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Abstract

Many economists and biologists view cooperation as anomalous: animals (including humans) who pursue their own self-interest have superior survival odds to their altruistic or cooperative neighbors. However, in many situations there are substantial gains to the group that can achieve cooperation among its members, and to individuals who are members of those groups. For an individual, the key to successful cooperation is the ability to identify cooperative partners. The ability to signal and detect the intention to cooperate would be a very valuable skill for humans to posses. Smiling is frequently observed in social interactions between humans, and may be used as a signal of the intention to cooperate. However, given that humans have the ability to smile falsely, the ability to detect intentions may go far beyond the ability to recognize a smile. In the present study, we examine the value of a smile in a simple bargaining context. 120 subjects participate in a laboratory experiment cons...

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... Previous studies have found that gender, ethnicity, and expression affect trust decisions. Scharlemann et al. (2001) found that smiling can inspire trust and positively affect trust among strangers. Eckel and Wilson (2003a) also reached the same conclusion that "smiling brings trust," In another paper by Eckel and Wilson (2003b), they concluded that "members of minority groups are less likely to be trusted than Caucasian counterparts, and African-Americans are least likely to be trusted" by having subjects look at photographs. ...
... Eckel and Wilson (2003a) also reached the same conclusion that "smiling brings trust," In another paper by Eckel and Wilson (2003b), they concluded that "members of minority groups are less likely to be trusted than Caucasian counterparts, and African-Americans are least likely to be trusted" by having subjects look at photographs. Scharlemann et al. (2001) also suggested in their article that trust increases when men are paired with women. ...
... 6 In addition, to maintain anonymity between trustors and trustees, they were arranged in different classrooms when they arrived and remained there during the experiment. In each classroom, the subjects received written instructions 7 , a recording sheet, and a transfer-amount 5 Based on the result of Scharlemann et al. (2001) that smiling influences trust decisions, we provided some specific requirements on the photos (e.g., facial expression, size, and background, etc.) to the trustees for the sake of excluding possible effects caused by different photos. The detailed requirements are provided in Appendix A. 6 The questions in the questionnaire include: "Do you know any of the people among the photos shown to you in the second-round experiment?" (for the trustors) and "Is there anyone you know among the people in role A in the experiment?" ...
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In a trust game experiment with Chinese participants, we investigate the effects of trustworthy faces and attractive appearances on trust and trustworthiness behavior. The participants played the role of trustor and made decisions on how much money to transfer to their paired trustees while looking at the trustees' photos presented on a large screen. After that, the trustees decided how much money to return to their paired trustors. Results indicate that trust decisions are influenced by both a trustworthy face and an attractive appearance. In addition, a gender effect on trust decisions was found. Men are more trusting than women are, regardless of whether their counterparts are male or female. However, females are less likely to trust their male counterparts than female counterparts. Finally, it is observed that the trustees with a more attractive appearance are more likely to betray the trust they have, while this is not the case for those with more trustworthy faces.
... Existing studies using this method suggest that faces judged as more trustworthy accrue higher initial investments (Chang et al., 2010;Rezlescu et al., 2012;van't Wout & Sanfey, 2008). Other positive facial characteristics, such as attractiveness (Wilson & Eckel, 2006) and smiling (Scharlemann et al., 2001), also increase initial investments. This may be due to a "halo effect," in which a generalised positive assessment of a person influences judgement of their individual attributes (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977); however, it may also be due to aspects of social signalling. ...
... This may be due to a "halo effect," in which a generalised positive assessment of a person influences judgement of their individual attributes (Nisbett & Wilson, 1977); however, it may also be due to aspects of social signalling. For example, a smile may be interpreted as a willingness or invitation to cooperate (Scharlemann et al., 2001). ...
... However, there are other social traits whose vocal realisations are more intuitive and better understood, and which are closely linked to trustworthiness. As discussed above, facial displays of positive affect have been shown to be related to trustworthiness in face perception , and influence behaviour during investment games (Scharlemann et al., 2001). The voice tokens for the current studies were therefore directly manipulated in terms of their perceived positive affect with the anticipation that these manipulations would also result in differences in perceived trustworthiness. ...
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When presented with voices, we make rapid, automatic judgements of social traits such as trustworthiness – and such judgements are highly consistent across listeners. However, it remains unclear whether voice-based first impressions actually influence behaviour towards a voice’s owner, and – if they do – whether and how they interact over time with the voice owner’s observed actions to further influence the listener’s behaviour. This study used an investment game paradigm to investigate i) whether voices judged to differ in relevant social traits accrued different levels of investment and/or ii) whether first impressions of the voices interacted with the behaviour of their apparent owners to influence investments over time. Results show that participants were responding to their partner’s behaviour. Crucially, however, there were no effects of voice. These findings suggest that, at least under some conditions, social traits perceived from the voice alone may not influence trusting behaviours in the context of a virtual interaction.
... Estos artículos estudiaban cómo el comportamiento social de los demás afecta nuestro propio comportamiento. Por ejemplo, Scharlemann et al. (2001) probaron cómo una sonrisa puede cambiar la estrategia de los jugadores, y Bellemare et al. (2018) midieron la sensibilidad de la culpa en los juegos de dictador. El segundo tipo más frecuente de modelos utilizados fueron los modelos de aprendizaje o de sofisticación (25,37 % del total de trabajos). ...
... La reciprocidad, la confianza y la culpa pueden utilizarse para estudiar el comportamiento de los grupos sociales (Yang y Liu, 2019) y cómo estos grupos sociales confían en los demás al observar cómo comparten los bienes públicos (Adriaanse, 2011) y también para ver su comportamiento en negociaciones y conflictos en un grupo (Halevy y Phillips, 2015). Adicionalmente, podemos observar otra subcategoría: la biopsicología, que es el estudio de cómo los cambios fisiológicos influyen en el comportamiento, ya sea por la testosterona (Huoviala y Rantala, 2013) o por una sonrisa (Scharlemann et al., 2001). ...
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gracias a la teoría de los juegos tenemos una mejor comprensión del comportamiento humano en la economía. Sin embargo, como esta teoría excluye el aspecto psicológico de la conducta, una revisión del supuesto de racionalidad completa la información perdida en algunos juegos. Como consecuencia, han surgido algunos enfoques que incluyen aspectos conductuales y psicológicos en los juegos. Esto ha generado una gran cantidad de literatura distribuida en líneas de investigación aparentemente independientes, hecho que puede generar confusión. Para aclarar si la teoría de juegos conductual y psicológica son enfoques independientes, se realizó una revisión sistemática utilizando las directrices PRISMA para identificar todos los estudios empíricos publicados bajo ambas denominaciones. Se recogieron trabajos que (1) tuvieran variables psicológicas, (2) estuvieran revisados por pares y (3) tuvieran algún diseño experimental. De los 492 trabajos buscados, 67 se incluyeron en esta revisión sistemática. Se organizarwon y estudiaron para determinar qué tipo de variables psicológicas incluían y si realmente existen dos enfoques diferentes o no. El término más utilizado es la teoría del juego conductual, en la que se utilizan ampliamente variables como la culpa, la confianza, la motivación y la reciprocidad. La principal conclusión es que los dos enfoques son realmente el mismo y son los seguidores de los principales autores de cada corriente los que publican bajo uno u otro nombre.
... The specificity of the contemporary consumer reality causes people to repeatedly establish relationships that are referred to as "market relations" (Fiske, 1991(Fiske, , 2004Kasser et al., 2007;Sandel, 2012;Stanfield & Stanfield, 1997). As Fiske (1992) proposed almost 30 years ago, "Market pricing is so pervasive in Western society and so important in the Western cultural conceptions of human nature and society that many theorists have postulated that all human social behavior is based on more or less rational calculations of cost-benefit ratios in self-interested exchange. ...
... The rationale behind such a change was that neutral faces we used in Experiments 4 and 5 do not reveal much information about one's trustworthiness or benevolence, therefore it might be relatively easy to affect trust towards such people by evoking the market mindset. Smiling faces openly reveal prosocial intentions and positive emotional expressions which has the capacity to trigger trust and cooperation (Scharlemann et al., 2001). If the salience of the Market mindset and trust 39 market mindset could also hinder trust towards an apparently nice, benevolent person, that would be a strong support for our theoretical model. ...
Preprint
In a series of six experiments, we provided evidence that evoking the market mindset negatively affects trust. We found that the market mindset reduces trust compared to the communal mindset (Experiment 1) and compared to a neutral condition (Experiment 2). We excluded alternative explanations by demonstrating that the market mindset negatively affects trust, but not caution or cynicism (Experiment 3). Next, we examined the psychological mechanisms behind the detrimental effect of the market mindset on trust and found that this effect was due to enhanced motivation to use proportional thinking (Experiments 4 and 6) and reduced state empathy (Experiments 5 and 6). Finally, in a preregistered Experiment 6, we showed that these two psychological mechanisms are relatively independent.
... These findings may be explained by the 'dominance effect', according to which individuals in submissive positions smile more than those in positions of control. Since men are often in dominant positions, they tend to smile less and underestimate the others' smiles, comparing to women (Scharlemann, 2001). ...
... Like the hunters' trophy shots, the smiles of men and women soldiers shown previously, indicate a position of dominance, not subordination identified generally with smiles (Scharlemann et al., 2001). More precisely, they represent patriarchal and colonialist positions centering around the right to demonstrate power and control of others, and through them to obtain gratification. ...
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This article offers a reading of visually and ethically disturbing images, published over the past two decades, that have earned far-reaching exposure: photographs of male and female soldiers grin as they observe horrific sights. In most cases, these images, uploaded to social media, sparked a heated international debate. Perhaps more than other visual elements in these photos, it was the female soldiers’ smiles against the backdrop of atrocities that gained a greater presence in the eye of the media storm that had ensued, earning far more attention than the smiles of the soldiers’ male counterparts. Indeed, this visual imagery directly indicates the construction of femininity and masculinity within militaristic-cultural contexts and dictates its own ideological perceptions and moral judgments. A reading of the smile’s meanings in this context raises issues connected to the anthropology of physical gestures and the theory of photography, as well as to current ideological-ethical issues. This article comprises three pivotal interpretations, and while each framework construes the meaning of the smile in its own way, gendered visual literacy underlies all of them. By using this case study in order to point to visual literacy’s seminal role in critical interpretation, we aim to demonstrate the cruciality of feminist visual literacy in a multi-dimensional analysis of visual imagery.
... Smiles have been typically shown to promote trust and cooperation. For example, people are more cooperative when their interaction partner smiles, compared to showing a non-expressive face (Scharlemann et al., 2001). However, not all smiles elicit trust and cooperation; perceptions of smile authenticity vary depending upon specific features of smile dynamics, and smiles perceived as inauthentic elicit less trust than those perceived as authentic (Centorrino et al., 2015;Krumhuber et al., 2007). ...
... As such, our results extend previous evidence on generally positive effects of smiles in absence of context (e.g. Harker & Keltner, 2001;Otta et al., 1996) and in trust-relevant situations (Kret & De Dreu, 2019;Scharlemann et al., 2001). Importantly, our findings were replicated in five studies, using different economic games and three expresser identities, including male and female models. ...
Article
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We investigated the effects of different types of smiles on the perception of uncooperative or untrustworthy behaviour. In five studies, participants assigned to one group played an economic game with a representative of another group. In an initial round, the representative acted uncooperatively by favouring their group and then displayed a dominance, reward, or affiliation smile. Participants rated the motives of the representative and played a second round of the game with a different member of the same outgroup. Following uncooperative or untrustworthy behaviour, affiliation smiles communicated less positivity and superiority, and a greater desire to both repair the relationship between groups and change the uncooperative decision than reward or dominance smiles. Perceptions of a desire to repair the relationship and to change the decision were associated with trust and cooperation in a subsequent round of the game. Together, these findings show that smiles that are subtly different in their morphology can convey different messages and highlight the importance of these expressions in influencing the perceptions of others’ intentions.
... Such smiles have been proposed as a means to establish and maintain effective interpersonal interactions by signaling trustworthiness and cooperative intent (cf. Miles, 2009;Scharlemann et al., 2001). They can also signal compassion (Barankova et al., 2019), goodwill (Lockard, McVittie, Isaac, 1977), sexual invitation (Gueguen, 2008), or appeasement (Eibl-Eibesfeldt, 1972Hess et al., 2002;Keltner 1995). ...
Article
In this paper, the cultural aspects of smiling have been discussed. The smile has been defined as an important social signal, which often has a different meaning in various cultural settings. The author focuses on the mainstream US culture and analyzes the cultural scripts that are crucial in understanding the functions and meanings of smiling in the American context. The most important of these cultural values is friendliness. Friendliness has its roots in American egalitarianism. Following their egalitarian beliefs, most Americans are friendly and outgoing. They feel that everyone should be treated the same way and are pretty indiscriminate with their friendliness and smiles. Another important factor in understanding the American way of smiling is cheerfulness: the central importance of optimism and emphasis on positive feelings. The ethic of cheerfulness is strongly connected to the cultural preoccupation with happiness, so deep that it has been reflected in the American constitution. In the final paragraph, the possible negative impact of the growing heterogeneity of American society on smiling etiquette has been discussed. The author concludes that friendliness is probably the best social glue that keeps people from very different cultural backgrounds together.
... This finding contrasts with conclusions drawn in the literature. One study (Scharlemann et al., 2001) found that female images elicited more trust in males, while male images elicited more trust in females. Another study (Wilson and Eckel, 2006) reports that females are more trustworthy toward males than toward females. ...
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The ability to trust other individuals, including strangers, is a prerequisite for human cooperation. Economically it is not rational to trust others, as trust can be easily exploited. Still, generally the level of trust toward strangers is relatively high. Trust is closely related to trustworthiness: when trusting others, one expects them to reciprocate. Some individuals elicit more trust than others. Apparently, humans use subtle cues for judging the trustworthiness of their interaction partners. Here we report on an experiment that investigates trust and trustworthiness in a population of 176 mainly Dutch students. We address the following questions: What is the degree of trust and trustworthiness towards anonymous interaction partners? How do trust and trustworthiness change in a personalised setting (after seeing a silent video of a partner)? How does the sex and the facial features of the interaction partner affect trust and trustworthiness? The subjects in our experiment played a Trust Game that was shaped into a real-life story. The trustor was in the role of a farmer, who had to decide whether to entrust goods to a trustee, who in turn was in the role of a market seller. Trusting others could bring some extra profit to a trustor, but could also lead to loss of everything. The features of facial appearance were investigated with geometric morphometrics based on full-face photographs. Our results revealed that already under anonymous conditions the level of trust and trustworthiness was very high (70% of individuals trusted anonymous strangers). No sex differences between males and females were found in the anonymous setting. Under personalized conditions females elicited more trust than males in partners of the both sexes. Interestingly, females with more feminine facial shape elicited less trust in both male and female partners, while males with more masculine facial shape were more trusted by females, but less trusted by males. Neither gender nor facial femininity predicted actual trustworthiness of participants. Our results demonstrate that sex and appearance of interaction partners have a clear effect on eliciting trust in strangers. However, these cues do not seem to be reliable predictors of actual trustworthiness.
... Interestingly, emotional tears and a smile (Study 2) were considered manifestations of a person's warmth, suggesting that tears, just as smiling, are generally interpreted as an affiliative social cue (e.g. Scharlemann et al., 2001). We also found that group membership was irrelevant for judgments of warmth: the effects of tears among both members of disadvantaged (immigrants) and advantaged (nonimmigrants) groups were equal in strength in Study 3. ...
Article
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Emotional tears are vehicles for bonding between individuals, even with those belonging to different social categories. Yet, little is known about the reactions they provoke toward members of underprivileged groups such as immigrants or the explanatory mechanisms of their effects. Across three experiments (with 546 adults) using standardized images of emotional displays, we tested the effects of tears on cognitive inferences (of warmth and competence) and self-reported affective responses (such as compassion or discomfort), and both directly and indirectly on self-reported prosocial behavioral intentions toward an immigrant male. Compared with nontearful (i.e., neutral and sad) expressions, observers perceived a tearful immigrant as warmer but not as less competent (except for study 3). They also felt more compassion (but not discomfort) and were more willing to offer an immigrant person emotional (i.e., to approach and comfort) and instrumental support (i.e., to donate money to an organization helping immigrants but not volunteer their time). Inferred warmth and felt compassion (or compassion-related emotions) explained the effects of tears on emotional support and donation intentions. This research highlights the need to study emotion expression in the context of interethnic and, more broadly, intergroup relations and the effects of emotional tears beyond the willingness to provide immediate assistance. We also discuss implications that tears might have for promoting different types of solidarity with members of underprivileged groups such as immigrants. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... Previous research has shown that the Duchenne marker plays a role in communicating cooperative intent (Mehu et al., 2007a,b;Reed et al., 2012) as well as eliciting cooperation from others (Scharlemman et al., 2001;Brown and Moore, 2002). In light of the results of the current study, it is possible that when the Duchenne marker is absent (in this study through chemodenervation that inhibited the orbicularis oculi muscle and erased visible crow's feet wrinkles) signals of cooperation may be lessened. ...
... In particular, a lower acceptance rate of offers from proposers with an angry facial expression was also found [5]. On the other hand, happy facial expressions could promote trust and cooperation [30,32,33], leading to a higher level of acceptance of the offer when displayed during UG [5]. ...
Article
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Over the past fifteen years, research has demonstrated the central role of interpersonal emotions in communicating intentions, goals and desires. These emotions can be conveyed through facial expressions during specific social interactions, such as in the context of coordination between economic agents, where information inferred from them can influence certain decision-making processes. We investigated whether four facial expressions (happiness, neutral, angry and disgusted) can affect decision-making in the Ultimatum Game (UG). In this economic game, one player (proposer) plays the first move and proposes how to allocate a given amount of money in an anonymous one-shot interaction. If the other player (responder) accepts the proposal, each player receives the allocated amount of money; if he/she rejects the offer, both players receive nothing. During the task, participants acted as the responder (Experiment 1) or the proposer (Experiment 2) while seeing the opponent’s facial expression. For the responders, the results show that the decision was mainly driven by the fairness of the offer, with a small main effect of emotion. No interaction effect was found between emotion and offer. For the proposers, the results show that participants modulated their offers on the basis of the responders’ expressed emotions. The most generous/fair offers were proposed to happy responders. Less generous/fair offers were proposed to neutral responders. Finally, the least generous/fair offers were proposed to angry and disgusted responders.
... The current findings also corroborate previous work that has looked at the actual effectiveness of persuasion across different media channels-primarily text-based versus in-person communication channels (Berry & McArthur, 1986;Brownlow, 1992;Burgoon, 1990;McGinley et al., 1975;Scharlemann et al., 2001;Sproull & Kiesler, 1986;Willis & Todorov, 2006). While this work has also shown that in-person influence is superior to almost any kind of mediated influence attempt, fairly little prior research has examined people's intuitions about the best way to persuade. ...
Article
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Research has found that people are much more likely to agree to help requests made in-person than those made via text-based media, but that help-seekers underestimate the relative advantage of asking for help face-to-face. It remains unknown what help-seekers’ intuitions about the effectiveness of richer media channels incorporating audio and video features might be, or how these intuitions would compare with the actual effectiveness of face-to-face or email versus rich media requests. In two behavioral and two supplemental vignette experiments, participants expected differences in the effectiveness of seeking help through various communication channels to be quite small, or nonexistent. However, when participants actually made requests, the differences were substantial. Ultimately, help-seekers underestimated the relative advantage of asking for help face-to-face compared with asking through any mediated channel. Help-seekers also underestimated the relative advantage of asking through richer media channels compared with email.
... The latter explanation has been termed the Match-up Hypothesis. For instance, smiling increases trust among strangers and is seen as an intention to cooperate only when the smile is genuine (Scharlemann et al., 2001). The Match-up Hypothesis is applicable to study the influence of social features in a social commerce context. ...
Article
Member contributions are the lifeblood of online communities (OC) and a critical factor in their success. To help managers foster contributions, this research investigates how the level of social features (i.e., the number of social features shown in the OC interface) shapes member contribution at divergent levels of involvement. A 2 × 2 factorial design experiment (presence vs absence of members' profiles and evaluations, respectively; N = 353) was performed in a realistic setting on actual members of a North American health-related community. Member contribution was gauged by the attitude toward contribution and the social value of contribution measured. The results show that, while the level of social features has a positive and linear effect for members with low involvement in the community's theme, the effect is nonlinear (U-Shaped) for the highly involved members. Therefore, to improve contribution of members with low involvement, a community's administrator should offer more social features. However, for members with high involvement, affording one social feature (an interface offering either members' profiles or their evaluations) should be avoided because it lessens contribution.
... The current findings also corroborate previous work that has looked at the actual effectiveness of persuasion across different media channels-primarily text-based versus in-person communication channels (Berry & McArthur, 1986;Brownlow, 1992;Burgoon, 1990;McGinley et al., 1975;Scharlemann et al., 2001;Sproull & Kiesler, 1986;Willis & Todorov, 2006). While this work has also shown that in-person influence is superior to almost any kind of mediated influence attempt, fairly little prior research has examined people's intuitions about the best way to persuade. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Research has found that people are much more likely to agree to help requests made in-person than those made via text-based media, but that help-seekers underestimate the relative advantage of asking for help face-to-face. It remains unknown what help-seekers’ intuitions about the effectiveness of richer media channels incorporating audio and video features might be, or how these intuitions would compare to the actual effectiveness of face-to-face or email versus rich media requests. In two behavioral and two supplemental vignette experiments, participants expected differences in the effectiveness of seeking help through various communication channels to be quite small, or nonexistent. However, when participants actually made requests, the differences were quite large. Ultimately, help-seekers underestimated the relative advantage of asking for help face-to-face compared to asking through any mediated channel. Help-seekers also underestimated the relative advantage of asking through richer media channels compared to email.
... It has been reported that interpersonal emotions exert significant influence on negotiation (Adam, Shirako, & Maddux, 2010), trust (Krumhuber, Manstead, Cosker, Marshall, Rosin & Kappas, 2007), and prosocial behaviors (Van Doorn, van Kleef, & van der Pligt, 2015). People are more likely to cooperate with smiling partners (Scharlemann, Eckel, Kacelnik & Wilson, 2001) and less likely to make risky decisions when a friend expresses anxiety (Parkinson, Phiri, & Simons, 2012). In the ultimatum game, proposers that reward acceptance with a smile cause higher acceptance rates . ...
Article
Although the influence of endogenous emotion on decision-making has been widely studied, the effect of interpersonal emotions on risk decision-making is less understood. To address this issue, participants were asked to perform an interpersonal gambling game after perceiving their cooperator’s facial emotions. The results found that the cooperator’s happy expressions increased individuals’ risk-approaching choice compared with angry expressions. Moreover, happy expressions induced larger P300 potentials in the option assessment stage, and diminished the differences between losses and wins in feedback-related FRN/RewP in the outcome valuation stage. Additionally, single-trial analysis found that the neural response induced by interpersonal expressions and feedback could predict participants’ subsequent decision-making. These findings suggest that interpersonal emotions shape individuals’ risk preference through enhancing in-depth valuation in the option assessment stage and early motivational salience valuation in the outcome valuation stage.
... However, there appears to be a number of physiognomic biases that relate to trustworthiness. Faces with low inner eyebrows, shallow cheekbones, and thin chins are perceived as untrustworthy, individuals who are attractive or appear happy (with smiling being used as a signal of the intention to cooperate) tend to be viewed as trustworthy, faces that resemble a baby are viewed as non-threatening, and we tend to trust people who appear similar to our tribe and distrust others who appear dissimilar (Scharlemann et al., 2001;Todorov et al., 2008;Sofer et al., 2017). ...
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In this paper, I will identify two problems of trust in an AI-relevant context: a theoretical problem and a practical one. I will identify and address a number of skeptical challenges to an AI-relevant theory of trust. In addition, I will identify what I shall term the `scope challenge', which I take to hold for any AI-relevant theory (or collection of theories) of trust that purports to be representationally adequate to the multifarious forms of trust and AI. Thereafter, I will suggest how trust-engineering, a position that is intermediate between the modified pure rational-choice account and an account that gives rise to trustworthy AI, might allow us to address the practical problem of trust, before identifying and critically evaluating two candidate trust-engineering approaches.
... The Greek recipients were paid their experimental earnings by the same market research company that collected the data. Empirical research in both psychology and economics has documented the existence of a beauty premium-attractive people earn more than unattractive people (e.g., Rosenblat 2008)-and that of a smile premium-people with a smiling facial expression earn more than people with a neutral facial expression (e.g., Scharlemann et al. 2001). To verify that perceived beauty was balanced between the groups of recipients participating in the treatments that manipulate social distance, dictators assigned to the Photo and Photo+Info treatments were asked, as part of the post-experimental questionnaire, to rate the attractiveness of their partners using a scale ranging from 1 (homely) to 5 (strikingly beautiful). ...
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Many socially desirable actions are subject to risk and occur in situations where the others are not anonymous. Assessing whether lower subject-subject anonymity affects behavior when outcomes are risky is likely important but has not been studied in depth so far. Herein, we provide evidence on this issue. In a series of allocation tasks, all of them variations of the dictator game, we systematically vary the party who is exposed to risk and manipulate recipient anonymity by reducing the social and/or moral distance between the two parties. We collect data on the dictators' decisions in a controlled laboratory setting, whereas in the treatments that manipulate anonymity we gather field data on the recipients. We propose a model that extends previous work by allowing not only for ex ante and ex post fairness but also for altruism. The model is consistent with observed behavior. In particular, a reduction in social and moral distance significantly increases the likelihood of equal split and more than equal split choices.
... That is, because maxillary protrusion produces a characteristic of smile, others may interpret this facial feature as positive (Otta et al., 1996;Schmidt and Cohn, 2001;O'Doherty et al., 2003;Kaukomaa et al., 2013), and thus a positive attitude is formed. Moreover, such reactions may encourage positive social interactions (Tidd and Lockard, 1978;Scharlemann et al., 2001), consistent with implications of the social-functional account (Martin et al., 2017). We consider that these findings contribute to our understanding of how smiles affect social intereaction and will be relevant to the development of social-functional (Martin et al., 2017) and behavioral ecology (Fridlund, 1994;Crivelli and Fridlund, 2018) approaches to understanding the function of facial expressions, and especially smiles, in human societies. ...
Article
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Smiles play an important role in social perception. However, it is unclear whether a similar role is played by static facial features associated with smiles (e.g., stretched mouth and visible teeth). In dental science, maxillary dental protrusions increase the baring of the teeth and thus produce partial facial features of a smile even when the individual is not choosing to smile, whereas mandibular dental protrusions do not. We conducted three experiments to assess whether individuals ascribe positive evaluations to these facial features, which are not genuine emotional expressions. In Experiment 1, participants viewed facial photographs of maxillary and mandibular protrusions and indicated the smiling and emotional status of the faces. The results showed that, while no difference was observed in participants’ perception of the presence of a smile across both types of dental protrusion, participants felt more positive to faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 2, participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) test measuring implicit attitudes toward faces with maxillary vs. mandibular protrusions. The results showed that participants had more positive attitude toward faces with maxillary than mandibular protrusions. In Experiment 3, individuals with either maxillary or mandibular protrusions completed the same IAT test to assess whether any preference would be affected by in-group/out-group preferences. The results showed both groups had more positive attitudes toward faces with maxillary protrusion, indicating that this preference is independent of the group effect. These findings suggest that facial features associated with smiles are viewed positively in social situations. We discuss this in terms of the social-function account.
... People find attractive individuals more trustworthy (Wilson and Eckel, 2006). Individuals will invest more if a profile picture has a smiling face (Scharlemann et al., 2001) or is visually perceived as more trustworthy (Bente et al., 2012). The trust individuals place in profile information is often incorrect (Toma, 2010). ...
Chapter
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Artificial Intelligence (AI) presents a new landscape for humanity. Both what we can do, and the impact of our ordinary actions is changed by the innovation of digital and intelligent technology. In this chapter we postulate how AI impacts contemporary societies on an individual and collective level. We begin by teasing apart the current actual impact of AI on society from the impact that our cultural narratives surrounding AI has. We then consider the evolutionary mechanisms that maintain a stable society such as heterogeneity, flexibility and cooperation. Taking AI as a prosthetic intelligence, we discuss how—for better and worse—it enhances our connectivity, coordination, equality, distribution of control and our ability to make predictions. We further give examples of how transparency of thoughts and behaviours influence call-out culture and behavioural manipulation with consideration of group dynamics and tribalism. We next consider the efficacy and vulnerability of human trust, including the contexts in which blind trust in information is either adaptive or maladaptive in an age where the cost of information is decreasing. We then discuss trust in AI, and how we can calibrate trust as to avoid over-trust and mistrust adaptively, using transparency as a mechanism. We then explore the barriers for AI increasing accuracy in our perception by focusing on fake news. Finally, we look at the impact of information accuracy, and the battles of individuals against false beliefs. Where available, we use models drawn from scientific simulations to justify and clarify our predictions and analysis.
... Smiles are versatile and powerful social signals (Jensen, 2015;Kraus & Chen, 2013;Kunz et al., 2009;Scharlemann et al., 2001) that are used to accomplish a diverse set of social goals across interpersonal contexts (Johnston et al., 2010;Stewart et al., 2015). Mirroring the heterogeneity of the contexts in which they are encountered, the morphology of expressions labeled as a smile is also highly variable (Ambadar et al., 2009;Harris & Alvarado, 2005). ...
Article
Smiles are nonverbal signals that convey social information and influence the social behavior of recipients, but the precise form and social function of a smile can be variable. In previous work, we have proposed that there are at least three physically distinct types of smiles associated with specific social functions: reward smiles signal positive affect and reinforce desired behavior, affiliation smiles signal non-threat and promote peaceful social interactions, dominance smiles signal feelings of superiority and are used to negotiate status hierarchies. The present work advances the science of the smile by addressing a number of questions that directly arise from this smile typology. What do perceivers think when they see each type of smile (study 1)? How do perceivers behave in response to each type of smile (study 2)? Do people produce three physically distinct smiles in response to contexts related to each of the three social functions of smiles (study 3)? We then use an online machine learning platform to uncover the labels that lay people use to conceptualize the smile of affiliation, which is a smile that serves its social function but lacks a corresponding lay concept. Taken together, the present findings support the conclusion that reward, affiliation, and dominance smiles are distinct signals with specific social functions. These findings challenge the traditional assumption that smiles merely convey whether and to what extent a smiler is happy and demonstrate the utility of a social–functional approach to the study of facial expression.
... Previous research has shown that the Duchenne marker plays a role in communicating cooperative intent (Mehu et al., 2007a,b;Reed et al., 2012) as well as eliciting cooperation from others (Scharlemman et al., 2001;Brown and Moore, 2002). In light of the results of the current study, it is possible that when the Duchenne marker is absent (in this study through chemodenervation that inhibited the orbicularis oculi muscle and erased visible crow's feet wrinkles) signals of cooperation may be lessened. ...
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Smiles that vary in muscular configuration also vary in how they are perceived. Previous research suggests that “Duchenne smiles,” indicated by the combined actions of the orbicularis oculi (cheek raiser) and the zygomaticus major muscles (lip corner puller), signal enjoyment. This research has compared perceptions of Duchenne smiles with non-Duchenne smiles among individuals voluntarily innervating or inhibiting the orbicularis oculi muscle. Here we used a novel set of highly controlled stimuli: photographs of patients taken before and after receiving botulinum toxin treatment for crow’s feet lines that selectively paralyzed the lateral orbicularis oculi muscle and removed visible lateral eye wrinkles, to test perception of smiles. Smiles in which the orbicularis muscle was active (prior to treatment) were rated as more felt, spontaneous, intense, and happier. Post treatment patients looked younger, although not more attractive. We discuss the potential implications of these findings within the context of emotion science and clinical research on botulinum toxin.
... People find attractive individuals more trustworthy (Wilson and Eckel, 2006). Individuals will invest more if a profile picture has a smiling face (Scharlemann et al., 2001) or is visually perceived as more trustworthy (Bente et al., 2012). The trust individuals place in profile information is often incorrect (Toma, 2010). ...
... To decide whether to trust or not, people rely on other people's reputation or overt signals, but arguably in most situations they lack such meta-information. When interacting with strangers, people thus have to infer their interaction partners' trustworthiness from appearance-based attributes (Bonnefon et al., 2013;Van't Wout & Sanfey, 2008), such as facial features (Todorov et al., 2009) and facial expressions (Scharlemann et al., 2001). Concretely, an angry facial expression signals potential social threat, thereby diminishing the trustworthiness judgments about the respective person (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008), which, in turn, decreases investments in the trust game (Campellone & Kring, 2013). ...
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Past research has demonstrated that conspiracy belief is linked to a low level of self-reported general trust. In four experimental online studies (total N = 1105) we examined whether this relationship translated into actual behavior. Specifically, since the decision to trust relies on the ability to detect potential social threat, we tested whether conspiracy believers are better at detecting actual threat, worse at detecting the absence of threat, or simply trust less, irrespective of any social cue. To this end, participants played multiple, independent rounds of the trust game, a behavioral measure for interpersonal trust. We manipulated social threat by presenting photographs of their alleged trustees with varying intensity of facial anger. In three of the four studies, trustors' conspiracy beliefs predicted a more cautious investment behavior in the trust game. This association, however, was not contingent on the social threat posed by the trustee. The present research thus joins a number of studies demonstrating that conspiracy beliefs can – under certain circumstances - influence everyday behavior.
... In response to others' bodily expressions, people also engage in spontaneous mimicry (Dimberg et al., 2000), which can lead to positive outcomes, such as affiliation (Lakin et al., 2003;Chartrand & Bargh, 1999). For example, people tend to respond to a smile with a smile (Cappella, 1997;Heerey & Crossley, 2013;Hess & Bourgeois, 2010), and such mutual signaling of goodwill may improve coordination and increase trust (Scharlemann et al., 2001). ...
... To decide whether to trust or not, people rely on other people's reputation or overt signals, but arguably in most situations they lack such meta-information. When interacting with strangers, people thus have to infer their interaction partners' trustworthiness from appearance-based attributes (Bonnefon et al., 2013;Van't Wout & Sanfey, 2008), such as facial features (Todorov et al., 2009) and facial expressions (Scharlemann et al., 2001). Concretely, an angry facial expression signals potential social threat, thereby diminishing the trustworthiness judgments about the respective person (Oosterhof & Todorov, 2008), which, in turn, decreases investments in the trust game (Campellone & Kring, 2013). ...
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Past research has demonstrated that conspiracy belief is linked to a low level of self-reported general trust. In four experimental online studies (total N = 1105) we examined whether this relationship translated into actual behavior. Specifically, since the decision to trust relies on the ability to detect potential social threat, we tested whether conspiracy believers are better at detecting actual threat, worse at detecting the absence of threat, or simply trust less, irrespective of any social cue. To this end, participants played multiple, independent rounds of the trust game, a behavioral measure for interpersonal trust. We manipulated social threat by presenting photographs of their alleged trustees with varying intensity of facial anger. In three of the four studies, trustors’ conspiracy beliefs predicted a more cautious investment behavior in the trust game. This association, however, was not contingent on the social threat posed by the trustee. The present research thus joins a number of studies demonstrating that conspiracy beliefs can – under certain circumstances - influence everyday behavior.
... Investigation into these phenomena would be warranted to understand if this was because of organisational culture, or the grouping of like minds, or some other factor. One interesting subject of agreement was the assumption by manufacturers and customers that the resulting servitized relationship would be strongly skewed, this may indicate that trust could be an issue, or some form of game theory (Nash, 1951) was being observed where both parties were gravitating to a lose-lose Nash Equilibrium (Scharlemann et al., 2001), and would be an intriguing line of future research. ...
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Purpose This paper focusses on the darker side of the dynamics of servitization by exploring the tensions and territoriality that emerge between manufacturers and customers during the servitization process in the oil industry. Design/methodology/approach The Delphi method is used to explore the perspectives of three management tiers in oil organisations and the manufacturers who work with them. The views of these managers were synthesized over three iterations: semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire and resolution/explanation, where consensus was not obtained. Findings The findings of the study highlight perceptions of change, resulting tensions and territoriality and the impact of management commitment, resources and strategy. They reveal significant differences between customers and their suppliers and different management levels and highlight territorial behaviour and the negative impact this has on buyer supplier relationships during the implementation of servitization. Research limitations/implications Further research is required to explore why there is a variation in understanding and commitment at different managerial levels and the causes of tensions and territoriality. Practical implications Servitization is not a “quick fix” and management support is essential. A fundamental element of this planning is to anticipate and plan for tensions and territoriality caused by the disruption servitization creates. Originality/value The research provides empirical evidence of tensions and territoriality relating to servitization that potentially can damage supplier–buyer relationships and suggest that there is a darker side to servitization. It also shows that differences in strategic intent across organizations and between different managerial layers impedes to servitization efforts.
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In the course of human evolution, watching eyes have had an important influence on individual cooperative behavior. However, researchers have not explored how the valence of watching eyes affects cooperative behavior. Therefore, this study includes three studies to investigate the effect of watching eyes with different valences on cooperative behavior. The results showed that positive watching eyes (vs. negative watching eyes) induced positive emotions (PA) in the participants and thus increased their tendency to cooperate (Studies 1-2). The role of the decision maker (making decisions for oneself vs. making decisions on behalf of others) moderates the effect of watching eyes on cooperative behavior through emotion (Study 3). In conclusion, the valence of watching eyes significantly affects cooperation. This study not only further enriches research on environmental stimulation and cooperation but also provides inspiration and a reference for solving problems of cooperation in social dilemmas.
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Examining consumer purchasing behavior in green products is complex since multiple factors affect it, and is vital in light of environmental protection becoming a global concern. For most scholars, consumers’ rational thinking plays a significant role in making green purchasing decisions, while alternative processing systems of intuition remain ignored in literature. Therefore, this study aims to bridge this gap by including both reasons and intuitions as predictors to green purchase behavior. The behavioral reasoning theory (BRT) is used in this study to construct a theoretical framework that includes relationships among intuitions, time pressure, green consumption values, reasons (for and against), attitude towards green products, green purchase intention, and green purchase behavior. Data from 525 Indian consumers were obtained and analyzed using partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). Green purchasing intention has a significant positive relationship with green purchase behavior. Attitude towards green products has a significant positive association with green purchase intention. Reasons for green consumption, a second order construct comprising of functional value and ecological value, are strongly linked to attitude towards green products and green purchase intentions. Reasons against green consumption, a second order construct comprising of risk barrier and usage barrier, have a significant negative relationship with green purchase intention but no significant association with attitude towards green products. Intuition, a second order construct comprising of abstract intuition, affective intuition, inferential intuition and big picture intuition, is positively associated with green purchase intention but not attitude towards green products. Green consumption values positively influence reasons for green consumption, reasons against green consumption, and intuition. Time pressure has a significant positive association with intuition. This study may aid marketers and practitioners in developing strategies for promoting the purchase of greener alternatives, thus providing benefits to society as a whole.
Chapter
In everyday life we actively react to the emotion expressions of others, responding by showing matching, or sometimes contrasting, expressions. Emotional mimicry has important social functions such as signalling affiliative intent and fostering rapport and is considered one of the cornerstones of successful interactions. This book provides a multidisciplinary overview of research into emotional mimicry and empathy and explores when, how and why emotional mimicry occurs. Focusing on recent developments in the field, the chapters cover a variety of approaches and research questions, such as the role of literature in empathy and emotional mimicry, the most important brain areas involved in the mimicry of emotions, the effects of specific psychopathologies on mimicry, why smiling may be a special case in mimicry, whether we can also mimic vocal emotional expressions, individual differences in mimicry and the role of social contexts in mimicry.
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Like face-to-face interactions, evidence shows that interacting on social media is rewarding. However, the rewards associated with social media are subject to unpredictable delays, which may shape how they are experienced. Specifically, these delays might enhance the subjective desirability of social rewards and subsequent reward-seeking behavior by sensitizing people to the presence of such rewards. Here, we ask whether thinking about a recent social media post or conversation influences the subjective value of monetary and social rewards. Across two studies, we find that individuals who are thinking about a recent social media post are more likely to sacrifice small financial gains for the chance to see a genuine smile (a social reward) compared with those who are thinking about a recent conversation. This suggests that rather than satisfying social needs, thinking about social media interactions enhances the subjective value of social rewards, potentially explaining the incentive value of social media.
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In immersive virtual reality (VR) applications, the facial expressions and lip-syncing of an avatar can have a significant impact on a user’s experience. In this paper, we designed a VR “trust game” scene to evaluate the effects of four expression conditions (positive facial expressions, neutral facial expressions, negative facial expressions and no expressions and lip-syncing) on participants in an immersive VR scene. We measured the participants with both objective and subjective measures. The two objective behavioral measures were the level of investment in the “trust game” and the users’ eye-movement data, and the subjective measures included social presence, emotional awareness level, and user preferences. We found that the participants were generally less trusting of the avatars with negative expressions, while the avatars with positive expressions made the participants feel comfortable and thus increased their willingness to cooperate with the avatars. In conclusion, avatars with facial expressions, whether positive or negative, were more effective in influencing the participants’ trust levels and decision-making behaviors than those without facial expressions. These findings provide novel ideas and suggestions for improving the level of human–computer interaction in VR and enhancing user experience in VR scenes.
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In a series of five experiments, we provided evidence that evoking the market mindset negatively affects trust. We found that the market mindset reduces trust compared to the communal mindset (Experiment 1) and a neutral condition (Experiment 2). Next, we examined the psychological mechanisms behind the detrimental effect of the market mindset on trust and found that this effect was mediated by enhanced proportional thinking (Experiments 3 and 4) and reduced state empathy (Experiments 4 and 5). Finally, in a preregistered Experiment 5, we showed that these two psychological mechanisms are relatively independent.
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Research has shown that context influences how sincere a smile appears to observers. That said, most studies on this topic have focused exclusively on situational cues (e.g. smiling while at a party versus smiling during a job interview) and few have examined other elements of context. One important element concerns any knowledge an observer might have about the smiler as an individual (e.g. their habitual behaviours, traits or attitudes). In this manuscript, we present three experiments that explored the influence of such knowledge on ratings of smile sincerity. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants rated the sincerity of Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles after having been exposed to cues about the smiler's tendency to reciprocate (this person always, never or occasionally returns favours). In Experiment 3 they performed the same task but with cues about the smiler's love of learning (this person always, never or occasionally enjoys learning new tasks). The results show that cues about the smiler's reciprocity tendency influenced participants' ratings of smile sincerity and did so in a stronger manner than cues about the smiler's love of learning. Overall, these results both strengthen and broaden the literature on the role of context on judgements of smile sincerity.
Chapter
Smile has been conceptualized as a signal of cooperative intent. However, given that smile is easy to fake, how smiling conveys the cooperative intention has long been a question of great interest. Although previous work suggests that people tend to mimic other’s smile and interpersonal synchrony is linked to prosocial behaviors, how synchronized smiling will influence cooperation is yet to be studied. What’s more, the impact of gaze direction during smiling on prosocial outcomes is still unclear. The authors investigated gaze direction and synchronized smiling across the course of 5-min conversation among pairs of same-sex strangers, and cooperation in a one-shot, two-person Prisoner’s Dilemma game occurring directly following the conversation. Consistent with previous works, Duchenne smiling predict their cooperation of the receiver in the Prisoner’s Dilemma game. It was found that greater direct gaze during synchronized Duchenne smiling predicts greater likelihood of cooperation by both the signaler and the receiver in the prisoner’s dilemma game. The results indicate that the Duchenne smiling with direct gaze may be an honest signal of cooperative intent. KeywordsSmileGazeCooperationCommunicationSynchronization
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To shed light on the factors that affect who speaks up in teams in the workplace, we study willingness to speak up after someone has raised an opinion. We call voicing disagreement overriding and study this behavior in a laboratory experiment where participants answer multiple choice questions in pairs. In a control treatment, participants interact anonymously. In a photo treatment, both participants see the photo of the person they are matched with at the beginning of the group task. Using a series of incentivized tasks, we elicit beliefs about the likelihood that each possible answer option to a question is correct. This allows us to measure disagreement and to tease apart the role of disagreement versus preferences in the decision to override ideas in teams. Results show that anonymity increases overriding. This treatment effect is driven by social image costs. Analysis of heterogeneity in behavior by gender reveals no differences between the likelihood that men and women override. However, we find some evidence that men and women are treated differently; when participants disagree with their partner, they are more likely to override a woman than a man. Preferences seem to in part explain the differential treatment of men and women. Studying group performance, we find that overriding helps groups on average, while the gender composition of teams does not affect team performance. This paper was accepted by Yan Chen, behavioral economics and decision analysis.
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Facial information is essential in daily life, but relatively little is known about whether seeing a face improves people’s decision quality. This experimental paper studies the loan-approval decisions based on the historical cash-loan data with real repayment outcomes and exogenously varies whether and how a borrower’s facial information is provided. We find that facial information does not improve subjects’ decisions, despite the fact that it can predict repayment behavior in a machine-learning algorithm. This is because subjects have various biases in evaluating facial photos, and they rely excessively on facial information in making the loan-approval decisions. This paper was accepted by Yan Chen, behavioral economics and decision analysis.
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On Airbnb, profile photos play a crucial role in decision-making. This paper examines how hosts’ profile photos—specifically, gender, facial expression and the presence of sunglasses—affect guests’ intentions to trust and book. An experiment was conducted to seek both close- and open-ended responses (N=524), the former analyzed statistically and the latter thematically. According to the quantitative results, female hosts were preferred to males. Positive facial expressions outperformed neutral ones. A significant interaction effect emerged such that the positive effect of a positive facial expression was stronger when sunglasses were present (vs. absent). Moreover, a mediated moderation was identified: The interaction between facial expression and the use of sunglasses on intention to book was mediated by intention to trust. Themes from the qualitative analysis complement and extend the quantitative results. Overall, the paper adds to the literature on online profile photos in the context of peer-to-peer tourism and hospitality platforms.
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Purpose: The impact of image is widely investigated in various research fields. However, its effect in online health communities is rarely studied. In this research, we develop a theoretical model to assess the impact of physicians’ image on patients’ choices in online health communities. Design/methodology/approach: We developed a web crawler based on R language program to collect more than 40,000 physicians’ images and other related information from their homepages in Haodf.com-a leading online health community in China. The features of physicians’ images are computed by Face++ API through the following variables: beauty, smile, and skin status. Findings: The empirical results derive the following findings: (1) Physician’s beauty or physical attractiveness has no significant effect on patients choice; (2) Smile has a positive effect on patients choices; (3) Physician’s skin status also positively affects patients’ choices; (4) Physician’s professional capital strengthens the effect of beauty, smile and skin status on patients’ choices; (5) Beauty and skin status are the substitutes for each other with smile and skin status are the substitutes for each other too. Originality: This study provides new evidence in understanding the impact of physician’s online image and contributes to the literature on signaling theory, impression management theory, and patients' choices. Research limitations/Implications: Also, this study provides implications for both physicians and online health community platform managers.
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Trust is essential for establishing and maintaining cooperative behaviors between individuals and institutions in a wide variety of social, economic, and political contexts. This book explores trust through the lens of neurobiology, focusing on empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects. Written by a distinguished group of researchers from economics, psychology, human factors, neuroscience, and psychiatry, the chapters shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of trust as applied in a variety of domains. Researchers and students will discover a refined understanding of trust by delving into the essential topics in this area of study outlined by leading experts.
Chapter
Trust is essential for establishing and maintaining cooperative behaviors between individuals and institutions in a wide variety of social, economic, and political contexts. This book explores trust through the lens of neurobiology, focusing on empirical, methodological, and theoretical aspects. Written by a distinguished group of researchers from economics, psychology, human factors, neuroscience, and psychiatry, the chapters shed light on the neurobiological underpinnings of trust as applied in a variety of domains. Researchers and students will discover a refined understanding of trust by delving into the essential topics in this area of study outlined by leading experts.
Article
Recent application of theories of embodied or grounded cognition to the recognition and interpretation of facial expression of emotion has led to an explosion of research in psychology and the neurosciences. However, despite the accelerating number of reported findings, it remains unclear how the many component processes of emotion and their neural mechanisms actually support embodied simulation. Equally unclear is what triggers the use of embodied simulation versus perceptual or conceptual strategies in determining meaning. The present article integrates behavioral research from social psychology with recent research in neurosciences in order to provide coherence to the extant and future research on this topic. The roles of several of the brain's reward systems, and the amygdala, somatosensory cortices, and motor centers are examined. These are then linked to behavioral and brain research on facial mimicry and eye gaze. Articulation of the mediators and moderators of facial mimicry and gaze are particularly useful in guiding interpretation of relevant findings from neurosciences. Finally, a model of the processing of the smile, the most complex of the facial expressions, is presented as a means to illustrate how to advance the application of theories of embodied cognition in the study of facial expression of emotion.
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The set of 30 stimulating commentaries on our target article helps to define the areas of our initial position that should be reiterated or else made clearer and, more importantly, the ways in which moderators of and extensions to the SIMS can be imagined. In our response, we divide the areas of discussion into (1) a clarification of our meaning of “functional,” (2) a consideration of our proposed categories of smiles, (3) a reminder about the role of top-down processes in the interpretation of smile meaning in SIMS, (4) an evaluation of the role of eye contact in the interpretation of facial expression of emotion, and (5) an assessment of the possible moderators of the core SIMS model. We end with an appreciation of the proposed extensions to the model, and note that the future of research on the problem of the smile appears to us to be assured.
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Why are online discussions about politics more hostile than offline discussions? A popular answer argues that human psychology is tailored for face-to-face interaction and people’s behavior therefore changes for the worse in impersonal online discussions. We provide a theoretical formalization and empirical test of this explanation: the mismatch hypothesis. We argue that mismatches between human psychology and novel features of online environments could (a) change people’s behavior, (b) create adverse selection effects, and (c) bias people’s perceptions. Across eight studies, leveraging cross-national surveys and behavioral experiments (total N = 8,434), we test the mismatch hypothesis but only find evidence for limited selection effects. Instead, hostile political discussions are the result of status-driven individuals who are drawn to politics and are equally hostile both online and offline. Finally, we offer initial evidence that online discussions feel more hostile, in part, because the behavior of such individuals is more visible online than offline.
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Trust is a nebulous construct central to successful cooperative exchanges and interpersonal relationships. In this study, we introduce a new approach to establishing construct validity of trust using neurometrics. We develop a whole-brain multivariate pattern capable of classifying whether new participants will trust a relationship partner in the context of a cooperative interpersonal investment game (n=40) with 90% accuracy and find that it also generalizes to a variant of the same task collected in a different country with 82% accuracy (n=17). Moreover, we establish the convergent and discriminant validity by testing the pattern on eleven separate datasets (n=496) and find that trust is reliably related to beliefs of safety, inversely related to negative affect, but unrelated to reward, cognitive control, social perception, and self-referential processing. Together these results provide support for the notion that the psychological experience of trust contains elements of beliefs of reciprocation and fear of betrayal aversion. Contrary to our predictions, we found no evidence that trust is related to anticipated reward. This work demonstrates how neurometrics can be used to characterize the psychological processes associated with brain-based multivariate representations.
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Emotional expressiveness in robots has attracted increased research interest, and development of this technology has progressed in recent years. A wide variety of methods employing facial expressions, speech, body movements, and colors indicating emotional expression have been proposed. Although previous studies explored how emotional expressions are recognized and affect human behavior, cooperative and competitive human-robot relationships have not been well studied. In some cases, researchers have examined how cooperative relationships can be influenced by agents that exhibit detailed facial expressions on a screen. It remains unclear whether and how expressive whole-body movements of real humanoid robots influence cooperative decision-making. To explore this, we conducted an experiment in which participants played a finite iterated prisoner’s dilemma game with a small humanoid robot that exhibits multimodal emotional expressions through limb motions, LED lights, and speech. Results showed that participants were more cooperative when the humanoid robot showed emotional expression. This implies that real humanoid robots that lack ability to show sophisticated facial expressions can form cooperative relationships with humans by using whole-body motion, colors, and speech.
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This paper examines games with non-neutral option labels (such as “A”, “B”, “A”, “A”) and finds surprisingly invariant behaviour across games. The behaviour closely resembles the choices people make when they have to bet on one of the options in individual lotteries. An option’s ‘representativeness’ (lack of distinguishing features) and ‘reachability’ (physical centrality, salience, and valence) determine choice behaviour in both the lotteries and the highly strategic games. There is no evidence of people best-responding to others’ betting(-like) behaviour. This is in line with the idea that once people decide that strategic reasoning would not take them any further, they pick an alternative as if they were betting on one of their ‘current best-responses’. The findings explain the well-documented seeker advantage in hide-and-seek games, as well as why participants often display behaviour that could be exploited by others. On top, they help understand why in national lotteries, people also tend to bet on identical subsets of the available numbers.
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By developing a software tool that helps students cultivate the habit of smiling, this study aims to enhance students’ interpersonal relationships and ability to interact with others and therefore effectively decrease their Internet addiction. The study participants were students from a vocational high school in Tainan, Taiwan. To begin with, it examined the choices of attachment styles and levels of Internet addiction among high school students enrolled in a practical skills program. The students used the software tool for fourteen consecutive days and completed their smile task, which was followed by a post-test questionnaire. The result shows that for interpersonal interactions, changes in the mean values for three types of attachment styles decrease (namely anxious–preoccupied, dismissive–avoidant, and fearful–avoidant styles). In particular, the dismissive–avoidant style was reported with the most prominent change of −1.267, and it was the only variable with a higher average value. This study also applied Bartholomew and Horowitz’s two-dimensional internal working model and found that the participants had demonstrated positive developments in their own self-internal modes and, in particular, others’ internal modes.
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How can an experimenter balance the desire to test a single-shot Nash equilibrium prediction with the need for repeated experience by subjects? Simply repeating the game with the same set of subjects may change the nature of equilibrium, since incomplete information about “types ” can lead to reputation effects of the sort described by Kreps
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The facial expression responses of adults to the display of facial expressions were examined in a variety of public settings to test predictions from a contagion hypothesis, that the display of smiles and frowns results in smiles and frowns, and folk wisdom that the display of a smile will result in a smile but that a frown will not lead to a frown in response. It was also predicted that female subjects would smile more frequently than male subjects and that people would smile at females more than at males. The results supported the folk adage rather than the contagion hypothesis: Over half the subjects responded to a smile with a smile, whereas few subjects responded to a frown with a frown. The predicted effects of subjects' and displayers' gender were also observed. The results were interpreted in the context of internalized norms of reciprocity for brief encounters. The potential for enhanced affect as a result of the contagion of smiles is discussed.
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Facial displays are an important form of social communication in nonhuman primates. Clues to the information conveyed by faces are the temporal and spatial characteristics of ocular viewing patterns to facial images. The present study compares viewing patterns of four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) to a set of 1- and 3-sec video segments of conspecific facial displays, which included open-mouth threat, lip-smack, yawn, fear-grimace, and neutral profile. Both static and dynamic video images were used. Static human faces displaying open-mouth threat, smile, and neutral gestures were also presented. Eye position was recorded with a surgically implanted eye-coil. The relative perceptual salience of the eyes, the midface, and the mouth across different expressive gestures was determined by analyzing the number of eye movements associated with each feature during static and dynamic presentations. The results indicate that motion does not significantly affect the viewing patterns to expressive facial displays, and when given a choice, monkeys spend a relatively large amount of time inspecting the face, especially the eyes, as opposed to areas surrounding the face. The expressive nature of the facial display also affected viewing patterns in that threatening and fear-related displays evoked a pattern of viewing that differed from that recorded during the presentation of submissive-related facial displays. From these results we conclude that (1) the most important determinant of the visual inspection patterns of faces is the constellation of physiognomic features and their configuration, but not facial motion, (2) the eyes are generally the most salient facial feature, and (3) the agonistic or affiliative dimension of an expressive facial display can be delineated on the basis of viewing patterns.
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The authors investigated the social significance of human smiles, specifically the penchant for transgressors who smile to be judged more leniently than those who do not. Of particular interest was whether different types of smiles generate different degrees of leniency and what mediated the effect. Subjects judged a case of possible academic misconduct. Materials included a photograph of a female target displaying a neutral expression, felt smile, false smile, or miserable smile. Smiling targets received more leniency than nonsmiling targets, although they were not seen as less guilty. The type of smile did not significantly moderate the amount of leniency shown. Of the variables evaluated for mediating the smile-leniency effect, such as perceiving the target as more likable, submissive, or diplomatic, the one that best accounted for the effect was perceiving the target as a trustworthy person. The implication seems to be—if in trouble, smile.
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Two studies examined the association between newscasters' facial expressions and the voting behavior of viewers. In Exp I, with 45 undergraduates, the facial expressions exhibited by network newscasters while referring to the 1984 presidential candidates prior to the election were investigated. Results indicate that 1 of the 3 newscasters exhibited significantly more positive facial expressions when referring to Reagan than when referring to Mondale. In Exp II, a telephone survey of approximately 200 individuals was conducted to determine whether voting behavior was associated with the nightly news program watched. It was found that voters who regularly watched the newscaster who exhibited the biased facial expressions were significantly more likely to vote for the candidate that the newscaster had smiled upon. Three explanations for the results are discussed: (1) Viewing the newscasters' biased facial expressions caused the viewers' voting preferences; (2) the viewers' voting preferences determined their viewing of biased newscasters' facial expressions; or (3) some other variable accounted for the findings. (30 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We review 74 experiments with no, low, or high performance-based financial incentives. The modal result has no effect on mean performance (though variance is usually reduced by higher payment). Higher incentive does improve performance often, typically judgment tasks that are responsive to better effort. Incentives also reduce presentation effects (e.g., generosity and risk-seeking). Incentive effects are comparable to effects of other variables, particularly cognitive capital and task production demands, and interact with those variables, so a narrow-minded focus on incentives alone is misguided. We also note that no replicated study has made rationality violations disappear purely by raising incentives.
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In a laboratory experiment, we use an extensive form two person trust game to examine the hypothesis that human subjects have a preconscious friend-or-foe (FOF) mental mechanism for evaluating the intentions of another person. Instructions are used to weakly prime the FOF state: instead of the term “counterpart” for referring to the person that an individual is matched with, we substitute the word “partner” in one treatment, “opponent” in the other. This treatment produces a significant difference in trust and trustworthiness behavior in repeat interactions over time with distinct pairs on each trial. Trustworthiness with “partner” is over twice that for “opponent”, and this reinforces trust, although both trust and trustworthiness erode over time.
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We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of different races or nationalities. High status individuals are able to elicit more trustworthiness in others.
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The authors examine the impact of looks on earnings using interviewers' ratings of respondents' physical appearance. Plain people earn less than average-looking people, who earn less than the good-looking. The plainness penalty is 5 to 10 percent, slightly larger than the beauty premium. Effects for men are at least as great as for women. Unattractive women have lower labor-force participation rates and marry men with less human capital. Better-looking people sort into occupations where beauty may be more productive but the impact of individuals' looks is mostly independent of occupation, suggesting the existence of pure employer discrimination. Copyright 1994 by American Economic Association.
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Gender is rarely included as a factor in economics models. However, recent work in experimental economics, as well as in psychology and political science, suggests that gender is an important determinant of economic and strategic behavior. We examine gender differences in bargaining using the ‘‘trust game’ ’ introduced by Joyce Berg et al. (1995). 1 In this two-person game, the ‘‘proposer’ ’ is given a choice of sending some, all, or none of his or her $10 experimental payment to an anonymous partner, the ‘‘responder.’ ’ The experimenter triples any money sent. The responder then chooses how much of his or her total wealth (his or her $10 experimental payment plus the tripled money) to return to the proposer. Any money the responder does not return may be kept (thus the responder is playing a dictator game with his or her endowment plus three times the amount the proposer sent). The unique subgame-perfect Nash equilibrium is for the proposer to send no money and for the responder to return none. For U.S. subjects, Berg et al. found that 30 of 32 proposers deviated from this economic equilibrium and sent some money to their partners (the average amount sent was $5.16). In
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This study examines factors affecting cooperation in public goods settings involving relatively small groups. In particular, the gender composition of the group and the history of the group's level of cooperation are investigated. Three game-theoretical predictions are posited. Using expectation states theory and social identity theory, I offer two different sets of hypotheses regarding gender identity. A 3x2 experimental design tests the predictions; the factors are gender composition of the groups and others' behavior. All game theory predictions are supported. Further, for the public goods setting examined, expectation states theories provide more accurate models of group members' behavior than social identity theories.
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Based on previous work showing that sex is a "diffuse status cue" (Berger, Rosenholtz, & Zelditch, 1980), the hypothesis that women smile more than men because of status differences between the sexes was evaluated Status was manipulated by assigning men and women to the roles of interviewer (high power) or applicant (low power) in simulated job interviews with either male or female partners. As predicted, overall, applicants smiled more than interviewers, demonstrating that smiling does reflect status. However, the sex composition of the pairs also influenced smiling frequency. Male interviewers smiled significantly less than their applicant partners, whereas female interviewers did not. The results suggest that, compared with females, males may more readily experience power and dominance as concomitants of high-status roles, which may then be reflected in the frequency of their smiling.
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Do we read character in faces? What information do faces actually provide? Why do we associate certain facial qualities with particular character traits? What are the social and psychological consequences of reading character in faces? Zebrowitz unmasks the face and provides the first systematic, scientific account of our tendency to judge people by their appearance. Offering an in-depth analysis of two appearance qualities that influence our impressions of others, babyfaceness" and attractiveness", and an account of these impressions, Zebrowitz has written an accessible and valuable book for professionals and general readers alike.The assumption that people's faces provide a window to their inner nature has a long and distinguished history, eloquently expressed in the works of ancient philosophers, like Aristotle, and great writers, like Shakespeare. Zebrowitz examines this assumption, focusing on four central points. She shows that facial appearance, particularly babyfaceness and attractiveness, has a strong impact on how we perceive an individual's character traits and on social outcomes in the workplace, in the criminal justice system, and in other settings. She proposes that facial stereotypes derive from evolutionarily adaptive reactions to useful information that faces can provide. She assesses the accuracy of facial stereotypes in light of plausible links between appearance and character. Finally, Zebrowitz suggests ways to counteract the consequences of reading faces.
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Tested whether smiling could accrue monetary returns. Two degrees of smiling to 96 single adult men and women by a waitress in a cocktail lounge (a college student confederate) were evaluated in terms of number of drinks ordered, size of tip, and whether the customers smiled upon departure. A broad smile reaped more money than a minimal smile and more from the men than from women patrons. Results are discussed in terms of reciprocal altruism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The effect of smiling on interpersonal attraction and perception was examined in a 2 (sex of perceiver) by 2 (sex of stimulus person) by 2 (facial expression) experiment. 133 Chinese college students were presented a photograph of a stimulus person either smiling or not smiling. As predicted, Ss liked a smiling person more and evaluated him/her more positively than a nonsmiling person. Ss regarded a smiling person to be more intelligent than a nonsmiling person and experienced a warmer feeling as well. (8 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Several leading experimental economists have independently proposed that deception should be proscribed on methodological grounds as an experimental technique. The basis for this prescription is the assertion that the psychological reaction to suspected manipulation jeopardises experimental control and validity, and contaminates the subject pool. According to this view, honesty is a methodological public good and deception is equivalent to not contributing. This paper reviews the literature on the consequences of the use of deception. It is concluded that there is little evidence to support the argument that deception should be proscribed. It is argued that there are potential gains from deception in data validity and experimental control. These gains are illustrated by examining ultimatum games and public good experiments.
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Can people rationally advance their own material interests by cooperating in one-shot prisoner's dilemmas, even when there is no possibility of being punished for defection? We outline a model that describes how such cooperation could evolve if the presence of a cooperative disposition can be discerned by others. We test the model's key assumption with an experiment in which we find that subjects who interacted for thirty minutes before playing one-shot prisoner's dilemmas with two others were substantially more accurate than chance in predicting their partner's decisions.
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As more and more social science experiments are being run on computers, the question of whether these new laboratory instruments affect outcomes is increasingly important. We examine whether the mode of communication in experiments has any effect on the choices made by individuals. We find that the effects of `e-mail' vs. face-to-face communication vary with the nature of the decisions and may depend upon the complexity and content of what needs to be communicated.
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We designed an experiment to study trust and reciprocity in an investment setting. This design controls for alternative explanations of behavior including repeat game reputation effects, contractual precommitments, and punishment threats. Observed decisions suggest that reciprocity exists as a basic element of human behavior and that this is accounted for in the trust extended to an anonymous counterpart. A second treatment, social history, identifies conditions which strengthen the relationship between trust and reciprocity.
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The authors propose models with an ascriptive characteristic generating earnings differentials and causing sectoral sorting, allowing them to distinguish among sources producing such differentials. They use longitudinal data on a large sample of graduates from one law school and measure beauty by rating matriculation photographs. Better-looking attorneys who graduated in the 1970s earned more than others after five years of practice, an effect that grew with experience. Attorneys in the private sector are better-looking than those in the public sector, differences that rise with age. These results support theories of dynamic sorting and customer behavior. Copyright 1998 by University of Chicago Press.
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Facial expression, EEG, and self-report of subjective emotional experience were recorded while subjects individually watched both pleasant and unpleasant films. Smiling in which the muscle that orbits the eye is active in addition to the muscle that pulls the lip corners up (the Duchenne smile) was compared with other smiling in which the muscle orbiting the eye was not active. As predicted, the Duchenne smile was related to enjoyment in terms of occurring more often during the pleasant than the unpleasant films, in measures of cerebral asymmetry, and in relation to subjective reports of positive emotions, and other smiling was not.
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An ESS model of Zahavi's handicap principle is constructed. This allows a formal exposition of how the handicap principle works, and shows that its essential elements are strategic. The handicap model is about signalling, and it is proved under fairly general conditions that if the handicap principle's conditions are met, then an evolutionarily stable signalling equilibrium exists in a biological signalling system, and that any signalling equilibrium satisfies the conditions of the handicap principle. Zahavi's major claims for the handicap principle are thus vindicated. The place of cheating is discussed in view of the honesty that follows from the handicap principle. Parallel signalling models in economics are discussed. Interpretations of the handicap principle are compared. The models are not fully explicit about how females use information about male quality, and, less seriously, have no genetics. A companion paper remedies both defects in a model of the handicap principle at work in sexual selection.
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100 COLLEGE STUDENTS RATED 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS. LIKABLENESS RATINGS OF 555 PERSONALITY-TRAIT WORDS ON LIKABLENESS AS PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS. THE MEAN RATINGS AND THEIR VARIANCES ARE TABULATED, TOGETHER WITH AUXILIARY RATINGS ON MEANINGFULNESS. CORRELATIONS OF THE NORMATIVE LIKABLENESS VALUES WITH SIMILAR DATA FROM 3 OTHER UNIVERSITIES RANGED FROM .96-.99. BETWEEN-S VARIABILITY WAS ASSESSED, AND ITS RELEVANCE TO EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN IS DISCUSSED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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Combination of seven surveys of blood parasites in North American passerines reveals weak, highly significant association over species between incidence of chronic blood infections (five genera of protozoa and one nematode) and striking display (three characters: male "brightness," female "brightness," and male song). This result conforms to a model of sexual selection in which (i) coadaptational cycles of host and parasites generate consistently positive offspring-on-parent regression of fitness, and (ii) animals choose mates for genetic disease resistance by scrutiny of characters whose full expression is dependent on health and vigor.
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Ekman and Friesen (1982) predicted that smiles that express enjoyment would be marked by smoother zygomatic major actions of more consistent duration than the zygomatic major actions of nonenjoyment smiles. Study 1 measured the duration and smoothness of smiles shown by female subjects in response to positive emotion films while alone and in a social interaction. Enjoyment smiles in both situations were of more consistent duration and smoother than nonenjoyment smiles. In Study 2 observers who were shown videotapes of enjoyment and nonenjoyment smiles were able to accurately identify enjoyment smiles at rates greater than chance; moreover, accuracy was positively related to increased salience of orbicularis oculi action. In Study 3, another group of observers were asked to record their impressions of the smiling women shown in Study 2. These women were seen as more positive when they showed enjoyment compared with nonenjoyment smiles. These results provide further evidence that enjoyment smiles are entities distinct from smiles in general.
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The purpose of the study was to investigate facial and emotional reactions while viewing two different types of smiles and the relation of emotional empathy to these reactions. Facial EMG was recorded from the orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major muscle regions while subjects individually watched two blocks of stimuli. One block included posed facial expressions of the Duchenne smile (a felt smile) and a neutral face, the other block included expressions of another type of smile called non-Duchenne smile (an unfelt smile) and a neutral face. Emotional experiences were asked after each stimulus block. Finally, a measure of empathy was given. Facial EMG reactions differentiated between the neutral face and the Duchenne smile but not between the neutral face and the non-Duchenne smile. The Duchenne smile block induced experience of pleasure for the subjects who saw it as the first stimulus block. Empathy was correlated to the rated experiences of pleasure and interest after the Duchenne smile block.
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The following criteria are proposed as temporary guideposts for the use of one-tailed tests: "1. Use a one-tailed test when a difference in the unpredicted direction, while possible, would be psychologically meaningless 2. Use a one-tailed test when results in the unpredicted direction will, under no conditions, be used to determine a course of behavior different in any way from that determined by no difference at all 3. Use a one-tailed test when a directional hypothesis is deducible from psychological theory but results in the opposite direction are not deducible from coexisting psychological theory."
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We report on a series of experiments in which individuals play a version of the centipede game. In this game, two players alternately get a chance to take the larger portion of a continually escalating pile of money. As soon a.s one person takes, the game ends with that player getting the larger portion of the pile, and the other player getting the smaller portion. If one views the experiment as a complete information game, all standard game theoretic equilibrium concepts predict the first mover should take the large pile on the first round. The experimental results show that this does not occur. An alternative explanation for the data. can be given if we reconsider the game as a game of incomplete information in which there is some uncertainty over the payoff functions of the players. In particular, if the subjects believe there is some small likelihood that the opponent is an altruist, then in the equilibrium of this incomplete information game, players adopt mixed strategies in the early rounds of the experiment, with the probability of ta.king increasing as the pile gets larger. vVe investigate how well a version of this model explains the data observed in the centipede experiments.
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Although there have been numerous investigations into the relationship between gender and bargaining competitiveness over the past several decades, few conclusions have been reached. The results of 62 research reports on the relationship between gender and competitive behavior in dyadic bargaining interactions were examined by meta-analytic review. The average weighted effect size indicated that women appear to behave more cooperatively in negotiations than men, but this difference is slight. Results suggest that constraints on negotiators (imposed by abstract bargaining paradigms and restrictions on communication) lessen gender differences in negotiation behavior. Women were significantly more competitive than men when competing against an opponent who pursued a "tit-for-tat" bargaining strategy.
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Bargaining across borders: How to negotiate business successfully anywhere in the world
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Status, sex, and smiling: The eect of role on smiling in men and women
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The evolution of altruist-detection: can humans decode nonverbal signals of cooperative demeanor?
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