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A Nobel Tale of Postwar Injustice

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Abstract

In November 1945, three months after the end of World War II, a narrow majority of the members of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award the 1944 Nobel Prize in Chemistry to Otto Hahn for the discovery of nuclear fission. The award was and still remains controversial, primarily because Hahn's Berlin colleagues, the chemist Fritz Strassmann and the physicist Lise Meitner, were not included. Probably, Strassmann was ignored because he was not a senior scientist. Meitner's exclusion, however, points to other flaws in the decision process, and to four factors in particular: the difficulty of evaluating an interdisciplinary discovery, a lack of expertise in theoretical physics, Sweden's scientific and political isolation during the war, and a general failure of the evaluation committees to appreciate the extent to which German persecution of Jews skewed the published scientific record. Recently released Swedish documents reveal why Lise Meitner, codiscoverer of nuclear fission, did not receive the 1946 physics prize for her theoretical interpretation of the process.
... 7 Viz [19,20]. 8 Viz [21,22]. ...
... Viz podrobněji[7,10].21 Podrobně viz[1-10, 19, 21, 22]. ...
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originální PDF viz dole na https://nielsbohr.webnode.cz/niels-bohr/
... Viz například[24].7 Viz[19,20].8 Viz[21,22]. ...
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Originální PDF viz dole na https://nielsbohr.webnode.cz/niels-bohr/
... Meitner wyjeżdża z Holandii do Sztokholmu, gdzie rozpoczyna pracę w Instytucie Fizyki im. Nobla, którego dyrektorem był Manne Karl Siegbahn (1886 -1978) -laureat Nagrody Nobla z fizyki w 1924 r.) (Manne Siegbahn's Nobel Institute for Physics) [Sime, 1997]. W tym czasie prowadzi korespondencję z Ottonem Hahnem i Fritzem Strassmannem. ...
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W artykule przedstawiono najważniejsze fakty z życia Lise Meitner(1978-1968) w porządku chronologicznym. ...................................................................................................................................................... Jak cytować: Sztejnberg, A. (2000). Pierwiastki chemiczne odkryte przez kobiety. I. Lise Meitner - współodkrywczyni protaktynu i procesu rozszczepienia jądra atomowego, Aktuálni Otázky Výuky Chemie. IX. Sborník prednášek, Vysoká škola pedagogická v Hradci Králové, Hradec Králové: Gaudeamus, s. 57-62.
... In their letters of nomination, Bohr, Franck, and others had emphasized that Meitner and physics were crucial to the discovery and that Meitner and Frisch's theoretical contribution was original and an essential starting point for further work. Rather than addressing these points, Hulthén asserted the contrary: Meitner had impeded the discovery while she was still in Germany, the priority for the theoretical work belonged to Bohr, Meitner and Frisch did not merit an award (77). ...
Chapter
Fission studies involve a wide range of phenomena that are important for nuclear structure as well as nuclear astrophysics. This chapter is a discussion of the history of studies of the fission process, from the very first models of the nucleus leading up to a remarkable paper published by Bohr and Wheeler shortly after the discovery of fission, which gave a first comprehensive model of the phenomenon. In this paper, they outline the central questions to be addressed in understanding the fission process. The chapter explains how they estimated the magnitude of the energy released in fission, detailed what happens to the nucleus during fission, estimated the cross section for the fission reaction, predicted the mass and charge distributions of products, explained the origin of neutrons produced by fission, and gave insightful descriptions of many other aspects of this phenomenon. The chapter also contains a unique discussion of the pivotal role played by three scientists, Ida Noddack, Irène Joliot-Curie, and Lise Meitner, in understanding fission.
Chapter
This chapter gives a brief overview of the history of the periodic table. It provides details on the most important scientists involved in its development. The history of the elements in the periodic table cannot be seen separate from the history of how we understand the atom. Therefore the second part of this chapter provides a brief overview of the history of the atom and its structure.
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Abstrakt: Článek se zabývá demystifikací dodnes panující legendy o ikoně světové vědy, nositeli Nobelovy ceny za objev štěpení těžkých jader, chemiku Otto Hahnovi. Desítky let byl považován za vzor německé slušnosti, zodpovědnosti a příklad antinacistického vědce, který nekolaboroval se zločinným režimem na jeho válečné mašinérii. Teprve od devadesátých let 20. století se dostávají k rukám historiků archivní materiály, jež umožňují získat ucelenou představu o Hahnově působení v době nacistického Německa a o jeho aktivním zapojení ve válečném uranovém výzkumu, jehož výsledkem mělo být sestrojení jaderných reaktorů a bomb. The article aims to demystify a long-standing legend about Otto Hahn, who, as the Nobel Prize winner for chemistry for the discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei, is widely regarded as an academic figurehead in the world of science. He was considered a symbol of so-called German decency and responsibility; he was a model example of an anti-Nazi scientist who did not collaborate with the criminality of the regime in its warmongery. It was only from the 1990s onwards that historians gained access to new archival materials, which allowed for a comprehensive picture of Hahn’s work in Nazi Germany and his involvement in uranium research during wartime, whose aim was construction of nuclear reactors and bombs.
Chapter
This chapter explores the physics of nuclear fission, the mechanism from which nuclear weapons draw their energy. Topics include how fission was discovered; the roles of isotopes, nuclear “parity”, the “fission barrier” and neutron energy in the fission process; chain reactions and critical mass; early attempts to alert government officials to the possibility of nuclear weapons; and how plutonium was created.
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Recently released documents give the inside story of Otto Hahn's 1944 Nobel prize in chemistry for the discovery of nuclear fission. They reveal flaws in the award-making process - and an attempt to rewrite history.
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DOI:https://doi.org/10.1103/RevModPhys.12.1
Article
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Article
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Article
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Article
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