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Cannabis sativa: An ancient wild edible plant of India

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Cannabis sativa, also known as Cannabis indica or Indian hemp, is an annual herb of the family Cannabinaceae. It has been used by humans throughout recorded history for its food, fiber and medicine. It is a native to Central Asia, and long cultivated in Asia, Europe and China. Plants yielding the drug seem to have been discovered in India, cultivated for medicinal purposes as early as 900 BC. Hindu devotees offered Cannabis to Shiva during religious ceremonies, and the herb continues to have a religious association in India. The medicinal use of Cannabis has very long history. However, the sociopolitical pressure led to decline the medicinal use of Cannabis. But despite its illegality, people have continued to obtain Cannabis in black market for self-medication. Together with coffee and tobacco, Cannabis is the most commonly used psychoactive drug worldwide, and it is the single most popular illegal drug. This review analyzes the diversity, botanical description, consumption and pharmacological studies along with medicinal uses of Cannabis among the human being throughout the world.
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Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013. 25 (10): 736-745
doi: 10.9755/ejfa.v25i10.16400
http://www.ejfa.info/
736
REVIEW ARTICLE
Cannabis sativa: An ancient wild edible plant of India
Mohammed Kuddus1,2*, Ibrahim A. M. Ginawi2and Awdah Al-Hazimi2
1Department of Biotechnology, Integral University, Kursi Road, Lucknow 226026, India
2College of Medicine, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Hail, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Abstract
Cannabis sativa, also known as Cannabis indica or Indian hemp, is an annual herb of the family
Cannabinaceae. It has been used by humans throughout recorded history for its food, fiber and medicine. It is a
native to Central Asia, and long cultivated in Asia, Europe and China. Plants yielding the drug seem to have
been discovered in India, cultivated for medicinal purposes as early as 900 BC. Hindu devotees offered
Cannabis to Shiva during religious ceremonies, and the herb continues to have a religious association in India.
The medicinal use of Cannabis has very long history. However, the sociopolitical pressure led to decline the
medicinal use of Cannabis. But despite its illegality, people have continued to obtain Cannabis in black market
for self-medication. Together with coffee and tobacco, Cannabis is the most commonly used psychoactive drug
worldwide, and it is the single most popular illegal drug. This review analyzes the diversity, botanical
description, consumption and pharmacological studies along with medicinal uses of Cannabis among the human
being throughout the world.
Key words: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Indian hemp, Bhang, Marijuana, Psychoactive
Introduction
Wild edible plants play an important role in the
food and nutritional security of large section of
Indian population living in remote area. These
plants are a good source of minerals and vitamins
essential to take the edge off malnutrition of the
tribal people living in harsh environments. The
Himalayan Region of India is well known for
biodiversity of wild edible plants especially
consumed by local people in the form of food,
medicine, fuel, fodder, timber, fiber and for other
purposes (Samant et al., 1998a,b; Samant and Pant,
2006). However, it has been used by humans for at
least 4,500 years. The various parts, such as roots,
rhizomes, tubers, bulbs, leaves, seeds, flowers,
fruits and barks of the plants are used for the above
mentioned purposes. The most famous early users
in the history of Cannabis were the Hindus of
India, afterward it was spread with the Indo-Aryan
culture to outside of India. It also grows naturally in
Persia, Southern Siberia and in China. In Sanskrit
the plant is called Vijaya and in Hindi known as
bhang. Since its discovery it has been used by
millions of people for both inducing pleasure and
for pain alleviation. Besides stimulant, exhilarant
and sedative, the active principle of Indian hemp
lies in the plant resin. Forty percent of this principle
is used in the resinous hashish smoked by the
wandering sects of India; 26 percent in the dried
flower heads smoked in the villages of India as
"ganja"; and only 10 percent in the ground green
leaves used for the preparation of the bhang drink.
Cannabis sativa found all over the India. It is
commonly occurs in waste grounds, along road side
and irrigation channels of gardens.
Cannabis yields more than 538 chemicals of
various classes (ElSohly and Slade, 2005). The
extensive literatures are available on Cannabis
constituents (Turner et al., 1980; Ross and ElSohly,
1995; Grotenhermen and Russo, 2002). The most
important classes are terpenoids, cannabinoids,
hydrocarbons, sugars and related compounds,
nitrogenous compounds, noncannabinoid phenols,
flavonoids, fatty acids, simple acids, amino acids,
simple ketones, simple esters and lactones, simple
aldehydes, proteins, glycoproteins, and enzymes,
steroids, elements, simple alcohols, pigments,
vitamin (vitamin K). The principal use of Hemp in
medicine is for easing pain and soothing influence
in nervous disorders. It is useful in gout, neuralgia,
Received 18 March 2013; Revised 26 May 2013; Accepted
27
May 2013; Published Online 24 June 2013
*Corresponding Author
Mohammed Kuddus
College of Medicine, University of Hail, P.O. Box 2440, Hai
l,
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Email: kuddus_biotech@yahoo.com; m.kuddus@uoh.edu.sa
Mohammed Kuddus et al.
737
rheumatism, insanity, insomnia etc. The action is
almost entirely on the higher nerve centers. It can
produce an exhilarating intoxication with
hallucinations, and is widely used in Eastern
countries as an intoxicant. The nature of its effect
depends much on the environmental conditions and
temperament of the individual. Its narcotic and
anodyne properties were appreciated by Western
medical men in the early years of the last century
and were incorporated in the British and United
States pharmacopoeias. As a narcotic, hemp is
consumed by itself or as a beverage. It is more
often used for smoking but excessive smoking is
harmful and may cause insanity. The common
name(s) of Indian hemp in different countries are
Bang (Egypt), Bhang, Charas, Ganja (India),
Bhango, Gaanjaa (Nepal), Canamo indico, Hachis,
Marihuana (Spain), Canapa indica, Marijuana
(Italy), Marihuana, Marijuana (France), Da ma cao,
Da ma ren, Huo ma, Xian ma,(China), Dagga
(South Africa), Indischer hanf, Marihuana
(Germany), Hashas, Hind kinnabi (Turkey),
Hampa, Marijuana (Sweden), Hash, Hemp, Indian
hemp (United Kingdom), Kannabis (Finland),
Kannabisu, Mashinin, Taima (Japan), Konopie,
Marihuana (Poland), Marihana (Netherland),
Marihouava (Greece), Marihuana, Marijuana
(Mexico), Marihuana (Hungary, Russia, United
States), Porkanchaa (Thailand) and Qinnib, Til
(Arab countries).
Botanical description
Classification
Kingdom Plantae
Subkingdom Tracheobionta
Superdivision Spermatophyta
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Subclass Hamamelididae
Order Urticales
Family Cannabaceae
Genus Cannabis
Species sativa
Binomial name Cannabis sativa
Indian hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is an annual
herb of the family Cannabinaceae having erected
stems growing from 3 to 10 feet or more high, very
slightly branched and having greyish-green hairs
(Figure 1). The leaves are palmate, with five to
seven leaflets, numerous, on long thin petioles with
acute stipules at the base, linear-lanceolate, tapering
at both ends and the margins sharply serrate. The
leaves of the plant are used as a drug to reduce
excitement, irritation and pain as well as to induce
deep sleep. The flowers are unisexual, the male in
axillary and terminal panicles, apetalous, with five
yellowish petals and five poricidal stamens; the
female flowers germinate in the axils and
terminally, with one single-ovulate ovary. The fruit
is small, smooth, light brownish-grey in colour, and
completely filled by the seed. The form of the plant
and the yield of drug, oil and fiber from it vary
according to climate and particular variety.
Varieties grown for the drugs are small, much
branched with smaller dark green leaves; for fibers
have long stalks, branch very little, and yield only
small quantities of seed; for oil seed small, mature
early, and produce large quantities of seed. Indian
hemp is prepared in various forms. Ganja is
smoked like tobacco; Bhang is the dried, larger
leaves, broken or mixed with a few fruits. Charas is
the resin which exudes spontaneously from the
leaves, tops and stems.
Origin, distribution and growth habit
Cannabis sativa was originally a native of
Western and Central Asia. It has been cultivated
since ancient times in Asia and Europe. It spread to
the New World in post-Columbian times. Cannabis
sativa has been cultivated for more than 4500 years
for different purposes as mentioned above. Its
medicinal value was discovered in India as
Ayurvedic medicine and cultivated as early as 900
BC. In India cultivation of this plant is controlled
and permitted only in the districts of Almora,
Garhwal and Nainital (Uttarakhand, India) with
small extent in Kashmir and Travancore.
Germination of Cannabis seeds takes 12 hours to 8
days. After 2–4 days of germination, seed coat
splits open and exposes the root and two circular
embryonic leaves, cotyledons. Seedling phase lasts
from 1-4 weeks and is the period of greatest
vulnerability in the life cycle of the plant, requiring
moderate humidity levels, medium to high light
intensity, and adequate but not excessive soil
moisture. In vegetative phase, it continues to grow
vertically and produce new leaves. The sex is
starting to reveal itself and along with the root
system expands downwards. Plant development
increases significantly in pre-flowering phase with
production of more branches and nodes. Flowering
phase varies from about 6-22 weeks and needs
diminished light.
Chemical constituents of Cannabis sativa
The chemical constituents of Cannabis
represent almost all of the chemical classes, e.g.,
hydrocarbons, sugars, terpenes, steroids,
flavonoids, nitrogenous compounds and amino
acids. Out of these, the most specific class of
Cannabis constituents is C21 terpenophenolic
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013. 25 (10): 736-745
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738
cannabinoids (Elsohly and Slade, 2005). In 1980
the total number of natural compounds identified in
Cannabis sativa was 423 (Turner et al., 1980), in
1995 was 483 (Ross and ElSohly, 1995) and in
2005 was 489 (Elsohly and Slade, 2005). Out of
489 compounds, 70 were known as cannabinoids
which is further classified into 11 categories
(number known) such as Cannabigerol type (7),
Cannabichromene type (5), Cannabidiol type (7),
Δ9-trans-Tetrahydrocannabinol type (9), Δ8-trans-
Tetrahydrocannabinol type (2), Cannabicyclol type
(3), Cannabielsoin type (5), Cannabinol type (7),
Cannabinodiol type (2), Cannabitriol type (9) and
Miscellaneous types (14). Besides cannabinoids the
other constituents (419) are also classified into
various chemical classes (number known) such as
nitrogenous compounds (27), amino acids (18),
proteins (3), enzymes (6), glycoproteins (2), sugars
and related compounds (34), hydrocarbons (50),
simple alcohols (7), simple aldehydes (12), simple
ketones (13), simple acids (20), fatty acids (23),
simple esters (12), lactones (1), steroids (11),
terpenes (120), non-cannabinoid phenols (25),
flavonoids (23), vitamins (1), pigments (2) and
elements (9), (Turner et al., 1980; Ross and
ElSohly, 1995; Elsohly and Slade, 2005). The
details of these chemical constituents are out of this
review scope.
Edible parts and method of consumption
The plant parts which are consumed for various
purposes are leaf, shoot and seed. It is used in the
form of grain and in roasted mode. Seed may be
used as raw or cooked. It can be dry and eaten as a
condiment or made into cakes (Hedrick and
Sturtevant, 1972; Harrington and Matsumura, 1974;
Kunkel, 1984). The seed is quite tasty, but it is very
difficult to separate from the husk. The seed
contains about 27.1% protein, 25.6% fat, 7.4%
carbohydrate, 6.1% ash. The leaves contain 0.215%
carotene and used in soup (Duke, 1983). Along
with various methods of Cannabis consumption,
smoking or oral consumption in much common. In
general, it is considered that smoking produces
more relaxing effect; in comparison to vapourising
and eating which tend to be more intense in effects.
For oral consumption, Cannabis or its extract must
be sufficiently heated or dehydrated to cause
decarboxylation of its most abundant cannabinoid,
tetrahydrocannabinolic acid, into psychoactive
tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Cannabisculture.com).
Cannabis can also be consumed as a Cannabis tea.
In remote area, the use of Cannabis sativa is totally
depends on traditional knowledge, which
transmitted through family traditions basically
through oral conversations. However, the
knowledge on medicinal importance is available in
written forms also in local scripts.
Cannabis sativa as a medicine
Cannabis was used as a medicine before the
Christian era in Asia, particularly in India. The
medicinal use of Cannabis has a very long history.
It has been used for the treatment of various
diseases since the Vedic Period. It is well known
for various forms of non-formal medical treatments.
The medicinal value of Cannabis includes
intoxicant, analgesic, narcotic, stomachic,
antispasmodic, anodyne, sedative etc. (Ben, 2006;
Russo and Guy, 2006; Goutopoulos and
Makriyannis, 2002). The Cannabis leaves alone
have ability to cure more than 25 diseases (Kala et
al., 2004). Seeds are used to treat tumors and
cancerous ulcers. In the last 50 years there are more
than 1000 publications describing various aspects
of Cannabis sativa (Zuardi, 2006). Some of the
important medicinal uses of Cannabis are given in
table 1. Despite its medicinal value, Cannabis
products must be used carefully as it can induce
cognitive deficits and may be a risk factor for the
onset of psychosis among susceptible youths (Pope
et al., 2003; Arseneault et al., 2004).
Figure 1. Cannabis sativa (Plant, leaves and seeds).
Mohammed Kuddus et al.
739
Table 1. Medicinal use of Cannabis sativa.
Medicinal use
Reference
Anthelmintic
,
1992
Anticancer activity against cancer cell lines Tariq and Reyaz, 2012a
Antimicrobial activity Tariq and Reyaz, 2012b
Anti-nausea and Anti-vomiting Sallan et al., 1975
Antispasmodic, anodyne and narcotic
Anon
,
1931
Aphrodisiac
Waddell e
t al
.
,
1980
Apoptosis Lee et al., 2008
As a hallucinogen and for rheumatism Saha et al., 1961
As a parturifacient
Ahmad
,
1957
As an abortifacient Saha et al., 1961
Antiseptic and to treat swelling of sprained joints Bhattarai,1993
As an antispasmodic and anodyne Asprey and Thornton, 1955
As an aphrodisiac
Lewis and Elvin
-
Lewis
,
1977
As an emmenagogue Saha et al., 1961; Berhault, 1974
As an insect repellant Nayar,1955
As narcotic, antispasmodic and analgesic Anon, 1898
Decoction of the seed use
d for migraine and cancer
Duke and Ayensu
,
1985
Decrease fertilizing capacity Schuel et al., 1987
Decrease testosterone metabolism Watanabe et al., 2005
For asthma Simon and Lamla, 1991
For burns
Jain and Puri
,
1984
For cuts, boils and blisters Singh and Maheshwari, 1994
For diabetes Tucakov, 1978; Morrison and West, 1982
For diabetes, hysteria and sleeplessness Rajurkar and Pardeshi, 1997
For dysentery
,
1992
For inflammation Rana and Datta, 1997
Fresh leaves used for hemorrhoids Singh et al., 1996
Fruit used externally for skin diseases Rao, 1981
Hallucinogen
Diaz
,
1977
In diarrhea Manandhar, 1993
In indigestion Sahu, 1984
In rheumatoid arthritis, epilepsy and cholera Zagari,1992
Increase amorous prowess of women
Nahas
,
1981
Induce abortion Hunte, 1975
Narcotic Bellakhdar, et al., 1991
Psychotropic Anon, 1946
Reduce abdominal pain, neuralgia and coughing
Zagari
,
1992
Relieve menstrual pain Tatkon, 1976
Relieve pain of dysmenorrheal Lockmi, 1982
To clear the blood and for rheumatism. Li, 1974
To eliminate cough and bronchitis
Lal and Yadav
,
1983
To induce abortion, labor, and menstruation Woo et al., 1981
To relieve muscular pains Giron et al., 1991
Treatment of dyspepsia and gonorrhea Sahu, 1984
Treatment of malar
ia
Asprey and Thornton
,
1955
Unripe fruit induce sleep Shah, 1982
Use of Cannabis sativa in Ayurvedic medicine
India is a country of faith and mysticism, and
Ayurveda is a system of medicine used by the Indian
traits. Cannabis was bound to religions in India
especially in the Hindu as well as in numerous other
minority religions (Kaplan, 1969). Ayurvedic system
of medicine is based on a conceptual medical system
which depends on balancing three functional
elements of human body viz. Vayu (air), Pitta (fire)
and Kapha (water and earth). As per Ayurveda, good
health depends on equilibrium between these three
factors and imbalance may cause disease. In India,
the properties and use of Cannabis sativa were
described by many ayurvedic physicians before
thousands of years. The earliest written reference
was found in the Atharvaveda, dating to about 1500
Emir. J. Food Agric. 2013. 25 (10): 736-745
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740
BC (Grierson, 1894). In the Sushruta Samhita
(verses of Sushruta) Cannabis was recommended for
phlegm and diarrhea (Grierson, 1894). For the first
time Dhanavantari, founder member of Ayurveda,
prepared a medical glossary on the quality and effect
of Cannabis. According to his description, the
quality of Cannabis is sharp, heating and light; and
also stimulates delusions and slows speech. In
Ayurveda Cannabis was also used as a leisure drug
and as a component in various preparations such as
minute quantity in a synergistic formula can aid
digestion. Jadgish N Vaidya, Director of Maharishi
Ayurvedic Programs at Lancaster Health Center,
Massachusetts says that ‘Recreational use of
marijuana creates ama’. It impairs digestion and
intellect, it upsets hormonal balances, and it can be
addictive, in the traditional view of Ayurveda. Using
Cannabis from an Ayurvedic perspective causes
imbalance to the mind. Scientific research indicates
that loss of mental stability is one of the significant
side-effect from recreational use of Cannabis. In
Ayurveda the Sanskrit term ‘Unmaada’ means a
profound impairment of judgment, perception and
clarity. Unmaada is characterized by distortion of the
mind, intellect, consciousness, memory, behavior
and conduct. The 18th century Persian medical text
Makhzan-al-Adwiya, written by M. Husain Khan,
was extremely influential in the Unani Tibbi, or
Arabic-tradition medicine on the subcontinent. In
this text, Cannabis was described in its various
preparations as an intoxicant, stimulant and sedative
(O’ Shaughnessy, 1843). The medical use of Indian
hemp was introduced to the West in the 19th century
as the use of Ganjah and Bangie as intoxicants, in
diarrhea treatment and in hemorrhoids is reported by
Ainslie in 1813 (Ainslie, 1813).
The modern Ayurvedic properties of Cannabis
as described by Chopra and Chopra (1957) are:
paphahari (promoting loosening and elimination of
phlegm), grahini (promoting retention and binding
the bowels), pachani (promoting digestion), ushna
(promoting heat), pitala (exciting the flow of bile),
modavardhani (promoting happiness), vagvardhani
(stimulating the digestive fire), dipani (stimulating
appetite), ruchya (promoting taste), nidraprada
(hypnotic). Dwarakanath listed 48 modern
Ayurvedic and eight Unani Tibbi formulas
containing Cannabis for a wide range of indications
(Dwarakanath, 1965). A recent survey on
consumption of Bhang at Varanasi (formerly
Banaras, India) reported 90% improvement in sleep
and in marital adjustment (Chaturvedi et al., 1991).
The majority of Ayurvedic claims for Cannabis
from India are fully corroborated by modern
scientific and clinical investigation. In fact, the
modern-day Cannabis researchers have
acknowledged the integral role that Indian culture
has played in understanding the biochemistry of
Cannabis.
Pharmacological studies in human
There are lots of literatures available on
pharmacological activities and clinical trials of
Cannabis sativa by using various model animals. In
the following table one can find pharmacological
studies of Cannabis on human (Table 2).
Table 2. Pharmacological studies of Cannabis sativa in
human.
Pharmacological study
Reference
Allergenic effect
Singh and Kum
ar,
2003
Analgesic effect Burstein et al., 2004
Anticancer activity
Tariq and Reyaz,
2012a
Antidepressant-like actions El-Alfy et al., 2010
Antidiuretic activity Burton, 1979
Antiemetic
Dansak
,
1997
Anti
-
inflammatory activity
Zurier et al
.
,
2009
Anti-tumor activity Contassot et al., 2004
Appetite enhancing Plasse et al., 1991
Bronchoconstrictor activity
Vidal et al
.
,
1991
Cell death with shrinkage of
neurons
Ameri
,
1999
Central nervous system
depressant activity
Krejci, 1958
Digital necrosis
Lau
nay
,
2000
Gynecomastic effect Daniels and Layer,
2003
Hemagglutinin activity
Hardman et al
.
,
1983
Histamine release stimulation
Vidal
,
1991
Hyperglycemic activity Podolsky et al., 1971
Immunomodulatory effect Kraft and Kress,
2004
Inflammatory effect
Boyce and Quigley,
2002
Mitogenic effect Thorburn, 1975
Myocardial infarction
McLeod et al
.
,
2002
Pancreatic effect
Grant and Gandhi,
2004
Pancreatic toxicity Dabby, 1985
Psoriatic effect
Zhu et al
.
,
1981
Reproductive effect
Middleman et al.,
1997; Saso, 2002;
Park et al., 2004
Sexual headache
Alvaro et al
.
,
2002
Spermicidal effect
Hong et al
.
,
1982
Suicidal effect Wilcox and Anthony,
2004
Tumor
-
promoting effect
Richter et al
.
,
1995
Mohammed Kuddus et al.
741
Future scenario
The clinical research on Cannabis was
restricted for a long time due to its illegality. The
past two decades have seen renewed and concerted
interest in the therapeutic potential of Cannabis.
Recent scientific studies on cannabinoid receptors
in the brain and body, which respond
pharmacologically to Cannabis, have explored its
applications in every area of medicine. While
Cannabis remains illegal under federal law in the
United State, 13 states have made available the
medical use of Cannabis under their state laws. For
the first time in 1996 the medical use of Cannabis
was re-legalize by California State for its
therapeutic use and began laboratory experiment.
The latest to legalize medical use of Cannabis is
New Mexico, where 1742 patients are authorized to
possess dried Cannabis as a medication. Recently in
December 2007 the Ministry of Social Affairs and
Health, Finland also sought to clarify legislation on
prescribing Cannabis to victims of chronic pain.
The psychoactive effect of THC is one of the best-
studied biological activities in the world. This
discovery opened up possibilities to exploit
Cannabis -based products for medical use. Despite
the pharmaceutical preparations of Cannabis, the
use of its natural form for medicinal purposes has
also progressed recently. Cannabis should not be
known only for its psychoactive agent but also be
recognized as strongest fibers provider and source
of some nutritious edible oils. As a medicinally
active plant, Cannabis has been used worldwide for
millennia, making it one of the oldest known
medicinal plants. Out of various classes of
compounds found in Cannabis, including
flavonoids and alkaloids, most of these constituents
have not yet been properly characterized for
biological activity. Therefore, the Cannabis plant
could be called a ‘neglected pharmacological
treasure trove (Mechoulam, 2005). However, an
increasing number of pharmaceutical companies
have started to pick up the idea of (synthetic)
cannabinoids and their antagonists as therapeutic
drugs. At present a number of preparations based
on the biological activities of the cannabinoids are
already available. A considerable number of
cannabinoid-based medicines are expected to enter
the market in the coming years. Also, there is still
plenty of work to understand the potential of the
Cannabis plant. A future with Cannabis based
medicines therefore seems very likely, and a further
understanding of Cannabis as a medicine through
scientific research is warranted.
As a medicinally active plant, Cannabis has
been used worldwide for millennia, making it one
of the oldest known medicinal plants. Out of
various classes of compounds found in Cannabis,
including flavonoids and alkaloids, most of these
constituents have not yet been properly
characterized for biological activity. Therefore, the
Cannabis plant could be called a ‘neglected
pharmacological treasure trove (Mechoulam, 2005).
However, an increasing number of pharmaceutical
companies have started to pick up the idea of
(synthetic) cannabinoids and their antagonists as
therapeutic drugs. At present a number of
preparations based on the biological activities of the
cannabinoids are already available. A considerable
number of cannabinoid-based medicines are
expected to enter the market in the coming years.
Also, there is still plenty of work to understand the
potential of the Cannabis plant. A future with
Cannabis based medicines therefore seems very
likely, and a further understanding of Cannabis as a
medicine through scientific research is warranted.
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... Male flowers are apetalous, with five yellowish sepals and five poricidal stamens. Each female flower consists of a perigonal leaf-like bract, which surrounds the carpel with one single-ovulate ovary (Kuddus et al., 2013). In addition, a growing perianth was observed during the early stages of flower development, which later withered, lost its individuality, and resembled a thin membrane (Spitzer-Rimon et al., 2019). ...
... In the case of capitate type, the head is composed of eight cells, whereas in bulbous type it is composed of 2-4 cells (Feng et al., 2021;Tian et al., 2017). The fruit is tiny, smooth, light brownish-grey in colour, and loaded with seeds (Kuddus et al., 2013). It is a notoriously resistant plant to transformation, owing to low regeneration efficiency that are depending on cultivar, tissue, plant age, and growth regulator combination (Slusarkiewicz-Jarzina et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
Cannabis sativa L. is a flowering plant in the family Cannabaceae, and has been cultivated since ancient times for its fibres, oils, resins, dried inflorescences, and leaves. It can be used for a variety of industrial purposes. Over the years, the therapeutic and pharmacological efficacy of its phytoconstituents is shown in a variety of human diseases and health. The use and exploitation of the plant have sparked controversy; however, there are recent legalizations of its use for medical and other purposes in many countries within the corresponding legislative framework. In addition to this legalization, C. sativa is encouraging the very rapid growth of the cannabis oriented pharmaceutical industry. This chapter summarized recent developments in the science of C. sativa and its products about their industrial application, while also addressing gaps in the existing knowledge and future research directions for this high-value multi-use, and potential industrial plant with universal benefits.
... Cannabis sativa is known by various common names worldwide: it is called 'dagga' in South Africa, whilst marijuana and hemp are well associated common names (The Plant List 2020). The species C. sativa is a well-known plant grown worldwide but was originally a native of western and central Asia (Ayenigbara 2012;Kuddas & Ginawi 2013). The genus Cannabis has been utilised commercially, medically, religiously, socially and agriculturally for over a century (Ayenigbara 2012). ...
... The genus Cannabis has been utilised commercially, medically, religiously, socially and agriculturally for over a century (Ayenigbara 2012). Cannabis yields more than 538 chemicals of various classes (Kuddas & Ginawi 2013). The most common classes are cannabinoids, hydrocarbons, terpenoids, fatty acids, amino acids, proteins, pigments, alkaloids, enzymes, glycoproteins and simple ketones (Ali et al. 2011). ...
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... Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a versatile multi-purpose crop cultivated in wide-ranging agro-ecological conditions and processed to produce textile fibers, paper, paint, biofuels, timber, biodegradable plastics, and animal feed, as well as for medicinal purposes. Seeds, leaves, shoots and flowers are edible and consumed for millennia worldwide as food or as supplemental food ingredients, characterized by a pleasant nutty flavor and, in some cases, a slightly bitter aftertaste (Kuddus et al., 2013;Cerino et al., 2021). Hemp plants synthesize hundreds of biologically active secondary metabolites, including terpenoids, cannabinoids, glycosidic compounds, polyphenols, fatty acids, simple acids, amino acids, enzymes, steroids, pigments, and vitamins (Kuddus et al., 2013). ...
... Seeds, leaves, shoots and flowers are edible and consumed for millennia worldwide as food or as supplemental food ingredients, characterized by a pleasant nutty flavor and, in some cases, a slightly bitter aftertaste (Kuddus et al., 2013;Cerino et al., 2021). Hemp plants synthesize hundreds of biologically active secondary metabolites, including terpenoids, cannabinoids, glycosidic compounds, polyphenols, fatty acids, simple acids, amino acids, enzymes, steroids, pigments, and vitamins (Kuddus et al., 2013). Polyphenols are among the most relevant compounds found in hemp, including some phenylamides, lignanamides, and prenylated flavonoids that are biosynthesized exclusively by this species (Barrett et al., 1986). ...
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... In India, the sacred scripture "Atharva Veda" claimed cannabis as an herb of happiness, as it elicited joy and pleasure, and hence used in ritualistic activities. The Ayurvedic system of medicine also described the use of cannabis for treating various gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urinary disorders [6,24,25]. The religious amalgam of cannabis was noticed in Tibetan practices and Buddhism together with Hinduism [26]. ...
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Cannabis is one of the oldest crops grown, traditionally held religious attachments in various cultures for its medicinal use much before its introduction to Western medicine. Multiple preclinical and clinical investigations have explored the beneficial effects of cannabis in various neurocognitive and neurodegenerative diseases affecting the cognitive domains. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive component, is responsible for cognition-related deficits, while cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, has been shown to elicit neuroprotective activity. In the present integrative review, the authors focus on the effects of cannabis on the different cognitive domains, including learning, consolidation, and retrieval. The present study is the first attempt in which significant focus has been imparted on all three aspects of cognition, thus linking to its usage. Furthermore, the investigators have also depicted the current legal position of cannabis in India and the requirement for reforms.
... Its action is almost entirely on higher nerve centers. It can produce an exhilarating hallucinatory intoxication, and is widely used as an intoxicant in Eastern countries (Kuddus et al., 2013). Many reports have linked cannabis smoking to the development of psychosis (Hall and Egenhardt, 2008), while some others suggested that cannabis smoking is only a form of self-medication in people with psychotic symptoms, rather than a causative factor in the development of psychosis. ...
... Cannabis oils have been used for eczema, psoriasis, and other inflammatory diseases (Bonini et al., 2018). In India, 3000 years ago, Cannabis was used as a hypnotic, tranquilizer, and anxiolytic in the treatment of mania and hysteria (Kuddus, Ginawi, Al-Hazimi, 2013); this was also documented in Assyrian clay tablets and on the Egyptian Ebers Papyrus. At the end of the ancient era (400-60 years BC). ...
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Abstract Metabolic syndrome (MetS), an epidemic defined as a group of interconnected physiological, biochemistry, clinical, and metabolic factors, directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes, and death. MetS therapy includes diet, physical exercise, and a poly-pharmacological intervention. Cannabis is mainly recognized for its recreational uses and has several medical applications for neurological diseases, due to its hypnotic, anxiolytic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anticonvulsant activities. Although several clinical observations in Cannabis smokers suggest metabolic effects, its utility in metabolic disorders is unclear. This review aims to determine under what conditions Cannabis might be useful in the treatment of MetS. Cannabis contains 120 phytocannabinoids, of which Δ9-THC mediates its psychoactive effects. Cannabinoids exert biological effects through interactions with the endocannabinoid system, which modulates several physiologic and metabolic pathways through cannabinoid receptors (CB1/CB2). Signaling through both receptors inhibits neurotransmitter release. In general, endocannabinoid system stimulation in Cannabis smokers and Δ9-THC signaling through CB1 have been implicated in MetS development, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, CB1 antagonists and non-psychotropic phytocannabinoids like cannabidiol reduce these effects through interactions with both cannabinoid and non-cannabinoid receptors. These pharmacological approaches represent a source of new therapeutic agents for MetS. However, more studies are necessary to support the therapeutic potential of Cannabis and cannabinoids in metabolic abnormalities.
... Differing conclusions from previous studies may come down to what goods are consumed with marijuana or what goods are used to substitute for it. Marijuana use can result in increased caloric intake if consumed as an edible (Kuddus et al., 2013) or to the extent to which it generates a craving for eating energy-dense foods or sweets (Abel, 1975;Kirkham, 2009). Foltin et al. (1988) find marijuana consumption frequently results in increased caloric intake from snacking. ...
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Obesity in the US arguably constitutes the most significant health epidemic over the past century. Recent legislative changes allowing for recreational marijuana use further create a need to better understand the relationship between marijuana use and health choices, leading to obesity. We examine this relationship by using a synthetic control approach to examine the impact of legalized recreational marijuana access on obesity rates by comparing Washington State to a synthetically constructed counterfactual. We find that recreational marijuana's introduction did not lead to increased obesity rates and may have led to decreases in obesity.
Chapter
The chapter proposes a vigilant approach towards the demand of legalising cannabis. It explains the opportunities of Fintech to develop legal, safe, and flexible transactions in the industry which is considered illegal in many countries. The chapter presents the cases of the Jammu and Kashmir, India to grow and manufacture licensed cannabis compounds, making upon indigenous knowledge, culture, and nourishing environment. It also accounts to mitigate the risk around related illegal activities. There are a few pharmaceutical manufacturing companies producing cannabis-based drugs, but they do not own farms, and source it from a few tilizing farmlands. Some big companies have started tilizing blockchain technologies, raising opportunity to test further possibilities through blockchain, cryptography, digital identity cards, etc. The chapter presents findings from a survey in the Jammu and Kashmir, India, capturing perceptions about cannabis farming, cannabis-based medicine, financial transaction challenges, and the use of Fintech in legal use of cannabis.
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Historically, cannabis has always constituted a component of the civilized world; archaeological discoveries indicate that it is one of the oldest crops, while, up until the 19th century, cannabis fibers were extensively used in a variety of applications, and its seeds comprised a part of human and livestock nutrition. Additional evidence supports its exploitation for medicinal purposes in the ancient world. The cultivation of cannabis gradually declined as hemp fibers gave way to synthetic fibers, while the intoxicating ability of THC eventually overshadowed the extensive potential of cannabis. Nevertheless, the proven value of certain non-intoxicating cannabinoids, such as CBD and CBN, has recently given rise to an entire market which promotes cannabis-based products. An increase in the research for recovery and exploitation of beneficial cannabinoids has also been observed, with more than 10 000 peer-reviewed research articles published annually. In the present review, a brief overview of the history of cannabis is given. A look into the classification approaches of cannabis plants/species as well as the associated nomenclature is provided, followed by a description of their chemical characteristics and their medically valuable components. The application areas could not be absent from the present review. Still, the main focus of the review is the discussion of work conducted in the field of extraction of valuable bioactive compounds from cannabis. We conclude with a summary of the current status and outlook on the topics that future research should address.
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The traditional phytotherapy of the lay population of Rolpa, Salyan and Pyuthan, the three ethnobotanically unexplored districts of Rapti zone, Nepal has been investigated. Information on the alleged curative properties of 83 contemporary herbal recipes involving 63 species from 63 genera and 47 families that are used to relieve most of the frequently occurring aliments including dermal, gastro-intestinal, respiratory, genitourinary, natal and gynaecological complaints has been provided. The traditional pharmaceutical practice shows trends towards development and modernization in aspects like preparation of dosage forms, intended routes of administration, use of additives, and dose and course of medication. The alleged therapeutic merits of the considered plants offer ample opportunities to investigators for the rational evaluation on their uses.
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Ethnomedicinal information was collected from the tribals (Tharus) of the Bahraich forests of Uttar Pradesh during a medicinal plant collection trip to the area in 1992. Eighty-five folk-lore therapies, comprising 66 taxa of folk medicinal plants for treating various human and cattle diseases and conditions, are described. Data presented are first-hand and based on field interviews of local medicine men and materials collected in the area surveyed. All folk drug species were collected, identified and voucher specimens prepared. Most of the uses dealt with in this report had not been, hitherto, cited. Scientific investigations of all folk drugs species in the context of claims reported are suggested to evaluate their medical efficacy and safety. Need to create awareness among the tribal and rural population of India about Traditional Resource Rights (TRR) is stressed.
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The plant leaves were identified as Cannabis sativa L. The cannabniods were extracted by aqueous extract found a total yield of 3.8g while as acetone extract 4.8g. The protein content in crude extract of Cannabis sativa L for aqeous extract found 112μg/ml and for acetone extract 160μg/ml. The molecular weight of protein by SDS PGAGE found to be 70KDa. The HPLC intension percentage for aqueous was 11 while for acetone extract it found 25. The actone extract exhibited more anticancer activity against HT29, MCF7 and SF-26 Cells