Article

Centrosome-Kinase Fusions Promote Oncogenic Signaling and Disrupt Centrosome Function in Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

Institut de Génétique et Développement de Rennes, France
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 03/2014; 9(3):e92641. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092641
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Chromosomal translocations observed in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) frequently fuse genes that encode centrosome proteins and tyrosine kinases. This causes constitutive activation of the kinase resulting in aberrant, proliferative signaling. The function of centrosome proteins in these fusions is not well understood. Among others, kinase centrosome localization and constitutive kinase dimerization are possible consequences of centrosome protein-kinase fusions. To test the relative contributions of localization and dimerization on kinase signaling, we targeted inducibly dimerizable FGFR1 to the centrosome and other subcellular locations and generated a mutant of the FOP-FGFR1 MPN fusion defective in centrosome localization. Expression in mammalian cells followed by western blot analysis revealed a significant decrease in kinase signaling upon loss of FOP-FGFR1 centrosome localization. Kinase dimerization alone resulted in phosphorylation of the FGFR1 signaling target PLCγ, however levels comparable to FOP-FGFR1 required subcellular targeting in addition to kinase dimerization. Expression of MPN fusion proteins also resulted in centrosome disruption in epithelial cells and transformed patient cells. Primary human MPN cells showed masses of modified tubulin that colocalized with centrin, Smoothened (Smo), IFT88, and Arl13b. This is distinct from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells, which are not associated with centrosome-kinase fusions and had normal centrosomes. Our results suggest that effective proliferative MPN signaling requires both subcellular localization and dimerization of MPN kinases, both of which may be provided by centrosome protein fusion partners. Furthermore, centrosome disruption may contribute to the MPN transformation phenotype.

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    ABSTRACT: For over a century, the abnormal movement or number of centrosomes has been linked with errors of chromosomes distribution in mitosis. While not essential for the formation of the mitotic spindle, the presence and location of centrosomes has a major influence on the manner in which microtubules interact with the kinetochores of replicated sister chromatids and the accuracy with which they migrate to resulting daughter cells. A complex network has evolved to ensure that cells contain the proper number of centrosomes and that their location is optimal for effective attachment of emanating spindle fibers with the kinetochores. The components of this network are regulated through a series of post-translational modifications, including ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers, which coordinate the timing and strength of signaling events key to the centrosome cycle. In this review, we examine the role of the ubiquitin system in the events relating to centriole duplication and centrosome separation, and discuss how the disruption of these functions impacts chromosome segregation.
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