Gender differences in the relationships between lean body mass, fat mass and peak bone mass in young adults
Curtin University, Bentley, Western Australia, Australia Osteoporosis International
(Impact Factor: 4.17).
03/2014; 25(5). DOI: 10.1007/s00198-014-2665-x
The relationships between fat mass and bone mass in young adults are unclear. In 1,183 young Australians, lean body mass had a strong positive relationship with total body bone mass in both genders. Fat mass was a positive predictor of total body bone mass in females, with weaker association in males.
Body weight and lean body mass are established as major determinants of bone mass, but the relationships between fat mass (including visceral fat) and peak bone mass in young adults are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between bone mass in young adults and three body composition measurements: lean body mass, fat mass and trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio (a surrogate measure of visceral fat).
Study participants were 574 women and 609 men aged 19-22 years from the Raine study. Body composition, total body bone mineral content (TBBMC), bone area and areal bone mineral density (TBBMD) were measured using DXA.
In multivariate linear regression models with height, lean body mass, fat mass and trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio as predictor variables, lean mass was uniquely associated with the largest proportion of variance of TBBMC and TBBMD in males (semi-partial R (2) 0.275 and 0.345, respectively) and TBBMC in females (semi-partial R (2) 0.183). Fat mass was a more important predictor of TBBMC and TBBMD in females (semi-partial R (2) 0.126 and 0.039, respectively) than males (semi-partial R (2) 0.006 and 0.018, respectively). Trunk-to-limb fat mass ratio had a weak, negative association with TBBMC and bone area in both genders (semi-partial R (2) 0.004 to 0.034).
Lean body mass has strong positive relationship with total body bone mass in both genders. Fat mass may play a positive role in peak bone mass attainment in women but the association was weaker in men; different fat compartments may have different effects.
Available from: Hyun Kang
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ABSTRACT: AimWe determined to investigate the effect of plasma hemodilution on tumor marker concentration in obese women.Methods
We collected the data for tumor markers (cancer-associated antigen 125 [CA125], carbohydrate antigen 19-9 [CA19-9], carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA] and α-fetoprotein) from 6917 healthy women who visited the health promotion center at the Chung-Ang University Hospital from 2003 to 2011. We used multivariate linear regression analysis and χ2-test for linear-by-linear association adjusting for age, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine to determine the association between the serum tumor marker concentrations, plasma volume, tumor marker mass, and body mass index (BMI).ResultsHigher BMI was significantly associated with higher plasma volume (P < 0.001 for trend). The lower concentrations of CA125 and CA19-9 were significantly associated with increasing BMI (P < 0.001). Serum concentration and mass of CEA and α-fetoprotein were increased with higher BMI in obese women (P < 0.001). CEA in women had the opposite result to that in men due to visceral fat in women.Conclusion
This study shows that we should consider the hemodilution effect in Asian obese women when interpreting serum tumor marker concentration in cancer screening.
Available from: M K Garg
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ABSTRACT: Fat mass (FM) has been shown to have an effect on bone mass accrual. Though gender and ethnic differences in body composition and bone accrual during puberty have been reported, there are limited data available for Indian children and adolescents.
To generate age and gender based percentile charts of FM among urban Indian children and adolescents and to evaluate the relationship with pubertal status and bone mineral content (BMC).
There were 1403 children and adolescents (boys: 826; girls: 577) in the study.
Total and regional FM, BMC, and pubertal staging were assessed. Fat mass index (FMI), FM/height ratio and BMC/FM ratio, were calculated.
The age of the study population ranged from 5 to 18 years, with a mean age of 13.2±2.7 years (boys: 13.0±2.7; girls: 13.4±2.8 years). Total and regional FM as well as FMI increased with increasing age in both genders. The highest percent increase in mean total FM occurred in the age group >8-11 years and decreased thereafter. The total and regional FM was higher in more advanced stages of pubertal maturation. There was no difference in total and regional FM between genders in prepubertal group. The age and pubertal associated increase in FM was significantly higher in girls than boys (p<0.0001). Total as well as regional FM and FMI were positively correlated with age, body mass index, total lean mass, and BMC even after adjusting for age, lean mass, and biochemical parameters.
Total and regional FM increased with age and pubertal maturation in both genders. FM was positively correlated with BMC.
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ABSTRACT: Low BMI is a risk factor for osteoporosis, but it is not clear if relationships between BMI, lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM) and BMD are consistent across different levels of BMI. We studied 1929 Caucasian participants (1014 females) aged 45–66 years in the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study in Western Australia. Body composition and BMD of total body, lumbar spine, total hip and femoral neck were measured using DXA. From generalized additive models, the positive relationships between BMI and BMD were weaker at high BMI, particularly at the spine and in males. In the entire cohort, adjusting for relevant covariates, LM and FM were significant predictors of all BMD measures in both genders. In men, analysis by tertiles of BMI showed that LM and FM (in kg) were positively associated with BMD (in mg/cm2) in tertile 1 except for LM and spine BMD (LM β: 5.18–6.80, FM β: 3.38–9.24, all P < 0.05), but not in the middle or upper tertiles (LM β: − 3.12–3.07, FM β: − 4.75–1.82, P > 0.05). In women, LM was positively associated with BMD in each tertile of BMI, except for spine BMD in the upper tertile, with regression coefficients lower in the upper tertile (β: 5.16–9.95, 5.76–9.56 and 2.80–5.78, respectively, all P < 0.05). FM was positively associated with total body, spine and total hip BMD in women in BMI tertile 1 (β: 2.86–6.68, P < 0.05); these associations were weaker or absent in the middle and upper tertiles. In conclusion, in middle-aged adults the positive relationships between lean or fat mass with BMD among those with higher BMI are absent in males and weaker in females.
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