Article

Openness to experience and aesthetic chills: Links to heart rate sympathetic activity

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Openness to experience has important links to cognitive processes such as creativity, and to values, such as political attitudes. The biological origins of variation in openness to experience are, however, obscure. The centrality of “aesthetic chills” to high openness suggests that sympathetic nervous system activation may play a role. Here, we tested this using the low-frequency heart rate variability power measure (LF) as biomarker of sympathetic activation, tested under baseline and stress conditions in a sample of 952 subjects, and controlling for measured confounders of age, sex, height, weight and BMI. A significant association was found between LF and openness to experience (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.02, 0.17], p < .01). These results suggest links between openness to experience and sympathetic nervous system activity explaining, at least in part, relationships of openness to such traits as aesthetic chills.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Additionally, they found a moderate negative relationship between depression (also a facet of Neuroticism) and HRV, but only for males. Schweiger et al. (1998) related aspects of personality to a single measure of HRV and found no significant associations, while Cukić and Bates (2014) reported negative associations between baseline HRV and Openness. ...
... The significant negative correlation between Openness and HRV-HF contradicts the findings of Cukić and Bates (2014), who reported a positive association between Openness and low-frequency HRV, albeit erroneously operationalizing low frequency HRV as a biomarker of sympathetic activation. McCrae and Costa (1997) conceptualize Openness as a need to expand and assess experience, and that individual differences in Openness reflect differences in neural circuits underlying reward and motivation. ...
... McCrae and Costa (1997) conceptualize Openness as a need to expand and assess experience, and that individual differences in Openness reflect differences in neural circuits underlying reward and motivation. Thus Openness may reflect aroused (i.e., sympathetic) states related to autonomic processes promoting prolonged attention to stimuli (Cukić and Bates, 2014), though interestingly is not related to situational awareness (Saus et al., 2012). Ode et al. (2010) expended substantial effort towards differentiating selfregulation from flexible responding, and to explaining their respective contributions to HRV. ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality and resting heart rate variability (HRV) indices. Healthy volunteers (n=106) completed a 240-item Big Five personality inventory, the state/Trait Anxiety inventory, and a ten minute electrocardiographic recording. Time and frequency domain estimates of HRV were derived from the cardiac time series and related to the Big Five dimensions of personality, to personality types extracted from a cluster analysis, and to Trait Anxiety. Frequency domain measures of HRV (HRV-HF, LF/HF) were associated with specific dimensions of personality, but significance was not noted for the time domain measure (STD-RR). Furthermore, distressed personality types exhibited significantly greater autonomic imbalance (LF/HF) than other personality types. However, significance was not noted for the time domain measure (STD-RR). These results can be explained with reference to a contemporary model of neurovisceral integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
... Individuals high in openness are generally more resilient, find novelty more rewarding than familiarity, and are effective in coping with interpersonal stress (Lee-Baggley et al., 2005;Shiner and Masten, 2012). The behavioral response agility inherent in such a trait may also be reflected in the autonomic nervous system responses (Čukić andBates, 2014, Williams et al., 2009), and the way openness influence physiological responses to social stressors might duly influence associated health processes. Recently, Williams et al. (2009) found higher openness to be associated with increases in parasympathetic activity, and with lesser cardiovascular reactivity to social stress (operationalized as a social competence interview). ...
... A number of researchers have thus sought to examine associated patterns of physiological responses, albeit producing mixed findings. Bibbey et al. (2013) reported that higher openness was related to greater cardiovascular reactivity to a series of stressors (Stroop, mental arithmetic, mirror tracing, and speech); Jonassaint et al. (2010) found persons high in openness to exhibit lower levels of C-reactive protein in response to mental arithmetic; Čukić and Bates (2014) failed to find any relationship between openness and sympathetic or parasympathetic autonomic activity during cognitive stress (mental arithmetic task and Stroop task). These mixed findings may be due to the fact that the nature of stressors was not identical across the studies. ...
Article
The association between openness (assessed by shortened Chinese version of NEO Five-Factor Inventory, NEO-FFI) and physiological reactivity to, and recovery from, social stress (a video-recorded, timed public speaking task with evaluators present in the room), and physiological adaptation to repeated social stress was examined in the present study. Subjective and physiological data were collected from 70 college students across five laboratory stages: baseline, stress exposure period 1, post-stress period 1, stress exposure period 2, and post-stress period 2. Results indicated that higher openness was associated with lesser heart rate (HR) reactivity to the first and second stress exposure, and lesser systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the second stress exposure. Higher openness was associated with higher resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), lesser RSA withdrawals to the first stress exposure, and more complete RSA recovery after the first stress exposure. Moreover, higher openness was associated with pronounced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) adaptation with greater decreases in SBP and DBP reactivity across the two successive stress exposures. These findings might shed light on the biological basis linking openness to health.
... In particular, studies using the Big Five factor model as the reference framework [2] have repeatedly attested a link of heart rate variability (HRV), the marker of increased autonomic activity and sympathetic activity, which is a major determinant of cardiovascular autonomic control. Reduced HRV is an independent risk factor for the development of heart disease [3][4][5][6]. Although higher neuroticism or lower conscientiousness have been linked to cardiovascular death, studies demonstrated that life-style behaviors might mediate this association [7,8]. ...
... We found that arterial stiffness, as measured by PWVao and HR, is associated with stability and openness to experience, suggesting that a secure and confident behaviour might reduce atherosclerotic-related arterial stiffening, while in curious and inventive subjects these processes might be accelerated. This result is in line with previous studies attesting to neuroticism as the personality trait most associated with HR and risk of cardiac disease [3,4], and also brings further proofs that openness to experience is associated with heart rate parameters. ...
Article
Background The mechanism underlying the association between personality profile and subclinical atherosclerosis is poorly understood. This study explores the association between personality, carotid atherosclerosis and arterial stiffness, and the contribution of genes and environment to this association. Methods Early atherosclerotic traits, including carotid intima-media thickness (CCA-IMT), aortic pulse wave velocity (PWVao) and heart rate, were assessed in 318 adult twins, who also completed a Big Five personality questionnaire. Using the co-twin control approach, the association between intra-pair differences in clinical and personality scores was assessed in dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twins separately. Results An association between CCA-IMT and extroverted personality, as well as between PWVao and openness to experience was detected. The inverse association between CCA-IMT and extraversion was persistent in DZ and disappeared in MZ twins, suggesting genetic confounding. In contrast, the association between PWVao and openness to experience was of the same magnitude in DZ and MZ twins, thus surviving the adjustment for genetic and shared environmental factors. Conclusions This study highlights that the association between some psychological factors and cardiovascular traits may be partly explained by genetic factors. This result may provide support for the feasibility of prevention programs based on assessing familiarity for personality disorders to detect genetic risk for subclinical cardiovascular disease.
... Openness measures peoples' originality and open-mindedness (Čukić and Bates, 2014). It also reflects individuals' vividness of imagination. ...
... Williams, Rau, Cribbet, and Gunn (2009) found that individuals higher in openness exhibit lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to social stress. Higher openness has also been associated with increased autonomic activation in the form of greater low-frequency power at rest ( Cukić & Bates, 2014). L€ u, Wang, and Hughes (2016) observed that openness was positively related to SBP and DBP adaptation to recurrent identical social stressors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Underlying psychophysiological mechanisms of effect linking openness to experience to health outcomes, and particularly cardiovascular well-being, are unknown. This study examined the role of openness in the context of cardiovascular responsivity to acute psychological stress. Continuous cardiovascular response data were collected for 74 healthy young female adults across an experimental protocol, including differing counterbalanced acute stressors. Openness was measured via self-report questionnaire. Analysis of covariance revealed openness was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = .016), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = .036) responsivity across the protocol. Openness was also associated with heart rate (HR) responding to the initial stress exposure (p = .044). Examination of cardiovascular adaptation revealed that higher openness was associated with significant SBP (p = .001), DBP (p = .009), and HR (p = .002) habituation in response to the second differing acute stress exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest persons higher in openness are characterized by an adaptive cardiovascular stress response profile within the context of changing acute stress exposures. This study is also the first to demonstrate individual differences in cardiovascular adaptation across a protocol consisting of differing stress exposures. More broadly, this research also suggests that future research may benefit from conceptualizing an adaptive fitness of openness within the context of change. In summary, the present study provides evidence that higher openness stimulates short-term stress responsivity, while ensuring cardiovascular habituation to change in stress across time.
... Openness measures peoples' originality and open-mindedness (Čukić and Bates, 2014). It also reflects individuals' vividness of imagination. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to examine the influence of the five personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, agreeableness, openness and conscientiousness) on both Facebook usage and users’ preferences for specific Facebook features. Hierarchical regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing. Survey data from 367 university students in Greece indicate that, agreeable individuals use Facebook to express their orientation to other people rather than to themselves. Extroverts use Facebook as a relationship building mechanism, whereas neurotics strive to bring out the best of themselves. Openness and conscientiousness do not seem to affect Facebook use.
... Openness measures peoples' originality and open-mindedness. (Čukić & Bates, 2014). Open to new experience users are correlated with often status updates and participation to Facebook groups (Bachrach et al., 2012). ...
Article
In this study we identify potential associations between people's personality (utilizing the popular Big Five personality model) and measurable Facebook activities such as number of likes received, number of posts, number of comments on posts. Extant literature suggests that personality can be manifested through different features of the Facebook profiles but under an implicit assumption that those users may belong in a single psychographic group. However, it has been shown that people may share characteristics, common acts and behaviors of more than one psychographic group. In this study we aim to address limitations of previous studies, by adopting a fuzzy set approach which is capable to handle users' membership in multiple psychographic groups. Furthermore, fsQCA offers equifinality, which means that research can end up to the same outcome, beginning from different initial combinations of data. The work presented in this paper provides empirical evidence concerning the association between Facebook activities and users' personalities in a novel way that indicates not only the significance of this relationship but providing alternative combinations that lead to the same output. Furthermore, it paves the ground towards predicting social platforms' measurements, other than Facebook, relying on users' personalities, using the same technique, but on different fields of study and social media platforms.
... Williams et al. (2009) reported that individuals higher in Openness demonstrated lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) to a social stress task. Higher levels of Openness have also been observed as resulting in increased autonomic activation at rest (Cukić and Bates, 2014). In response to a mental arithmetic stress task, Openness has also been found to indirectly increase positive affect through lower threat appraisal (Schneider et al., 2012). ...
Article
Research suggests the personality trait of Openness to Experience is associated with cardiovascular stress processes. It is unknown if the underlying facets of Openness are associated with cardiovascular responsivity, and whether adaptation is evident across active and passive stress. The objective of this study was to determine if the facets of Openness are related to cardiovascular reactivity and adaptation across active and passive stress exposures. Personality measures and continuous cardiovascular data from sixty-six female adults across a protocol of active and passive stress tasks were collated. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the facet of Feelings was associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to active stress. Examination of cardiovascular adaption revealed that the facet of Feelings was positively associated with SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) adaptation, whereas the facet of Actions demonstrated a negative association. Supplementary analyses revealed the significant effects for Feelings were not reliant on the remaining Openness facets, whereas the significant effects for Actions were. No significant effects emerged for the higher-order trait of Openness. These findings suggest that the underlying facet of Feelings is associated with active stress reactivity, with the facets of Feelings and Actions appearing to be of importance to cardiovascular adaptation. This study is the first to demonstrate personality effects on cardiovascular adaptation across active and passive stress. Attending to the facets of personality traits may provide a more precise understanding of the personality effects on cardiovascular stress psychophysiology.
... In the current study, both in men and women (although for different HRV metrics), positive associations were found for openness with LF, LF/HF ratio, and meanRR intervals. An association with openness has been reported in a few other studies, in which LF and LF/ HF were shown to be positively associated with levels of openness (Čukić & Bates, 2014) and HF negatively, which is believed to be the result of activation of reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal pathways in the brain. It has previously been shown that lower HRV was associated with greater difficulties in emotion regulation, but this was measured with RMSSD (root mean square of successive differences), which is a HRV variable in the time domain . ...
Article
Full-text available
Low heart rate variability (HRV) has strongly been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. With cardiovascular disease being the number one cause of global deaths, factors that influence its development are relevant to understand. Season of birth has been suggested as one of the factors influencing the development of HRV. The current study was set up to replicate the finding that men born in winter have higher HRV later in life compared to those born in other seasons. To this end, we studied a sample of 1,871 healthy participants from the Brain Resource International Database during rest and during task. Furthermore, sex and age differences and associations with personality traits and psychiatric symptoms were explored. We replicated the earlier finding that men born in winter have a lower ratio of low frequency (LF) power to high frequency (HF) power during rest compared to summer and fall, and, although less pronounced, higher HF compared to summer. A difference between summer and winter for LF/HF in men was internally replicated using data recorded during task. Additionally, for both sexes, LF/HF ratio increased with age, and LF and HF both decreased. In general, LF/HF was lower in women, but heart rate was higher. In men, low HRV was associated with depression and the personality trait openness. In conclusion, results from a large multicenter data set covering the entire lifespan demonstrate that HRV changes with age in both sexes and confirm that season of birth influences HRV later in life in men.
... Aesthetic chills are an established measure for peaks of mixed emotional-hedonic responses to aesthetic phenomena that encompass behavioural (1), physiological (2) and neurobiological individual differences (3). We aimed to inspect whether such differences encompass genomic differences too, by means of the twin method. ...
Poster
Full-text available
Aesthetic chills are an established measure for peaks of mixed emotional-hedonic responses to aesthetic phenomena that encompass behavioral, physiological and neurobiological individual differences. We aimed to inspect whether such differences encompass genomic differences too. We used the twin method on a large sample of twin data (N = 8733 pairs) obtained through the Netherlands Twin Register to partition genetic and environmental sources of variation.
... However, no conclusions regarding putative mechanisms underlying the genetic factors influencing aesthetic chills as found in this study can be drawn. While physiological (Čukić & Bates, 2014) and neurobiological (Sachs et al., 2016;Williams et al., 2018) individual differences have been reported in the literature, it is too early to suggest which plausible candidate is unique to chills and not shared among more general traits, (i.e. reward sensitivity). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Aesthetic chills, broadly defined as a marker of bodily mixed emotional-hedonic responses from aesthetic phenomena, are universally shared yet diversified phenomena that encompass every human culture. However, while individual differences in aesthetic chills are related to behavioral, personality, functional and structural brain individual differences, no study to date has explored the genetic etiological sources of variation of such a trait. To partition genetic and environmental sources of variation, we conduct a biometric model fitting on data from 8733 twin pairs, collected over the arch of 9 years by the Netherlands Twin Register. Both genetic and environmental factors accounted for by the individual variance in aesthetic chills. We thus outlined for the first time, that intense aesthetic experiences, as one of feeling aesthetic chills, are not shaped by nurture alone, but they also obey to the underlying genetic propensity that defines our biological self.
... • Openness measures peoples' originality and openmindedness. (Čukić & Bates, 2014). Open to new experience users are correlated with often status updates and participation to Facebook groups (Bachrach et al., 2012). ...
... Researchers sometimes call it openness to experience. Openness measures people's originality and open-mindedness (Čukić and Bates, 2014). Openness has the most substantial impact on innovations out of all the personality traits. ...
Article
Personality traits play a significant role in many organisational parameters, such as job satisfaction, performance, employability, and leadership for employers. One of the major social networks, the unemployed derives satisfaction from is Facebook. The focus of this article is to introduce association rule mining and demonstrate how it may be applied by employers to unravel the characteristic profiles of the unemployed Facebook users in the recruitment process by employers, for example, recruitment of public relations officers, marketers, and advertisers. Data for this study comprised 3,000 unemployed Facebook users in Nigeria. This study employs association rule mining for mining hidden but interesting and unusual relationships among unemployed Facebook users. The fundamental finding of this study is that employers of labour can adopt association rule mining to unravel job relevant attributes suitable for specific organisational tasks by examining Facebook activities of potential employees. Other managerial and theoretical implications are discussed.
Thesis
La pratique de la musique est une activité collective qui offre une multitude d’interactions à différents niveaux. En particulier, elle permet l’étude des interactions émotionnelles inter individuelles. Le but de notre recherche était de mesurer la survenue d’évènements émotionnels collectifs dans un public, sur le plan comportemental et neuro-physiologique, lors d’une situation naturelle de concert. Ce manuscrit expose en premier lieu différents concepts relatifs à la transmission émotionnelle inter-individuelle, comme la contagion ou la résonance émotionnelle, ainsi qu’un état de l’art des différents travaux concernant le plaisir et le frisson musical. Il présente ensuite différentes méthodes de mesure du couplage cérébral, d’intérêt pour l’étude objective des interactions inter-individuelles. A travers une première étude de faisabilité, nous suggérons que les conditions naturelles du Concours International des Jeunes Chefs d’Orchestre de Besançon représentent un terrain d’expérimentation adapté à l’étude de la dynamique émotionnelle de groupes, à l’aide d’outils neurophysiologiques. Ensuite, afin de préparer la mise en place d’un paradigme de mesure de la synchronisation émotionnelle en conditions naturelles, deux études en laboratoire ont été réalisées. La première suggère que le plaisir et le frisson musical peuvent être mesurés à l’aide de l’électroencéphalographie (EEG) haute résolution, notamment dans la bande de fréquence theta sur les aires temporales, préfrontales et centrales. Puisque l’EEG haute résolution est difficile à exporter hors du laboratoire, la seconde étude a évalué et validé en laboratoire, l’utilisation de matériel d’EEG mobile pour la mesure du plaisir musical en conditions naturelles, en le comparant à l’EEG haute résolution. Enfin, la dernière étape du projet a permis d’enregistrer le ressenti émotionnel subjectif d’une quinzaine de participants simultanément et de recueillir des données EEG en conditions naturelles, lors du Concours International des Jeunes Chefs d’Orchestre. La mesure neurophysiologique de ”vagues d’émotions”, lorsqu’une majorité de participants ressent un plaisir intense simultanément, n’a pas pu être réalisée du fait du faible nombre d’évènements enregistrés. Nos mesures ont montré que le frisson musical n’est pas un marqueur de l’effervescence émotionnelle collective. Bien que des frissons aient été déclarés simultanément par plusieurs participants à plusieurs reprises, très peu ont été déclarés durant des vagues émotionnelles. Nos données EEG suggèrent qu’une forme de contagion et/ou de résonance émotionnelle pourrait survenir entre les membres du public. Le couplage de l’activité cérébrale entre les participants (TI & ThetaCo) était significativement plus fort lorsque les participants reportaient des émotions, que lorsqu’ils ne ressentaient pas de plaisir particulier. Plus encore, plus les participants étaient proches physiquement, plus ils ont reporté des émotions similaires, et plus leurs activités cérébrales étaient couplées (manière générale et dans la bande de fréquence theta), lorsqu’ils reportaient des émotions intenses.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Many studies have demonstrated the importance of networking for study success and professional careers. In the context of business school, a professional network is essential for students' study success. That is why it is gaining a more prominent place in business school curricula as part of students' professional development. However, few studies have specifically investigated students' professional networks; most studies of students' networks focus on family and social networks. This study investigates students' professional networks by analysing their use of LinkedIn. It is based on a survey of students (n=271) at an international business school in the Netherlands. 80% of those students have an active LinkedIn account, but most of them rarely check their account and most spend less than 10 minutes a week on LinkedIn. Several factors play significant roles in explaining students' behaviour on LinkedIn: study year, personality traits and international background. These results can be used to help design training to develop students' online networking skills.
Chapter
Full-text available
Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the openness which cannot be understood as the culture that is acquired through education or good breeding, not as intellect or any other cognitive ability. Openness must be viewed in both structural and motivational terms. Openness is seen in the breadth, depth, and permeability of consciousness and in the recurrent need to enlarge and examine experience. Openness also suggests a passive or uncritical receptivity, which is clearly inappropriate. Open people actively seek out experience and are apt to be particularly reflective and thoughtful about the ideas they encounter. A structural account of openness may be necessary, but it does not seem to be sufficient. Open people are not the passive recipients of a barrage of experiences they are unable to screen out; they actively seek out new and varied experiences. Openness involves motivation, needs for variety cognition sentience, and understanding. The heritability of openness might be explained by the heritability of intelligence. Psychologists have spent more time and effort studying intelligence, than any other trait by adopting the term “Intellect.” Personality psychologists could claim this vast literature as their own. Openness could be construed as intelligence itself or as the reflection of intelligence in the personality sphere.
Article
Full-text available
Background Studies suggest a role for cardiovascular fitness in the prevention of affective disorders. AIMS: To determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 is associated with future risk of serious affective illness. METHOD: Population-based Swedish cohort study of male conscripts (n = 1 117 292) born in 1950-1987 with no history of mental illness who were followed for 3-40 years. Data on cardiovascular fitness at conscription were linked with national hospital registers to calculate future risk of depression (requiring in-patient care) and bipolar disorder. RESULTS: In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with increased risk for serious depression (hazard ratios (HR) = 1.96, 95%, CI 1.71-2.23). No such association could be shown for bipolar disorder (HR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.84-1.47). CONCLUSIONS: Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 was associated with increased risk of serious depression in adulthood. These results strengthen the theory of a cardiovascular contribution to the aetiology of depression.
Article
Full-text available
The experience of interest is central to intrinsic motivation for learning, so it is important to understand the nature of interest and its sources. Individual differences in fluid intelligence (Gf) predict finding things more interesting, but it is possible that this effect is merely due to the overlap of Gf with openness to experience, a strong predictor of interest across many domains. The present research measured Gf, the Big Five traits, and the interestingness of contemporary poems and visual art. Latent variable models found that Gf predicted interest in both poems and pictures, even when openness and gender were included as predictors. Moreover, Gf and openness did not interact, indicating main effects rather than joint effects. The relationship between Gf and interest thus appears robust.
Article
Full-text available
There are well-established relations between personality and the heart, as evidenced by associations between negative emotions on the one hand, and coronary heart disease or chronic heart failure on the other. However, there are substantial gaps in our knowledge about relations between the heart and personality in healthy individuals. Here, we investigated whether amplitude patterns of the electrocardiogram (ECG) correlate with neurotisicm, extraversion, agreeableness, warmth, positive emotion, and tender-mindedness as measured with the Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness (NEO) personality inventory. Specifically, we investigated (a) whether a cardiac amplitude measure that was previously reported to be related to flattened affectivity (referred to as Eκ values) would explain variance of NEO scores, and (b) whether correlations can be found between NEO scores and amplitudes of the ECG. NEO scores and rest ECGs were obtained from 425 healthy individuals. Neuroticism and positive emotion significantly differed between individuals with high and low Eκ values. In addition, stepwise cross-validated regressions indicated correlations between ECG amplitudes and (a) agreeableness, as well as (b) positive emotion. These results are the first to demonstrate that ECG amplitude patterns provide information about the personality of an individual as measured with NEO personality scales and facets. These findings open new perspectives for a more efficient personality assessment using cardiac measures, as well as for more efficient risk-stratification and pre-clinical diagnosis of individuals at risk for cardiac, affective and psychosomatic disorders.
Article
Full-text available
Research on the association of personality to political orientation has suggested that direct influences are modest. Here we used a personality system model in which direct influences on political behaviour flow from moral values, with personality mostly acting on these characteristic moral adaptations, rather than directly affecting political attitudes. Study 1 in 447 subjects supported this model, with significant effects on political orientation flowing from four of the five-factor model personality domains, but largely mediated through moral values concerning the importance of group order and individual rights. This personality system model was replicated in an independent study (n= 476) using a US sample and including a different measure of politics. Both studies support predictions that personality has significant effects on political attitudes, but that these are exerted largely via moral values. These findings help to explain inconsistencies in previous studies attempting to link personality to political orientation that have not included the intermediary level of values.
Article
Full-text available
Diapause entails molecular, physiological and morphological remodeling of living animals, culminating in a dormant state characterized by enhanced stress tolerance. Molecular mechanisms driving diapause resemble those responsible for biochemical processes in proliferating cells and include transcriptional, post-transcriptional and post-translational processes. The results are directed gene expression, differential mRNA and protein accumulation and protein modifications, including those that occur in response to changes in cellular redox potential. Biochemical pathways switch, metabolic products change and energy production is adjusted. Changes to biosynthetic activities result for example in the synthesis of molecular chaperones, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins and protective coverings, all contributing to stress tolerance. The purpose of this review is to consider regulatory and mechanistic strategies that are potentially key to metabolic control and stress tolerance during diapause, while remembering that organisms undergoing diapause are as diverse as the processes itself. Some of the parameters described have well-established roles in diapause, whereas the evidence for others is cursory.
Article
Test scores of divergent thinking obtained between 1959 and 1972 were correlated with a variety of personality measures administered since 1980. In this sample of 268 men, divergent thinking was consistently associated with self-reports and ratings of openness to experience, but not with neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. Both divergent thinking and openness were also modestly correlated with Gough's (1979)empirically derived Creative Personality Scale. Several other personality variables mentioned in the literature were also examined; those that were associated with divergent thinking were also generally correlated with openness. These data suggest that creativity is particularly related to the personality domain of openness to experience.
Article
From the Five Factor Model (FFM), we hypothesized openness to experience would positively predict divergent thinking. From revised Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (r-RST), we hypothesized revised Behavioural Approach System (r-BAS) would positively predict divergent thinking and revised Fight/Flight/Freezing System (r-FFFS) would negatively predict divergent thinking. Moreover, we hypothesized that r-FFFS would incrementally predict divergent thinking after controlling for significant FFM traits. Consistent with Elliot and Thrash (2010), we also hypothesized an indirect effects model with r-BAS predicting divergent thinking through mastery. Using 130 participants, we found support or partial support for all hypotheses. Our results indicate that biological factors of personality associated with r-RST as well as openness to experience predict divergent thinking. The distinction between fear and anxiety in r-RST was also supported with fear and not anxiety negatively predicting divergent thinking.
Article
Test scores of divergent thinking obtained between 1959 and 1972 were correlated with a variety of personality measures administered since 1980. In this sample of 268 men, divergent thinking was consistently associated with self-reports and ratings of openness to experience, but not with neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, or conscientiousness. Both divergent thinking and openness were also modestly correlated with Gough's (1979) empirically derived Creative Personality Scale. Several other personality variables mentioned in the literature were also examined; those that were associated with divergent thinking were also generally correlated with openness. These data suggest that creativity is particularly related to the personality domain of openness to experience. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This chapter discusses the personality trait of openness to experience. Openness is one of the dimensions of the Five-Factor Model of personality traits. As such, it is a very broad construct that is often difficult to grasp. The component traits or facets of Openness are the most loosely related of any of the five factors and thus the weakest in replication studies. Piedmont and Aycock showed that terms for Openness entered the English language centuries after terms for Extraversion and Agreeableness, and McCrae noted that many O-related traits, such as aesthetic sensitivity, are still not represented by single trait adjectives in English. Lay conceptions of Openness are often confounded with interpersonal openness. It is therefore understandable that there are different conceptualizations of Openness among experts. In this chapter we adopt the view of Openness operationalized in the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, but in general there are substantial correlations among different measures of Openness, including the Openness scale of the Big Five Inventory, and Goldberg's adjective-based Intellect scales. (However, the fifth factor in the Five-Factor Personality Inventory). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Aesthetic chills are transient emotional responses to music or other experiences of beauty. Item 188 of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) asks respondents if they have experienced these chills, and in American samples it is one of the best definers of Openness to Experience, one of the five basic personality factors. As part of the NEO-PI-R, the item has been translated into over 40 languages, and an examination of back-translations suggests that the phenomenon can be expressed in all the languages examined. Data from the Personality Profiles of Cultures Project show that Item 188 is one of the best definers of Openness in most of the 51 cultures examined. Aesthetic chills appear to be a universal emotional experience, although the functions they serve and the mechanisms that account for them remain to be discovered.
Article
Herbivore damage is generally detrimental to plant fitness, and the evolu- tionary response of plant populations to damage can involve either increased resistance or increased tolerance. While characters that contribute to resistance, such as secondary chem- icals and trichomes, are relatively well understood, characters that contribute to a plant's ability to tolerate damage have received much less attention. Using Helianthus annuus (wild sunflower) and simulated damage of Haplorhynchites aeneus (head-clipping weevil) as a model system, we examined morphological characters and developmental processes that contribute to compensatory ability. We performed a factorial experiment that included three levels of damage (none, the first two, or the first four inflorescences were clipped with scissors) and eight sires each mated to four dams. We found that plants compensated fully for simulated head-clipper damage and that there was no variation among plant families in compensatory ability: seed production and mean seed mass did not vary among treat- ments, and sire X treatment interactions were not significant. Plants used four mechanisms to compensate for damage: (1) Clipped plants produced significantly more inflorescences than unclipped plants. Plants produced these additional inflorescences on higher order branches at the end of the flowering season. (2) Clipped plants filled significantly more seeds in their remaining heads than did unclipped plants. (3) Clipped plants, because they effectively flowered later than unclipped plants, were less susceptible to damage by seed- feeding herbivores other than Haplorhynchites. (4) In later heads, seed size was greater on clipped plants, which allowed mean seed size to be maintained in clipped plants. Although there was genetic variation among the families used in this experiment for most of the characters associated with compensation for damage (seed number, mean seed size, mean flowering date, length of the flowering period, and branching morphology), in analyses of these characters, no sire X treatment interactions were significant indicating that all of the families relied on similar mechanisms to compensate for damage.
Article
The authors examined social class differences in 2 aspects of the sense of control (mastery and perceived constraints) in 3 national probability samples of men and women ages 25-75 years (N1 = 1,014; N2 = 1,195; N3 = 3,485). Participants with lower income had lower perceived mastery and higher perceived constraints, as well as poorer health. Results of hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that for all income groups, higher perceived mastery and lower perceived constraints were related to better health, greater life satisfaction, and lower depressive symptoms. However, control beliefs played a moderating role; participants in the lowest income group with a high sense of control showed levels of health and well-being comparable with the higher income groups. The results provided some evidence that psychosocial variables such as sense of control may be useful in understanding social class differences in health.
Article
Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline (1995-1996). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004-2005), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample (aged 35-85).To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Respondents traveled to clinics for a 2-day data-collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hr urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, and a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3% or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for nonparticipation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects.
Article
The psychological study of creativity is essential to human progress. If strides are to be made in the sciences, humanities, and arts, we must arrive at a far more detailed understanding of the creative process, its antecedents, and its inhibitors. This review, encompassing most subspecialties in the study of creativity and focusing on twenty-first-century literature, reveals both a growing interest in creativity among psychologists and a growing fragmentation in the field. To be sure, research into the psychology of creativity has grown theoretically and methodologically sophisticated, and researchers have made important contributions from an ever-expanding variety of disciplines. But this expansion has not come without a price. Investigators in one subfield often seem unaware of advances in another. Deeper understanding requires more interdisciplinary research, based on a systems view of creativity that recognizes a variety of interrelated forces operating at multiple levels.
Article
The study investigated relationships between autonomic cardiovascular control and attentional performance. In 60 healthy subjects R-wave to pulse interval (RPI), respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), heart rate variability in the mid-frequency (MF) band and sensitivity of the cardiac baroreflex (BRS) were assessed at rest and during a visual attention test. All parameters decreased markedly during test execution. Lower values of resting BRS predicted increased performance. On-task RPI, RSA, MF power and BRS were inversely related to attentional functioning, with RSA accounting for the largest portion of test score variance. The inverse association between resting BRS and performance is discussed as reflecting the bottom-up modulation of cerebral function by baroreceptor activity. The results concerning the on-task measures suggest that a pattern of cardiovascular adjustment including enhanced sympathetic and reduced vagal cardiovascular influences, as well as baroreflex inhibition may induce an adaptive state associated with improved cognitive-attentional functioning.
Article
We tested the hypothesis that psychological stress testing in the clinical laboratory provokes changes in the sympathetic and vagal activities regulating heart rate that can be assessed noninvasively using spectral analysis of RR variability. To account for the effects on respiration produced by talking, this study was performed with two different procedures: the I.K.T. (i.e., a computer-controlled mental task that is performed in silence and does not entail human confrontation) and a stressful interview. Finally, we assessed whether ischemic heart disease modifies the spectral changes induced by psychological stress by comparing a group of healthy subjects (age, 38 +/- 2 years) with a group of patients (age, 52 +/- 3 years) recovering from 1-month-old myocardial infarctions. The findings indicate that psychological stress induced marked changes in the sympathovagal balance, which moved toward sympathetic predominance. The low-frequency component of RR variability, a marker of sympathetic activity, increased from 58 +/- 5 normalized units (NU) to 68 +/- 3 NU with the I.K.T. and to 76 +/- 3 NU with the interview. This increase was absent in the group of post-myocardial infarction patients. However, arterial pressure increased significantly in both groups of subjects. The possibility of age playing an important role in determining the differences observed was disproved by the findings of a marked increase in low frequency with mental stimuli in an additional group of borderline hypertensive subjects with ages (55 +/- 2 years) comparable to those of post-myocardial infarction patients.
Article
A rational strategy for the automated detection of artifacts in heart period data is outlined and evaluated. The specific implementation of this approach for heart period data is based on the distribution characteristics of successive heart period differences. Because beat-to-beat differences generated by artifacts are large, relative to normal heart period variability, extreme differences between successive heart periods serve to identify potential artifacts. Critical to this approach are: 1) the derivation of the artifact criterion from the distribution of beat differences of the individual subject, and 2) the use of percentile-based distribution indexes, which are less sensitive to corruption by the presence of artifactual values than are least-squares estimates. The artifact algorithms were able to effectively identify artifactual beats embedded in heart period records, flagging each of the 1494 simulated and actual artifacts in data sets derived from both humans and chimpanzees. At the same time, the artifact algorithms yielded a false alarm rate of less than 0.3%. Although the present implementation was restricted to heart period data, the outlined approach to artifact detection may also be applicable to other biological signals.
Article
Heart rate was monitored while 20 young males completed MATH, a computer-operated mental arithmetic task specifically designed for use in experiments involving subjects of heterogeneous numerical ability, and a standard mental arithmetic task used in this laboratory on several occasions. Both tasks elicited sizeable increases in heart rate, and comparison of subjects' reactivity scores revealed significant inter-task consistency of reaction.
Article
The relationship between heart rate variability and respiration patterns was investigated using spectral analysis techniques in nine full-term infants whose ages ranged from 39-75 h. All the infants were studied during sleep, although no attempt was made to classify rapid eye movement or nonrapid eye movement states prospectively. The data obtained were examined to determine which aspects of neonatal breathing patterns are correlated with heart rate variability. Three spectral regions of heart rate variability could be identified: a very low frequency region below 0.02 Hz; a low frequency region from 0.02-0.20 Hz; and a high frequency region above 0.20 Hz. The dominant heart rate variability activity in these neonates was seen in the very low and low frequency regions, with little activity in the high frequency regions. In contrast to older infants and adults, respiration and heart rate variability were not strongly related through a high frequency region respiratory sinus arrhythmia but rather through a breath amplitude sinus arrhythmia which occurs in the low frequency region of the spectrum. The prominent very low frequency activity and the low frequency activity ascribed to breath amplitude modulation may result from autonomic nervous system mediation of chemoregulation.
Article
A computer-operated mental arithmetic task is outlined which presents questions at a level of difficulty continuously determined by subjects' accuracy of response on the previous question. The programme incorporates 5 levels of difficulty, and all questions concern the addition or subtraction of two numbers which vary in digit-span according to the current level of difficulty. Response requirements are manual rather than verbal so that, in addition to monitoring heart rate, subjects' exhaled air may be collected throughout the task in order to determine oxygen consumption.
Article
According to the Rosenblueth-Simeone model, the heart rate (HR) is proportional to the sympathovagal balance. The individual proportionality constant is the intrinsic heart rate, which can only be determined invasively. The normalized low-frequency heart rate variability power (LF) has been raised as a calibrated noninvasive alternative. To concrete this assumption, we studied the individual LF-HR relation during incremental head-up tilt (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 degrees) in 21 young, healthy males. HR (means +/- SD) increased from 61.0 +/- 9.1 beats/min at 0 degree to 85.9 +/- 18.3 beats/min at 80 degrees. LF increased from 45.8 +/- 16.7 nu at 0 degrees to 79.8 +/- 13.8 nu at 80 degrees (nu meaning normalized units). Individual regressions of LF on HR yielded correlation coefficients of 0.80 +/- 0.13 (means +/- SD). The demonstrated linear relation between LF and HR confirms the potential significance of heart rate variability as a noninvasive means of assessing the sympathovagal balance.
Article
Gender and age are both known to affect heart rate variability (HRV). Their interaction is not known. HRV, determined from 24-hour Holter recordings, was compared between gender-matched older (15 men and 15 women, aged 67 +/- 3 years, range 64 to 76) and younger (15 men and 15 women, aged 33 +/- 4 years, range 26 to 42) subjects selected for an age difference of approximately 35 years. HRV for older and younger subjects was compared separately by gender. HRV was also compared by gender within groups. Heart rates were significantly higher, and all time and frequency domain indexes of HRV were significantly lower among the older than among the younger men. Among the women only the shorter term indexes of HRV were significantly lower in the older group. When HRV was compared by gender within age groups, there were no significant differences between men and women in the older group. In the younger group, men had lower heart rates, and all 24-hour time domain indexes of HRV, except those that reflect vagal modulation of heart rate, were significantly higher than those in women. We conclude that HRV is comparable in older men and women. However, HRV is differently affected by age. In men, for whom initial levels of HRV are significantly higher, older age is associated with a global reduction in HRV, reflecting reductions in both sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation and a loss of circadian variability. In women, older age is associated mainly with a decline in shorter term indexes of HRV without significant changes in circadian variability.
Article
We used positron emission tomography to study neural mechanisms underlying intensely pleasant emotional responses to music. Cerebral blood flow changes were measured in response to subject-selected music that elicited the highly pleasurable experience of "shivers-down-the-spine" or "chills." Subjective reports of chills were accompanied by changes in heart rate, electromyogram, and respiration. As intensity of these chills increased, cerebral blood flow increases and decreases were observed in brain regions thought to be involved in reward/motivation, emotion, and arousal, including ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex. These brain structures are known to be active in response to other euphoria-inducing stimuli, such as food, sex, and drugs of abuse. This finding links music with biologically relevant, survival-related stimuli via their common recruitment of brain circuitry involved in pleasure and reward.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vagal tone on performance during executive and non-executive tasks, using a working memory and a sustained attention test. Reactivity to cognitive tasks was also investigated using heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifty-three male sailors from the Royal Norwegian Navy participated in this study. Inter-beat-intervals were recorded continuously for 5 min of baseline, followed by randomized presentation of a working memory test (WMT) based on Baddeley and Hitch's research (1974) and a continuous performance test (CPT). The session ended with a 5-min recovery period. High HRV and low HRV groups were formed based on a median split of the root mean squared successive differences during baseline. The results showed that the high HRV group showed more correct responses than the low HRV group on the WMT. Furthermore, the high HRV group showed faster mean reaction time (mRT), more correct responses and less error, than the low HRV group on the CPT. Follow-up analysis revealed that this was evident only for components of the CPT where executive functions were involved. The analyses of reactivity showed a suppression of HRV and an increase in HR during presentation of cognitive tasks compared to recovery. This was evident for both groups. The present results indicated that high HRV was associated with better performance on tasks involving executive function.
Article
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) plays an important role not only in physiological situations, but also in various pathological settings such as diabetic neuropathy, myocardial infarction (MI) and congestive heart failure (CHF). Autonomic imbalance associating increased sympathetic activity and reduced vagal tone has been been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of arrhythmogenesis and sudden cardiac death. Among the different available noninvasive techniques for assessing the autonomic status heart rate variability (HRV) has emerged as a simple, noninvasive method to evaluate the sympathovagal balance at the sinoatrial level. It has been used in a variety of clinical situations including diabetic neuropathy, MI, sudden death and CHF. The standard measurements intervening in the analysis of HRV comprise time domain indices, geometric methods and components of the frequency domain. Measurements of HRV are generally performed on the basis of 24 hour Holter recordings (long-term recordings) or on shorter periods ranging from 0.5 to 5 minutes (short-term recordings). The use of long or short-term recordings depends on the type of study that has to be realised. Established clinical data based on numerous studies published during the last decade consider decreased global HRV as a strong predictor of increased all-cause cardiac and/or arrhythmic mortality, particularly in patients at risk after MI or with CHF. This article reviews the mechanism, the parameters and the use of HRV as a marker reflecting the activity of the sympathetic and vagal components of the ANS on the sinus node, and as a clinical tool for screening and identifying patients particularly at risk for cardiac mortality.
Article
Previous studies of physiological responses to music showed inconsistent results, which might be attributable to methodological differences. Heart rate variability has been used to assess activation of the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous systems. The present study aimed to examine heart rate variability with repetitive exposure to sedative or excitative music. The participants were 13 undergraduate or graduate students who were each exposed to three conditions sedative music (SM), excitative music (EM), and no music (NM) on different days. Each participant underwent four sessions of one condition in a day. Sedative music and no music each induced both high relaxation and low tension subjectively. However, excitative music decreased perceived tension and increased perceived relaxation as the number of sessions increased. The low-frequency (LF) component of heart rate variability (HRV) and the LF/HF (high-frequency) ratio increased during SM and EM sessions but decreased during NM sessions. The HF component of HRV during SM was higher than that during EM but the same as that during NM. These findings suggest that excitative music decreased the activation of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Music, emotions and vegetative functions
  • G Harrer
  • H Harrer
Harrer, G., & Harrer, H. (1977). Music, emotions and vegetative functions. In M. D. Critchley & R. A. Henson (Eds.), Music and the brain. Studies in the neurology of Music. London: William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd.
Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing
  • X Vienna
X). Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
National survey of midlife in the United States (MIDUS II): Daily stress project
  • C D Ryff
  • D M Almeida
Ryff, C. D., & Almeida, D. M. (2009). National survey of midlife in the United States (MIDUS II): Daily stress project, 2004-2009. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR).
Sympathovagal interaction during mental stress. A study using spectral analysis Intercept 3
  • M Pagani
  • G Mazzuero
  • A Ferrari
  • D Liberati
  • S Cerutti
  • D Vaitl
Pagani, M., Mazzuero, G., Ferrari, A., Liberati, D., Cerutti, S., Vaitl, D., et al. (1991). Sympathovagal interaction during mental stress. A study using spectral analysis Intercept 3.927 1.586 2.475 .014 0.01 4.040 1.590 2.540 .011 0.04
  • B A Hennessey
  • T M Amabile
Hennessey, B. A., & Amabile, T. M. (2010). Creativity. Annual Review of Psychology, 61, 569-598.
Heart rate variability: A noninvasive electrocardiographic method to measure the autonomic nervous system
  • J Stajzel
Stajzel, J. (2004). Heart rate variability: A noninvasive electrocardiographic method to measure the autonomic nervous system. Swiss Medical Weekly, 134, 514-522.