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A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN BANKS WITH REFERENCE TO NET INTEREST MARGIN AND MARKET CAPITALIZATION OF BANKS

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Finance and banking is the life blood of trade, commerce and industry. Now-days, banking sector acts as the backbone of modern business. Development of any country mainly depends upon the banking system. A bank is a financial institution which deals with deposits and advances and other related services. It receives money from those who want to save in the form of deposits and it lends money to those who need it. The banking is one of the most essential and important parts of the human life. In current faster lifestyle peoples may not do proper transitions without developing the proper bank network. The banking System in India is dominated by nationalized banks. The performance of the banking sector is more closely linked to the economy than perhaps that of any other sector. The growth of the Indian economy is estimated to have slowed down significantly. The economic slowdown and global developments have affected the banking sectors' performance in India in FY12 resulting in moderate business growth. It has forced banks to consolidate their operations, re-adjust their focus and strive to strengthen their balance sheets. Here researcher's objective is to study the Indian banking sector and performance of Indian banks
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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
ISSN No : 2249-894X
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Title:
Source: Review of Research [2249-894X]
yr:2014 | vol:3 | iss:6
“A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN BANKS WITH REFERENCE
TO NET INTEREST MARGIN AND MARKET CAPITALIZATION OF BANKS” , Limbore
Nilesh . V and Mane Baban . S
Vol. 3 | Issue. 6 | March. 2014
Review Of Research
KEY WORDS:
Banking System, Banking, Indian Economy, Economic Slowdown.
1.1 INTRODUCTION TO MEANING OF BANK
Banks receive deposits from public and also borrow money from other sources for raising
Working Capital Funds. They have to pay cost by way of interest on the funds raised. To recover
this cost and to meet the administrative and other expenses as also to earn profit, banks have to
utilize the working capital funds by either granting advances or making investments. Thus working
capital funds, which are banks liabilities, get converted into assets. As we have already seen
although a bank's earnings accrue only from advances and investments it has to hold “ Cash in
Hand” or “Balances with other banks in Current Accounts” and also invest some amounts in
premises, furniture, fixtures and other assets which are essential tools for its trade. These assets do
not generate any income for the bank on the other hand depreciation has to be provided taking
into account their 'ware and tare'.
Banks are obliged by law, to repay the deposits and borrowings as and when they fall due
for repayment. As these amounts have already been converted into assets, banks have to ensure all
the time that all the assets are releasable, i.e. are liquid and can be fully recovered to meet the
Abstract:
Finance and banking is the life blood of trade, commerce and industry. Now-a-
days, banking sector acts as the backbone of modern business. Development of any
country mainly depends upon the banking system. A bank is a financial institution which
deals with deposits and advances and other related services. It receives money from
those who want to save in the form of deposits and it lends money to those who need it.
The banking is one of the most essential and important parts of the human life. In current
faster lifestyle peoples may not do proper transitions without developing the proper bank
network. The banking System in India is dominated by nationalized banks. The
performance of the banking sector is more closely linked to the economy than perhaps
that of any other sector. The growth of the Indian economy is estimated to have slowed
down significantly. The economic slowdown and global developments have affected the
banking sectors' performance in India in FY12 resulting in moderate business growth. It
has forced banks to consolidate their operations, re-adjust their focus and strive to
strengthen their balance sheets. Here researcher's objective is to study the Indian
banking sector and performance of Indian banks.
ISSN:-2249-894X
A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW
OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN BANKS WITH REFERENCE
TO NET INTEREST MARGIN AND MARKET
CAPITALIZATION OF BANKS
Available online at www.ror.isrj.net
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Limbore Nilesh . V and Mane Baban . S
liabilities when need arises.
The main object of granting loans or making investments is to earn profit. If any income
is not earned on any advances it is treated as a Non- Performing Assets where the accrual or
expected income from an asset stops, the possibility of not recovering even the principal amount
invested in the asset also arises.
1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
1.To study the Indian banking sector and performance of Indian banks.
1.3 IMPORTANCE OR NEED OF THE STUDY
Before the establishment of banks, the financial activities were handled by money lenders and
individuals. At that time the interest rates were very high. Again there were no security of public savings and
no uniformity regarding loans. So as to overcome such problems the organized banking sector was
established, which was fully regulated by the government. The organized banking sector works within the
financial system to provide loans, accept deposits and provide other services to their customers. The
following functions of the bank explain the need of the bank and its importance:
To provide the security to the savings of customers.
To control the supply of money and credit
To encourage public confidence in the working of the financial system, increase savings speedily and
efficiently.
To avoid focus of financial powers in the hands of a few individuals and Institutions.
To set equal norms and conditions (i.e. rate of interest, period of lending etc) to all types of customers
2.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The procedure adopted for conducting the research requires a lot of attention as it has direct
bearing on accuracy, reliability and adequacy of result obtained. It is due to reason that research
methodology, which researcher used at the time of conducting the research, needs to be elaborate upon. It
may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. So, the research
methodology not only talks about the research methods but also consider the logic behind the method used
in the context of the research study. Research methodology is a way to systematically study and solve the
research problems. If a researcher wants to claim his study as a good study, he must clearly state the
methodology adapted in conducting the research the research so that it may be judged by the reader whether
the methodology of work done is sound or not.
2.1 RESEARCH DESIGN USED IN THE STUDY:
Descriptive research design is used in this study because it will ensure the minimization of bias
and maximization of reliability of data collected. Descriptive study is based on some previous
understanding of the topic; research has got a very specific objective and clear cut data requirements. The
researcher had to use fact and information already available through financial statements of earlier years
and analyze these to make critical evaluation of the available material. Hence by making the type of the
research conducted to be both descriptive and analytical in nature. From the study, the type of data to be
collected and the procedure to be used for this purpose were decided.
2.2 DATA COLLECTION METHOD:
The process of data collection begins after a research problem has been defined and research
design has been chalked out. There are two types of data
2.2.1 PRIMARY DATA:
It is first hand data, which is collected by researcher itself. Primary data is collected by various
approaches so as to get a precise, accurate, realistic and relevant data. The main tool is gathering primary
data was investigation and observation. It was achieved by a direct approach and observation from the
officials of the company.
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A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN ........
Review Of Research | Volume 3 | Issue 6 | March 2014
2.2.2 SECONDARY DATA:
It is the data which is already collected by someone else. Researcher has to analyze the data and
interprets the results. It has always been important for the completion of any report. It provides reliable,
suitable, adequate and specific knowledge. Researcher collected the secondary data by using banks annual
reports and authorized websites of banks.
2.3 TYPE OF DATA USED IN THE STUDY
The required data for the study are basically secondary in nature and the data are collected from
The annual report of the Indian banks
INTERNET –In which includes required financial data collected from Indian Bank's official websites i.e.
www.axis.com, www.sbi.co.in etc. and some other websites on the internet for the purpose of getting all the
required financial data of the banks.
The valuable cooperation extended by staff members and the branch manager of different banks,
contributed a lot to fulfill the requirements in the collection of data in order to complete this research.
2.4 METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS:
For measuring various phenomena and analyzing the collected data effectively and efficiently to
draw sound conclusions, certain statistical techniques were used. The data collected were edited, classified
and tabulated for analysis. The analytical tool used in this study is graphical method to compare the
performance of Indian banks. The MS- EXCEL tool is used to analyze the data.
3.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Banking in India originated in the first decade of 18th century. The first banks were The General
Bank of India, which started in 1786, and Bank of Hindustan, both of which are now defunct. The oldest
bank in existence in India is the State Bank of India, which originated in the "The Bank of Bengal" in
Calcutta in June 1806. This was one of the three presidency banks, the other two being the Bank of Bombay
and the Bank of Madras. The presidency banks were established under charters from the British East India
Company. They merged in 1925 to form the Imperial Bank of India, which, upon India's independence,
became the State Bank of India.
For many years the Presidency banks acted as quasi-central banks, as did their successors. The
Reserve Bank of India formally took on the responsibility of regulating the Indian banking sector from
1935. After India's independence in1947, the Reserve Bank was nationalized and given broader powers.
3.1.1 EARLY HISTORY OF INDIAN BANKING SECTOR
The first fully Indian owned bank was the Allahabad Bank, established in 1865. However, at the
end of late-18th century, there were hardly any banks in India in the modern sense of the term. The
American Civil War stopped the supply of cotton to Lancashire from the Confederate States. Promoters
opened banks to finance trading in Indian cotton. With large exposure to speculative ventures, most of the
banks opened in India during that period failed. The depositors lost money and lost interest in keeping
deposits with banks. Subsequently, banking in India remained the exclusive domain of Europeans for next
several decades until the beginning of the 20th century.
Foreign banks too started to arrive, particularly in Calcutta, in the 1860s. The Comptoire
d'Escompte de Paris opened a branch in Calcutta in 1860, and another in Bombay in 1862; branches in
Madras and Pondicherry, then a French colony, followed. Calcutta was the most active trading port in India,
mainly due to the trade of the British Empire, and so became a banking center.
4.1 NATIONALIZED BANKS IN INDIA
Banking System in India is dominated by nationalized banks. The nationalization of banks in India
took place in 1969 by Mrs. Indira Gandhi prime minister of India. The major objective behind
nationalization was to spread banking infrastructure in rural areas and make available cheap finance to
Indian farmers. Fourteen banks were nationalized in 1969.
Before 1969, State Bank of India (SBI) was the only public sector bank in India. SBI was
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A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN ........
nationalized in 1955 under the SBI Act of 1955.The second phase of nationalization of Indian banks took
place in the year 1980. Seven more banks were nationalized with deposits over 200 crores.
Around the turn of the 20th Century, the Indian economy was passing through a relative period of
stability. Indians had established small banks, most of which served particular ethnic and religious
communities. The presidency banks dominated banking in India. There were also some exchange banks
and a number of Indian joint stock banks. All these banks operated in different segments of the economy.
The exchange banks, mostly owned by Europeans, concentrated on financing foreign trade. Indian joint
stock banks were generally undercapitalized and lacked the experience and maturity to compete with the
presidency and exchange banks. This segmentation let Lord Curzon to observe, "In respect of banking it
seems we are behind the times. We are like some old fashioned sailing ship, divided by solid wooden
bulkheads into separate and cumbersome compartments." A number of banks established then have
survived to the present such as Bank of India, Corporation Bank, Indian Bank, Bank of Baroda, Canara
Bank and Central Bank of India.
4.2 PRIVATE BANKS IN INDIA
Figure no. 1- Structure of Bank
All the banks in India were earlier private banks. They were founded in the pre-independence era
to cater to the banking needs of the people. But after nationalization of banks in 1969 public sector banks
came to occupy dominant role in the banking structure. Private sector banking in India received a fillip in
1994 when Reserve Bank of India encouraged setting up of private banks as part of its policy of
liberalization of the Indian Banking Industry. Housing Development Finance Corporation Limited
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A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN ........
(HDFC) was amongst the first to receive an 'in principle' approval from the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to
set up a bank in the private sector
4.3 STRUCTURE OF BANKS
5.1 PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN BANKING SECTOR
The top 10 banks selected for the analysis, as based on the market capitalization as of 30 March
2012, are: State Bank of India (SBI), Punjab National Bank (PNB), Canara Bank, Bank of India (BoI), Bank
of Baroda (BoB), ICICI Bank, HDFC Bank, Axis Bank, Kotak Mahindra Bank (KMB) and IndusInd Bank
(IIB).
The performance of the banking sector is more closely linked to the economy than perhaps that of
any other sector. The growth of the Indian economy is estimated to have slowed down significantly from
8.39 percent in FY11 to 6.88 percent in FY12. This slowdown could be attributed to a number of factors:
Continuing problems in Europe and economic slowdown in the United States affecting foreign investments
coming into India
Policy paralysis in view of the government’s inertia on various policy issues and reforms
Fiscal indiscipline leading to fiscal deficit
High inflation leading to high interest rate
Rupee devaluation which further deteriorates the current account deficit
Besides these factors, rising inflation forced the RBI to tighten the monetary policy during the last
two years, increasing the benchmark repo rate 13 times successively. While the high interest rates impacted
the economic growth significantly, they had little impact on inflation. Persistent high inflation has led to a
slowdown in credit growth and increase in cost of funds, hence adversely affecting the profitability of
banks.
A number of changes in the policy and regulatory domain also affected the performance of Indian
banks. These included migration to the system tracking of non- performing assets (NPAs) of the entire loan
book, increasing the provisioning percentages for NPAs and restructured loans and the mandate to expand
in relatively less profitable under-banked and unbanked areas.
5.2 NET INTEREST MARGIN:
Figure no. 2 Net interest margin chart
OBSERVATIONS:
Researcher notice that interest rates had peaked towards the end of FY12 after almost two years of
monetary tightening cycle. Consequently, the lag in deposits has come to an end which adversely affected
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A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN ........
banks’ margins. Other factors contributing to contraction in NIMs included moderation in savings deposits
growth (due to high interest rate differential), deregulation of savings deposits rate and higher cost of bulk
deposits.
NIMs declined in FY12 for eight of the 10 banks under study with SBI and ICICI Bank being the
only two exceptions. Here NIM of SBI increased to 3.85 percent in FY12. It was the result of an increase of
30 bps and 54 bps in its NIMs of overseas and domestic operations to 1.67 percent and 4.17 percent,
respectively.
Although total operating income ratio for PNB was more or less stable at 76.14 percent, it’s NIM
declined by 3.96 percent in FY11 to 3.84 percent in FY12. The reduction in the bank’s NIM was mainly
attributed to the increase in deposits cost from 4.57 percent in FY11 to 5.62 percent in FY12 due to a number
of reasons.
The NIM of BoB declined by 2.97 percent, primarily due to a decline of 21 bps in its NIMs of
domestic operations to 3.51 percent. The bank’s cost of funds primarily increased due to lower CASA
deposits and general increase in funding costs.
Canara Bank witnessed a decline in NIM by 2.50 percent in FY12 as increase in yield on advances
was lower than the increase in cost of funds.
For ICICI Bank, NIM increased from 2.64 percent in FY11 to 2.73 percent in FY12 on account of
shift in deposit mix, shedding of bulk deposits and lower securitization losses. The bank has largely exited
unattractive business segments such as small-ticket personal loans in the domestic segment and most non-
India related exposures in its international business. The bank’s domestic and overseas NIMs increased by 6
bps and 35 bps to 3.04 percent and 1.23 percent, respectively. NIMs of its overseas operations improved
primarily due to an increase in yield on overseas advances (due to new disbursements at higher interest
rates) and repayment and prepayment of low yielding loans.
HDFC Bank was the collecting banker for some of the tax free bond issuances which resulted in
higher current account floats and lower cost of funds, leading to expansion in NIM during the last quarter of
FY12. However, the bank witnessed a marginal decline in its NIM from 4.25 percent in FY11 to 4.22
percent in FY12 due to increase in cost of deposits from 4.30 percent in FY11 to 5.72 percent in FY12. The
bank’s NIM declined from 3.65 percent in FY11 to 3.59 percent in FY12. Similarly, for IIB, the increased
cost of funds led to a decline in its NIMs. The dependence of BoI on large corporate and agriculture led to
fall in its NIM from 2.92 percent in FY11 to 2.52 percent in Fy12.
Table no. 1 Market Capitalization of Banks Currently Under Review
* As of 08/26/2013 (rounded off)
Source: www.moneycontrol.com
Note: Market cap on a particular day has been used for illustrative purposes.
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Review Of Research | Volume 3 | Issue 6 | March 2014
Name of Bank Year of
Listing
Market Cap
(INR crores)*
Name of Bank Year of
Listing
Market Cap
(INR billion)*
SBI 1993 107643 ICICI Bank 1997 97661
Punjab National
Bank 2002 17242 HDFC Bank 1995 147982
Bank of Baroda 1996 19985 Axis Bank 1998 45957
Canara Bank 2002 9482
Kotak
Mahindra
Bank
2003 49649
Bank of India 1996 8878 IndusInd Bank 1997 19648
A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN ........
Figure no.3 Market Capitalization of Banks Currently under Review
Observations:
In the above figure researcher notice that the market capitalizatipon of banks currently under
reviev. The SBI is the highest market capitalizatipon with market cap INR 107643 crores.The other
nationlized banks are shows the less market capitalizatipon with small market cap value compare to the SBI
market cap value. HDFC and ICICI shows highest market capitalizatipon in private banking sector with
market cap INR 147982 and INR 97661 billion respectively. Othe private banks are shows variation in
market cap value.
6.1 CONCLUSIONS
Today the banking sector in India is fairly mature in terms of supply, product range and reach. As
far as private sector and foreign banks are concerned, the reach in rural India still remains a challenge.
A growing economy like India requires a right blend of risk capital and long term resources for
corporate to choose an appropriate mix of debt and equity, particularly for infrastructure projects which is
the need of the day. A well functioning domestic capital market is also necessary for the banking sector to
raise capital and support growth and also have suitable capital adequacy ratio to mitigate risk. Bank
investments are also showing an increasing trend. After researching banking sector researcher found that
different problems are increasing to banking sector because of the money market has always down.
6.2 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:
Difficulty in data collection.
Generally the organization does not allow outsiders to conduct any study or research work in the
organization. Therefore, get the research done in the organization itself was very difficult.
Limited knowledge about the bank in the initial stages.
Branch manager was reluctant for giving financial data of the bank
The analysis and interpretation are based on secondary data contained in the published annual reports of the
Indian banks for the study period
Due the limited time available at the disposable, the study has been confined for a period of 5 years (2009-
2013).
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7.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY
1.Indian banks: performance benchmarking report FY12 results
2.Obtaining New Banking Licenses in India: Challenges and Opportunities, cognizant 20-20 insights,
November 2013
3.Milind Sathye, Privatization, Performance, and Efficiency: A Study of Indian Banks, Vikalpa, Volume
30, No 1, January - March 2005.
4.Dr. Partap Singh, An Evaluation Of Performance Of Indian Banking Sector (With Special Reference To
Npas Of Some Indian Public Sector Banks), APJRBM, Volume 3, Issue 12, December, 2012
5.A. Shrivastava and P. Purang, Employee perceptions of performance appraisals: a comparative study on
Indian banks, The International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 22, No. 3, January 2011.
6.Hemal Pandya, Corporate Governance Structures and Financial Performance of Selected Indian Banks,
Journal of Management & Public Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2 June 2011.
7.Limbore N. V, & Nalkol A. P, A study of effectiveness and prospects of E-tailing with special reference to
Baramati Region, AJMS, Vol. I, Issue 5, Dec-2013, p (72-80).
8.Ram Pratap Sinha, Ownership and Efficiency: A Non-Radial Bilateral Performance Comparison of
Indian Commercial Banks, The Icfai University Journal of Managerial Economics, Vol. VI, No. 4, 2008.
9.www.moneycontrol.com
10.www.sbi.co.in
11.www.axis.com
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Enhancing efficiency and performance of public sector banks (PSBs) is a key objective of economic reforms in many countries including India. It is believed that private ownership helps improve efficiency and performance. Accordingly, the Indian government started diluting its equity in PSBs from early 1990s in a phased manner. Has the partial privatization of Indian banks really helped improve their efficiency and performance? International evidence on impact of privatization is mixed. Though the issue is important in the Indian context, no study to the author's knowledge has addressed it so far. The present study, thus, fills an important gap. The data required for the study were obtained from Performance Highlights of Banks, a publication of the Indian Banks' Association. The author could readily obtain publications for five years — 1998-2002; his analysis is, thus, restricted to these five years. The financial performance of the banks was measured using the standard financial performance measures such as return on assets. The efficiency of banks was measured using accounting ratios, e.g., deposits per employee. Two main approaches are generally used to evaluate the impact of privatization on firm performance: ‘Synchronic’ approach in which the performance of state-owned firms is compared with the firms that were privatized or with the firms that were already in private ownership. ‘Historical’ approach, in which ex-ante and ex-post privatization performance of the same enterprise is compared. Given that the data are available for only five years, the author uses the synchronic approach. Since the dataset is not large enough to allow the use of more robust multivariate statistical procedures, he confines himself to the use of the difference of means test. This study reveals the following: Financial performance of partially privatized banks (measured by return on assets) and their efficiency (measured by three different ratios) were significantly higher than that of the fully public banks. In the matter of quality of advances (measured by the ratio of non-performing assets to net advances), significant difference was not found in these two groups. Of course, there is no quick fix for this problem. Partially privatized banks also seem to be catching up fast with fully private banks as no significant difference was found in financial performance and efficiency between them. On comparing the strategies of privatization in India with the other countries, India was found to adopt the strategy of initial public offerings like Poland. This strategy failed in Poland but seems to have succeeded in India. Gradual privatization and well-developed financial markets seem to have contributed to Indian success.
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Performance appraisal is the most critical human resource practice and an indispensable part of every organization; however, the practice continues to generate dissatisfaction among employees and is often viewed as unfair and ineffective. Indian banking sector is one of the biggest and fastest growing financial service sectors. The post-liberalization era has witnessed significant changes in the structure and operations of banks operating in India. Arrival of new private and foreign banks has given a cause to public sector banks to be more competitive, effective and innovative in their approach. Past researches have compared public and private sector banks and have indicated that new private sector banks are outscoring public sector banks in terms of technical and economic efficiency parameters. However, no study could be found that compared public and private banks in India on fairness perceptions of performance appraisal system. Therefore, this research studied the differences between public and private sector banks with respect to perception of fairness of the performance appraisal system and performance appraisal satisfaction. Perception of fairness of the performance appraisal system has been studied through nine factors. The study used independent samples t-test and qualitative analysis to study the mean differences between the two banks. Results indicated that private sector bank employees perceive greater fairness and satisfaction with their performance appraisal system as compared to public sector bank employees.
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The study compares the performance of 28 public sector and 12 private sector banks for the period 2000-2001 to 2005-2006, using a non-radial bilateral comparison model. Further, the paper makes use of Rank Sum Statistic to draw inference about the distribution of efficiency scores of the in-sample public and the private sector banks. The results suggest a mixed evidence about the relative dominance of one group vis á vis another.
Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Books Review for publication
  • A Study
  • Banking
  • In
  • And
  • Of
  • . Of Indian
A STUDY OF BANKING SECTOR IN INDIA AND OVERVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF INDIAN........ Publish Research Article International Level Multidisciplinary Research Journal For All Subjects Dear Sir/Mam, We invite unpublished Research Paper,Summary of Research Project,Theses,Books and Books Review for publication,you will be pleased to know that our journals are Associated and Indexed,India
An Evaluation Of Performance Of Indian Banking Sector (With Special Reference To Npas Of Some Indian Public Sector Banks)
  • Partap Dr
  • Singh
Dr. Partap Singh, An Evaluation Of Performance Of Indian Banking Sector (With Special Reference To Npas Of Some Indian Public Sector Banks), APJRBM, Volume 3, Issue 12, December, 2012
Corporate Governance Structures and Financial Performance of Selected Indian Banks
  • Hemal Pandya
Hemal Pandya, Corporate Governance Structures and Financial Performance of Selected Indian Banks, Journal of Management & Public Policy, Vol. 2, No. 2 June 2011.