ArticlePDF Available

The effects of starvation on behavior: Implications for dieting and eating disorders.

Authors:
  • River Centre Foundation
... The increase in the need for sexual intimacy amongst participants might indicate that mental health patients have a higher sex drive than the average Australian, despite the fact that psychotropic medications can reduce libido (30). Another possible explanation is that this is a display of hoarding; similar to hoarding food during physical starvation, participants display an increased desire for sexual intimacy when unavailable (31). ...
Article
Full-text available
This qualitative study reports on the sexuality and sexual experiences of community-based forensic mental health participants. The findings indicate that these participants feel the need for intimacy and want to engage in sexual activity more often than their neurotypical Australian peers. Participants identified their mental health and the side effects of compliance with prescribed psychotropic medications were barriers to achieving their desired level of sexual activity. Participants supported the notion that mental health teams were positioned to assist patients navigate the psychological, cultural, education and physical barriers to achieving sexual health and wellbeing. We propose several interventions to support these participants and other community forensic mental health patients in attaining healthy relationships, understanding their sexual health, and gaining more fulfilling sexual experiences. These interventions, which include sex education, upskilling in socialization and communication, and regular medication reviews, could be delivered as part of the holistic care provided by mental health teams. Mental health clinicians should be offered appropriate training to assess patients and have discussions related to sexuality, sexual experiences and sexual health needs.
... 1 Patients with eating disorders usually present with a preoccupation with body weight and restriction in food intake. 2 the physiological changes secondary to dieting and undernourishment are hypothesized to contribute to the development of depressive symptoms. 3,4 as a result, patients with eating disorders are often diagnosed with coexisting depression. 5 individuals suffering from eating disorders and depression tend to conceal their symptoms and are often unwilling to seek help due to barriers like stigma and shame. ...
Article
INTRODUCTION: Patients with eating disorders and coexisting depression often rely on the Internet, and digital voice assistants (VAs) as methods of searching for health-related information regarding their conditions. However, the quality of information provided by VAs is questionable. We evaluated the quality of information on eating disorders and coexisting depression from 4 commonly-used VAs (Google Assistant [Google LLC, Menlo Park, CA, USA]; Siri [Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA, USA]; Cortana [Microsoft Corporation, Albuquerque, NM, USA]; Bixby [Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, Suwon, South Korea]) and Google Search (Google LLC, USA). EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Forty-four questions on eating disorders and coexisting depression were evaluated. Their responses were evaluated by two raters for accuracy (score: 2), source expertise (score: 1), underlying references cited (score: 2) and comprehensiveness (score: 2) using a scoring matrix (score: 8). Descriptive statistics and odds ratios were used for analysis. Cohen Kappa was used to measure inter-rater agreement. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Cortana (mean=5.23±2.01) and Siri (mean=4.42±2.50) scored the highest and lowest for overall quality, respectively. Cortana (41/44, 93.2%) and Bixby (32/44, 72.7%) provided the most and least number of relevant sources (41/44, 93.2% versus 32/44, 72.7%, P<0.0001), and the highest and lowest mean accuracy scores (1.82±0.54 versus 1.43±0.89, P=0.0016) respectively. Bixby was the most reliable in terms of source expertise (mean=0.43±0.50) and underlying references cited (mean=0.93±0.50). Google Search scored the highest in terms of comprehensiveness, while Siri performed the worst for comprehensiveness, source expertise and underlying references cited. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the sources provided by the VAs were accurate and comprehensive, but not as reliable. Patients should be cautious when using VAs to search for information on eating disorders and coexisting depression.
... This study of normal volunteers illustrates that binge eating, confusion in hunger and satiety cues, food obsessions, and emotional symptoms did not normalize immediately following weight restoration but persisted for up to one year after body weight returned to normal levels. We have summarized this study and described its relevance in distinguishing primary from secondary symptoms of eating disorders [9,10,29]. It also makes it clear that recovery is not possible without normalization of body weight. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nutritional rehabilitation plays a central role in the treatment of eating disorders, and the varied plans recommended; however, it is noteworthy that the details of this aspect of treatment are rarely specified and little has been written on the theoretical principles behind the different approaches. This report describes our approach in sufficient detail to allow our outcomes to be replicated and compared with other programs. Our approach to meal planning has been referred to as “mechanical eating” and consists of a structured eating program in which quantity of food consumed, type of food consumed and spacing of meals, are all specified in advance. This approach is designed to temporarily remove decision-making associated with eating and relies on a set of rules for starting, maintaining, and stopping eating designed to override the complex physiological and psychological cues that typically disrupt normal eating among those with eating disorders. It diverges markedly from the Exchange System recommended in many nutritional rehabilitation programs. It relies heavily on using commercially available packaged meals and prescribing the exact number of Calories to be consumed throughout the day. Body weight is checked on each treatment day and Calories are adjusted to promote steady weight gain in anorexia nervosa and weight stabilization in other eating disorders when weight suppression is less prominent. We have anticipated potential criticisms of this approach and have provided the theoretical and practical basis for our model.
... There was a perceived lack of salience for ED amongst Sudanese culture, particularly due to overriding concerns for poverty and hunger. Whilst this may initially appear to discourage ED attitudes, the Minnesota ''Starvation Study'' [27] showed that semi-starved individuals exhibit behaviors similar to those in ED, suggesting that ED behaviors may actually be the result of initial under-nutrition. Undernutrition may thus be a determinant of ED behavior [28]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose: Recent research suggests an emergence of eating disorders [ED] in non-western settings for unknown reasons. This research investigates the presence of ED in Khartoum State [Sudan], and explores relevant factors amongst women at risk of ED and stakeholders involved with mental health care and policy-making. Methods: Women from four summer schools were approached and screened for risk of ED using a validated and adapted form of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. Focus groups were performed within the schools, selected participants at high risk were interviewed, and interviews with stakeholders were performed. Results: Around a third (32.6%) of participants scored as having high risk of ED. Interviews showed recurring themes determining eating attitudes including: intention, knowledge, environment and habit. Stakeholders' opinions depended on whether they work directly with those affected by ED or in policy-making. The former advocated increased attention on ED, the latter did not. Overall, services for ED were lacking. Conclusions: A high presence of negative eating attitudes was found amongst screened participants with high risk of ED. Individual intention overrides all other determinants for abnormal eating. Moreover, evidence suggests that westernization may attribute to ED, supporting the view that ED are culturally bound. The differing stakeholders' views, together with other data found in this study, allow a number of recommendations for increasing awareness and identification of ED in Sudan.
Chapter
Eating disorders are common and have a high morbidity and mortality rates. They present with a range of comorbid features and require specialized treatment to achieve a positive outcome. The literature on eating disorders has expanded rapidly in the past 20 years and this article reviews diagnostic and defining features, assessment, etiology, comorbidities and treatment options. Recent advances in the understanding and treatment of eating disorders can be expected to produce positive outcomes in most cases.
Chapter
Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder observed worldwide; therefore, the increase in the prevalence of diabetes must be ascribed to changes in lifestyle. Dietary intervention and lifestyle modification are highly effective means to prevent and treat obesity and/or diabetes. Gut motility disturbances exist in a number of patients with diabetes, resulting in malnutrition and weight loss. Therefore, the diet for diabetes patients should be consistent with general public health nutrition principles, i.e., a fat-reduced, fiber-rich, and low-energy-density carbohydrate-rich diet. This chapter provides an overview of these agents and their implications in order to provide more information on the treatment of diet-related disorders in diabetes.
Chapter
Adults on the autism spectrum experience a wide range of medical and health problems—some at a higher prevalence compared with the general population. Although these problems can significantly affect quality of life, information on medical comorbidities for this group is sparse, and general knowledge of disorders associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in community-based medical settings is lacking. In this chapter, we review medical and health problems experienced by adults with ASD. We begin this discussion by examining possible risk factors associated with health problems in this group, in addition to the current literature on prevalence rates of specific disorders. The focus of this chapter is on those who have historically been identified with “high-functioning autism” or Asperger syndrome.
Article
Although prevention is clearly a logical first step in the management of the obese Type 2 diabetic patient, such programmes have had little long-term success. Diet, exercise and behavioural modification still form the cornerstones of treatment and relatively small weight loss results in improvement of all major obesity-related co-morbidities, including Type 2 diabetes. The obese diabetic patient faces extra impediments to weight loss, including the adverse effects of diabetic medication, poor glycaemic control and diabetes-related complications. New drugs may offer some additional help, in general by providing the benefit associated with the weight loss as such. Bariatric surgery can produce major long-term weight loss in the severely obese. Diabet. Med. 18, 345–354 (2001)
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.