Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Does an increase in creative thinking or imagination make people more sensitive toward others? To answer this question, this paper re-analyses data collected by Dziedziewicz et al. (2014), who developed a creativity training oriented toward the development of intercultural competencies and creative abilities of school children. While the original study has shown that the intervention was effective in increasing both creative abilities and intercultural competencies, little is known about the exact mechanism of this influence. ...
... Stimulating creativity and cultural competence can be successfully combined together in one intervention. To this end, Dziedziewicz, Gajda, and Karwowski (2014) developed and evaluated the effectiveness of the Creativity Compassan intervention program dedicated to 6−12-year-old children, which integrates intercultural education with creativity-enhancing tasks. The tasks engage divergent thinking, creative imagination, uses of metaphors, transformations, and a number of other thinking skills relevant for creativity. ...
... The tasks engage divergent thinking, creative imagination, uses of metaphors, transformations, and a number of other thinking skills relevant for creativity. The program's aims were to (1) stimulate participants' creative abilities and attitudes, and simultaneously (2) teach the students about cultural diversity and encourage development of intercultural sensitivity, cultural self-awareness, and desire to explore other cultures (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Jankowska, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2015). Examination of the effectiveness of Creativity Compass was conducted on a group of 66 Polish students who took part in the program as well as 56 students in the control group, and used a pre-and post-intervention design. ...
... School-related Factors. When examining creativity skills, one of the most researched factors is academic performance (Gralewski and Karwowski 2012;Dziedziewicz et al. 2014;Gajda et al. 2017). Examining 589 students from 34 upper secondary schools in Poland, Gralewski and Karwowski (2012) discovered negative relation between creative abilities and students' GPA but in some separated schools, a strong and meaningful association could be found. ...
... A study examining art teachers, artists, and gallery educators in four secondary schools in London in collaborating with four galleries has demonstrated that students' creativity development could be improved by moving learning sites into the galleries (Burgess and Addison 2007). Also concerning education and creativity, an intervention study tested the effectiveness of the Creative Compass program on the intercultural and creative competencies of 122 students between the ages of 8 and 12 and showed that the program was highly effective to students' creativity in the aspects of divergent thinking and imagination (Dziedziewicz et al. 2014). The important role of collaborative activities in promoting students' creativity is also claimed by a variety of scholars. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses determinant factors of creative thinking skills in students, including demographic features, within and out-of-school experiences, digital usage and ICT (Information and Communication Technology) skills. Structural equated model constructed from 1181 observations from Vietnamese secondary students reveals that students’ digital usage and ICT skills, together with experiences within and outside school are strong predictors of their creativity levels. Demographic features, academic performance and after-school tuition are found insignificant to school learners’ creative abilities. The results provide significant insights into the current situation of skills education and policy implications to improve instructional quality of Vietnam’s education system and other nations with similar sociocultural contexts. Received: 11 November 2021 / Accepted: 14 December 2021 / Published: 5 March 2022
... There is no time limit to complete this task. The drawings are assessed on a three-point scale (0-1-2), which combines imagery vividness and originality ratings: no points are given for a conventional form, one point is given for quite a complex form, which partially stands out in its originality and unconventional approach, and two points are given for drawings with a rich, free, and unconventional form, which are not strictly based on the initial figure (e.g., Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Dziedziewicz et al., 2013). ...
... Study 2. Creative imagination was measured using the Franck Drawing Completion Test (FDCT), successfully applied in earlier research on creativity (Dziedziewicz et al., 2013(Dziedziewicz et al., , 2014. FDCT is composed of 12 figures, placed in separate "windows." ...
... Threshold scoring awards responses that occur less frequently as compared to predefined thresholds (Cropley, 1967;Runco, 2008;Torrance, 1990). The complement of frequency estimates (i.e., 1-relative frequency; see Mouchiroud & Lubart, 2001) or the inverse of frequency estimates (i.e., [relative frequency] − 1 ; see Beketayev & Runco, 2016;Dziedziewicz et al., 2014) can also result directly in an originality score. What all of these scoring approaches have in common is that frequency estimates are the basis for originality. ...
... Each of these scoring approaches requires evaluation of each response according to a certain weighting based on a response's frequency of occurrence: (a) complementary scoring weighs every response by 1-relative frequency Mouchiroud & Lubart, 2001;Runco et al., 1987); (b) inverse scoring weighs each response by (relative frequency) − 1 (Beketayev & Runco, 2016;Dziedziewicz et al., 2014); (c) Cropley's multiple threshold approach (Cropley, 1967) weighs responses according to the following scheme: relative frequency of < 1 % is awarded 4 points; relative frequency of < 3 % is awarded 3 points; relative frequency of < 5 % is awarded 2 points; relative frequency of < 15 % is awarded 1 point, and all relative frequencies ≥ 15 % are awarded 0 points; (d) uniqueness scoring weighs every response that was provided by only one participant in the sample with a value of 1 and 0 otherwise (Silvia et al., 2008;Wallach & Kogan, 1965); (e) 5 % threshold scoring weighs relative frequencies of < 5 % with a value of 1 and relative frequencies ≥ 5 % with zero (Runco, 2008;Runco et al., 1987); (f) 5 % threshold scoring weighs relative frequencies of < 10 % with a value of 1 and relative frequencies ≥ 10 % with zero (Runco, 2008;Runco et al., 1987). These originality evaluations applied at the response level were then used to aggregate scores at the person-level (see details below). ...
Preprint
Creativity—as any other object of scientific endeavor—requires a sound measurement that adheres to quality criteria. For decades, creativity science has been criticized as falling short in developing valid and reliable measures of creative potential, activity, and achievement. Recent years have witnessed growth of theoretical and empirical works that focused on improving creativity assessment. Here, we apply one of such recently developed approaches based on item response theory to examine ideas’ and person score reliability in a divergent thinking task. A large sample (N = 621) of children and adolescents solved the Circles task from Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural and two other figural tests measuring creative thinking (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production) and creative imagination (Test of Creative Imagery Abilities). By employing response propensity models, we observed that separate ideas’ reliability tended to fall below recommended thresholds (even liberal ones, e.g., .60) unless the sample size as well as the number of generated ideas (fluency) were large. Importantly, reliability at the idea-level affected reliability at the person-level much less than could be assumed based on recent findings. We propose a systematic perspective on divergent thinking assessment that considers responses as nested in tasks and tasks as nested in tests. Finally, we recommend that adding more tasks to divergent thinking tests might increase reliability at the task-level.
... As intercultural sensitivity is crucial to effective intercultural communication, researchers have investigated the effectiveness of various training approaches to enhance intercultural sensitivity (e.g., via movies [30] and creative imagination [21]). However, there are limited studies examining the effectiveness of using immersive media to enhance intercultural sensitivity. ...
Article
Prior studies suggest that emotional empathy is one of the components of intercultural sensitivity - the affective dimension under the concept of intercultural communication competence. Based on existing theories and findings, this paper reports a randomised parallel longitudinal study investigating the use of virtual reality (VR) exposure to enhance intercultural sensitivity. A total of 80 participants (36 females and 44 males) joined the study and were included in the data analysis. The participants were randomly assigned to the VR group, the video group, and the control group. Their intercultural sensitivity was measured three times: one week before the exposure ( T <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">1</sub> ), right after the exposure ( T <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2</sub> ), and three weeks after the exposure ( T <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">3</sub> ). The results suggested that (1) the intercultural sensitivity of the VR group was significantly enhanced in both within-subject comparisons and between-subject comparisons, (2) there were no significant differences in intercultural sensitivity between the VR group and the video group at T <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">2</sub> , but the VR group retained the enhancement better at T <sub xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">3</sub> , and (3) the sense of presence and emotional empathy well predicted the change in intercultural sensitivity of the VR group. The results, together with the participants' feedback and comments, provide new insights into the practice of using VR for intercultural sensitivity training and encourage future research on exploring the contributing factors of the results.
... Most importantly, creative ability extends the understanding of integrated areas of knowledge (Sharp, 2004). Such definitions show how the creative process involves the ability to multi-perspective visions and it is a possible effective space for intercultural and social comparison: in this sense, creative and innovative solutions to complex problems should be accompanied by greater intercultural competence, greater selfawareness, reflection and the ability to bridge across differences (Dziedziewicz, Gajda & Karwowski, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
The study examined students’ perceptions of participating in collaborative learning activities in ICTPED MOOC (Pedagogical Information and Communication Technology (ICTPED) Massive Open Online Course) offered by a University College in Norway aiming to develop professional digital competence in students. The study also provided an insight into what students' perceptions and experiences of taking part in collaborative learning practices suggest when it comes to promoting collaborative learning activities in MOOCs, and online learning environments. Analyses of the post-course survey data suggested that most of the students were satisfied with opportunities to learn collaboratively through discussion forums, peer reviews, and online video meetings. The asynchronous modes of collaboration (discussion forum and peer review) remained dominant modes of collaboration, compared to the synchronous ones (online meetings). However, data suggest many factors such as feeling interfering in others’ activities, being exposed to unknown peers, and unknown technology might hinder students' participation in online collaborative learning activities.
... Most importantly, creative ability extends the understanding of integrated areas of knowledge (Sharp, 2004). Such definitions show how the creative process involves the ability to multi-perspective visions and it is a possible effective space for intercultural and social comparison: in this sense, creative and innovative solutions to complex problems should be accompanied by greater intercultural competence, greater selfawareness, reflection and the ability to bridge across differences (Dziedziewicz, Gajda & Karwowski, 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The paper presents some data and reflections from a survey, carried out by INDIRE, on 336 projects developed by the Italian schools that participated in the Triennial Plan of the Arts promoted by the Minis- try of Education (Decree 60/2017), which aimed at promoting humanistic culture, the enhancement of heritage knowledge, cultural productions and support for creativity. The research question that this work raises is: “how can civic and intercultural skills be conveyed through creative processes and in the teaching of the arts?”
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Das folgende Kapitel befasst sich mit der Nutzbarmachung von Diversity in Organisationen und der Rolle von Führung in diesem Prozess. Zu Beginn werden aktuelle gesellschaftliche Entwicklungen, wie Migration und Globalisierung, aufgegriffen, um die Relevanz von Diversity und Diversity Management aufzuzeigen. Zudem wird die aktuelle Arbeitsmarktsituation von Migrierenden in Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich betrachtet. Darüber hinaus wird das Konstrukt der sozialen Diskriminierung eingehend beleuchtet und auf die Entstehung, Wirkung und Aufrechterhaltung diskriminierender Strukturen und Verhaltensweisen im heutigen Deutschland eingegangen. Anschließend werden die Vor- und Nachteile der Arbeit in heterogenen Teams eingehend diskutiert sowie Modelle und Führungsstile im Hinblick auf die Führung diverser Arbeitsgruppen erläutert. Führungsverhalten und die Erwartung an die Führungskraft werden ergänzend aus einer kulturvergleichenden Perspektive betrachtet und es wird herausgearbeitet, welche Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede diesbezüglich vorhanden sein können. Abschließend wird auf die Operationalisierung von Führungserfolg in interkulturellen Kontexten eingegangen. Einerseits wird die Beziehung zwischen Mitarbeitenden und Führungskraft beleuchtet, andererseits die Wahrnehmung von angemessenem Verhalten der Führungskraft durch die Mitarbeitenden diskutiert.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Das folgende Kapitel gibt einen Überblick über psychologische Ansätze, die zur Erklärung von Migrationsprozessen und deren psychologischen Folgen herangezogen werden können. Dies umfasst unter anderem den Identitätsansatz, den Ansatz des kulturellen Lernens und den stresstheoretischen Ansatz. Zunächst werden grundlegende Erkenntnisse zu den Themen Stereotype, Vorurteile und Diskriminierung angeführt und in verschiedene Theorien eingebettet. Im nächsten Schritt wird Akkulturation, als Identitätsansatz, aus theoretischer und empirischer Sicht anhand verschiedener Modelle und Ansätze erläutert. Besonders die Akkulturationsstrategie der Integration wird hervorgehoben, da diese mit Vorteilen und Chancen, sowohl für die Migrierenden als auch die Mehrheitsgesellschaft, einhergeht. Anschließend werden unterschiedliche Aspekte und Herausforderungen eines Akkulturationsprozesses und die jeweiligen Einflussfaktoren dargestellt. Beispiele sind der Kulturschock und der akkulturative Stress, die mit negativen Emotionen, Angst oder gar Depressionen zusammenhängen. Dem gegenüber steht der Prozess der kulturellen Anpassung, den das Individuum durchlebt, bis es sich in der neuen Kultur wohlfühlt und sich kulturadäquate Verhaltensweisen angeeignet hat. Den Abschluss des Kapitels bilden verschiedene Einflussfaktoren auf den interkulturellen Erfolg.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The following chapter presents a study examining the influence of social competence and social identity on intercultural competence among pupils and students. Social and intercultural competences have become an important educational objective of schools and universities. The current study investigates how social competence and national identity relate with pupils’ and students’ intercultural competence. Furthermore, the study examines in which educational system (school versus university) intercultural competence is supported more. Applying a cross-sectional study design with 544 pupils and students (aged 16–34 years), we test for differences between male and female and age groups. Results showed social competences to be a suitable predictor for pupils’ and students’ intercultural competence. Additionally, positive correlations were found between intercultural competence and positive attitudes towards the outgroup. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Das vorliegende Kapitel stellt eine Querschnittsstudie vor, die den Einfluss von imaginiertem Kontakt auf Einstellungen, Vorurteile, Intergruppenangst und Verhaltensabsichten von deutschen Studierenden ( N = 502) gegenüber Gasthörenden mit Geflüchteten Status untersucht. Auf Basis der Kontakthypothese ist anzunehmen, dass imaginierter Kontakt Veränderungen von Einstellungen und Verhaltensabsichten gegenüber Mitgliedern sozialer Outgroups anstoßen kann. Anhand eines Experiments wird die Wirksamkeit des imaginierten Kontaktes mittels Online-Instruktion untersucht. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass imaginierter Kontakt einerseits positive Verhaltensabsichten begünstigt andererseits Angst vor unangenehmen Interaktionssituationen, Intergruppenangst, verstärkt. Einstellungen und Vorurteile unterscheiden sich nicht zwischen Experimental- und Kontrollgruppe. Implikationen und Potenziale für weiterführende Forschung werden diskutiert.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Die in diesem Kapitel dargestellte Studie befasst sich mit verschiedenen Prädiktoren von Diversity Beliefs bei MINT-Studierenden ohne Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland. Trotz der hohen kulturellen Diversität in der MINT-Branche ist der Umgang mit und die Einstellung zu Vielfalt noch nicht in MINT-Curricula integriert. Diversity Beliefs stehen für die individuelle Überzeugung, dass Diversität innerhalb einer Gruppe mit positiven Effekten verbunden ist. Unterschiedliche Studien konnten aufzeigen, dass Diversity Beliefs einen entscheidenden Einfluss darauf haben, ob vielfältige Gruppen erfolgreich zusammenarbeiten. Auf Grundlage der vorausgegangenen qualitativen Studien, die explorativ Wechselwirkungen zur Diversity Orientierung untersucht haben, werden in dieser Studie die Intergruppenangst, soziale Dominanzorientierung, autoritäre Aggression, vorherige Kontakterfahrungen, die Akkulturationsstrategie und die Intergruppenbedrohung als Prädiktoren von Diversity Beliefs berücksichtigt. In einem Querschnittsdesign wurden 271 Studierende verschiedener deutscher Hochschulen und Universitäten befragt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die positiven Kontakterfahrungen und eine integrative Akkulturationsstrategie signifikant positiv mit den Diversity Beliefs der Studierenden zusammenhängen. Zudem konnte ein signifikanter indirekter Zusammenhang zwischen der sozialen Dominanzorientierung und den Diversity Beliefs der Studierenden über die Intergruppenbedrohung ermittelt werden. Diese Studie leistet damit einen Beitrag zum weiteren Verständnis des Umgangs mit Vielfalt in der MINT-Branche und bietet wissenschaftliche und praktische Implikationen für das Diversity Management an Hochschulen, insbesondere im Fachbereich MINT.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Im folgenden Kapitel wird eine Untersuchung zum Thema Diversity und Diversity Management im MINT-Studium präsentiert. Aufgrund des Fachkräftemangels in den Bereichen Mathematik, Ingenieurwesen, Naturwissenschaften und Technik (MINT) und vor dem Hintergrund der hohen kulturellen Diversität auf dem MINT-Arbeitsmarkt in Deutschland, ist der Umgang mit kultureller Vielfalt an Hochschulen für MINT-Studiengänge von besonderer Bedeutung. In diesem Beitrag wird die Übertragbarkeit bereits etablierter Diversity Management Konzepte auf MINT-Studierende anhand 90 qualitativer Interviews mit MINT-Studierenden mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund exploriert. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich der größte Teil der Studierenden ohne Migrationshintergrund der Diversität im eigenen Umfeld kaum bewusst ist und viele Diversität für ein Hindernis halten. Studierende mit Migrationshintergrund berichten von wahrgenommenen Faultlines (Trenngrenzen zwischen sozialen Gruppen), die ihrerseits mit einer weniger sensiblen Wahrnehmung für diskriminierendes Verhalten sowie Stereotypenbedrohung und einer weniger kritischen Auseinandersetzung mit Diversity einhergehen. Anhand der Ergebnisse wird geraten, Diversity systematisch in den Curricula von MINT-Studiengängen umzusetzen, um die zukünftigen Fach- und Führungskräfte in diesem wirtschaftlich bedeutsamen Fachbereich adäquat auf die Anforderungen im Arbeitsalltag vorzubereiten.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Im folgenden Kapitel werden die Themen Diversity und Diversity Management aus forschungs- und anwendungsbezogener Perspektive behandelt. Zu diesem Zweck wird als erstes die Relevanz von Diversity Management in zunehmend heterogenen Gesellschaften und Unternehmen beschrieben. Das Kapitel verdeutlicht dabei, dass Diversity als ganzheitliches Konzept wahrgenommen und implementiert werden muss, um die Potenziale von Vielfalt tatsächlich nutzbar zu machen und Diskriminierung zu verhindern. Um die Relevanz dieses Ansatzes zu verdeutlichen, werden Prädiktoren, Zusammenhänge und mögliche positive sowie negative Auswirkungen von Diversity im Unternehmen vorgestellt und diskutiert. Anhand aktueller Erkenntnisse aus der Forschung wird dargelegt, wie Diversity Management in Organisationen erfolgreich umgesetzt werden kann und warum die Forschung dazu insbesondere top-down Führung und Diversity Beliefs betrachtet. Darüber hinaus wird ein praxisorientiertes Modell vorgestellt, das dabei helfen kann, Bereiche mit Entwicklungsbedarf zu bestimmen und Maßnahmen in ihrer Wirksamkeit zu bewerten.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Im folgenden Kapitel wird eine Studie zum Umgang mit Diversity in verschiedenen Unternehmen aus Sicht der Mitarbeitenden mit und ohne Diversitätscharakteristika vorgestellt. Durch den demografischen Wandel und Zuwanderung gewinnt das Thema Diversity Management in der MINT-Branche (Mathematik, Informatik, Naturwissenschaften, Technik) zunehmend an Bedeutung. Die MINT-Branche ist von dieser Entwicklung besonders betroffen, da sie durch ein hohes Maß an internationaler Flexibilität auf dem Arbeitsmarkt gekennzeichnet ist. Gleichzeitig liegen nur wenig wissenschaftliche Befunde über die Einstellungen und Perspektiven von Mitarbeitenden aus diesem wirtschaftlich höchst relevanten Bereich vor. Aus diesem Grund wurden im Projekt „Diversität Nutzen und Annehmen“ die Themenbereiche Diversity Beliefs, interkulturelle Kompetenz, Faultlines und Stereotypenbedrohung in Organisationen in der MINT-Branche explorativ untersucht. Insgesamt nahmen 16 Mitarbeitende, mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund, verschiedener deutscher Unternehmen aller Größen an der qualitativen Befragung teil. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigen, dass allgemein eine positive Haltung zu kultureller Diversität (positive Diversity Beliefs ) bei den Befragten vorhanden ist. Gerade Mitarbeitende, die im beruflichen Kontext häufig interkulturelle Interaktionen erleben, waren offener gegenüber Diversity eingestellt und konnten einen Mehrwert von Diversity bestätigen. Gleichzeitig geht diese allgemein positive Einstellung in der überwiegenden Zahl der Fälle mit geringerer systematischer Handlungskompetenz und geringem Perspektivenwechsel einher. Während die Befragten mit Migrationshintergrund Gruppengrenzen (Faultlines) zwischen sich und den Personen ohne Migrationshintergrund wahrnahmen, waren diese den Mitarbeitenden ohne Migrationshintergrund nicht bewusst. Die Ergebnisse verdeutlichen, dass besonders in diesem hochgradig internationalisierten Bereich und trotz allgemein positiv scheinender Einstellungen Diversity gezielt gefördert werden muss, um Benachteiligung zu verhindern und die Potenziale von Vielfalt nutzbar zu machen.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Aufgrund der zentralen Bedeutung interkultureller Interaktion in der globalisierten Welt ist die Entwicklung der interkulturellen Kompetenz von Studierenden während Auslandsaufenthalten von hoher Bedeutung für Wissenschaft und Praxis. In diesem Kapitel liefern und testen wir einen theoretischen Rahmen, der die Selbstwirksamkeitstheorie des Lernens mit interkulturellem Lernen verbindet. Zu diesem Zweck wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen Auslandsaufenthalt, Selbstwirksamkeit, interkulturelle Kompetenz und dem erinnerten Erziehungsstil als moderierende Variable von deutschen Studierenden ( N = 203) mittels einer Querschnittsstudie untersucht. Es konnte gezeigt werden, dass Selbstwirksamkeit den Zusammenhang zwischen der Dauer eines Auslandsaufenthaltes und interkultureller Kompetenz in Abhängigkeit von der Wahrnehmung eines emotional warmen Erziehungsstils der Eltern mediiert. Entgegen unserer Annahmen moderieren die Erziehungsstile Kontrolle und Bestrafung nicht den Zusammenhang von Dauer des Auslandsaufenthalts und Selbstwirksamkeit. Dieses Kapitel soll zum Verständnis des interkulturellen Lernens als Ergebnis der Bewältigung interkultureller Herausforderungen beitragen.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Kapitel wird anhand qualitativer Interviews komparativ untersucht, welche Vorstellungen von Vielfalt MINT-Studierende und Beschäftigte in der MINT-Branche haben. Die Wirkung und die Berücksichtigung der Vielfalt in den Institutionen Hochschule und Betrieb wird aus Sicht der Studierenden und der Beschäftigten dargestellt und verglichen. Grundsätzlich bewerten die Befragten den Umgang mit Diversität an Hochschulen positiver als in Unternehmen. Obwohl in einzelnen Unternehmen, die an dieser Studie teilgenommen habe, ein sehr positiver Umgang mit Diversität vorherrscht, deuten die Ergebnisse darauf hin, dass insgesamt ein erhebliches Verbesserungspotenzial besteht.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Kapitel wird anhand einer Studie untersucht, welche Persönlichkeitsmerkmale Beschäftigte im MINT-Bereich vorweisen, die karrierefördernd sein könnten. Beschäftigten wurden drei Gruppen zugeordnet: Migrantinnen und Migranten, Beschäftigte ohne Migrationshintergrund und Beschäftigte mit Migrationshintergrund. Die Häufigkeit bestimmter Aussagen aus den Interviews wurde auf das Persönlichkeitsmodell „Fünf-Faktoren-Modell“ (Offenheit für neue Erfahrungen, Gewissenhaftigkeit, Extraversion, Verträglichkeit, Neurotizismus) bezogen. Bei den Merkmalen „Offenheit für neue Erfahrungen“ und „Neurotizismus“ gab es keine signifikanten Unterschiede zwischen den Gruppen. Das Merkmal „Gewissenhaftigkeit“ zeigte ein Chancenplus für Personen mit Migrationshintergrund. Bezogen auf die Eigenschaft „Extraversion“ hatten Migrierte und Personen ohne Migrationshintergrund ein deutliches Übergewicht. Beim Merkmal „Verträglichkeit“ wiesen Personen mit Migrationshintergrund die höchsten Ausprägungen auf.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Das folgende Kapitel legt Ergebnisse einer Untersuchung dar, welche sich mit den Einstellungen von Führungskräften zu kultureller Vielfalt im MINT-Bereich (Mathematik, Informatik, Naturwissenschaften und Technik) beschäftigt. Vor dem Hintergrund einer zunehmend diversifizierten und globalisierten Arbeitswelt in deutschen Unternehmen gewinnen Erkenntnisse über die Entstehung und Beeinflussung des Umgangs mit kultureller Vielfalt an Bedeutung. Während Führungskräfte als Multiplikatoren der Unternehmensstrategie zum Umgang mit Vielfalt gelten, gibt es kaum wissenschaftliche Befunde über die spezifischen Einstellungen dieser Gruppe. Da Führungskräfte generell eine schwer zugängliche Zielgruppe sind, liegen vornehmlich Beobachtungen aus der Perspektive der Mitarbeitenden vor. Dies gilt insbesondere für technische und naturwissenschaftliche Berufsgruppen. Aus diesem Grund befragt die vorliegende qualitative Studie, explorativ Führungskräfte dieser Branchen hinsichtlich ihrer Erfahrungen, sozialer Einflüsse und Kompetenzen, die für den Umgang mit kultureller Vielfalt relevant sind. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass sich nur ein kleiner Teil der Befragten der Chancen und Risiken kultureller Vielfalt und den spezifischen Herausforderungen für Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund bewusst ist. Dabei scheinen für die Ausbildung der Einstellungen gegenüber kultureller Vielfalt sowohl die eigenen Erfahrungen und die Sensibilität, die eigene Identifizierung mit dem Unternehmen, vor dem Hintergrund der jeweiligen Position des Unternehmens, und bisherige Maßnahmen relevant zu sein. Die Befragten konstatieren außerdem einen Mangel an interpersonalen und interkulturellen Kompetenzen bei Nachwuchs-Führungskräften in der Branche, welcher sowohl durch Unternehmen als auch durch Bildungsträger adressiert werden sollte.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Das folgende Kapitel stellt als Sammelwerk Ergebnisse des Forschungsprojektes „Diversität Nutzen und Annehmen“ der Innovations- und Technik-Analyse des Bundesministeriums für Bildung und Forschung vor, welches sich mit Diversity, Diversity Management sowie intrapersonellen Einstellungen zu Diversity und förderlichen Wirkfaktoren in den Bereichen Studium und Berufswelt der MINT-Branche befasste. Ziel war es, zu untersuchen, auf welche Weise Stereotypenbedrohung und Faultlines in Hochschulen und Unternehmen wahrgenommen werden und inwiefern diesen Aspekten durch Diversity Beliefs entgegengewirkt werden kann. Aufgrund des Forschungsdesign, welches Diversity auf drei Ebenen (Studierende, Mitarbeitende und Führungskräfte) detailliert untersuchte, konnten relevante Ergebnisse ermittelt und daraus weitreichende Erkenntnisse für die Praxis und Wissenschaft gezogen werden. Im Zuge des Forschungsprojektes konnte gezeigt werden, dass sich Personen mit und ohne Migrationshintergrund der Vielfalt bewusst sind, jedoch Defizite in der effektiven Nutzung von Diversity existieren. Zudem wurde deutlich, dass Stereotypenbedrohung und Faultlines für Personen mit Migrationshintergrund Teil ihres Lebens- beziehungsweise Arbeitsalltags darstellen. Personen ohne Migrationshintergrund sind sich diesen Herausforderungen, denen Personen mit Migrationshintergrund ausgesetzt sind, meist nicht bewusst. Weiterhin wurde ersichtlich, dass Diversity noch stärker in die Unternehmenskultur von Organisationen im MINT-Bereich integriert werden sollte. Durch ein organisationales Leitbild, welches für Diversity einsteht und diese fördert, kann ein erfolgreiches Diversity Management implementiert werden, welches sich nicht nur für Fairness und Unterstützung einsetzt, sondern sich den wirtschaftlichen Vorteilen von Diversity bewusst ist. Mögliche effiziente Maßnahmen für ein erfolgreiches Diversity Management stellen Top-Down Ansätze und die Förderung von positiven Diversity-Einstellungen dar. Abschließend wird ein Ausblick über die Auswirkungen der Corona-Pandemie auf Diversity Management und Diversity Maßnahmen sowie potenzielle (langfristige) Veränderungen und den daraus entstehenden Bedarf gegeben. Die Umsetzung von effektiven Maßnahmen in Institutionen und Organisationen, die auch in Zukunft Wirkung zeigen, sind ausschlaggebend, um von den positiven Konsequenzen von Diversity im gesellschaftlichen Leben profitieren zu können.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Die deutsche Wirtschaft verlangt nach qualifizierten Fach- und Führungskräften, vor allem im MINT-Bereich (Mathematik, Ingenieurwesen, Naturwissenschaften und Technik). Noch nicht vollständig erschlossene Personalpotentiale werden unter internationalen Studierenden und solchen mit Migrationshintergrund vermutet. Die Untersuchung nimmt das Maß der kulturellen Diversität an Hochschulen in den Fokus. Zugleich werden Stereotypisierungsängste und Gruppengrenzen untersucht. Das Bewusstsein für kulturelle Diversität ist lediglich unter internationalen Studierenden deutlich ausgeprägt. Zugleich fühlen sie sich durch Stereotypisierung bedroht und von Netzwerken und Informationen durch wenig durchlässige Gruppengrenzen weitgehend abgeschnitten. Zugleich scheint die kulturelle Umgebung einen Einfluss auf alle drei untersuchten Merkmale zu haben: je internationaler die Umgebung, desto geringer sind Stereotypenbedrohung und kulturelle Gruppengrenzen ausgeprägt. Diese Unterschiede lassen sich, basierend auf den vorliegenden Ergebnissen, einerseits auf die kulturelle Diversität der Studierendenschaft und andererseits auf die Einstellungen zu Diversität seitens der Studierenden ohne Migrationshintergrund sowie auf die Häufigkeit von Gelegenheiten zur Intergruppen-Interaktion zurückführen.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Kapitel wird eine Studie zur Wahrnehmung der Gruppengrenzen unter Studierenden sowie Berufseinsteigern und Berufseinsteigerinnen vorgestellt. Die Auswirkungen von Gruppengrenzen auf die Zusammenarbeit verschiedener Personengruppen sind folgenreich und ein Abbau findet meist nur langsam statt. Aufbau und Hintergrund des Interviewleitfadens sowie die Auswahl der Teilnehmenden werden eingehend erläutert. Zudem werden Auswertungsmethoden und Ergebnisse der qualitativen Fragen präsentiert und mögliche Implikationen diskutiert sowie detailliert auf die Größe der Freundeskreise und deren Gemeinsamkeiten beziehungsweise Unterschiede zu anderen Freundeskreisen eingegangen. Die aus den Ergebnissen gezogenen Schlüsse, beispielsweise wie der Prozess der kulturellen Annäherung abläuft und was ihn hindert oder antreibt, werden diskutiert.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung Trotz der steigenden Bedeutung von kultureller Vielfalt sind fremdenfeindliche Ansichten in Deutschland noch immer weit verbreitet. Kontakt zu Mitgliedern anderer Kulturen kann unter bestimmten Bedingungen zu einem Abbau solcher negativer Einstellungen führen. Während Auslandsaufenthalte im Studium und im Beruf ausgezeichnete Möglichkeiten bieten, in Kontakt mit Menschen aus mindestens einer fremden Kultur zu treten, stellen sie auch herausfordernde Ereignisse dar, die als stressig, oder bedrohlich erlebt werden können. Die zentrale Fragestellung dieser Untersuchung ist daher, ob längere Auslandssemester mit einem geringeren Maß an Fremdenfeindlichkeit einhergehen. Dafür wird in einem Querschnittsdesign untersucht, ob die interkulturelle Kompetenz den Zusammenhang von Aufenthaltsdauer und Fremdenfeindlichkeit moderiert und ob die Qualität der Kontakte zu Einheimischen als Mediatorvariable fungiert. Die Ergebnisse zeigten, dass gute Kontakte zu Einheimischen während eines Auslandssemesters mit weniger Fremdenfeindlichkeit verbunden waren, unabhängig von der Länge des Aufenthalts. Die Zeit, die eine Person im Ausland verbracht hat, stellte sich nur bei hoher interkultureller Kompetenz als negativer Prädiktor für die Fremdenfeindlichkeit heraus. Praktische und wissenschaftliche Implikationen sowie Limitationen der Studie werden diskutiert.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In der Literatur oder auch unter der Charta der Vielfalt existieren mehrere gute Leitfäden, welche sich mit dem Thema Diversity und der Umsetzung von Diversity in Unternehmen beschäftigen. In der Literatur oder auch unter der Charta der Vielfalt existieren mehrere gute Leitfäden, welche sich mit dem Thema Diversity und der Umsetzung von Diversity in Unternehmen beschäftigen. Aus diesem Grund wollen wir die bereits gut ausgearbeiteten Strukturen an dieser Stelle nicht wiederholen oder kopieren. Wir richten unseren Leitfaden daher an den Fragen aus, die von Führungskräften und Multiplikatorinnen und Multiplikatoren im Laufe des Forschungsprojektes an uns herangetragen wurden. Exemplarisch hierfür steht die Frage „Was soll ich denn machen, wenn ich Probleme im Alltag habe und keiner mich versteht?“ .
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Intercultural competence and social attitudes towards foreigners are increasingly important in the modern (working) life. The current study investigated intercultural competence in relation to international experience and its effect on national identity and xenophobia. The current chapter shows that certain characteristics of an interculturally competent personality relate to international experiences and predict social identity and xenophobia. The results emphasize the importance of intercultural competence for a work environment coined by tolerance and diversity.
... Yet, even though schools and universities show motivation to send pupils and students abroad, research on the relationship of pupils' and students' social and intercultural competence as well as on the differences between those two groups in terms of competence development is still scarce. Previous research demonstrated that pupils and students differ in both their identity and intercultural competence (Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Mersch & Fricke, 2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Zusammenfassung In diesem Kapitel werden die Außendarstellung von MINT-Unternehmen hinsichtlich Diversity Management (Außenperspektive) sowie seine unternehmensinterne Implementierung (Binnenperspektive) untersucht. Die Bewertung der beiden Perspektiven wird anhand von vier Kriterien vorgenommen: Unternehmenskultur, Mitarbeiterentwicklung, Erfolgskriterien und Management. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass es Großunternehmen am besten gelingt, Diversity Management umzusetzen und transparent zu gestalten. Besonders hinsichtlich der Unternehmenskultur gibt es einen deutlichen Zusammenhang zwischen der Binnen- und Außenperspektive. In den Dimensionen Mitarbeiterentwicklung und Erfolgskriterien ist der Zusammenhang weniger stark ausgeprägt und für das Management fehlt er gänzlich. Die vorliegende Studie betont die Relevanz einer transparenten Außendarstellung von Maßnahmen, die Unternehmen ergreifen, um einen angemessenen Umgang mit Vielfalt zu ermöglichen.
... differences in their counterparts from different cultures [6]. As IS is crucial to effective intercultural communication, researchers have investigated the effectiveness of various training approaches to enhance IS, such as by movies [11] and by creative imagination [9]. However, there are limited studies examining the effectiveness of training in enhancing IS using immersive media. ...
Conference Paper
This study aims to investigate the immediate and retained effects of one-time virtual reality (VR) exposure on intercultural sensitivity (IS) and identify the contributing factors. Three virtual scenarios about the ethnic minorities in Hong Kong were created for the empirical study. The longitudinal results involving 30 participants (15M 15F) showed that both the immediate and retained effects of the one-time VR exposure on IS were significant. Moreover, linear growth curve models suggested that among the female participants, presence and emotional empathy were closely associated with the change of IS over time, but this relation was not significant among the males.
... Creativity can also be considered a characteristic, but in the context of entrepreneurship, it is the process of associating different kinds of information units and assembling them into a novel and functional whole in a specific context. Creativity is a malleable skill (e.g., Barak 2013;Dziedziewicz et al. 2014) that depends on a variety of basic processes, such as working memory (i.e., the ability to focus on multiple pieces of information at the same time) and cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to exchange viewpoints and let go of the obvious; see, e.g., Diamond 2013). In addition to these processes, the prerequisites for creativity are conceptual knowledge and the systematic practice of searching for creative solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
The development of entrepreneurship competence considering a broad view of entrepreneurship requires a systematic approach to determine the validated content of learning and methodological basis for supporting learners’ entrepreneurial attitudes and behaviour. There is still relatively little research in this area at all levels of education. Addressing entrepreneurship competence as key competence of lifelong learning allows to broaden the understanding and describe the development of different aspects of entrepreneurship competence through meaningful and supportive interactions in the learning environment. This will allow a better understanding of how to support entrepreneurship competence in various courses and age groups. In this article, a framework of entrepreneurship competence called the Comprehensive Entrepreneurship Competence Model (CECM) is proposed. The development of an entrepreneurship competence model relies on the theory of systems thinking. The CECM model focuses on the developmental perspective (fundamental processes of human development) that is not emphasised in other models. The article also suggests how to support the development of entrepreneurship competence systematically at all levels of education through embedding entrepreneurship competence into the curricula, study programmes of different subjects and overall learning processes.
... Importantly, it develops sensitivities around gender and diversity, and is concurrent with changemaking which similarly emphasises empathy, tolerance, respect and appreciation. Dziedziewicz et al. (2014) suggest that collaborating with people from different countries and cultures builds creativity and breaks down barriers, however they acknowledge that few such programmes focus on children. This study recognises both intercultural competence and intercultural awareness and adds to the debate of how to build both in children and young people by investigating the impact of international teams working together to solve social problems they have jointly identified. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Digital Learning Across Boundaries: Developing Changemakers (DLAB) project uses immersive technologies in education to explore three challenges across three years: physical, personal and environmental. This paper focuses on the first of these, bringing together the themes of digital making and changemaking to cross physical boundaries by raising awareness about physical inactivity in 11 and 12 year old school pupils. Immersive technologies such as augmented and virtual reality enabled the development of empathy and intercultural understanding among participants, fostered an understanding of changemaking, and created environments for sharing prototype exergames. Research data is analysed to seek evidence of the development of changemaker attributes and impact within a sample group of 60 English school pupils.
... These findings are in line with the findings of some studies in which significant differences were found in comparison with the intercultural competence in EFL and Non-EFL learners (such as Dziedziewicz et al., 2014;Liddicoat, 2009;Risager, 2006;Sercu, 2002;Yu & Chang, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
The globalized era together with demographic, geographical, and structural changes to English has reshaped the landscape of English language teaching (ELT) and emphasized the importance of preparing language learners for intercultural communication. It is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore the relations of language and culture. The aim of the present study was to assess intercultural factors in learning and education on Iranian EFL and Non-EFL learners in terms of their attitude, knowledge, awareness, and skill. A quantitative research method was applied with 400 high school students who were 215 EFL Learners and 185 Non-EFL Learners which included both genders in the Summer term in 2019. The convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire (by Fantini, 1999, Brattleboro, Vermont, USA; revised, 2013) was run. It was valid because it was a standardized questionnaire and its reliability was checked via Cronbach’s alpha (p < 0.000). The result of data analysis proved that taking EFL classes in institutions could be effective and based on the findings, it can be concluded that at least in the Iranian context participating in English classes in language institutions has a positive effect on their intercultural competence. The study showed the differences in intercultural competence in which EFL learners were more competent than non-EFL learners. Regarding pedagogical implications, the findings of this study can shed light on the book designer and teachers in schools.
... Hallett's model of the Bilingual Triangle is also applicable to the CLIL approach. Both the role of interculture and the enhancement of intercultural competence among students enrolled in bilingual programmes (Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014;Ponciano & Shabazian, 2012), as well as the importance of the teacher in the whole process (Gándara & Escamilla, 2017;Gedik Bal & Savas, 2020;Johannessen, Thorsos, & Dickinson, 2016;Reljić, Ferring, & Martin, 2015;Tabatadze, 2015, among others) are well developed in the literature. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bilingual education (BE) is widely recognised as a complex phenomenon, which constitutes a priority for key educational institutions and organisations. However, further research is needed to uproot common beliefs such as that bilingual students can easily interact with two or more cultures. The literature affirms that BE students need specific school training to improve intercultural competence. The main aim of this study is to describe the design and validation of a questionnaire to measure students’ perceptions of intercultural practices at bilingual schools. The validity of content and comprehension was carried out through the Delphi method, for which three methodological phases were established. The reliability of the scale (internal consistency) was measured through the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Factorial analysis was used to check the validity of the construct. The psychometric parameters of the scale were obtained from a pilot sample of 40 students, and later from a sample of 213 students from bilingual secondary schools in several European countries (i.e., The Netherlands, Hungary, Germany, France, England, among others). As a major conclusion, we can state that this questionnaire can be used as a tool for two research goals: the identification of good intercultural school practices in BE, and the development of relevant guidelines for the incorporation of intercultural education into BE.
... Aynı zamanda alan-yazında akıl-zeka oyunlarının insanlar tarafından kabul görmesi ve oynanmasının pedagojik potansiyelini gündeme getirdiğini ve bu tür oyunların geliştirdiği ve desteklediği becerilerin araştırmacılar tarafından vurgu yapılarak ve belirli koşullar altında bu oyunlardan faydalanıldığında öğrencilerin performanslarını olumlu etkilediği açıklanmıştır (Bottino & Ott, 2006 ;Bottino R. M., Ott, Tavella, & Benigno, 2010). Akıl-zeka oyunlarının öğrencilerde öncelikle eleştirel düşünme (Facione, 1990), yaratıcılık (Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014), orjinallik (Leikin, 2009) ve yaratıcı problem çözme (Özkök, 2005) becerilerini geliştirdiği ortaya konmuştur. ...
Article
Full-text available
Z Bu çalışmanın amacı fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının akıl ve zeka oyunları hakkındaki görüşlerini ortaya çıkarmaktır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda akıl-zeka oyunları öğretmen adaylarına altı hafta boyunca haftada 2 saatlik periyotlar halinde gösterilmiştir. Öğretmen adayları ile oyun kavramı, oyunun eğitimdeki yeri üzerine dersler yapıldıktan sonra hali hazırda oynanan ve bilinen 41 akıl oyunu kendilerine öğretilmiş ve bu oyunları birbirleri ile oynamaları sağlanmıştır. Çalışma grubunu Siirt Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Eğitimi programında okuyan 25 öğretmen adayı oluşturmaktadır. Nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden durum çalışması olarak düzenlenen çalışmada araştırmacılar tarafından geliştirilen görüşme formu uygulanmıştır. Görüşme formundan elde edilen veri içerik analizi ile analiz edilmiştir. Bulgular kısmında öğretmen adaylarının akıl zeka oyunlarının ders ismi, temel matematik becerileri ile fen ve matematik eğitimine katkısı, sınıf ortamı, öğretmen, öğrenci ve temel beceriler açısından akıl-zeka oyunları hakkındaki görüşleri belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak öğretmen adayları bu şekildeki bir dersin adının akıl oyunları olması gerektiğini, kendilerine göre akıl zeka oyunlarının temel matematik becerileri ile fen ve matematik eğitimine katkılar sağladığını, akıl zeka oyunlarının öğrencileri aktif kıldığını, zihinsel ve el becerilerini güçlendirdiğini belirtmişlerdir. ABSTRACT The aim of this study is to reveal the opinions of pre-service science teachers about mind and intelligence games. To this end, mental-intelligence games were shown to prospective teachers in 2-hour periods per week for six weeks. After the lessons on the concept of play and the place of the game in education with the teacher candidates, 41 mental games that were already played and known were taught to them and they were allowed to play these games with each other. The study group consisted of 25 prospective teachers studying in the Department of Mathematics and Science Education in Siirt University. Interview form developed by the researchers was applied in this study which is a case study which is one of the qualitative research methods. The data obtained from the interview form were analyzed by content analysis. In the findings part, the pre-service teachers 'opinions about mental intelligence games' course name, basic mathematics skills and their contribution to science and mathematics education, classroom environment, teachers, students and basic skills were determined. As a result, pre-service teachers stated that the name of such a course should be mind games, mental intelligence games contribute to science and mathematics education with their basic math skills, mental intelligence games activate students and strengthen their mental and manual skills.
... Devising and using courses and learning methods that combine language, creative, and intercultural skills can be an excellent option (Crozet & Liddicoat, 1999). Equally, specific approaches to training in intercultural competencies can be a source of creative outcomes (Deardorff, 2020;Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014;Groyecka, et al., 2020). At the same time, this newly charged creativity can generate other beneficial outcomes (Kaufman, 2018) linked to the multicultural context, making creativity helpful for acquisition of different traits and skills, such as tolerance (Groyecka, 2019), openness to interactions, and integration. ...
... Devising and using courses and learning methods that combine language, creative, and intercultural skills can be an excellent option (Crozet & Liddicoat, 1999). Equally, specific approaches to training in intercultural competencies can be a source of creative outcomes (Deardorff, 2020;Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014;Groyecka, et al., 2020). At the same time, this newly charged creativity can generate other beneficial outcomes (Kaufman, 2018) linked to the multicultural context, making creativity helpful for acquisition of different traits and skills, such as tolerance (Groyecka, 2019), openness to interactions, and integration. ...
Article
Full-text available
Creativity Multiculturalism Intercultural experiences Interculturality Foreign language proficiency Higher education Based on recent findings that highlight the strong links between creativity and interculturality, we will attempt to establish a relationship between intercultural experiences and creativity within the context of international university exchanges in order to propose specific courses of action for improving these skills. The methodology used is based on a quasi-experimental design for a sample of 303 university students from a Spanish university. Data were obtained from a survey that measured creativity with two different instruments (RIBS-s and Divergent Thinking), English proficiency, and intercultural experiences abroad. Results show a strong relationship between creativity and intercultural experiences, suggesting that those students who lived abroad and in a higher number of foreign countries are more creative. Additionally, the most significant differences appear when we establish a comparison between those students who have not lived abroad and those who have done so in more countries, which contributes to highlighting the close relationship between interculturality and creativity. Of special significance is the strong link found between English proficiency and having experiences abroad, suggesting that when the level of a shared international language , English in this case, is higher, there will be more options to increase students' creativity. Likewise, students who have a higher level of English are more creative. Designing programs for higher education students that combine and integrate foreign language skills, creativity, and interculturality appear to be essential. Thanks to foreign language skills, students will be in a better position to acquire intercultural sensitivity and improve their creativity, making their international experience a valued source of fulfilment both for their personal life and their career.
... In two experiments, we test whether activation of two qualitatively different creative processes influences people's attitudes toward diverse outgroups. We focused on (1) creative imagination and (2) divergent thinking, as both processes are crucial for idea generation, and creativity-enhancing interventions often focus on these two processes (Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014;Karwowski & Soszynski, 2008). ...
Article
Previous studies have examined the link between creativity and stereotyping, with most reports indicating that encouraging stereotype-confronting thinking can foster creativity. We hypothesized that encouraging creative thinking can also influence intergroup relations. In two experiments with adolescents, we tested whether creative imagination (N = 211) and divergent thinking (N = 317) had an impact on prejudice. We found that stimulating creative thinking elicited lower social distance toward minority groups (Experiments 1 and 2) and higher general tolerance (Experiment 2). In Experiment 2, a manipulation in which experimental stimuli were schema-consistent resulted in a decrease in prejudice; however, schema-inconsistent stimuli did not. We discuss potential implications in the context of addressing discrimination.
... There is, indeed, some preliminary evidence that stimulating one can lead to advances in the other. For example, Dziedziewicz et al. (2014) found that a program meant to foster intercultural competences led to a considerable increase in creativity. As already mentioned, Tidikis and Dunbar (2017) brought evidence that global citizenship helps explain variance in creativity beyond one of its main predictors, openness to experience. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter explores the conceptual connections between two increasingly popular concepts nowadays, creativity and global citizenship. It starts by distinguishing between mainstream and critical approaches to both and argues for a sociocultural framework that places open-mindedness, dialogue, ethics and participation at the heart of educating for creativity and global citizenship. Five guiding principles for such an education are outlined and discussed in turn: (1) seeking differences; (2) valuing multiplicity; (3) promoting dialogue; (4) increasing participation; and (5) acting ethically. In the end, the challenges and opportunities associated with fostering creativity and global citizenship from a critical, sociocultural perspective are reflected upon.
... A highly diverse group can create opportunities to inspire group and individual creativity. Instead of viewing it as a challenge, we decided to view diversity as a valuable opportunity (Dziedziewicz, Gajda, & Karwowski, 2014). We consciously decided to use this diversity to leverage learning and shape new personal, educational and professional outlooks. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: Today computer games are one of the most effective media among various educational media. However, playing games can be used as a training method in education process.In the opinion of many researchers, making the game by the students can have deeper effects and it is an instructive and enjoyable experience for people, especially students. Computer game-making will stimulate thinking and creativity because in this action individuals are engaged in the multi-dimension activities. Due to the fact that computer game-making by students is a new phenomenon and lack of enough research on the impact of this activity on creativity, there is a need for more research in this area. In this regard, the main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of computer game-making on the creativity of elementary male students and its secondary goals were: 1-investigating the effect of computer game-making on the fluid dimension of creativity. 2-investigating the effect of computer game making on the originality dimension of creativity. 3-investigating the effect of computer game making on the flexibility dimension of creativity. 4-investigating the effect of computer game making on the expansion dimension of creativity. Methods: The research method in this study was a quasi-experimental pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical population was all boys' primary schools in the city of Islamshahr. One of these schools was selected. The sample of this study was 40 students from fourth to sixth grade who were selected using simple random sampling method and were randomly assigned to the control and experimental groups. The data collection tool was the Torrance Form B Creativity Test, which includes four subscales: fluidity, flexibility, originality, and expansion. The method of data collection was survey and the method of data analysis was differential t-test. Findings: Data analysis showed that computer game-making had a positive effect on creativity and its dimensions. Regarding the sub-hypotheses, the results showed that the mean score of the fluidity dimension of creativity in the experimental group was 9.21 with a standard deviation of 4.52 and the mean score of the control group was 2.25 with a standard deviation of 1.43. Analysis of the data showed that the experimental group experienced more changes in the creative fluid dimension than the control group and their fluidity increased as was compared to before playing, (sig .001). Therefore, the research hypothesis was confirmed at the level of p <.01. Regarding the second hypothesis, the results showed that the mean score of the creativity originality dimension of the experimental group was 32.28 with a standard deviation of 9.12 and the mean score of the control group was 8.43 with a standard deviation of 4.6. Analysis of the data showed that the experimental group experienced more changes in the originality dimension of creativity than the control group and their originality dimension increased compared to before the implementation of game-making (sig .001). As a result, the research hypothesis was confirmed at the level of p <0.01. Regarding the third hypothesis, the results showed that the mean score of the creativity flexibility dimension of the experimental group was 9.71 with a standard deviation of 4.35 and the mean score of the control group was 2.06 with a standard deviation of 2.43. Analysis of the data showed that the experimental group experienced more changes in the flexibility dimension of creativity than the control group and their flexibility dimension increased compared to before the game-making (sig .001). As a result, the research hypothesis was confirmed at the level of p<0.01. Regarding the fourth hypothesis, the results showed that the mean score after the development of creativity in the experimental group was 79.92 with a standard deviation of 29.32 and the mean score of the control group was 18.68 with a standard deviation of 8.63. Analysis of the data showed that the experimental group experienced more changes in the creative expansion dimension than the control group and their expansion dimension increased compared to before the game-making (sig. 0.001). Therefore, the research hypothesis was confirmed at the level of p<0.01. Conclusion: game-making involves the user in a real multidimensional problem, and it can provide the context for fostering creativity. Game-making required the presentation of new ideas in the process of designing and producing games, and students saw the result of their work objectively, they had an inner motivation to keep working and continued to complete their ideas as well as come up with new ideas, and this is the point that has been emphasized in theories of creativity.
Chapter
García and Flores state that new pedagogies must respond to the complex bilingualism of students and to the heterogeneous classes of the 21st century. The main goal of this chapter is to describe the theoretical foundations of a new approach to bilingualism and interculturality in Early Childhood Education (ECE) called “the PETaL approach”, whose acronym stands for “Play, Education, Toys, and Languages”. PETaL is an approach and not a methodology in that it is a flexible model of bilingual implementation that adapts its key methodological principles to the particular context in which it is developed. Moreover, it is an approach that entails intercultural education as a constitutive axis of accommodation and plasticity, which are sine qua non conditions of it. The PETaL approach is framed in the European space, which offers a suitable international and socio-educational context where it has begun to be experimented and which has already attached itself to incipient research.
Article
Full-text available
This article addresses a unique program involving international collaboration between gifted students from Israel and Croatia. The COVID-19 pandemic opened an opportunity for effective synchronous communication that enabled an unmediated connection between the participants. During the program the children researched the moon from various aspects: scientific, emotional-behavioral and artistic, via theater and creative writing. There were 35 gifted students, 20 from Israel and 15 from Croatia. Five teachers of gifted students, an educational counselor, an educational psychologist and the writers of this article participated in the program and provided the students with academic accompaniment in giftedness and creativity.
Article
This study examined the intercultural competence and related characteristics of early childhood teachers. Significant positive correlations were found among attitudes, knowledge/awareness, and skills (sub-elements of intercultural competence); attitudes showed the highest score while skills showed the lowest score. Intercultural competence and its sub-elements were all slightly above average. There were differences in intercultural competency, attitude, perception, and knowledge according to teachers’ educational levels. The multicultural experiences of teachers in Korea are significantly related to their intercultural competence and its sub-elements. These results suggest that we should continue developing training programs and learning communities wherein teachers can experience various cultures and nurture intercultural competency.
Article
Creativity is a vital topic of various educational discourses, yet the support it receives within the school system is insufficient. This chapter focuses on four particular ways of making creativity more democratized, salient, and accessible in school settings. We start by exploring the educational benefits of egalitarian theoretical approaches to creativity. Then, we posit that democratization requires an equal focus on the cognitive aspects of creative potential and the motivational sphere of self-perception and self-regulation. Third, analyzing cognitive characteristics, we pay special attention to creative imagery: an understudied yet critical aspect of creative potential. By meta-analyzing available evidence from interventional studies, we show that there are multiple effective approaches to enhancing creative imagery, so—in a sense—supporting creative potential might be democratized as well by going beyond creativity training. Fourth, and finally, we discuss the possibilities of adapting so-called wise interventions for the educational psychology of creativity. We review available evidence of how to strengthen creative confidence and the perceived value of creativity among students, and how to make their creative self-regulation more effective.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents data from two international projects focused on the interaction between changemaking and digital making in university students. The data is drawn from the contributions of 63 university students located in the United States, Romania, Spain, Belgium, Norway, Denmark and England. Using a design thinking methodology and a thematic analysis of student responses, the aim was to understand how the creative use of immersive technologies, such as augmented and virtual reality, might create an environment for changemaking practices in an international context. Findings suggest that students demonstrated not only enhanced digital skills and student engagement but increased cultural competence and global mindfulness. International digital collaboration can create conditions for students to develop changemaker attributes and identify as changemakers within the spheres of entrepreneurship and education, preparing them to be a force for change in the world.
Article
Full-text available
The qualitative research reported in this article investigated whether and to what extent students’ intercultural competence is developed in the English language classroom at the secondary education level in Poland. In interviews teachers demonstrated their positive attitudes toward intercultural teaching and decent knowledge of the issue. However, the teachers’ narratives uncovered that they assigned the interculturality the secondary role, focusing on developing linguistic and sociolinguistic competences. The collected data revealed that students in class had very few opportunities to explore foreign cultures and compare/ contrast one culture with another. There was a lack of attention to teaching that promotes critical thinking skills among learners along with activities which foster them. However, there is insufficient evidence that teachers can currently do anything more, given the context in which they work, their constraints and lack of training and support. The findings of the current study have clear implications for curriculum designers, textbook writers and institutions in charge of teacher training - EFL syllabuses, teaching materials and teacher training should focus more on developing students’ intercultural and critical thinking skills.
Article
Creativity plays a central role in children’s development and well‐being, being considered a crucial skill to thrive in their personal and professional lives. Given its importance, researchers and educators highlighted the need to enhance creativity in individuals across the lifespan. However, it is crucial to understand how interventions and programs can promote creativity from an early age. The goal of this systematic review was to collect, summarize, and present evidence on research about nurturing creativity in children of elementary school age (5–13 years old), by systematically reviewing publications from 1950 to 2020, spanning 70 years of research. We additionally contributed to a classification system for characterizing creativity research by expanding on an existing coding scheme for creativity. This review resulted in the profiling of existing trainings that stimulate creativity in children. We discuss the results taking into account possible implications for practice and policymaking and future research directions in creativity research.
Article
Full-text available
Creativity—as any other object of scientific endeavor—requires a sound measurement that adheres to quality criteria. For decades, creativity science has been criticized as falling short in developing valid and reliable measures of creative potential, activity, and achievement. Recent years have witnessed growth of theoretical and empirical works that focused on improving creativity assessment. Here, we apply one of such recently developed approaches based on item response theory to examine ideas’ and person score reliability in a divergent thinking task. A large sample (N = 621) of children and adolescents solved the Circles task from Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking-Figural and two other figural tests measuring creative thinking (Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production) and creative imagination (Test of Creative Imagery Abilities). By employing response propensity models, we observed that separate ideas’ reliability tended to fall below recommended thresholds (even liberal ones, e.g., .60) unless the sample size as well as the number of generated ideas (fluency) were large. Importantly, reliability at the idea-level affected reliability at the person-level much less than could be assumed based on recent findings. We propose a systematic perspective on divergent thinking assessment that considers responses as nested in tasks and tasks as nested in tests. Finally, we recommend that adding more tasks to divergent thinking tests might increase reliability at the test level.
Article
This study examines the effectiveness of virtual reality (VR) technology as an innovative learning platform in developing intercultural competence, including intercultural knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. The research was based on data from undergraduate STEM students in a first-year technology course at a large public university in the Midwestern U.S. (n = 101). Online questionnaires measuring the universality-diversity dimension, tolerance of ambiguity, intercultural sensitivity, and cultural knowledge were used to collect pre-posttest data pre- and post-intervention. Paired sample t-tests assessing various components of intercultural competence yielded mean score increases from directly before (T1) to two weeks after (T2) the VR intervention. Furthermore, the study tested the specific relationship of participants’ Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) scores to intercultural competence measures. A linear regression revealed that students’ pre-training IDI and cultural knowledge scores were significant predictors of their MGUDS score change, controlling for demographic variables such as gender, ethnicity, international student status, travel, and life history. Since objective measures of knowledge increased while self-report instruments such as the MGUDS showed mean decreases, the VR-based learning environment seems to have encouraged learners to develop a more realistic self-assessment of their level of intercultural competence. Results from this study suggest the importance of immersion (even when mobility is not possible) in developing intercultural competence and the potentials of VR technology in advance intercultural learning. Implications for research and practice of intercultural competence development are discussed.
Chapter
García and Flores state that new pedagogies must respond to the complex bilingualism of students and to the heterogeneous classes of the 21st century. The main goal of this chapter is to describe the theoretical foundations of a new approach to bilingualism and interculturality in Early Childhood Education (ECE) called “the PETaL approach”, whose acronym stands for “Play, Education, Toys, and Languages”. PETaL is an approach and not a methodology in that it is a flexible model of bilingual implementation that adapts its key methodological principles to the particular context in which it is developed. Moreover, it is an approach that entails intercultural education as a constitutive axis of accommodation and plasticity, which are sine qua non conditions of it. The PETaL approach is framed in the European space, which offers a suitable international and socio-educational context where it has begun to be experimented and which has already attached itself to incipient research.
Thesis
Full-text available
Creativity is an ability with psychological and developmental benefits. Creative levels are dynamic and oscillate throughout life, with a first major decline occurring at the age of 7 years old. However, creativity is an ability that can be nurtured if trained, with evidence suggesting an increase in this ability with the use of validated creativity training. Yet, creativity training for young children (aged between 6-9 years old) appears scarce. Additionally, existing training interventions resemble test-like formats and lack playful dynamics that could engage children in creative practices over time. This PhD project aimed at contributing to creativity stimulation in children by proposing to use social robots as intervention tools, thus adding playful and interactive dynamics to the training. Towards this goal, we conducted three studies in schools, summer camps, and museums for children, that contributed to the design, fabrication, and experimental testing of a robot whose purpose was to re-balance creative levels. Study 1 (n = 140) aimed at testing the effect of existing activities with robots in creativity and provided initial evidence of the positive potential of robots for creativity training. Study 2 (n = 134) aimed at including children as co-designers of the robot, ensuring the robot’s design meets children’s needs and requirements. Study 3 (n = 130) investigated the effectiveness of this robot as a tool for creativity training, showing the potential of robots as creativity intervention tools. In sum, this PhD showed that robots can have a positive effect on boosting the creativity of children. This places social robots as promising tools for psychological interventions.
Thesis
Ce travail de thèse s’est intéressé au rôle de la diversité sur le fonctionnement des équipes de travail. Il a répondu à l’ambiguïté des résultats de la littérature et à l’appel de nombreux auteurs à porter une plus grande attention sur les processus sous-jacents à l’impact de la diversité. D’un part, ce travail a adopté une approche minimaliste et a proposé le paradigme du compère virtuel, afin d’isoler la part sociocatégorielle de la diversité. D’autre part, il a utilisé la créativité, plutôt que la performance, comme outils de compréhension, puisqu’elle implique des enjeux sociopsychologiques spécifiques. En induisant une simple perception de diversité culturelle, nous avons notamment observé une baisse (surtout qualitative) de la pensée divergente chez les participants ayant fait face à la diversité. Les résultats observés mettent à mal les principales prédictions de la littérature. Aussi, nous leur avons opposé deux interprétations possibles. La première repose sur le rôle de la validation sociale et la deuxième sur celui de l’interdépendance sociale. Les observations et les déductions qui en découlent ont mis en lumière la complexité du rôle de la diversité dans le fonctionnement des équipes de travail.
Article
Full-text available
Divergent thinking (DT) tests are among the most popular techniques for measuring creativity. However, the validity evidence for DT tests, as applied in educational settings, is inconsistent partly due to different scoring methods. This study explored the reliability and validity issues of various techniques for administering and scoring two DT tests. Results show distinct differences among several methods for scoring these DT tests and suggest that the percentage scoring method (i.e., dividing originality scores by fluency scores) may be the most appropriate scoring strategy. The potential impact on educational research and practice is discussed in detail.
Article
Full-text available
This article describes a research program exploring the structure, correlates, and consequences of creative mindsets, defined as beliefs about the fixed-versus-growth nature of creativity. In the first study, I reported on the development of the Creative Mindset Scale. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated a two-factor structure with growth- and fixed-creative mindsets forming two relatively independent, yet negatively correlated scales, rather than two ends of one continuum. I then verified this structure by confirmatory factor analysis using a larger sample. In the second study, the growth mindset and the creative self-concept (creative self-efficacy and creative personal identity) were strongly positively associated. In the third study, the fixed-creative mindset was negatively related to efficiency in solving insight problems, and an association between the growth mindset and problem solving was moderated by the fixed mindset. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The main objective of the study presented in this article was to examine the relationship between trait curiosity and two self-concept constructs which are gaining popularity in the creativity literature - creative self-efficacy (CSE) and creative personal identity (CPI). Although the role of curiosity in creativity seems well established, in fact there is little empirical evidence of the relationship between curiosity treated as a trait and both CSE and CPI. In a study conducted on a sample of middle and high school Polish students (N = 284; 55% female, aged 13-18, M = 14.74, SD = 1.14), curiosity was measured by the Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II; Kashdan, Gallagher, Silvia, Winterstein, Breen, Terhar, & Steger, 2009) and CSE and CPI by the Short Scale of Creative Self (SSCS; Karwowski, Lebuda, & Wiśniewska, in press). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed the existence of substantial correlations between measured constructs. Latent factor of CSE correlated strongly with a tendency to seek out new experiences (stretching, r =.72) and an acceptance of unpredictability (embracing, r =.67), while CPI correlated substantially with stretching (r =.62) and slightly less with embracing (r =.48) - all correlations were highly reliable (p <.001). Hierarchical confirmatory factor analysis showed the existence of a strong relationship between the higher-order factor of curiosity (composed of stretching and embracing) and creative self (composed of CSE and CPI): r =.75, which may indicate common basis of creativity and curiosity. The consequences of curiosity for the development of CSE and CPI are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
To reduce prejudice psychologists design interventions requiring people to think of counter-stereotypes (i.e., people who defy stereotypic expectations—a strong woman, a Black President). Grounded in the idea that stereotypes constrain the ability to think flexibly, we propose that thinking of counter-stereotypes can have benefits that extend beyond the goal of prejudice reduction—in particular to tasks measuring cognitive flexibility and creative performance. Findings supported this conjecture. In Experiment 1 priming a gender counter-stereotype enhanced cognitive flexibility. This effect could not be attributed to changes in mood. In Experiment 2, using a gender-independent manipulation, priming various social counter-stereotypes brought a boost to creative performance. We discuss implications of these extended benefits of counter-stereotypic thinking for developing future prejudice-reduction interventions.
Article
Full-text available
In this article we describe a six stage model for the design of evidence-based intercultural education and training programs. The six stages involve: (1) selecting the cultures or subgroups involved in the program, (2) establishing the goals of the program, (3) choosing relevant theories of culture, culture change, and adaptation, (4) selecting relevant psychological and communication processes based on the goals and theory, (5) selecting techniques and exercises that will activate these processes, and (6) evaluating the effectiveness of the program and the processes by which these outcomes occurred. These six stages are illustrated by reference to an intergroup dialogue program (Gurin et al., in press). The effects of the program on intergroup understanding, intergroup relationships, and social justice oriented actions are presented along with a causal model of these outcomes. The article concludes with a discussion of the utility of the six stage model.
Article
Full-text available
This work presents the assessment results of a play program designed for stimulating creativity in children. The design used was quasiexperimental pretest intervention-posttest with control group. The sample used included 86 children aged 10 and 11 years, 54 experimental and 32 control, distributed in 4 groups. Before and after the program, 2 assessment methods were administered: 7 verbal and figural tasks from Torrance's Tests of Creative Thinking and direct judgment by experts who assessed a creative product. The program consisted of a weekly 2-hr intervention session throughout the school year. The program's activities were intended to stimulate verbal, graphic-figural, constructive, and dramatic creativity. Results of the analyses of variance suggest a positive effect of the intervention, as the experimental participants significantly increased their verbal creativity (originality) and graphic-figural creativity (resistance to premature closure, originality, elaboration, creative performance). The program produced a significantly greater change in the experimental participants who showed a low level of creativity before the intervention. The effects of the program were similar in boys and girls.
Article
Full-text available
From a very young age, children show signs of prejudice. However, it is not clear whether those who are the most biased in one domain (e.g., gender) are also the most biased in other domains (e.g., ethnicity). This study addressed the issue using multiple measures of prejudice (negative bias) in 3 domains: gender (male, female), ethnicity-language (French Canadian, English Canadian), and body type (overweight, normal weight). The flexibility of attitudes (i.e., the belief that people from different categories can possess similar traits) was also assessed. A total of 254 children (127 boys, 127 girls) in kindergarten to Grade 6 participated. Children demonstrated clear biases against groups to which they did not belong, although attitudes became more flexible and prejudice declined somewhat with age. There was little predictive power across domains; that is, there was no evidence that prejudice represents a general characteristic that differentiates children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Divergent thinking is central to the study of individual differences in creativity, but the traditional scoring systems (assigning points for infrequent responses and summing the points) face well-known problems. After critically reviewing past scoring methods, this article describes a new approach to assessing divergent thinking and appraises its reliability and validity. In our new Top 2 scoring method, participants complete a divergent thinking task and then circle the 2 responses that they think are their most creative responses. Raters then evaluate the responses on a 5-point scale. Regarding reliability, a generalizability analysis showed that subjective ratings of unusual-uses tasks and instances tasks yield dependable scores with only 2 or 3 raters. Regarding validity, a latent-variable study (n=226) predicted divergent thinking from the Big Five factors and their higher-order traits (Plasticity and Stability). Over half of the variance in divergent thinking could be explained by dimensions of personality. The article presents instructions for measuring divergent thinking with the new method. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
This study examined predictors of creative self-efficacy (CSE) within a large sample ( N=1,878) of Polish school students. Results indicate that creative self-efficacy is significantly predicted by creative abilities (measured by Test of Creative Thinking-Drawing Production) as well as self-reported originality, with 12% of the creative self-efficacy variance predicted by these criteria. Analysis of the potential antecedents of creative self-efficacy showed that it is connected with gender, socioeconomic status, and locality size. Socioeconomic status (SES) was a positive predictor of CSE. Male students were characterized by higher self-efficacy than female students and they also tended to overestimate their creative self-efficacy as predicted by abilities. In turn, females underestimated their creative self-efficacy. Socioeconomic status moderated the relations between creative abilities and creative self-efficacy, with stronger associations between abilities and efficacy in high SES groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Most investigations of creativity tend to take one of two directions: everyday creativity (also called "little-c"), which can be found in nearly all people, and eminent creativity (also called "Big-C"), which is reserved for the great. In this paper, the authors propose a Four C model of creativity that expands this dichotomy. Specifically, the authors add the idea of "mini-c," creativity inherent in the learning process, and Pro-c, the developmental and effortful progression beyond little-c that represents professional-level expertise in any creative area. The authors include different transitions and gradations of these four dimensions of creativity, and then discuss advantages and examples of the Four C Model.
Article
Full-text available
Today, the importance of intercultural competence in both global and domestic contexts is well recognized. Bennett (1986, 1993b) posited a framework for conceptualizing dimensions of intercultural competence in his developmental model of intercultural sensitivity (DMIS). The DMIS constitutes a progression of worldview “orientations toward cultural difference” that comprise the potential for increasingly more sophisticated intercultural experiences. Three ethnocentric orientations, where one's culture is experienced as central to reality (Denial, Defense, Minimization), and three ethnorelative orientations, where one's culture is experienced in the context of other cultures (Acceptance, Adaptation, Integration), are identified in the DMIS.Based on this theoretical framework, the Intercultural Development Inventory (IDI) was constructed to measure the orientations toward cultural differences described in the DMIS. The result of this work is a 50-item (with 10 additional demographic items), paper-and-pencil measure of intercultural competence.Confirmatory factor analyses, reliability analyses, and construct validity tests validated five main dimensions of the DMIS, which were measured with the following scales: (1) DD (Denial/Defense) scale (13 items, alpha=0.85); (2) R (Reversal) scale (9 items, alpha=0.80); (3) M (Minimization) scale (9 items, alpha=0.83), (4) AA (Acceptance/Adaptation) scale (14 items, alpha=0.84; and (5) an EM (Encapsulated Marginality) scale (5 items, alpha=0.80). While no systematic gender differences were found, significant differences by gender were found on one of the five scales (DD scale). No significant differences on the scale scores were found for age, education, or social desirability, suggesting the measured concepts are fairly stable.
Article
Full-text available
Despite abundant anecdotal evidence that creativity is associated with living in foreign countries, there is currently little empirical evidence for this relationship. Five studies employing a multimethod approach systematically explored the link between living abroad and creativity. Using both individual and dyadic creativity tasks, Studies 1 and 2 provided initial demonstrations that time spent living abroad (but not time spent traveling abroad) showed a positive relationship with creativity. Study 3 demonstrated that priming foreign living experiences temporarily enhanced creative tendencies for participants who had previously lived abroad. In Study 4, the degree to which individuals had adapted to different cultures while living abroad mediated the link between foreign living experience and creativity. Study 5 found that priming the experience of adapting to a foreign culture temporarily enhanced creativity for participants who had previously lived abroad. The relationship between living abroad and creativity was consistent across a number of creativity measures (including those measuring insight, association, and generation), as well as with masters of business administration and undergraduate samples, both in the United States and Europe, demonstrating the robustness of this phenomenon.
Article
Full-text available
Responds to G. J. Rich's comments on the current author's original article which presented evidence supporting the idea that multicultural experience can facilitate creativity. Rich has argued that our review, although timely and important, was somewhat limited in scope, focusing mostly on smaller forms of creativity ("little c": e.g., paper-and-pencil measures of creativity) as well as on larger forms of multicultural experience ("Big M": e.g., living in a foreign country). We agree with many aspects of Rich's assessment. The issue of whether different forms of multicultural experience can affect Big C creativity is of interest to both scholars and laypeople because creative breakthroughs can literally alter the course of human progress. The response to our article, including Rich's reply, supports our view that the interest in multicultural experience and creativity is far from exhausted; future research will certainly uncover important new insights.
Article
Full-text available
Research on implicit stereotypes has raised important questions about an individual's ability to moderate and control stereotypic responses. With few strategies shown to be effective in moderating implicit effects, the present research investigates a new strategy based on focused mental imagery. Across 5 experiments, participants who engaged in counterstereotypic mental imagery produced substantially weaker implicit stereotypes compared with participants who engaged in neutral, stereotypic, or no mental imagery. This reduction was demonstrated with a variety of measures, eliminating explanations based on response suppression or shifts in response criterion. Instead, the results suggest that implicit stereotypes are malleable, and that controlled processes, such as mental imagery, may influence the stereotyping process at its early as well as later stages.
Article
Research on implicit stereotypes has raised important questions about an individual's ability to moderate and control stereotypic responses. With few strategies shown to be effective in moderating implicit effects, the present research investigates a new strategy based on focused mental imagery. Across 5 experiments, participants who engaged in counterstereotypic mental imagery produced substantially weaker implicit stereotypes compared with participants who engaged in neutral, stereotypic, or no mental imagery. This reduction was demonstrated with a variety of measures, eliminating explanations based on response suppression or shifts in response criterion. Instead, the results suggest that implicit stereotypes are malleable, and that controlled processes, such as mental imagery, may influence the stereotyping process at its early as well as later stages.
Article
There are many controversies with the psychometric approach to study human creativity. Many scholars doubt it is possible to discover something as delicate as creativity using standardized tests (e.g. Baer, 1993/1994, Hocevar, 1981). However, research shows that creativity tests are valid, reliable and predictive (Plucker, 1999, Plucker, Runco, 1998, Plucker, Renzulli, 1999). The article presents a new instrument to measure creative potential - especially creative imagination. This instrument called TCI - Test of Creative Imagination - looks effective, culture-fair, reliable and valid, which makes it useful for an individual diagnosis of creativity as well as for scientific studies.
Article
This research is carried out for the purpose of developing intercultural awareness, which should be one of the major aims of teaching English to young learners, along with learning how to speak or listen. Our presentation will report that reading picture-books in a foreign language to young children (5-6 years old) is effective in developing their consciousness about different languages or cultures. We had kindergartners read English picture-books more than three times a week, both in their kindergartens and at home, with some adults around them, and have found that this method helped them to be aware that there are many different sounds, words, and rhythms. This awareness may lead them to further consciousness of the existence of different cultures, and of different people belonging to them. This kind of intercultural awareness is important particularly in a mono-lingual society like Malaysia, where children are normally not exposed to different languages other than their mother tongue. Analysis of our interviews and questionnaires indicates that children who read English picture-books with CDs both in kindergartens and at home more than three times a week could develop an interest in and positive attitudes towards different languages and the people speaking them, and also the deeper culture on which they are based. © Common Ground, Vijayaletchumy Subramaniam, Normaliza Abd Rahim, Nik Rafidah Nik Affendi, Arbaie Sujud, Noor Aina Dani, Mohd. Sahandri Gani Hamzah.
Article
Based on research with a new instrument to measure creative potential - Test of Creative Imagination (TCI) eight separate studies are presented, where TCI and other measures were used. In study 1. TCI was used together with the well-known measure of creativity - Urban & Jellen Test of Creative Thinking Drawing Production. In study 2. validity of TCI was evaluated using Popek's KANH (CANH) questionnaire - the Polish measure of creative attitude. In study 3. relations among creative imagination (TCI) and types of mind were assessed, in study 4. possible interrelations between TCI and measures of intuitiveness - rationality, and in studies 5. & 6. relations between creative imagination and personality and psychological needs, respectively. Study 7. was developed to show relations between TCI and hierarchy of values, and the last - 8. study to evaluate relations between TCI and academic and emotional intelligence. The results show some significant relations between the results obtained in TCI and the used tests and questionnaires and the results confirm the value of the new instrument.
Article
The ideas presented in this book have been incubating for over 25 years. I was in the first grade, I believe, when the ideas that eventually developed into this social psychology of creativity first began to germinate. The occasion was art class, a weekly Friday afternoon event during which we were given small reproductions of the great masterworks and asked to copy them on notepaper using the standard set of eight Crayola® crayons. I had left kindergarten the year before with encour­ agement from the teacher about developing my potential for artistic creativity. During these Friday afternoon exercises, however, I developed nothing but frus­ tration. Somehow, Da Vinci's "Adoration of the Magi" looked wrong after I'd fin­ ished with it. I wondered where that promised creativity had gone. I began to believe then that the restrictions placed on my artistic endeavors contributed to my loss of interest and spontaneity in art. When, as a social psy­ chologist, I began to study intrinsic motivation, it seemed to me that this moti­ vation to do something for its own sake was the ingredient that had been missing in those strictly regimented art classes. It seemed that intrinsic motivation, as defined by social psychologists, might be essential to creativity. My research pro­ gram since then has given considerable support to that notion. As a result, the social psychology of creativity presented in this book gives prominence to social variables that affect motivational orientation.
Article
It is well known that infants as soon as they are born tend to use fist, fingers, thumbs in stimulation of the oral erotogenic zone, in satisfaction of the instincts at that zone, and also in quiet union. It is also well known that after a few months infants of either sex become fond of playing with dolls, and that most mothers allow their infants some special object and expect them to become, as it were, addicted to such objects. There is a relationship between these two sets of phenomena that are separated by a time interval, and a study of the development from the earlier into the later can be profitable, and can make use of important clinical material that has been somewhat neglected. Those who happen to be in close touch with mothers' interests and problems will be already aware of the very rich patterns ordinarily displayed by babies in their use of the first 'not-me' possession. These patterns, being displayed, can be subjected to direct observation. There is a wide variation to be found in a sequence of events that starts with the newborn infant's fist-in-mouth activities, and leads eventually on to an attachment to a teddy, a doll or soft toy, or to a hard toy. It is clear that something is important here other than oral excitement and satisfaction, although this may be the basis of everything else. Many other important things can be studied, and they include: 1. The nature of the object. 2. The infant's capacity to recognize the object as 'not-me'. 3. The place of the object – outside, inside, at the border. 4. The infant's capacity to create, think up, devise, originate, produce an object. 5. The initiation of an affectionate type of object-relationship.
We call any activity of a person that creates anything new, creative activity. This includes the creation of any kind of inner world or construction of the mind that is experienced and observed only in humans. Looking at human behavior, we can distinguish two basic forms of construction. One form of activity can be called reproductive, and is closely connected with memory, its essence consisting in a person's reproducing or retrieving traces of previous impressions. When I remember the house in which I spent my childhood or a remote country I sometimes visit, I reproduce traces of the impressions I obtained in early childhood or at a time of a journey. In general, in all these cases this activity of mine is not creating anything new; basically, it is more or less just a return of what was.
Article
Eastern Europe, and Poland within it, is undergoing a deep process of thourough transformations. In this article, the author will concentrate on cultural changes. The "new" cultural minorities of the post-1989 Poland will be shortly presented. In the literal sense, the new minorities would be the groups that have not existed in Poland before 1989. In the metaphorical sense, the new minorities would be the groups that had existed before here but were kept, or stayed "voluntarily," in the closet. Some of the relations between them and the dominant group will be also discussed.
Article
This article addresses the question of whether children are or are not creative by exploring the assumptions underlying each possible answer. It is argued that our position regarding children's creativity steams from larger systems of representation concerning children on the one hand, and creativity on the other. Arguments for and against the idea that children can be creative are then considered from four different perspectives: the product, process, person and press factor. On the whole, children's creativity is accounted for in terms of a particular ‘reading’ of children as active and interactive beings and of creativity as a social and cultural phenomenon. In contrast, children's lack of creative expression is linked with a passive and receptive image of the child and with theorising creativity through the lenses of the genius and of great creations. In the end, the benefits of acknowledging children's creativity are considered for child and developmental psychology, for creativity research and for educational practices.
Article
This article presents research on an intercultural project supervised by teacher trainers and implemented by two Jewish student teachers in a Bedouin school in the south of Israel The student teachers developed and taught an English language unit on the differences and similarities between Jewish and Arab cultures for the purpose of promoting intercultural awareness and acceptance. Figure drawings of Jewish and Arab people made by the children were analyzed qualitatively as measures of changes in attitudes and stereotypes before and after the educational intervention. We found that many negative stereotypes were changed as a result of the culture unit taught by the student teachers. As teacher trainers and researchers, we present this project as an example of an educational intervention for the promotion of intercultural understanding.
Article
The researchers investigated the effects of a training procedure on the divergent-thinking abilities of kindergarten children. Over a period of 8 weeks, a group of specially trained preservice teachers exposed an experimental group of children to divergent-thinking situations in large and small groups and on an individual basis. Another group of preservice teachers worked with a control group and used few divergent-thinking situations. Pretest results showed the groups of kindergarten children to be initially homogeneous, while posttest results showed the experimental group to be significantly superior to the control group on 3 measures of verbal creative thinking. Differences in the groups were attributed to the training procedures. The results suggest that very young children can realize dramatic increases when repeatedly exposed to divergent-thinking situations.
Article
Yes, certainly, it can be nurtured using the appropriate creative environment: (a) schools with continuous enrichment of their environment; (b) creative programmes for developing creative thinking; and (c) creative teachers and creative ways of teaching. It can be concluded then that interaction with the everyday creative environment, is the most powerful possibility of nurturing creativity in individuals, and especially in children.
Article
The study of culture and communication has followed many branches. One of the most prominent is that of face‐to‐face interaction between persons who are of different nationalities. A second discusses interaction between definable social groups. The following bibliography is organized around these two themes.
Article
Automatic stereotype activation can be overcome intentionally and after an extensive training. However, intentions have to be tailored to a certain social category. It is hypothesized that activating the mindset “think different” by priming creativity prevents stereotypes and associations in general from becoming automatically activated. In two experiments a creative, a thoughtful or no mindset was activated. Afterwards, the activation of associations was measured using a lexical decision task with semantic priming. As predicted, the automatic activation of stereotypes (Study 1) and other associations (Study 2) was found in the control conditions but not in a creative mindset. These results suggest that people possess a mindset that allows for overcoming automatic stereotype activation without being tailored to a specific category.
Article
The authors discuss the use of storybooks to promote multicultural sensitivity among elementary school children. The increasing diversity in the United States dictates that children are sensitive to cultural differences of individuals from varied backgrounds. Because they are in a formative stage of life, children are an ideal population with which to begin teaching about diversity. Los autores discuten el uso de libros de cuentos para promover la sensibilidad multicultural entre niños de escuela primaria. La diversidad creciente en los Estados Unidos dicta que niños son sensibles a diferencias culturales de individuos de origen variados. Porque ellos están en una etapa formativa de la vida, los niños son una población ideal con que empezar la enseñanza acerca de la diversidad.
Article
The present study developed and assessed reliability and validity of a new instrument, the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale (ISS). Based on a review of the literature, 44 items thought to be important for intercultural sensitivity were generated. A sample of 414 college students rated these items and generated a 24-item final version of the instrument which contains five factors. An assessment of concurrent validity from 162 participants indicated that the ISS was significantly correlated with other related scales, including interaction attentiveness, impression rewarding, self-esteem, self-monitoring, and perspective taking. In addition, the predicted validity test from 174 participants showed that individuals with high ISS scores also scored high in intercultural effectiveness and intercultural communication attitude scales. Potential limitations of the study were discussed as well. (Author/RS)
Article
Using the Intercultural Sensitivity Scale formulated by G. M. Chen and Starosta, the intercultural sensitivity of English major students, non-English major students, and multinational employees in China were investigated. In this study, intercultural sensitivity was defined as consisting of interaction engagement, interaction confidence, respect for cultural differences, interaction enjoyment, and interaction attentiveness. The focus of this research was to explore how intercultural sensitivity was structured among subjects of different English learning and intercultural communication experience. A series of results generated by multiple regressions showed different weightings of the 5 elements of intercultural sensitivity of the 3 subsamples. For example, respect for cultural differences for English major students was affected by interaction engagement and enjoyment, whereas for multinational employees it was only affected by interaction enjoyment. The study also found that English major students felt interaction enjoyment more easily than non-English major students and multinational employees.
Article
It is customary to date the renewal of interest in creativity among psychologists to Guillord’s presidential address to the APA more than 30 years ago (Guilford 1950). Ever since that date, an increasing tide of publications on the subject has been appearing in our journals. Many of these books and articles have tried to answer what has been thought to be the most fundamental question: What is creativity? But no one has raised the simple question that should precede attempts at defining, measuring, or enhancing, namely: Where is creativity?
Article
This article identifies three paradigms in creativity theory and research in psychology. The He-paradigm, focused on the solitary genius, has been followed, mainly after the 1950s, by the I-paradigm, equally individualistic in nature but attributing creativity to each and every individual. Extending this view, the We-paradigm incorporates what became known as the social psychology of creativity. The cultural psychology of creativity builds upon this last theoretical approach while being critical of some of its assumptions. This relatively new perspective, using the conceptual and methodological framework of cultural psychology, investigates the sociocultural roots and dynamics of all our creative acts and employs a tetradic framework of self – community – new artifact – existing artifacts in its conceptualization of creativity. The theoretical basis of the cultural psychology approach is analyzed as well as some of its main implications for both the understanding and study of creativity.
Article
This article focuses on a novel theoretical paradigm emerging in the study of human creativity: the cultural-psychological approach. It starts by differentiating between the long past of individualistic accounts of creativity (the lonely genius) and the short history of psychological understandings (the creative individual). The social and the cross-cultural psychology of creativity are both considered, together with their advantages and current limitations. Creativity is generally conceptualized as a process of artifact generation and five broad principles for a cultural psychology of creativity are presented. In clarifying the nature of creativity, a special consideration is given to the relationship between individuals, creativity, and culture. Finally, the role of the community in fostering and assessing creativity is suggested as a more realistic solution to the individual—society debate.
Article
Research suggests that living in and adapting to foreign cultures facilitates creativity. The current research investigated whether one aspect of the adaptation process-multicultural learning-is a critical component of increased creativity. Experiments 1-3 found that recalling a multicultural learning experience: (a) facilitates idea flexibility (e.g., the ability to solve problems in multiple ways), (b) increases awareness of underlying connections and associations, and (c) helps overcome functional fixedness. Importantly, Experiments 2 and 3 specifically demonstrated that functional learning in a multicultural context (i.e., learning about the underlying meaning or function of behaviors in that context) is particularly important for facilitating creativity. Results showed that creativity was enhanced only when participants recalled a functional multicultural learning experience and only when participants had previously lived abroad. Overall, multicultural learning appears to be an important mechanism by which foreign living experiences lead to creative enhancement.
Article
Analogies and metaphors are creative and powerful tools for assimilating new information and fitting it into one's existing knowledge base. This study explored the role of analogy in enhancing the ability of young gifted children to paraphrase metaphors. It was hypothesized that gifted children's ability to interpret metaphoric language would be improved by analogy instruction. A modeling procedure was used to highlight the parallelism constraint of analogy solution, namely the requirement that one rule governs the relationship between terms in both pairs of a four term analogy. A puppet model solved picture analogies and used parallel explanations for its answers. Children who were instructed in analogies solved more analogies correctly and offered more parallel explanations than those who did not have analogy instruction. Also, they correctly interpreted more metaphors in a second phase of the study. Enhancing children's ability to understand and learn from analogies and metaphors has useful and varied classroom applications, particularly for gifted students.
Article
Noam Chomsky's first book on syntactic structures is one of the first serious attempts on the part of a linguist to construct within the tradition of scientific theory-construction a comprehensive theory of language which may be understood in the same sense that a chemical, biological theory is understood by experts in those fields. It is not a mere reorganization of the data into a new kind of library catalogue, nor another specualtive philosophy about the nature of man and language, but rather a rigorus explication of our intuitions about our language in terms of an overt axiom system, the theorems derivable from it, explicit results which may be compared with new data and other intuitions, all based plainly on an overt theory of the internal structure of languages; and it may well provide an opportunity for the application of explicity measures of simplicity to decide preference of one form over another form of grammar.