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The increasing application of student-centered teaching approaches to solve real problems, driven by the market's demand for professionals with better skills, has prompted the use of PBL in different areas, including in Computing. However, since this represents a paradigm shift in education, its implementation is not always well understood, which adversely affects its effectiveness. Within this context, this paper puts forward a model for assessing the maturity of teaching processes under the PBL approach, the PBL-Test, with a view to identifying points for improvement. The concept of maturity is defined in terms of teaching processes adhering to PBL principles, taken from an analysis of the following authors: Savery & Duffy (1995), Barrows (2001) Peterson (1997) and Alessio (2004). With a view to validating the applicability of the model, an empirical study was conducted by applying the PBL-Test to three skills in the Computing area. Results showed that although the model has shown it needs further enhancement, it has already been possible to identify improvements in PBL teaching processes that clearly affect the effectiveness of the approach.
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... As proposed in [13], the PBL applied to the teaching of Computing is based on 10 principles, defined to highlight the relevance of the problem and the need for changes in the teaching and learning process. Are they: 1) Problem (s) at the core of the educational proposal; 2) Learner as the owner of the problem; 3) Authenticity of the problem or task; 4) Authenticity of the learning environment; 5) Driving the process for solving the problem; 6) Complexity of the problem or task; 7) Evaluation and analysis of how the problem was resolved; 8) Reflection on the content learned and the learning process; 9) Collaborative and multidirectional learning; 10) Continuous assessment. ...
... As noted by [13], PBL has several intrinsic characteristics that make it unpredictable, dynamic, and flexible, since it takes place in a practical context, which involves a process of assimilation of different curricular aspects, in an environment that is often different from the reality of the students. Thus, [13] comments that the PBL context assessment tends to be less effective if it does not contemplate several aspects related to the learning process, including the improvisation factor. ...
... As noted by [13], PBL has several intrinsic characteristics that make it unpredictable, dynamic, and flexible, since it takes place in a practical context, which involves a process of assimilation of different curricular aspects, in an environment that is often different from the reality of the students. Thus, [13] comments that the PBL context assessment tends to be less effective if it does not contemplate several aspects related to the learning process, including the improvisation factor. This tends to happen constantly both on the part of students, as they are usually used to having a well-defined process of solving problems, and on the part of teachers, considering that they are used to being the center of the process. ...
Conference Paper
This Research Full Paper presents an overview of student assessment proposals for Problem-Based Learning (PBL) in Computing Education. Computing teaching has many challenges, as it requires different skills from students, often subjective and difficult to assess. In fact, technical knowledge alone is not enough to fully understand what is being taught, but the interpretive and logical skills to deal with practical problems and non-technical skills such as group work, creativity, critical vision, ability to cooperate and communicate. Active learning methodologies as Problem-Based Learning (PBL) have been used to dealing with such challenges, broadly developing technical and non-techniques skills in students. However, despite the benefits of PBL, the student assessment process is one of the points that present its own adversities and, therefore, an aspect that deserves greater attention. To better understand the nuances of this process and how it can contribute to the teaching and learning process based on PBL, this study aimed to investigate primary studies in the last two decades, seeking answers to the following research questions: RQ1) What assessment models are being used?; RQ2) Which aspects are evaluated?; RQ3) What criteria and media have been defined?; RQ4) Who gets involved in the assessment process?; RQ5) What is the ideal frequency to conduct the evaluations?; RQ6) What can these models reveal? As a research method, this study used the Systematic Literature Review method proposed by Kitchenham. As main conclusions, it was possible to identify that: generally, computing education based on PBL occurs at the undergraduate level, having as main educational objective the teaching of technical content; in practice, the need for a diverse teaching team is not reflected, the traditional student-teacher remains; to evaluate students, it is necessary to consider several aspects, technical and non-technical, defining specific criteria for each one of them; the main benefits for students are related to changes in behavior, development of soft skills and better absorption of technical knowledge; as main challenges for students, the difficulty to understand the nuances of the proposed problem and to be the main responsible for devising a solution for it without the figure of a teacher to give a clear definition of how to do it stands out.
... PBL follows some principles such as an authentic learning environment and simulation of the situation found in the professional environment, the use of real problems as a learning object, the monitoring of evaluation by continuous feedback (Ribeiro, 2008). In (Santos et al., 2013), ten principles were defined for the teaching of Computing that founded a methodology called xPBL (Santos et al., 2014), as shown in Figure 1. The xPBL methodology defines five manageable elements for PBL planning: 1) Problem; 2) Learning Environment; 3) Human Capital, that includes students, pedagogical team and market partners; 4) Content, as a guide and support to solve problems; And 5) Processes, concerning educational objectives and assessment processes. ...
... To overcome the challenges of adopting the PBL, it is necessary to plan all the processes and resources before implementation, assisting in the correct use of the method, in the alignment of theory and practice, and respecting the principles of this approach (Santos et al., 2013). When planning to change a teaching and learning process, it is important to carry out a diagnosis in order to characterize the respective educational institution that will face the changes. ...
... PBL follows some principles such as an authentic learning environment and simulation of the situation found in the professional environment, the use of real problems as a learning object, the monitoring of evaluation by continuous feedback (Ribeiro, 2008). In (Santos et al., 2013), ten principles were defined for the teaching of Computing that founded a methodology called xPBL (Santos et al., 2014), as shown in Figure 1. The xPBL methodology defines five manageable elements for PBL planning: 1) Problem; 2) Learning Environment; 3) Human Capital, that includes students, pedagogical team and market partners; 4) Content, as a guide and support to solve problems; And 5) Processes, concerning educational objectives and assessment processes. ...
... To overcome the challenges of adopting the PBL, it is necessary to plan all the processes and resources before implementation, assisting in the correct use of the method, in the alignment of theory and practice, and respecting the principles of this approach (Santos et al., 2013). When planning to change a teaching and learning process, it is important to carry out a diagnosis in order to characterize the respective educational institution that will face the changes. ...
Conference Paper
In Computing Higher Education (CHE), the desired transformation of traditional teaching and learning methods, almost always based on the transmission of information and content-based curricula, has been the objective of several educational institutions that wish to combat students' demotivation and dropout. Among successful approaches, Problem-Based Learning stands out as one of the most effective and radical methods regarding pedagogical innovations. While the implementation of the PBL means a great opportunity to achieve better educational performance, it also represents many challenges that can only be managed if they are first known and understood. In this context, the motivation for this study comes from the following research question: "How to know if an institution at CHE is ready to implement the PBL?". As a response, an institutional diagnostic model regarding the adoption of PBL is proposed. From an opinion survey with 38 technical educational institutions in computing, involving 302 participants, the results showed that the model reached its objective, allowing the identification of favorable, warning, and critical points regarding the adoption of PBL in these institutions.
... One of the learning alternatives that provides an opportunity to achieve the purpose of mathematics learning, which is able to actively involve students is problem-based learning. Problem-Based Learning (Problem-Based Learning, hereinafter abbreviated as PBL) is a learning that begins by exposing students to a problem(Dos Santos, Figuerêdo, & Wanderley, 2013). In the context of mathematics learning, (Verschaffel, Depaepe, & De Corte, 2015) state that PBL is a mathematical learning strategy in the classroom with problem-solving activities and gives students more opportunities to think critically, creatively, reasonably, and communicate mathematically with their peers. ...
... More and more studies transform the traditional method to the student-orientation teaching method to improve the learning outcomes [1]- [5]. Some researches develop the problem-based learning to enhance the skills for the students [1]- [3]. Some papers provide the flip-flop classroom teaching, which provides the learning material before physical classroom and then practices a lot of learning sheets or questions in the physical class, to improve the students' learning outcome [4], [5]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In Computing Higher Education (CHE), the desired transformation of traditional teaching and learning methods, almost always based on the transmission of information and content-based curricula, has been the objective of several educational institutions that wish to combat students’ demotivation and dropout. Among successful approaches, Problem-Based Learning (PBL) stands out as one of the most effective and radical methods regarding pedagogical innovations. While the PBL implementation means a great opportunity to achieve better educational performance, it also represents many challenges that can only be managed if they are first known and understood. In this context, the motivation for this study comes from the following research question: “How to know if an institution at CHE is ready to implement the PBL?”. As a response, an institutional diagnostic model regarding the adoption of PBL is proposed. It conducted an opinion survey in two kinds of educational institutions: technical and academic ones. Thirty-eight technical educational institutions in computing answered this survey, involving 302 participants, and fifteen academic institutions, involving 20 participants. The results showed that the model reached its objective, allowing the identification of favorable, warning, and critical points regarding the adoption of PBL in these institutions. This study is an evolution of the results focusing only on technical institutions published at the CSEDU 2021 conference and conducted by the NEXT Research Group.
Conference Paper
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The growing presence of the software in the products and services consumed daily by the society demands a level of completely dependent quality not only of technology, but of its development process and of the involved professionals. By focusing on the professionals responsible for quality assurance, as the Test Engineer, the skills and competences of these need to be developed on basis of a vision very critical and detailed of the problem. The Test Engineer needs to be an "explorer" of the solution, discovering hidden bugs and looking to elimination of defects of the applications. In this context, this article proposes an approach of teaching focuses on training of “test” discipline that make use of problem-based learning to develop real skills required, supported by processes of planning and continuous assessment, in a computer aided software factory. To prove the applicability of this proposal, an empirical study was developed with positive results in teaching the discipline of “exploratory testing”.
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The continuous growth of the use of Information and Communication Technology in different sectors of the market calls out for software professionals with the qualifications needed to solve complex and diverse problems. Innovative teaching methodologies, such as the "Software Internship" model and PBL teaching approaches that are learner-centered and focus on bringing market reality to the learning environment, have been developed and implemented with a view to meeting this demand. However, the effectiveness of these methods cannot always be satisfactorily proved. Prompted by this, this paper proposes a model for assessing students based on real market practices while preserving the authenticity of the learning environment. To evaluate this model, a case study on skills training for software specialists for the Telecom market is discussed, and presents important results that show the applicability of the proposed model for teaching Software Engineering.
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In computing courses, the teaching and learning approach normally emphasizes theoretical knowledge at the expense of practical knowledge. The major disadvantages of this approach are learners' lack of motivation during class and their quickly forgetting the knowledge they have acquired. With a view to overcoming these difficulties, Problem Based Learning (PBL), an institutional method of teaching, has been applied to teaching computing disciplines. Despite the growth of the practice of PBL in various disciplines of Computing, there is little evidence of its specific characteristics in this area, the effectiveness of different PBL methodological approaches, or of benefits and challenges encountered. In this context, this paper presents a systematic mapping study in order to identify studies which involve best practices when using the PBL method in Computing between 1997 and 2011, answering five research questions: “What are the main characteristics of PBL that support teaching in Computing?”; “What are the criteria for applying PBL effectively in this area?”; “How is the PBL methodology applied?”, “What are the advantages and benefits of applying PBL in Computing?” and, finally, “What are the main challenges about learning in PBL in Computing?”.
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Many graduate and professional programs include Problem Based Learning (PBL) as a mainstay in their curricula. For many undergraduate students, this is a change from a teacher-centered to a student-centered learning method. This study was undertaken to learn about perceptions and test performances of college students (N=116) enrolled in liberal education classes when PBL is used vs. traditional teaching methods. Results indicated students perceived traditional teacher-centered learning more favorably than student-centered PBL. Nevertheless, test scores were similar. Negative student perceptions about learning in PBL classes did not support either teacher observations of learning activity in the classroom or compromised test performances.
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PBL (Problem-based Learning) has gained worldwide acceptance as an effective instructional approach that helps students to acquire knowledge as well as develop desired professional skills and attitudes. Contrary to other conventional methods that use problems after theory has been introduced, PBL uses a problem to initiate, focus and motivate the learning of new concepts. This paper presents and discusses the students' and the teacher's viewpoints on the implementation of PBL in an Administration Theory course of an engineering curriculum at a public university in Brazil. The data were collected by means of unstructured interviews, participant observation and an open-ended questionnaire responded by the students at the end of the course. The results show that despite increasing the workload for the teacher and the students, both evaluated PBL positively because it is more motivating and dynamic.
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The Information Communication and Technology - ICT industry is facing a market of constant changes and challenges. These characteristics demand the ICT professionals to have a wide vision of the problem, rather than just knowledge on the technology. In this context, the objective of this article is to propose an innovative pedagogical methodology based on PBL (problem based learning) to improve the learning effectiveness in software engineering, through the implementation of software factories, where students can work together to solve real problems. This methodology is running in a graduate course in software engineering managed by CESAR, a research institute with experience in the development of innovative software. Some important results about this course are presented and discussed in this paper.
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Preface Part I. Foundations of Research 1. Science, Schooling, and Educational Research Learning About the Educational World The Educational Research Approach Educational Research Philosophies Conclusions 2. The Process and Problems of Educational Research Educational Research Questions Educational Research Basics The Role of Educational Theory Educational Research Goals Educational Research Proposals, Part I Conclusions 3. Ethics in Research Historical Background Ethical Principles Conclusions 4. Conceptualization and Measurement Concepts Measurement Operations Levels of Measurement Evaluating Measures Conclusions 5. Sampling Sample Planning Sampling Methods Sampling Distributions Conclusions Part II. Research Design and Data Collection 6. Causation and Research Design Causal Explanation Criteria for Causal Explanations Types of Research Designs True Experimental Designs Quasi-Experimental Designs Threats to Validity in Experimental Designs Nonexperiments Conclusions 7. Evaluation Research What Is Evaluation Research? What Can an Evaluation Study Focus On? How Can the Program Be Described? Creating a Program Logic Model What Are the Alternatives in Evaluation Design? Ethical Issues in Evaluation Research Conclusions 8. Survey Research Why Is Survey Research So Popular? Errors in Survey Research Questionnaire Design Writing Questions Survey Design Alternatives Combining Methods Survey Research Design in a Diverse Society Ethical Issues in Survey Research Conclusions 9. Qualitative Methods: Observing, Participating, Listening Fundamentals of Qualitative Research Participant Observation Intensive Interviewing Focus Groups Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Ethical Issues in Qualitative Research Conclusions 10. Single-Subject Design Foundations of Single-Subject Design Measuring Targets of Intervention Types of Single-Subject Designs Analyzing Single-Subject Designs Ethical Issues in Single-Subject Design Conclusions 11. Mixing and Comparing Methods and Studies Mixed Methods Comparing Reserch Designs Performing Meta-Analyses Conclusions 12. Teacher Research and Action Research Teacher Research: Three Case Studies Teacher Research: A Self-Planning Outline for Creating Your Own Project Action Research and How It Differs From Teacher Research Validity and Ethical Issues in Teacher Research and Action Research Conclusions Part III. Analyzing and Reporting Data 13. Quantitative Data Analysis Why We Need Statistics Preparing Data for Analysis Displaying Univariate Distributions Summarizing Univariate Distributions Relationships (Associations) Among Variables Presenting Data Ethically: How Not to Lie With Statistics Conclusions 14. Qualitative Data Analysis Features of Qualitative Data Analysis Techniques of Qualitative Data Analysis Alternatives in Qualitative Data Analysis Computer-Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics in Qualitative Data Analysis Conclusions 15. Proposing and Reporting Research Educational Research Proposals, Part II Reporting Research Ethics, Politics, and Research Reports Conclusions Appendix A: Questions to Ask About a Research Article Appendix B: How to Read a Research Article Appendix C: Finding Information, by Elizabeth Schneider and Russell K. Schutt Appendix D: Table of Random Numbers Glossary References Author Index Subject Index About the Authors
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Problem-based learning (PBL) uses real world problems and tasks as the initiative objective in constructing knowledge and enhancing learning experience. This paper looks into authentic assessment strategies in problem-based learning using an interactive multimedia project as a subject of investigation. Through the use of a range of authentic assessments like process assessment which contains of process assessment (consists of students' self reflection, peer's evaluation and task completion reports); content assessment (consists of pretest and posttest); together with portfolio assessment, this paper outlined strategies that have worked, as well as those that have not in a PBL setting. The collective data showed positive feedback towards learning tasks including problem solving skills, team collaboration and knowledge enhancement.