An Evidence-based Prehospital Guideline for External Hemorrhage Control: American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma

Prehospital Emergency Care (Impact Factor: 1.76). 04/2014; 18(2):163-173. DOI: 10.3109/10903127.2014.896962
Source: PubMed


Abstract This report describes the development of an evidence-based guideline for external hemorrhage control in the prehospital setting. This project included a systematic review of the literature regarding the use of tourniquets and hemostatic agents for management of life-threatening extremity and junctional hemorrhage. Using the GRADE methodology to define the key clinical questions, an expert panel then reviewed the results of the literature review, established the quality of the evidence and made recommendations for EMS care. A clinical care guideline is proposed for adoption by EMS systems. Key words: tourniquet; hemostatic agents; external hemorrhage.

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Available from: Nels D Sanddal, Sep 08, 2015

  • No preview · Article · Jul 2014 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: The primary study objectives were to gather information concerning the tourniquet knowledge, experience, training, protocols, preferences, and equipment of civilian prehospital providers. This is a survey of 151 prehospital care providers. Survey respondents included 27 basic, 1 intermediate, and 75 paramedic emergency medical technicians; 1 registered nurse; 4 firefighters without medical certifications; 2 respondents not yet certified; and 1 respondent not listing certifications. Respondents had 2 months to 40 years of experience and came from emergency medical services in communities of 101 to 206,688 residents located 10 minutes to 103 minutes from a Level 1 or 2 trauma center. Twenty-five had used tourniquets: 5 in military and 22 in civilian settings. Civilian tourniquets were most frequently used for motor vehicle- then farm- and manufacturing-related injuries with severe bleeding. Tourniquet knowledge was poor for all groupings (with or without tourniquet experience, military experience, all certifications, all years of experience): 91% did not understand that wider tourniquets require less pressure for arterial occlusion, 69% did not know that stopping venous flow without arterial is harmful, and 37% did not know the correct tourniquet locations for distal limb injuries. Of the 81 on a service and without military experience, 44 had received any tourniquet training; 14 of the 44 had commercial emergency tourniquet access, and 27 indicated their service had a tourniquet protocol. Of the 37 on a service with no tourniquet training, 5 had access to a commercial emergency tourniquet, and 5 indicated their service had a tourniquet protocol. Civilian prehospital providers encounter situations for tourniquet use, but many do not know information important for optimal tourniquet use. Therefore, if surgeons want civilian prehospital care to include the use of effective, arterial flow occluding tourniquets at appropriate limb locations, they need to communicate with their emergency medical service providers concerning tourniquet knowledge, training, protocols, and appropriate equipment.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2014 · Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Inguinal bleeding is a common and preventable cause of death on the battlefield. Four FDA-cleared junctional tourniquets (Combat Ready Clamp [CRoC], Abdominal Aortic and Junctional Tourniquet [AAJT], Junctional Emergency Treatment Tool [JETT], and SAM Junctional Tourniquet [SJT]) were assessed in a laboratory on volunteers in order to describe differential performance of models. Objective. To examine safety and effectiveness of junctional tourniquets in order to inform the discussions of device selection for possible fielding to military units. Methods. The experiment measured safety and effectiveness parameters over timed, repeated applications. Lower extremity pulses were measured in 10 volunteers before and after junctional tourniquet application aimed at stopping the distal pulse assessed by Doppler auscultation. Safety was determined as the absence of adverse events during the time of application. Results. The CRoC, SJT, and JETT were most effective; their effectiveness did not differ (p > 0.05). All tourniquets were applied safely and successfully in at least one instance each, but pain varied by model. Subjects assessed the CRoC as most tolerable. The CRoC and SJT were the fastest to apply. Users ranked CRoC and SJT equally as performing best. Conclusion. The CRoC and SJT were the best-performing junctional tourniquets using this model.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Prehospital Emergency Care
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