroalcoholic extract of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (brazilian peppertree) in the healing of colonic anastomosis. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided in two groups (Aroeira and control), each one with 20 animals, according to the treatment received after the anastomosis (Aroeira extract or saline solution 0,9%) and each group was divided in two subgroups (C3 and C7 and A3 and A7,) according to the euthanasia day (at 3rd and at 7th). The macroscopic, microscopic and bursting pressure measurements were performed. To evaluate the groups, the non-parametric test of Mann-Whitney was applied. RESULTS: In the macroscopic aspects, there was no significant difference between the Aroeira and the control group, both at the 3rd and the 7th days. When compared the subgroups of microscopic analysis at the 3rd day, the difference between the Aroeira and the control group was significant in the variables congestion (p = 0,005), polymorphonuclears (p = 0,034), mononuclears (p = 0,023), fibroblastic proliferation (p = 0,023) and at the healing stage (p = 0,001). At the 7th day analysis, the difference between the Aroeira and the control group was significant in all the variables of microscopic analysis. No significant differences were found in the bursting pressure. CONCLUSION: It was observed a favorable effect of Aroeira, at microscopic level, in the healing process of colonic anastomosis.
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OBJETIVO: Avaliar o processo de cicatrização da parede abdominal de ratos após a injeção intraperitoneal do extrato hidroalcóolico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. MÉTODOS: Utilizaram-se 40 ratos da linhagem Wistar, distribuídos em dois grupos de 20 animais, cada um subdividido em dois subgrupos. Estes ratos foram mortos no 3º e 7º dias após a aplicação intraperitoneal do extrato. No grupo experimento, injetou-se uma única dose de extrato hidroalcoólico de Aroeira (100 mg por quilo de peso do animal) e no grupo controle uma única dose de solução salina isotônica a 0.9%. Após a morte dos animais, realizou-se o inventário da cavidade peritoneal à procura de aderências, seguido da ressecção da parede abdominal anterior englobando a ferida operatória para análise. As aderências foram classificadas pelos critérios de adesão de Nair. Realizou-se avaliação tensiométrica da parede abdominal através da medida da carga máxima suportada e da deformação máxima, medidos em máquina universal de ensaios do tipo Tiratest. Por fim, a avaliação histológica foi realizada através da coloração hematoxilina-eosina, com análise dos parâmetros: inflamação aguda, inflamação crônica, necrose isquêmica, reação gigantocelular do tipo corpo estranho, proliferação fibroblástica, fibrose, reepitelização e coaptação das bordas da sutura. RESULTADOS: A avaliacão macroscópica não revelou presença de aderências significativas entre a linha alba e as vísceras intra-abdominais nos grupos de estudo. A tensiometria demonstrou aumento significativo das variáveis carga máxima e deformação máxima (p=0,006 e p=0,000 respectivamente) entre os grupos controle e experimento de sete dias. A avaliação histológica intergrupos (controle e experimento) de três e sete dias não demonstrou alteração significativa para os parâmetros neoformação vascular, necrose, fibrose, reepitelização e coaptação das bordas da sutura. Notou-se diferença significativa para proliferação fibroblástica (p=0,014) na avaliação intergrupo de três dias, e para inflamação crônica (p=0,023) e reação gigantocelular do tipo corpo estranho (p=0,008) na avaliação intergrupo de sete dias. Na análise intragrupo controle, houve diferença significativa para inflamação crônica no subgrupo três dias, e, finalmente, na análise intragrupo experimento, observou-se diferença significativa para inflamação aguda e proliferação de fibroblastos (p=0,001 e p=0,020) no subgrupo de três dias em relação ao subgrupo de sete. CONCLUSÃO: A injeção intraperitoneal do extrato hidroalcoólico de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi em laparotomias medianas de ratos não alterou a cicatrização na análise macroscópica e induziu a aumento da carga máxima de ruptura e deformação máxima da linha alba na análise tensiométrica. Na análise histológica, determinou efeito cicatrizante no subgrupo de animais experimento de três dias.PURPOSE: To evaluate the healing process in the abdominal wall of rats after the intra-peritoneal injection of the hydro-alcoholic Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi extract. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were used, distributed in two groups of 20 animals, divided into two subgroups, according to the death day, three or seven, after the intra-peritoneal injection of the extract. The experimental group was injected with only one dose of the hydro-alcoholic Aroeira extract (100mg per animal kilogram); the control group was injected with only one dose of isotonic saline solution at 0.9%. After the animal death, an inventory of the peritoneal cavity was carried out in a careful search for any adhesion, followed by the resection of the anterior abdominal wall encompassing the operating incision in order to examine it for evidence of infection. The adhesions were classified according to the Nair criteria. The tensiometric assessment was performed by means of the measurement of the maximum charge and maximum deformity tolerated, measured in a universal Tiratest type testing machine and, finally, the histological evaluation was performed by means of the hematoxylin-eosine staining in following parameters: severe inflammation, chronic inflammation, ischemic necrosis, gigantocellular reaction of the foreign body type, fibroblastic proliferation, fibrosis, re-epithelization and co-optation of the suture borders. RESULTS: The macroscopic evaluation didn't have any evidence of significant adherence between the alba linea and the intra-abdominal viscera in the study groups. The tensiometry showed significant effect for the Maximum Charge and Maximum Deformity (p=0.006 and p=0.000, respectively) between the 7-day control and experimental groups. The histological 3-day and 7-day control and experimental intergroup evaluation did not show significant alteration for the parameters vascular neoformation, necrosis, fibrosis, re-epithelization and co-aptation. A significant difference was perceived for fibroblastic proliferation (p=0.014) in the 3-day intergroup evaluation and for chronic inflammation (p=0.023) and gigantocellular reaction of the foreign body type (p=0.008) in the 7-day intergroup evaluation. The control intragroup analysis, had a significant difference for chronic inflammation in the 3-day group and, finally, in the experimental intragroup analysis, a significant difference was observed for acute inflammation and fibroblastic proliferation (p=0.001 and p=0.020) in the 3-day regarding the 7-day group. CONCLUSION: The intraperitoneal injection of the Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi hydro-alcoholic extract in median laparotomies in rats has not determined any significant alteration in the macroscopic analysis, but it induced an increase of maximum charge of rupture and maximum deformity of the alba linea in the tensiometric analysis. In the histological point of view, the Aroeira group had a positive healing effect on the 3-day.
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