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Capsaicin increases sensation of fullness in energy balance, and decreases desire to eat after dinner in negative energy balance

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... Although the current literature on the benefits of incorporating chili peppers into a healthy diet is limited, Figure 1 depicts the ways in which trigeminal stimuli have been shown or suggested to modify food intake and satisfaction, and these topics will be discussed throughout this paper. In addition to maintaining consumer satisfaction with less food and adding a dimension to flavor complexity (the third chemical sense), trigeminal stimuli have the potential to increase the perception of other tastes and odors, reduce the eating rate, suppress the appetite, increase micronutrient absorption, and possibly increase the metabolism, all factors that could lead to weight loss (Berridge & Fentress, 1985;Carstens et al., 2002;Delwiche, 2004;Dessirier et al., 2000Dessirier et al., , 2001Golzarand et al., 2018;Green, 1996a;Janssens et al., 2013Janssens et al., , 2014Kostyra et al., 2010;Lawless & Stevens, 1984;Ludy & Mattes, 2011;Prakash & Srinivasan, 2013;Rozin, 1990;Spence, 2018aSpence, , 2018bSpence & Wang, 2018;Tremblay et al., 2016;Urbina et al., 2017;Whiting et al., 2012Whiting et al., , 2014Yoshioka et al., 2004). ...
... It has been shown that after repeated application of capsaicin (during which sensitization occurs) followed by a rest period of 15 min, participants become less sensitive to the burning sensation upon reapplication, a phenomenon known as acute desensitization. However, with repeated application, the sensation progressively increases again, which is known as stimulus-induced recovery (SIR) Dessirier et al., 2000;Green, 1996b) The sensation buildup and delayed onset of spiciness also contributes to higher levels of satisfaction, fullness, and flavor impression (Janssens et al., 2014;Rozin, 1990), likely due to a more complex, longer lasting sensation of flavor and longer consumption experience. ...
... In addition to enhancement of tastes, it is suggested that trigeminal heat may increase the perceived flavor complexity of a food, as well as consumer acceptability, satiety, and satisfaction, perhaps by adding a third dimension of flavor to tastants and odorants present to increase the overall flavor impression (Auvray & Spence, 2008;Berridge & Fentress, 1985;Janssens et al., 2014;Kostyra et al., 2010;Rozin, 1990;Spence, 2018aSpence, , 2018bSpence & Wang, 2018;Spencer, Kurzer, et al., 2018). Trigeminal irritants tend to have slower onset than taste and smell compounds, which further increases the perceived complexity by adding a temporal component (Delwiche, 2004;Green, 1996a;Kostyra et al., 2010;Lawless & Stevens, 1984). ...
Article
Obesity and obesity‐related illness are an increasingly prevalent problem globally, especially in Western society. One of the largest contributing factors to the obesity pandemic is the modern food environment and food culture. It is necessary to identify and develop strategies to increase the sensory appeal of healthy food and beverage options in order to provide healthy options to consumers without sacrificing the fundamental sensory enjoyment of eating. Since flavor is the largest driver of food intake and choice, it follows that flavor ought to be part of the solution. This paper reviews the potential of chili pepper or capsaicin (the pungent component of chili pepper) as a healthy eating strategy, by increasing energy expenditure, decreasing intake, decreasing eating rate, and enhancing flavor and satisfaction. Furthermore, we suggest a holistic chemesthetic approach to weight management, by using the sensory impact of trigeminal stimulation (spiciness or heat) in foods, rather than medicinally, in order to cross‐modally enhance tastes and odors, increase perceived complexity and overall flavor, increase sensory satisfaction, and decrease salt and caloric intake. Future research directions are discussed. It is necessary to provide strategies, such as trigeminal stimulation, global culinary practices, and flavor complexity, to consumers to maintain sensory satisfaction derived from healthier foods and beverages. Healthy does not have to equate to flavorless or unappealing, although it is commonly believed that unhealthy = tasty in the United States. Food can be both healthy and flavorful if we harness our collective sensory and culinary knowledge to generate a satisfying sensory experience. Incorporation of trigeminal stimulation, the third dimension of flavor in addition to taste and aroma, such as capsaicin or hot pepper, is an excellent example of drawing from global cuisines, increasing flavor complexity, and increasing overall flavor impression, in order to boost the sensory appeal, nutrition content, and nutrient absorption of healthy foods and to promote healthier eating.
... There are few studies pertaining to energy expenditure and weight control. As a matter of fact, overweight, as a kind of energy imbalance, arises when energy intake is more than energy expenditure (30). Adding capsaicin to meals causes satiety and may be effective in the control of obesity through decreasing calorie intake (30). ...
... As a matter of fact, overweight, as a kind of energy imbalance, arises when energy intake is more than energy expenditure (30). Adding capsaicin to meals causes satiety and may be effective in the control of obesity through decreasing calorie intake (30). Propionyl (31). ...
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Context: Over the last decades, the prevalence of overweight (BMI > 25) and obesity (BMI > 30) is being the most important health challenge in urban populations. The relationship between obesity and the individual’s temperament has not been studied yet. Evidence Acquisition: This review aimed to study the causes of obesity, especially in middle-aged people, according to the new evidence of conventional medicine and findings of Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) physicians cited in their books. Databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Iran Medex were also searched with keywords obesity and overweight for recent evidence in conventional medicine. Results: Based on the traditional medicine findings, dystemprament or disequilibrium in Mizaj may promote obesity in middle-aged and elderly people. The attenuation of innate heat and intrinsic moisture in middle age could increase the chance of overweight and obesity. Recent studies in modern nutrition reveal a linear relationship between diminishing the basal metabolic rate and increasing age, especially in middle age. Accordingly, cold/wet-tempered people have more efficient energy homeostasis than hot/dry-tempered people that is similar to individuals with Firmicutes gut microbiota predominance. People living in high altitudes and cold-dry climates maintain their innate heat better than people living in wet climates, which is in accordance with the increasing brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in cold exposure, which decreases the chance of obesity. Conclusions: Based on traditional Persian medicine school, it is hypothesized that increasing age and diminishing innate heat besides the accumulation of phlegm (moisture) in the gastrointestinal tract of middle-aged individuals may be influential in altering gut microbiota and consequently obesity. It seems that there may be a correlation between cold/wet Mizaj and risk factors of obesity.
... In vivo studies on Walker 256 tumor-bearing rats showed that supplementation with capsaicin (5 mg/kg) reduced tumor size by 49% and reversed serum triacylglycerol concentrations [92]. Moreover, in vivo studies confirm the anticancer effect of capsaicin in skin, prostate, colon, lung, and tongue cancer [93]. However, more and more studies show that constant supplementation of capsaicin increases the feeling of satiety and reduces food intake, which makes the use of this compound in oncological cachexia questionable [93]. ...
... Moreover, in vivo studies confirm the anticancer effect of capsaicin in skin, prostate, colon, lung, and tongue cancer [93]. However, more and more studies show that constant supplementation of capsaicin increases the feeling of satiety and reduces food intake, which makes the use of this compound in oncological cachexia questionable [93]. ...
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Muscle cachexia is one of the most critical unmet medical needs. Identifying the molecular background of cancer-induced muscle loss revealed a promising possibility of new therapeutic targets and new drug development. In this review, we will define the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein’s role in the tumor formation process and summarize the role of STAT3 in skeletal muscle cachexia. Finally, we will discuss a vast therapeutic potential for the STAT3-inhibiting single-agent treatment innovation that, as the desired outcome, could block tumor growth and generally prevent muscle cachexia.
... Capsaicin has been shown to increase satiety and fullness with significant control on appetite and hence overeating (Janssens et al. 2014). However, the pungency, gastrointestinal discomforts and upper respiratory allergies associated with the consumption of capsaicin have very often limited its consumption. ...
... The questionnaire CNAQ is a well-validated tool which predicts a weight loss of at least 5% within the next 6 months for a CNAQ score of less than 28 and is regarded as "severe loss of appetite" (Krishnakumar et al. 2015). Our finding was in agreement with Urbina et al. (2017) who reported a moderate decrease in appetite after supplementing with 4 mg capsaicin (Capsimax) for 12 weeks and also by Reinbach et al. (2009) andJanssens et al. (2014) who stated that capsaicin can decrease appetite and increase satiety. The mechanism of action of capsaicin on appetite was attributed to its capacity to modulate the appetite hormones like ghrelin, leptin, and GLP-1 via TRPV1 which is highly expressed in sensory neurons, adipose, and liver tissues . ...
Article
Capsaicinoids from pungent red chilies (Capsicum annum and Capsicum frutescens) have received significant attention as a natural supplement for the management of obesity. However, the consumption of chili extract at physiologically relevant dosage of capsaicinoids is a challenge owing to its pungency and gastrointestinal discomforts. The present study reports the systemic absorption, safety and influence of a novel, food-grade, and sustained-release formulation of capsaicinoids-rich red chili extract using fenugreek dietary fiber (Capsifen®). Twenty-four healthy overweight subjects were randomized into placebo (n = 12) and Capsifen (n = 12) groups and supplemented with 200 mg × 1/day of Capsifen (4 mg capsaicinoids/day) for 28 days. Influence of Capsifen on eating behavior and appetite was followed by Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and Council of Nutrition Appetite Questionnaire (CNAQ), respectively. Consumption of Capsifen did not reveal any adverse events or deviations in hematology and biochemical parameters related to safety. However, a significant decrease in body weight (2.1%), w/h ratio (4%) and body mass index (BMI) (2.2%) were observed among Capsifen group when compared to placebo. The TFEQ and appetite analysis revealed a significant improvement in uncontrolled eating and reduction in appetite among Capsifen subjects. The UPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis confirmed the absorption of capsaicinoids from CAP supplementation. The study further demonstrated the safety and tolerability of Capsifen at the investigational dosage. Thus, the significant reduction in anthropometric parameters such as body weight, w/h ratio, and BMI along with the improvement in eating behaviour as well as appetite, indicated the potential body weight management effect of Capsifen.
... [16] In fact, human studies have revealed that capsaicin decreases food intake and increases energy expenditure, facilitates fat oxidation, reduces appetite, increases satiety, and modulates the expression of some hypothalamic peptides implicated in food intake, thus resulting in a significant weight loss. [18][19][20] However, the intake of cap-saicin, alone or as a component of hot pepper, for long periods of time, results in bad compliance, mainly due to the stomach burning feeling that it may generate. [21] An alternative could be the use of a sweet, non-pungent red pepper, like a cultivar named CH-19, which has shown beneficial effects in reducing energy intake to prevent body weight gain in humans. ...
... -Carotene and lycopene were determined according to the method described by Nagata and Yamashita (1992) [18] and described in the Supporting material online. ...
Article
Scope : Capsicum annuum L. cv Senise is a sweet pepper containing health promoting compounds, that could be modified by ripening and drying. This study focuses on finding the peppers with the best antioxidant properties, which are evaluated on an experimental model of obesity Methods and Results : Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity were evaluated on several peppers obtained from the same cultivar at different ripening stages. Red sweet peppers showed the highest content in polyphenols, β‐carotene, lycopene and capsinoids, and demonstrated the best antioxidant activity in vitro. Mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) were orally treated with an extract from these peppers (CAE) (1, 10 and 25 mg/kg/day). It promoted weight loss and improved plasma markers related to glucose and lipid metabolisms. CAE also ameliorated obesity‐associated systemic inflammation reducing the expression of pro‐inflammatory cytokines in adipose and hepatic tissues and improving the expression of different markers involved in the gut epithelial barrier function. These effects were associated with a modulation of the intestinal microbiome, which appears altered Conclusions The extract could be considered a new potential approach for the treatment of obesity, complementary to dietary restrictions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... A study in Denmark on 27 individuals demonstrated that by consumption of capsaicin helps to reduce appetite during high energy consumption. Moreover, it has also been reported that it alleviates hunger and promotes satiety, thus effective in treating obesity (Janssens et al. 2014). 10-week research conducted in Korea on mice concluded that the intake of capsaicin along with a high-fat diet reduced insulin insensitivity and suppresses the accumulation of hepatocytes in the liver of mice. ...
Chapter
Obesity and cancer are two of the major highly prevailing health disorders of public health concern. Obesity is a documented strong risk factor for many cancers particularly breast and pancreatic cancers. With a progressively increasing prevalence over the past few decades, obesity and cancer continues to leave a footprint of significant morbidity and mortality across different age groups and populations around the world. The global burden of obesity and cancer on health systems has reached alarming proportions necessitating ongoing research into novel approaches and innovative solutions for prevention and control. Such innovative research endeavors have yielded an evolution of efficacious drug treatments for obesity and cancers over time, some of which are used separately or in combination. This chapter highlights the meeting point between obesity and cancer with focus on their management.
... In a study conducted in the Netherlands with 15 individuals who received 2.56 mg of capsaicin per meal, it was determined that capsaicin increased the feeling of satiety. In addition, they reported that capsaicin prevented excessive eating in ad libitum food intake and also eliminated the effect of negative energy balance on desire to eat (61). In another study examining the effect of twelve weeks of capsaicinoid supplementation on appetite, body composition, and metabolic markers, the participants were divided into three groups: placebo group, 2 mg/day capsaicinoid group, and 4 mg/day capsaicinoid group. ...
Article
Capsaicin is a bioactive compound found in the fruits (i.e., peppers) of the plant genus Capsicum, which is widely used in many cultures. Besides many health effects of this compound, it can also be effective in body weight control through various mechanisms such as regulating lipolysis in adipocytes, increasing the feeling of satiety, stimulating energy expenditure, and reducing energy intake. This study investigated capsaicin and its effects on body weight control. In clinical studies, the amount of capsaicin affecting body weight loss differ. Longitudinal and randomized controlled studies are needed to explain the effects of capsaicin on body weight control. • Key teaching points • • Capsaicin can decrease hunger through hormones in the gastrointestinal tract. • • Capsaicin can increase energy expenditure through brown adipose tissue. • • Capsaicin can increase lipolysis in white adipose tissue. • • More comprehensive studies are needed to clarify this issue.
... Studies with human subjects demonstrated that Capsaicin increased sense of fullness, increased sympathetic nervous system activity, increases leptin sensitivity (Janssens et al., 2014;Lee, G.R. et al., 2013;Yoshioka et al., 1999). ...
Article
Ethnopharmacological relevance Phyto-preparations and phyto-compounds, by their natural origin, easy availability, cost-effectiveness, and fruitful traditional uses based on accumulated experiences, have been extensively explored to mitigate the global burden of obesity. Aim of this review The review aimed to analyse and critically summarize the prospect of future anti-obesity drug leads from the extant array of phytochemicals for mitigation of obesity, using adipose related targets (adipocyte formation, lipid metabolism, and thermogenesis) and non-adipose targets (hepatic lipid metabolism, appetite, satiety, and pancreatic lipase activity). Phytochemicals as inhibitors of adipocyte differentiation, modulators of lipid metabolism, and thermogenic activators of adipocytes are specifically discussed with their non-adipose anti-obesogenic targets. Materials and methods PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, and SciFinder were accessed to collect data on traditional medicinal plants, compounds derived from plants, their reported anti-obesity mechanisms, and therapeutic targets. The taxonomically accepted name of each plant in this review has been vetted from “The Plant List” (www.theplantlist.org) or MPNS (http://mpns.kew.org). Results Available knowledge of a large number of phytochemicals, across a range of adipose and non-adipose targets, has been critically analysed and delineated by graphical and tabular depictions, towards mitigation of obesity. Neuro-endocrinal modulation in non-adipose targets brought into sharp dual focus, both non-adipose and adipose targets as the future of anti-obesity research. Numerous phytochemicals (Berberine, Xanthohumol, Ursolic acid, Guggulsterone, Tannic acid, etc.) have been found to be effectively reducing weight through lowered adipocyte formation, increased lipolysis, decreased lipogenesis, and enhanced thermogenesis. They have been affirmed as potential anti-obesity drugs of future because of their effectiveness yet having no threat to adipose or systemic insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Due to high molecular diversity and a greater ratio of benefit to risk, plant derived compounds hold high therapeutic potential to tackle obesity and associated risks. This review has been able to generate fresh perspectives on the anti-diabetic/anti-hyperglycemic/anti-obesity effect of phytochemicals. It has also brought into the focus that many phytochemicals demonstrating in vitro anti-obesogenic effects are yet to undergo in vivo investigation which could lead to potential phyto-molecules for dedicated anti-obesity action.
... 40 Studies have also reported that intake of capsaicin and capsinoid suppresses energy intake by suppressing appetite. 41,42 Capsaicin and capinoids affect energy metabolism using different mechanisms of action. Capsaicin, due to its pungency and thus its additional effects on nociceptors, causes a greater increase in heart rate and blood pressure shortly after ingestion than capsinoids. ...
Context: Energy metabolism is the main determinant of obesity etiology. Consumption of some spices, such as red pepper, ginger, and turmeric, can be considered to be an environmental factor affecting energy metabolism. Objective: This review aimed to examine the effects of red pepper, ginger, and turmeric on weight control, weight loss, and energy metabolism. Design: The research team performed a narrative review by searching the Google scholar, Scopus, PubMed, ResearchGate, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. The search used the keywords red pepper, ginger, and turmeric in combination with energy metabolism, energy expenditure, energy balance, thermogenesis, anti-obesity, weight management, weight control, weight loss, metabolic rate, and oxygen consumption, without considering any time limitation. Setting: This study has been carried out in Ankara / Turkey. Results: Red pepper, ginger, and turmeric affect energy metabolism through various mechanisms. Dietary red pepper and its pungent principle capsaicin affects satiety and has a promising thermogenic influence. Ginger has positive effects on weight control, obesity prevention, and energy metabolism. In addition, curcumin inhibits the conversion of preadipocytes to mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Red pepper, ginger, and turmeric affect energy metabolism using mechanisms related to thermal effect, BMR, total energy expenditure, oxygen consumption, and lipid oxidation. These spices haven't been assigned appropriate doses and periods of use, and no definite judgments can be made on their use. Therefore, it's necessary to conduct further randomized controlled research to reach absolute conclusions and determine by which mechanisms these spices show this effect on energy metabolism.
... Human studies confirmed previous results; in fact, a combination of green tea, Capsaicin, and ginger in overweight women caused a body weight loss, a reduction in body mass index and serum insulin, and an improvement in the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) [81]. In Caucasian subjects, it has been observed that 2.56 mg of Capsaicin in every meal increased satiety [82]. ...
Article
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Capsaicin is a chili peppers extract, genus Capsicum, commonly used as a food spice. Since ancient times, Capsaicin has been used as a “homeopathic remedy” for treating a wild range of pathological conditions but without any scientific knowledge about its action. Several studies have demonstrated its potentiality in cardiovascular, nephrological, nutritional, and other medical fields. Capsaicin exerts its actions thanks to the bond with transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1). TRPV1 is a nociceptive receptor, and its activation starts with a neurosensitive impulse, responsible for a burning pain sensation. However, constant local application of Capsaicin desensitized neuronal cells and leads to relief from neuropathic pain. In this review, we analyze the potential adjuvant role of Capsaicin in the treatment of different pathological conditions either in internal medicine or dentistry. Moreover, we present our experience in five patients affected by oro-facial pain consequent to post-traumatic trigeminal neuropathy, not responsive to any remedy, and successfully treated with topical application of Capsaicin. The topical application of Capsaicin is safe, effective, and quite tolerated by patients. For these reasons, in addition to the already-proven beneficial actions in the internal field, it represents a promising method for the treatment of neuropathic oral diseases.
... A significant number of studies focused on CAP anti-obesity potency and various types of underlying mechanisms have been suggested. There is evidence that CAP reduces weight gain by activating the TRPV1 cation channel, subsequently enhancing BAT (brown adipose tissue) activity and inducing thermogenesis, increasing lipid oxidation and inhibiting adipogenesis in WAT (white adipose tissue), enhancing satiety and suppressing appetite in the hypothalamus, and last but not least, modulating the gastrointestinal function and gut microbiota [123][124][125][126][127]. However, a recent study reported that CAP is able to exert anti-obesity effects regardless of TRPV1 channel activation, as shown in TRPV1 KO mice. ...
Article
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Capsaicin is a widespread spice known for its analgesic qualities. Although a comprehensive body of evidence suggests pleiotropic benefits of capsaicin, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-proliferative, metabolic, or cardioprotective effects, it is frequently avoided due to reported digestive side-effects. As the gut bacterial profile is strongly linked to diet and capsaicin displays modulatory effects on gut microbiota, a new hypothesis has recently emerged about its possible applicability against widespread pathologies, such as metabolic and inflammatory diseases. The present review explores the capsaicin–microbiota crosstalk and capsaicin effect on dysbiosis, and illustrates the intimate mechanisms that underlie its action in preventing the onset or development of pathologies like obesity, diabetes, or inflammatory bowel diseases. A possible antimicrobial property of capsaicin, mediated by the beneficial alteration of microbiota, is also discussed. However, as data are coming mostly from experimental models, caution is needed in translating these findings to humans.
... A study in Denmark on 27 individuals demonstrated that by consumption of capsaicin helps to reduce appetite during high energy consumption. Moreover, it has also been reported that it alleviates hunger and promotes satiety, thus effective in treating obesity (Janssens et al. 2014). 10-week research conducted in Korea on mice concluded that the intake of capsaicin along with a high-fat diet reduced insulin insensitivity and suppresses the accumulation of hepatocytes in the liver of mice. ...
Chapter
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Obesity is characterized by excessive accumulation of fats in the adipose tissues. Accumulation of excess fat releases a large number of adipokines that can cause obesity and diabetes mellitus due to irregularity between demand and the production of insulin. Obesity affects many organs and influences the heart, liver, intestines, respiratory organs, endocrine, and reproductive functions. Polydipsia, polyuria, weight reduction, coronary illness, kidney injury, diabetic foot, and diabetic ketoacidosis are pathophysiological manifestations and complications of diabetes. Obesity and overweight also contribute to the immune system dysfunction due to increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which are also risk factors for many types of cancer.
... It has been shown in clinical trials that the administration of catechin ranging from 270 to 1200 mg/day resulted in reduced body weight and lowering of serum leptin levels (Rains et al., 2011;Sun et al., 2016). Epigallocatechin 3 Gallate (EGCG) and capsaicin are also known to have appetite suppressing effects and increase the sensation of fullness, and decrease the desire to eat (Janssens et al., 2014;Fernandes et al., 2018). ...
Article
The prevalence of obesity is increasing rapidly globally and has recently reached pandemic proportions. It is a multifactorial disorder linked to a number of non-communicable diseases such as type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Over-nutrition and a sedentary lifestyle are considered the most significant causes of obesity; a healthy lifestyle and behavioural interventions are the most powerful ways to achieve successful weight loss, but to maintain this in the long term can prove difficult for many individuals, without medical intervention. Various pharmacological anti-obesogenic drugs have been tested and marketed in the past and have been moderately successful in the management of obesity, but their adverse effects on human health often outweigh the benefits. Natural products from plants, either in the form of crude extracts or purified phytochemicals, have been shown to have anti-obesogenic properties and are generally considered as nontoxic and cost-effective compared to synthetic alternatives. These plant products combat obesity by targeting the various pathways and/or regulatory functions intricately linked to obesity. Their mechanisms of action include inhibition of pancreatic lipase activities, an increase in energy expenditure, appetite regulation, lipolytic effects, and inhibition of white adipose tissue development. In this review, we discuss the distinct anti-obesogenic properties of recently reported plant extracts and specific bioactive compounds, along with their molecular mechanisms of action. This review will provide a common platform for understanding the different causes of obesity and the possible approaches to using plant products in tackling this worldwide health issue.
... In clinical trials, benefits in satiety and appetite regulation in capsaicin supplementation have also been observed. One study showed that 2.56 mg of capsaicin supplementation increased the perception of satiety and decreased ad libitum intake in individuals with BMI between 20 and 30 kg/m 2 and without metabolic diseases (Janssens, Hursel, and Westerterp-Plantenga 2014). One of the common limitations in the study of the effects of capsaicin supplementation is sensory puncture; Thus, in 2015 Mark van Avesaat et al investigated the effects of a 1.5 mg infusion of capsaicin directly into the duodenum and its association with satiety. ...
Article
Major cardiometabolic risk phenotypes include insulin resistance (IR), hyperinsulinemia, overweight, obesity and dyslipidemia, which contribute to the current prevalent chronic disease pandemia worldwide. Among traditional treatments, dietary habits represent one of the most difficult and controversial aspects to implement in handling metabolic disturbances. The use of herbal remedies by latinos and hispanics, as part of self-care of metabolic diseases has been well documented in several studies, mainly because they are “natural”, consistent with their culture, family-related, accessible, and affordable. Phytochemicals are present in fruits, vegetables and various plants, and constitute nonessential nutrients such as vitamins or minerals, many of them being consumed in a popular way or used as herbal remedies or dietary supplements. In this narrative review, we present evidence on traditional endemic Mexican foods such as cacao, corn, common bean, prickle pear, chili, avocado and salba-chia as functional agents to improve the metabolic status in risk phenotypes.
... Capsaicin is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers and stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids have been shown to underscore the impact of energy restriction on body weight loss by decreasing hunger and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation [88][89][90][91][92][93][94]. However, despite increased fat oxidation, body weight maintenance after body weight loss was not achieved due to lack of compliance [93]. ...
Article
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Energy balance is a key concept in the etiology and prevalence of obesity and its co-morbidities, as well as in the development of possible treatments. If energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, a positive energy balance develops and the risk for overweight, obesity, and its co-morbidities increases. Energy balance is determined by energy homeostasis, and challenged by sensitivity to food reward, and to modulatory factors such as circadian misalignment, high altitude, environmental temperature, and physical activity. Food reward and circadian misalignment increase the risk for overweight and obesity, while high altitude, changes in environmental temperature, or physical activity modulate energy balance in different directions. Modulations by hypobaric hypoxia, lowering environmental temperature, or increasing physical activity have been hypothesized to contribute to body weight loss and management, yet no clear evidence has been shown. Dietary approach as part of a lifestyle approach for body weight management should imply reduction of energy intake including control of food reward, thereby sustaining satiety and fat free body mass, sustaining energy expenditure. Green tea catechins and capsaicin in red pepper in part meet these requirements by sustaining energy expenditure and increasing fat oxidation, while capsaicin also suppresses hunger and food intake. Protein intake of at least 0,8 g/kg body weight meets these requirements in that it, during decreased energy intake, increases food intake control including control of food reward, and counteracts adaptive thermogenesis. Prevention of overweight and obesity is underscored by dietary restraint, implying control of sensitivity to challenges to energy balance such as food reward and circadian misalignment. Treatment of overweight and obesity may be possible using a medium-high protein diet (0,8 – 1,2 g/kg), together with increased dietary restraint, while controlling challenges to energy balance.
... In a study conducted in China, Li et al. showed that enjoyment of spicy taste enhanced the sensitivity to salty taste and lowered the daily salt intake and blood pressure [36]. Adding capsaicin to the diet can increase the sensation of fullness and reduce energy intake [37]. In the current study, the effect of chili on CKD appears to be similar regardless of BMI and blood pressure status. ...
Article
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We aimed to assess the association between chili consumption and kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data from 8429 adults attending the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Chili intake was assessed using a 3 day, 24 h food record in combination with household food inventory between 1991 and 2009. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, as measured in 2009. Logistic regression was used to assess the association. Of the 8429 participants, 1008 (12.0%) fit the definition of CKD. The prevalence of CKD was 13.1% in non-consumers of chili and 7.4% among those with chili intake above 50 g/day. After adjusting for demographics, lifestyle factors (i.e., smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activity), dietary patterns, and chronic conditions, the odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for CKD across chili consumption levels of none, 1–20 g/day, 20.1–50 g/day, ≥50.1 g/day were 1.00 (reference), 0.82 (0.67–1.01), 0.83 (0.65–1.05), and 0.51 (0.35–0.75), respectively (p for trend 0.001). There was no interaction between chili intake with gender, income, urbanization, hypertension, obesity, or diabetes. This longitudinal large population-based study suggests that chili consumption is inversely associated with CKD, independent of lifestyle, hypertension, obesity, and overall dietary patterns.
... Overall, the study revealed that capsaicin significantly had a positive effect on increasing satiety and fullness of the volunteers while preventing overeating. Even considering negative energy balances after dinner it decreased the desire to eat, concluding that it has the potential to be beneficial in weight-loss diets and preventing obesity (Janssens et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Pepper (Capsicum) is an annual herbaceous plant belonging to the Solanaceae family. It is a popular fruit that has been grown and consumed for millennia and is found today in most parts of the world for food and also used as traditional medicine. The popularity of capsicum is because it is a highly nutritious, flavorful, and beneficial crop. Numerous epidemiological studies and interventional trials have found that capsicum can reduce many diseases, such as coronary heart disease and cancer. Studies also confirmed the antiinflammatory property of pepper and investigated it against neurological pain and musculoskeletal pain disorders. The health benefits of capsicum are a result of the various antioxidants and phytochemicals found in capsicum. These beneficial compounds vary in concentrations, depending on factors such as agronomic factors, genotype, and environmental issues. These compounds can also be affected by factors such as disinfecting after postharvest, storage method, and cooking. Although capsicum is highly nutritious, it is important to consider that moderation is important as the use of some types of capsicum, such as jalapenos and other chillis, contain capsaicin which can cause discomfort or digestive issues if consumed in excess.
... 22 In addition, capsaicin is a basic component of spicy food and responsible for approximately 70% of the burn. Janssens et al 35 found that satiety and fullness increased when capsaicin was added into the human diet. Moreover, several human studies have indicated that capsaicin plays an important role in energy balance by changing the intake of fat, carbohydrate and protein. ...
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Objectives Recent data relating to the association between spicy food intake frequency and abdominal obesity are limited, especially in low-income areas. Therefore, the study explored the relationship between spicy food intake frequency and abdominal obesity, and assessed the role of energy intake as a mediator of these associations in a rural Chinese adult population. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Rural Chinese adult population. Participants Subjects from Henan Rural Cohort Study (n=28 773). Primary outcome measures The effects of spicy food intake frequency on abdominal obesity were analysed by restricted cubic spline and logistic regression, and the mediation effect was analysed using the bootstrap method. Results The adjusted percentages of abdominal obesity were 47.32%, 51.93%, 50.66% and 50.29% in the spicy food intake subgroups of never, 1–2 day/week, 3–5 day/week and 6–7 day/week, respectively. An inverse U-shaped association was found between spicy food intake frequency and abdominal obesity (p<0.01). Compared with subjects who never consumed spicy food, the adjusted ORs (95% CIs) in the 1–2 day/week, 3–5 day/week and 6–7 day/week subgroups were 1.186 (1.093, 1.287), 1.127 (1.038, 1.224) and 1.104 (1.044, 1.169), respectively. Furthermore, the increased odd of abdominal obesity related to more frequent spicy food intake was mediated by higher fat energy intake; the direct and indirect effects were 1.107 (1.053, 1.164) and 1.007 (1.003, 1.012), respectively. Conclusions The data indicated that spicy food intake increased the risk of abdominal obesity, and fat energy intake may be a mediator of this association in rural Chinese populations. Clarifying the mechanisms will facilitate the development of novel preventive and therapeutic approaches for abdominal obesity. Trial registration number ChiCTR-OOC-15006699
... Capsaicin is responsible for the pungency of hot peppers and stimulates the sympathoadrenal system that mediates the thermogenic and anorexigenic effects of capsaicinoids. Capsaicinoids and capsinoids have been shown to underscore the impact of energy restriction on body weight loss by decreasing hunger and increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation [88][89][90][91][92][93][94]. However, despite increased fat oxidation, body weight maintenance after body weight loss was not achieved due to lack of compliance [93]. ...
... The use of red pepper powder has been shown to alter thermogenesis and appetite [6]. Other studies have reported changes in appetite and energy balance upon ingestion of capsaicin [7,8]. This change may occur via changes in the hypothalamic anorexia and anorexia neuropeptides [9]. ...
Article
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Kochujang shows anti-obesity effects in cell and animal models. Kochujang is traditionally prepared via slow fermentation or commercially using Aspergillus oryzae. We analyze the anti-obesity effects of two types of Kochujang in overweight and obese adults. The analyses included the following groups: traditional Kochujang containing either a high-dose (HTK; n = 19), or a low-dose of beneficial microbes (LTK; n = 18), and commercial Kochujang (CK; n = 17). Waist circumference decreased significantly in the HTK and CK groups. Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels decreased in the HTK and LTK groups. Visceral fat is significantly reduced in the HTK group. The population of beneficial microorganisms in stool samples increased in all groups. Consumption of Kochujang reduces visceral fat content and improves the lipid profile, which can be enhanced by enrichment with beneficial microbes. These results suggest that Kochujang has the potential for application in obesity prevention.
... A study in Denmark on 27 individuals demonstrated that by consumption of capsaicin helps to reduce appetite during high energy consumption. Moreover, it has also been reported that it alleviates hunger and promotes satiety, thus effective in treating obesity (Janssens et al. 2014). 10-week research conducted in Korea on mice concluded that the intake of capsaicin along with a high-fat diet reduced insulin insensitivity and suppresses the accumulation of hepatocytes in the liver of mice. ...
Chapter
Type 2 diabetes and obesity are factors that may cause elevation in the insulin level in the body, possibly leading to insulin resistance. Recent studies have shown the association between insulin resistance and obesity leading to various cancer types including breast, colon, liver, kidney, pancreatic, gastric, and leukemia. The increase in bioavailable insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and hyperinsulinemia are instrumental in the formation of tumors in insulin-resistant patients. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species is another cause of developing cancer in insulin-resistant patients as it damages the DNA that contributes to mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. The adipose tissue in diabetic and obese individuals produces high levels of inflammation in cells which promotes tumorigenesis. Hence, weight loss and preventive diabetic therapies offer protective interventions in the development of cancers. In this chapter, we examined the interrelationship between obesity, diabetes, and the mechanism linking to cancer development and also the potential treatment recommendations that may help in controlling cancer.
... Capsicum also is a good source of bioactive compounds, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and ascorbic acid. These compounds have been reported to have antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities [28]. They are also important components for building up and maintaining the human immune system [29]. ...
Article
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Fruits and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet. They are rich sources of vitamins and minerals, dietary fibre and a host of beneficial non-nutrient substances including plant sterols, flavonoids and other antioxidants. It has been reported that reduced intake of fruits and vegetables may increase the risk of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Chili pepper, is a common and important spice used to enhance taste and nutrition. Over the years, reports have shown its potential as antioxidant and an anti-obesity agent. Obesity is a serious health concern as it may initiate other common chronic diseases. Due to the side effects of synthetic antioxidants and anti-obesity drugs, scientists are now focusing on natural products which produce similar effects to synthetic chemicals. This up-to-date review addresses this research gap and presents, in an accessible format, the nutritional, antioxidant and anti-obesity properties of different chili peppers. This review article serves as a reference guide for use of chili peppers as anti-obesity agents.
... Volume 10 Issue 1 promotes lipolysis, inhibits adipogenesis, and increases the transition from white adipose tissue to thermogenic brown adipose tissue in adipose tissue; in the hypothalamus, it reduces appetite and creates a feeling of satiety; it also increases intestinal blood flow and has close relations with glucose homeostasis by increasing insulin secretion in the pancreas and by increasing glucagon like peptide-1 levels [14,17,18,20,[42][43][44]. In light of this information, capsaicin can positively affect energy balance and obesity via TRPV1 in neuronal and nonneuronal cells in the GIT, hypothalamus, and adipose tissue. ...
Article
Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel, is activated by capsaicin, a pungent ingredient of hot pepper. Previous studies have suggested a link between obesity and capsaicin-associated pathways, and activation of TRPV1 may provide an alternative approach for obesity treatment. However, data on the TRPV1 distribution in human gastric mucosa are limited, and the degree of TRPV1 distribution in the gastric and duodenal mucosal cells of obese people in comparison with normal-weight individuals is unknown. Aim: To clarify gastric and duodenal mucosal expression of TRPV1 in humans and compare TRPV1 expression in obese and healthy individuals. Methods: Forty-six patients with a body mass index (BMI) of > 40 kg/m2 and 20 patients with a BMI between 18-25 kg/m2 were included. Simultaneous biopsies from the fundus, antrum, and duodenum tissues were obtained from subjects between the ages of 18 and 65 who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy. Age, sex, history of alcohol and cigarette consumption, and past medical history regarding chronic diseases and medications were accessed from patient charts and were analyzed accordingly. Evaluation with anti-TRPV1 antibody was performed separately according to cell types in the fundus, antrum, and duodenum tissues using an immunoreactivity score. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17.0. Results: TRPV1 expression was higher in the stomach than in the duodenum and was predominantly found in parietal and chief cells of the fundus and mucous and foveolar cells of the antrum. Unlike foveolar cells in the antrum, TRPV1 was relatively low in foveolar cells in the fundus (4.92 ± 0.49 vs 0.48 ± 0.16, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). Additionally, the mucous cells in the duodenum also had low levels of TRPV1 compared to mucous cells in the antrum (1.33 ± 0.31 vs 2.95 ± 0.46, P < 0.01, Mann-Whitney U test). TRPV1 expression levels of different cell types in the fundus, antrum, and duodenum tissues of the morbidly obese group were similar to those of the control group. Staining with TRPV1 in fundus chief cells and antrum and duodenum mucous cells was higher in patients aged ≥ 45 years than in patients < 45 years (3.03 ± 0.42, 4.37 ± 0.76, 2.28 ± 0.55 vs 1.9 ± 0.46, 1.58 ± 0.44, 0.37 ± 0.18, P = 0.03, P < 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively, Mann-Whitney U test). The mean staining levels of TRPV1 in duodenal mucous cells in patients with diabetes and hypertension were higher than those in patients without diabetes and hypertension (diabetes: 2.11 ± 0.67 vs 1.02 ± 0.34, P = 0.04; hypertension: 2.42 ± 0.75 vs 1.02 ± 0.33, P < 0.01 Mann-Whitney U test). Conclusion: The expression of TRPV1 is unchanged in the gastroduodenal mucosa of morbidly obese patients demonstrating that drugs targeting TRPV1 may be effective in these patients.
... The available over-the-counter capsules are not for pain treatment. Therefore, a deep exploration of past literature and the creation of solid clinical trials is essential for establish capsaicin dosage in a diet supplementations therapy in order to relieve pain [138]. ...
Article
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Neuropathic pain is defined as pain caused by a lesion or disease of the somatosensory nervous system and affects 7–10% of the worldwide population. Neuropathic pain can be induced by the use of drugs, including taxanes, thus triggering chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain or as consequence of metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Neuropathic pain is most often a chronic condition, and can be associated with anxiety and depression; thus, it negatively impacts quality of life. Several pharmacologic approaches exist; however, they can lead numerous adverse effects. From this perspective, the use of nutraceuticals and diet supplements can be helpful in relieve neuropathic pain and related symptoms. In this review, we discuss how diet can radically affect peripheral neuropathy, and we focus on the potential approaches to ameliorate this condition, such as the use of numerous nutritional supplements or probiotics.
... Lejuene et al., 2003;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 ;Diepvens et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007;Snitker et al., 2009;Zsombok, 2013;Janssens et al., 2013;Janssens et al., 2014 Gut health-capsaicin has a gastroprotective effect as it inhibits acid secretion and stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and helps in the prevention and healing of ulcers. Dietary capsaicin increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Faecalibacterium abundance,accompanied with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide and decreased plasma ghrelin level Yeoh et al., 1995; Mózsik et al., A type doubly linked procyanidin oligomers of the catechins and/or epicatechins) Antioxidants and blood glucose control-Cinnamon and cinnamon extracts are antioxidants, potentiate insulin action, and may be beneficial in the control of glucose intolerance and diabetes. ...
Article
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Culinary spices and herbs have been used in food and beverages to enhance aroma, flavor, and color. They are rich in phytochemicals that provide significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. There is growing interest in identifying compounds from spices and herbs responsible for modulating oxidative and inflammatory stress to prevent diet-related diseases. This contribution will provide an overview of culinary spices and herbs, their classification , their sources or origins and more importantly, their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and their impacts on human health based on important and recent studies.
... In fact, studies on obesity and glucose homeostasis conducted on TRPV1-deficient animal models have resulted in opposite outcomes, with younger mice obtaining benefits and older ones increasing in weight [75,76]. Similarly, some human studies found that activation of TRPV1 via food supplements produced satiety and less energy intake while others did not observe long term effects [77][78][79][80]. Some pieces of evidence point to a direct interaction of TRPV1 with some hormones responsible for appetite control, such as ghrelin, leptin and GLP1 [75,81]. ...
Article
Originating from Eastern Asia, the plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a medicinal treatment. The unwanted psychotropic effects of one of its major components, Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol, discouraged its therapeutic employment until, recently, the discovery of cannabinoids receptors and their endogenous ligands endocannabinoids, reignited the interest. The endocannabinoid system has lately been found to play an important role in the maintenance of human health, both centrally and peripherally. However, the initial idea of the endocannabinoid system structure has been quickly understood to be too simplistic and, as new receptors, mediators, and enzymes have been discovered to participate in a complex relationship, the new, more comprehensive term “expanded endocannabinoid system” or “endocannabinoidome”, has taken over. The discovery of other endocannabinoid-like receptors, such as the G protein-coupled receptor 119 and G protein-coupled receptor 55, has opened the way to the development of potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of various metabolic disorders. In addition, recent findings have also provided evidence suggesting the potential therapeutic link between the endocannabinoidome and various inflammatory-based gut diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and cancer. This review will provide an introduction to the endocannabinoidome, focusing on its modulatory role in the gastrointestinal tract and on the interest generated by the link between gut microbiota, the endocannabinoid system and metabolic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease, type-2 diabetes and obesity. In addition, we will look at the potential novel aspects and benefits of drugs targeting the endocannabinoid system.
... Finally, the use of emotion detection software in analyzing the faces of panelists during mastication confirmed the increase in non-neutral emotions associated with the increase in pungency intensity. benefits as it stimulates digestion, increases the sensation of fullness, energy metabolism and expenditure [5][6][7]. ...
Article
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Pungency is an interesting sensory stimulus analyzed from different perspectives, in particular the underpinning mechanisms of its sensation and perception. In this study, grilled pork meat coated with three types of hot sauces were investigated regarding its main food oral processing characteristics and evaluated using time-intensity and temporal dominance of pungency sensations methods analyzing the pungency descriptors and intensities. Besides these methods, facial expressions obtained from video capturing were subject to emotion detection. Mastication parameters showed a slight, but not statistically significant, trend of an increased number of chews and consumption time associated with pungency intensity, while saliva incorporation indicated an increasing trend depending on the pungency intensity, especially after 25 strokes and before swallowing. Both time intensity and temporal dominance of pungency sensations showed that the complexity of understanding these sensations is in relation to intensity and type. Finally, the use of emotion detection software in analyzing the faces of panelists during mastication confirmed the increase in non-neutral emotions associated with the increase in pungency intensity.
... Lejuene et al., 2003;Westerterp-Plantenga et al., 2005 ;Diepvens et al., 2007; Zhang, 2007;Snitker et al., 2009;Zsombok, 2013;Janssens et al., 2013;Janssens et al., 2014 Gut health-capsaicin has a gastroprotective effect as it inhibits acid secretion and stimulates alkali and mucus secretion and helps in the prevention and healing of ulcers. Dietary capsaicin increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and Faecalibacterium abundance,accompanied with increased plasma levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 and gastric inhibitory polypeptide and decreased plasma ghrelin level Yeoh et al., 1995; Mózsik et al., A type doubly linked procyanidin oligomers of the catechins and/or epicatechins) Antioxidants and blood glucose control-Cinnamon and cinnamon extracts are antioxidants, potentiate insulin action, and may be beneficial in the control of glucose intolerance and diabetes. ...
... Human data indicate that the acute TRPV1 activation increases GLP-1 and diminishes ghrelin levels in the plasma samples of individuals receiving a capsaicin-containing meal, as soon as 15 min after consumption, without altering energy expenditure [278]. Capsaicin effects on satiety are controversial with some studies indicating the compound reduces energy intake [279,280] and others showing no effects [278,281]. ...
Article
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex pathology characterized by visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidaemia. It has become a global epidemic associated with increased consumption of high-calorie, low-fibre food and sedentary habits. Some of its underlying mechanisms have been identified, with hypoadiponectinemia, inflammation and oxidative stress as important factors for MS establishment and progression. Alterations in adipokine levels may favour glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity which, in turn, contribute to inflammation and cellular stress responses within the adipose, pancreatic and liver tissues, in addition to hepatic steatosis. The multiple mechanisms of MS make its clinical management difficult, involving both non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are non-selective calcium channels involved in a plethora of physiological events, including energy balance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Evidence from animal models of disease has contributed to identify their specific contributions to MS and may help to tailor clinical trials for the disease. In this context, the oxidative stress sensors TRPV1, TRPA1 and TRPC5, play major roles in regulating inflammatory responses, thermogenesis and energy expenditure. Here, the interplay between these TRP channels and oxidative stress in MS is discussed in the light of novel therapies to treat this syndrome.
Chapter
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Fruits come in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and flavors. This chapter will cover selected fruits that are known to be healthy and highly nutritious. These fruits were chosen due to their common usage and availability. Since it is not possible to cover all health benefits or essential nutrients and important phytochemicals of the fruit composition, this chapter will focus on the key valuable constituents and their potential health effects.
Article
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of capsaicin (Cap), moderate exercise (Ex) and their combination on arterial blood pressure (BP) and metabolic complications in hypoestrogenic (HE) obese (HEOb) rats. Female Wistar rats were ovariectomized and given 300 g L-1 sucrose solution (HEOb), or purified water (HE) ad libitum, during 28 weeks. After shaving the abdominal skin, cold cream vehicle was applied to Sedentary (Sed) and Exercise (Ex) groups, and Cap cream 0.75 g kg-1 was applied to Ex groups. Ex groups ran on a treadmill every day for 20 min at speeds from 0.15 to 0.3 m s-1 . For combination groups (Cap+Ex), topical Cap was applied 90 min before Ex. The treatments were performed for 6 weeks, and BP was recorded before and at the end of the experimental protocol. The animals were killed by decapitation and blood and tissues were obtained to perform oxidative profile, as well as to biochemical and histologic studies. Results: Compared with individual treatments, the combined therapy (Cap+Ex) in HEOb rats caused a higher reduction in the caloric intake, body weight, abdominal fat percent, oxidative stress and hepatic steatosis. In HEOb groups, Cap was the only treatment that reduced BP and prevented dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. Conclusion: The present data show that Cap improves the metabolic alterations induced by obesity and hypoestrogenism, and suggest that Cap can be considered as an excellent candidate for therapy of these clinical conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Obesity and overweight have become a serious health problem in the world, which are linked to a varity of metabolic disorders. Phytochemicals with weight-loss effect have been widely studied for past few decades. Capsaicin is the major bioactive component in red chili peppers with many beneficial functions. Its anti-obesity effects have been evaluated extensively using different model systems, including cell models, animal models and human subjects. In this paper, anti-obesity effects of capsaicin are reviewed and the underlying mechanisms are characterized.
Chapter
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Plants, principally spices and herbs, have been given much more attention because they are considered important for flavoring and coloring foods and their use as condiments. Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and also to treat ailments since they are full of medicinal and antioxidant properties and contain bioactive compounds like tannins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, polyphenols, and vitamins, which help in healing diseases. Spices and herbs contain biomolecules that play a crucial role in healthcare and fitness levels. Spices and herbs have been considered as esoteric food adjuncts as they play numerous roles like being coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and having uses in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries.
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Alteration of nutritional habits play an essential role on the risk of developing Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). Several epidemiological studies have shown that assuming diets rich of foods included in the Mediterranean diet (MetDiet) pattern like, such as olive oil, nuts, fruit, fiber, vegetables, wine and grain cereals has protective effects on the different risk factors characterizing the MetS. The beneficial effects of the MetDiet in the MetS are mainly due to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of the most abundant phytochemical components of such foods as polyphenols like resveratrol and oleuropein, allyl sulfides, ellagic acid, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and PUFA), tocopherols and flavonoids like quercetin, which have shown positive results in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), with related risk factors, like hypertension, hypercholesterolemia and obesity. In this review, we highlighted the multi-target activities of the bioactive components contained in some foods typical of the Mediterranean area like olive oil, onion, liquorice, rosemary, oregano, hazelnut, pistachio, “Melannurca” apple, red wine, hot pepper, Citrus sp. fruits, saffron and garlic, with particular focus on their impact on health outcomes in relation to MetS main key factors, such as insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), endothelial dysfunctions, inflammatory response, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemic and hypercholesterolemic effects.
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Obesity, which is associated with type 2 diabetes, is a threat to human health. There are studies, which suggest that some compounds can induce browning of white adipocytes to combat obesity. In this study, we selected nonivamide, an analog of capsaicin, to detect whether it influenced the browning of porcine white adipocytes. First, we found 25 μM nonivamide promoted apoptosis of porcine subcutaneous pre-adipocytes. After pre-adipocytes differentiation, nonivamide inhibited adipogenesis by reducing the expressions of Pparγ, Cebpα, while it promoted lipolysis by up-regulating Hsl, Atgl. Nonivamide also induced browning of porcine subcutaneous adipocytes by up-regulating the expression of brown and beige adipocyte gene markers, such as Prdm16, Cidea, and Slc27a1. Additionally, thermogenesis gene markers Cpt1a and Cpt1b were significantly up-regulated by nonivamide. Furthermore, nonivamide promoted mitochondrial biogenesis by up-regulating the expression of Tfam, Nrf1, Nrf2, and Tomm20. In conclusion, nonivamide is a potent compound to induce porcine adipocyte browning for treating obesity.
Article
Purpose This study examined whether adding Dichrostachys glomerata (DG; 300 mg/d) to thermogenic supplements with (DG + C) and without (DG) caffeine and other nutrients affects weight loss, changes in body composition, and/or markers of health. Methods Sixty-eight participants (female, 54%) were grouped in a double-blind, parallel, stratified random, placebo-controlled manner to supplement their diet with a placebo, DG, or DG + C for 12 weeks while maintaining their normal diet and physical activity. Diet, physical activity, body weight, body composition, anthropometric measures, resting energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, and questionnaires were obtained at 0, 4, 8, and 12 weeks and analyzed using general linear models with repeated measures. Data are reported as mean (±SD) and change from baseline (mean, 95% confidence interval) for weeks 4, 8, and 12, respectively, with p values showing changes from baseline. Results DG treatment promoted significant but minor reductions in fat mass (−0.56 [−1.02, −0.14], p = 0.01; −0.63 [−1.23, −0.02], p = 0.04; −0.71 [−1.47, 0.09] kg, p = 0.08) and percent body fat (−0.46 [−0.96, −0.04], p = 0.07; −0.63 [−1.16, −0.10], p = 0.02; −0.78 [−1.45, 0.07] %, p = 0.03). There was some evidence that DG + C increased resting energy expenditure, decreased hunger, increased satiety, and improved sleep quality (diminished in DG + C). No other significant effects were observed. Conclusions Ingestion of thermogenic supplements containing DG (300 mg/d) with and without caffeine and other nutrients in overweight but otherwise healthy participants who did not alter diet or physical activity promoted clinically insignificant changes in body weight and composition.
Chapter
Spices have been commonly utilized in different regions of the world as flavor enhancers to improve the taste of food and natural drug for different health issues such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer due to their medicinal and antioxidant effects. Spices contain active ingredients like bioactive compounds in them. Many spices like ginger, cinnamon, turmeric, garlic, fenugreek, cumin, black pepper, mustard, coriander, and onion are safe, non-toxic, and have countless health benefits like anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and anti-cancer effects. The present work reviews the effect of different spices on the management and treatment of degenerative diseases like obesity, diabetes, and cancer.
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Capsaicin (CAP) is a spice-derived substance of the genus Capsicum, which has high pungency and therapeutic potential. For many years, it has been considered only as an agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid member 1 (TRPV1), a member from the family of transient potential receptors (TRPs). Capsaicin can lead to a variety of effects on cells, acting in specific organelles, and promoting different responses. Such studies, however, point the capsaicin acting independently of the TRPV1 channel, being able to alter membrane fluidity, ion flux, and reactive oxygen species levels on cells. In this context, capsaicin has been used as a therapeutic alternative for the treatment of some diseases, such as disorders related to pain and inflammation. Further, researchers have investigated the involvement of capsaicin in cancer. Thus, this review aims to examine the ways that capsaicin can act on cells independently of the vanilloid receptor activation and demonstrate the therapeutic uses of capsaicin as an alternative tool for some disorders.
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Vegetable intake is far below recommendations among African-American adolescents living in economically-underserved urban areas. While the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) helps overcome access barriers, vegetable intake remains challenging and novel interventions are required. A two-year, multi-phase, school-based intervention was conducted at an urban, economically-underserved, and predominantly African-American high school in Baltimore, Maryland to determine whether stakeholder-informed addition of spices and herbs to NSLP vegetables would increase intake. The stakeholder engagement phase included assessment of NSLP vegetable attitudes/preferences among 43 school stakeholders and subsequent student sensory testing. The second phase was conducted in the school cafeteria and consisted of eight weeks comparing student intake of typical vegetable recipes versus otherwise-identical recipes with spices and herbs. 4,570 student lunch plates were included in the vegetable intake comparison. Vegetable intake was measured by lunch tray plate waste. Willingness to try vegetables was assessed by the difference between plate waste and estimated mean vegetable served weight. Intake of typical vegetable recipes and vegetable recipes with spices and herbs was compared with student’s t-test. Chi-square test was used to compare willingness to try vegetables. Total vegetable intake was 18.2% higher (8.22 grams per meal, p<0.0001) with spices and herbs than with typical recipes. There were no differences in trying vegetables with spices and herbs, although student-led advocacy was associated with increased trying vegetables with spices and herbs (78.8% with advocacy, 67.5% without advocacy, p<0.0001). The addition of spices and herbs to vegetables in the NSLP was feasible and associated with small increases in vegetable intake at an urban, economically-underserved, and predominantly African-American high school.
Conference Paper
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Kefir, bir çeşit fermente probiyotik süt ürünüdür. Kardiyovasküler hastalıklar dünya çapında en önemli ölüm nedenlerinden biridir ve dislipidemi bu hastalıklar için en önemli risk faktörlerinden biridir. Bu araştırma normal ve dislipidemik özellikler gösteren bireylerde kefirin kan lipid profilini üzerine olumlu etki yapacağının düşünülmüştür. Bu etkiyi araştırmak amacıyla prospektif, öz-kontrollü 8 haftalık klinik araştırma yapılmış ve çalışma için gerekli etik kurul izni alınmıştır. Çalışmaya randomize olarak seçilen 20-55 yaş arası herhangi bir sağlık şikayeti olmayan ve kriterleri taşıyan 23 gönüllü katılmıştır. Gönüllüler ilk dört 4 haftası kefir tüketimli denek grubu olarak, son dört 4 haftası da rebaunt etkiyi görmek amaçlı kefir tüketimsiz denek grubu olarak çalışmaya dâhil edilmişlerdir. Gönüllü grubunun tükettiği 200 ml kefir yaklaşık 10,54 log cfu / ml Lactobacillus içeriğine, 10,62 log cfu / ml, Lactococcus içeriğine, 7,78log cfu / ml Bifidobacterium içeriğine sahiptir. Dört haftanın başında ve sonunda gıda tüketim kayıtları, antropometrik ölçümler ve kan örnekleri alınmış, Açlık Total kolesterol, LDL kolesterol, HDL kolesterol ve Trigliserid düzeyleri lipid metabolizma parametreleri incelenmiştir. Alınan sonuçlara göre dislipidemik bulgulara sahip 13 bireylerin 8 haftalık çalışma sonucunda serum lipid profillerindeki değişimlerine bakıldığında , istatiksel açıdan TK %5.71 düşüşle anlamlı (p<0,018), LDL-K %5,31 düşüşle anlamlı ( P<0,021) , HDL-K %8.58 düşüşle anlamlı ( p<0,035 ) ve TG %17,21 artışla (P<0,926) anlamsız olarak sonuçlar bulunmuştur. Normal bulgulara sahip 10 bireylerin 8 haftalık çalışma sonucunda serum lipid profillerindeki değişimlerine bakıldığında istatiksel açıdan TK %5.33 düşüşle anlamsız (p<0,302), LDL-K %2.67 düşüşle anlamsız ( P<0,831) , HDL-K %12.79 düşüşle anlamlı ( p<0,013 ) ve TG %12,65 artışla (P<0,122) anlamsız olarak bulunmuştur. Sonuç olarak düzenli kefir tüketiminin dislipidemik bulgulara sahip bireylerde kan lipid profillerinden Total Kolesterol ve LDL kolesterolü düşürmede kadın ve erkek bireyler üzerine etkili olduğu sonucuna varılırken, Normal bireylerde bu etki görülmemiştir.
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Capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), a well-known vanilloid, which is the main spicy component in chili peppers, showing several biological activities and the potential applications range from food flavorings to therapeutics. Traditional extraction of capsaicin by organic solvents was time-consuming, some new methods such as aqueous two-phase method and ionic liquid extraction method have been developed. During past few decades, an ample variety of biological effects of capsaicin have been evaluated. Capsaicin can be used in biofilms and antifouling coatings due to its antimicrobial activity, allowing it has a promising application in food packaging, food preservation, marine environment and dental therapy. Capsaicin also play a crucial role in metabolic disorders, including weight loss, pressure lowing and insulin reduction effects. In addition, capsaicin was identified effective on preventing human cancers, such as lung cancer, stomach cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation of tumor cells. Previous research also suggest the positive effects of capsaicin on pain relief and cognitive impairment. Capsaicin, the agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), could selectively activate TRPV1, inducing Ca2+ influx and related signaling pathways. Recently, gut microbiota was also involved in some diseases therapeutics, but its influence on the effects of capsaicin still need to be deeply studied. In this review, different extraction and purification methods of capsaicin, its biological activities and pharmacological effects were systematically summarized, as well as the possible mechanisms were also deeply discussed. This article will give an updated and better understanding of capsaicin-related biological effects and provide theoretical basis for its further research and applications in human health and manufacture development.
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Peppers are consumed all over the world, have several benefits to human health, such as antioxidant properties that can prevent diseases related to free radicals such as cardiovascular, inflammatory diseases, cancer, among others. This work aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity (AOC) of 36 varieties of peppers through ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging, electroanalytical assays, and to verify the vasorelaxant properties of selected samples. The greater the amount of capsaicin found in the extracts, the higher the AOC the greater the vasorelaxation. Naga had the highest scoring for antioxidant capacity, pout showed the lowest antioxidant capacity, vase pyramid intermediate level, whereas the capsaicin content followed the same trend. Extracts from all pepper varieties studied presented vasorelaxant properties in independent and dependent endothelial pathways.
Chapter
Plants, principally spices and herbs, have been given much more attention because they are considered important for flavoring and coloring foods and their use as condiments. Herbs and spices have been used for generations by humans as food and also to treat ailments since they are full of medicinal and antioxidant properties and contain bioactive compounds like tannins, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, polyphenols, and vitamins, which help in healing diseases. Spices and herbs contain biomolecules that play a crucial role in healthcare and fitness levels. Spices and herbs have been considered as esoteric food adjuncts as they play numerous roles like being coloring agents, flavoring agents, preservatives, food additives, and having uses in the medicinal and pharmaceutical industries.
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Capsiate is a non-pungent analogue of capsaicin. It belongs to the family of capsinoids which are esters of vanillyl alcohol with fatty acids while capsaicin belongs to the family of capsaicinoids that are amides of vanillylamine with a variety of branched-chain fatty acids. While capsaicin is extensively reported for plethora of pharmacological actions, capsiate remains much less explored. Extracted from various species of Capsicum plant, the molecule has also been chemically synthesized via a number of synthetic and enzymatic routes. Based on its action on transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily member 1 receptors, recent research has focused on its potential roles in treatment of obesity, metabolic disorders, cancer, cardiovascular disorders and gastro-intestinal disorders. Its toxicity profile has been reported to be much safe. The molecule, however, faces the challenge of low aqueous solubility and stability. It has been commercialized for its use as a weight loss supplement. However, the therapeutic potential of the compound which is much beyond boosting metabolism remains unexplored hitherto. This comprehensive review summarizes the studies demonstrating the therapeutic potential of capsiate in various pathological conditions. Discussed also are potential future directions for formulation strategies to develop efficient, safe and cost-effective dosage forms of capsiate to explore its role in various disease conditions. The databases investigated include Cochrane library, Medline, Embase, Pubmed and in-house databases. The search terms were "capsiate," "capsinoids," "thermogenesis," and their combinations. The articles were screened for relevance by going through their abstract. All the articles pertaining to physicochemical, physiological, pharmacological and therapeutic effects of capsiate have been included in the manuscript.
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Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are common causes of chronic liver disease that share the range of steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally, hepatocellular carcinoma. They are identified by the dysregulation of disease-specific signalling pathways and unique microRNAs. Capsaicin is an active ingredient of chilli pepper that acts as an agonist of transient receptor potential vanilloid subfamily 1. It seems that the protective role of capsaicin against NAFLD and ALD is linked to its anti-steatotic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-fibrotic effects. Capsaicin-induced inhibiting metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis and increasing bile acids production are also involved in its anti-NAFLD role. This review summarises the different molecular mechanisms underlying the protective role of capsaicin against NAFLD and ALD. More experimental studies are needed to clarify the effects of capsaicin on the expression of genes involved in hepatic lipid metabolism and hepatocytes apoptosis in NAFLD and ALD.
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Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between spicy food intake and serum lipids levels in Chinese rural population. Design Information on spicy food flavor and intake frequency was obtained using a two-item questionnaire survey. Dietary data was collected using a validated thirteen-item food frequency questionnaire. Fasting blood samples were collected and measured for total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were employed to examine the relationship between spicy food and serum lipids levels according to the spicy food flavor and intake frequency, respectively. Setting A cross-sectional study in Henan Province. Participants 38238 participants aged 18–79 years old. Results Spicy flavor and intake frequency were consistently associated with decreased TC and Non-HDL-C levels, but mildly associated with elevated TG levels. Each level increment in spicy flavor was inversely associated with High TC (odds ratio ( OR ): 0.91, 95% confidence interval ( CI ): 0.88-0.93)” and High Non-HDL-C ( OR : 0.88; 95% CI : 0.85-0.91), while positively associated with High TG ( OR : 1.04; 95% CI : 1.01-1.07). Similarly, one day increment in spicy food intake frequency was also inversely associated with High TC ( OR : 0.92, 95% CI : 0.91-0.94)” and High Non-HDL-C ( OR : 0.91; 95% CI : 0.89-0.93), while positively associated with High TG ( OR : 1.04; 95% CI : 1.02-1.06). Conclusions Spicy food intake was mildly associated with increased risk of abnormal TG level, significantly associated with decreased risk of abnormal TC and Non-HDL levels. Spicy food intake may be contribute to the management of lipid levels.
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Addition of capsaicin (CAPS) to the diet has been shown to increase energy expenditure; therefore capsaicin is an interesting target for anti-obesity therapy. We investigated the 24 h effects of CAPS on energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure during 25% negative energy balance. Subjects underwent four 36 h sessions in a respiration chamber for measurements of energy expenditure, substrate oxidation and blood pressure. They received 100% or 75% of their daily energy requirements in the conditions '100%CAPS', '100%Control', '75%CAPS' and '75%Control'. CAPS was given at a dose of 2.56 mg (1.03 g of red chili pepper, 39,050 Scoville heat units (SHU)) with every meal. An induced negative energy balance of 25% was effectively a 20.5% negative energy balance due to adapting mechanisms. Diet-induced thermogenesis (DIT) and resting energy expenditure (REE) at 75%CAPS did not differ from DIT and REE at 100%Control, while at 75%Control these tended to be or were lower than at 100%Control (p = 0.05 and p = 0.02 respectively). Sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) at 75%CAPS did not differ from SMR at 100%CAPS, while SMR at 75%Control was lower than at 100%CAPS (p = 0.04). Fat oxidation at 75%CAPS was higher than at 100%Control (p = 0.03), while with 75%Control it did not differ from 100%Control. Respiratory quotient (RQ) was more decreased at 75%CAPS (p = 0.04) than at 75%Control (p = 0.05) when compared with 100%Control. Blood pressure did not differ between the four conditions. In an effectively 20.5% negative energy balance, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal supports negative energy balance by counteracting the unfavorable negative energy balance effect of decrease in components of energy expenditure. Moreover, consumption of 2.56 mg capsaicin per meal promotes fat oxidation in negative energy balance and does not increase blood pressure significantly. Nederlands Trial Register; registration number NTR2944.
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Energy intake restriction causes a yo-yo effect by decreasing energy expenditure (EE) and decreasing fullness. We investigated the 24-h effect of protein and capsaicin, singly or combined, on fullness and EE during 20% energy intake restriction. The 24 participants (12 male, 12 female; BMI, 25.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); age, 27 ± 4 y; body fat, 25.6 ± 5.7%; 3-factor eating questionnaire, F1: 6 ± 2, F2: 4 ± 2, F3: 3 ± 2) underwent eight 36-h sessions in a respiration chamber. The study had a randomized crossover design with 8 randomly sequenced conditions. The participants were fed 100 or 80% of their daily energy requirements. There were 2 control (C) conditions: 100%C and 80%C; 2 conditions with capsaicin (Caps): 100%Caps and 80%Caps; 2 conditions with elevated protein (P): 100%P and 80%P; and 2 conditions with a mixture of protein and capsaicin (PCaps): 100%PCaps and 80%PCaps. Appetite profile, EE, and substrate oxidation were monitored. Compared with 100%C, the 80%C group had expected negative energy-balance effects with respect to total EE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and fullness, whereas the 80%Caps diet counteracted these effects, and the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets exceeded these effects (P < 0.01). In energy balance and negative energy balance, fat balance was more negative in the 80%Caps, P, and PCaps groups than in the 80%C group (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient values were lower. A negative protein balance was prevented with the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets compared with the 80%C diet. Our results suggest that protein and capsaicin, consumed singly or mixed, counteracted the energy intake restriction effects on fullness and EE. During energy restriction, protein and capsaicin promoted a negative fat balance and protein treatments also prevented a negative protein balance.
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Two studies were conducted to investigate the effects of red pepper (capsaicin) on feeding behaviour and energy intake. In the first study, the effects of dietary red pepper added to high-fat (HF) and high-carbohydrate (HC) meals on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in thirteen Japanese female subjects. After the ingestion of a standardized dinner on the previous evening, the subjects ate an experimental breakfast (1883 kJ) of one of the following four types: (1) HF; (2) HF and red pepper (10 g); (3) HC; (4) HC and red pepper. Ad libitum energy and macronutrient intakes were measured at lunch-time. The HC breakfast significantly reduced the desire to eat and hunger after breakfast. The addition of red pepper to the HC breakfast also significantly decreased the desire to eat and hunger before lunch. Differences in diet composition at breakfast time did not affect energy and macronutrient intakes at lunch-time. However, the addition of red pepper to the breakfast significantly decreased protein and fat intakes at lunch-time. In Study 2, the effects of a red-pepper appetizer on subsequent energy and macronutrient intakes were examined in ten Caucasian male subjects. After ingesting a standardized breakfast, the subjects took an experimental appetizer (644 kJ) at lunch-time of one of the following two types: (1) mixed diet and appetizer; (2) mixed diet and red-pepper (6 g) appetizer. The addition of red pepper to the appetizer significantly reduced the cumulative ad libitum energy and carbohydrate intakes during the rest of the lunch and in the snack served several hours later. Moreover, the power spectral analysis of heart rate revealed that this effect of red pepper was associated with an increase in the ratio sympathetic: parasympathetic nervous system activity. These results indicate that the ingestion of red pepper decreases appetite and subsequent protein and fat intakes in Japanese females and energy intake in Caucasian males. Moreover, this effect might be related to an increase in sympathetic nervous system activity in Caucasian males.
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Air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) may be a valid and practical technique to assess body composition in a clinical setting. This study aimed to assess longitudinal changes in body composition using ADP and to compare it with the deuterium dilution technique. The study was a 6-months dietary intervention, consisting of four phases. The first month, subjects were fed in energy balance (phase I). This was followed by 1 month with an energy intake of 33% of energy requirements (phase II), followed by 2 months at 67% of energy requirements (phase III) and 2 months of ad libitum intake (phase IV). Body composition was assessed using ADP (Bod Pod) and deuterium dilution at baseline and at the end of each phase. The baseline analysis included 111 subjects (88 female). Sixty-one subjects (50 female) completed all measurements and were included in the longitudinal analysis. At baseline, the fat mass (FM) as assessed with the Bod Pod was on average 2.3 ± 4.2 kg (mean ± 2 s.d.) higher than that assessed with deuterium dilution. The difference in FM between techniques increased significantly with increasing FM (R(2)=0.23; P<0.001). Both techniques showed significant changes in FM over time P<0.001). On average, FM as assessed with the Bod Pod was 2.0 kg higher than with deuterium dilution (P<0.001). During phase II, there was a significant interaction between time and method, meaning that the Bod Pod showed a larger decrease in FM than deuterium dilution. The Bod Pod was able to detect all changes in the body composition, but consistently measured a higher FM than deuterium dilution.
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Bioactive ingredients have been shown to reduce appetite and energy intake. The magnitude of these effects might depend on energy balance why it was investigated how capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper as well as green tea and capsaicin affect appetite and energy intake during respectively negative and positive energy balance. 27 subjects were randomized to three weeks of negative and three weeks of positive energy balance during which capsaicin, green tea, CH-19 sweet pepper, capsaicin+green tea or placebo was ingested on ten separate test days while the effects on appetite, energy intake, body weight and heart rate were assessed. CH-19 sweet pepper and a combination of capsaicin and green tea reduced energy intake during positive energy balance. Capsaicin and green tea suppressed hunger and increased satiety more during negative than during positive energy balance. Bioactive ingredients had energy intake reducing effects when used in combinations and in positive energy balance. Energy balance did not affect possible treatment induced energy intake, but did affect appetite by supporting negative energy balance. Bioactive ingredients may therefore be helpful in reducing energy intake and might support weight loss periods by relatively sustaining satiety and suppressing hunger.
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Addition of capsaicin to the diet has been shown to increase satiety and thermogenesis. The effects of capsaicin on ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), in relation to changes in hunger and satiety are unknown. To test the acute effects of a lunch containing capsaicin on gut derived hormones (GLP-1, ghrelin, and PYY), energy expenditure (EE), substrate oxidation and satiety at lunch in the postprandial state. Thirty subjects (age: 31 +/- 14 years, BMI: 23.8 +/- 2.8 kg/m(2)) were studied twice in a crossover design. After 30 min resting on a bed, resting metabolic rate was measured by a ventilated hood system. Subsequently lunch (35% of daily energy intake) was served. The two lunch conditions were: (1) lunch without capsaicin and (2) lunch with capsaicin (CAPS). The macronutrient composition (energy percentage) of the lunches was 60% carbohydrates, 10% protein and 30% fat. During 3 h after the lunch diet-induced thermogenesis was measured. Furthermore, anchored 100 mm visual analogue scales on the appetite profile were collected (t = 0, 30, 60, 120, 150, 180 and 240) and blood samples were taken for analysis of GLP-1, PYY, and ghrelin concentrations (t = 0, 45, 60, 120, and 180). Satiety and EE were not different after CAPS lunch as compared to the control lunch. Fifteen minutes after lunch CAPS lunch increased GLP-1 (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease ghrelin (p = 0.07) as compared to the control lunch. PYY responses were not different between the CAPS lunch and the control lunch. An acute lunch containing capsaicin had no effect on satiety, EE, and PYY, but increased GLP-1 and tended to decrease ghrelin.
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Deuterium dilution for the measurement of total body water (TBW) has been conducted using varying protocols for equilibration. We measured TBW from deuterium dilution in urine samples in twenty-eight subjects using three protocols: (1) early morning dosage without breakfast, measuring deuterium in a second voiding at 4 h and 6 h; (2) early morning dosage with breakfast with the same measurement times; (3) dosage as last consumption before overnight sleep, measuring deuterium in a second voiding at 10 h. Results were compared with TBW estimates from underwater weighing (UWW). Because UWW is an indirect measure of TBW, it is used as an independent reference method in order to compare only relative discrepancies between the two methods. TBW values in the fasted state were not significantly different from those obtained in the fed state. The urinary deuterium enrichment was higher at 4 h than at 6 h (resulting TBW differences: 0.6 (SD 0.4) l). At 4 h and 6 h, differences in TBW measurements from deuterium and densitometry were positively related to the amount of TBW, indicating incomplete equilibration in larger water compartments. At 10 h no such relationship existed, indicating complete mixing of deuterium. It is concluded that 10 h equilibration is preferable to the shorter 4 h and 6 h, for the determination of TBW.
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To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days. On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 4.5 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions. 55 healthy men (age 25.6+/-0.6 y, BMI 22.6+/-0.3 kg¿m2). VAS were used to record hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, desire to eat something fatty, salty, sweet or savoury, and palatability of the meals. Subsequently an ad libitum lunch was served and energy intake was recorded. Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) of fasting, mean 4.5 h and peak/nadir values. CRs (range 20-61 mm) were larger for fasting and peak/nadir values compared with mean 4.5 h values. No parameter seemed to be improved by diet standardization. Using a paired design and a study power of 0.8, a difference of 10 mm on fasting and 5 mm on mean 4.5 h ratings can be detected with 18 subjects. When using desires to eat specific types of food or an unpaired design, more subjects are needed due to considerable variation. The best correlations of validity were found between 4.5 h mean VAS of the appetite parameters and subsequent energy intake (r=+/-0.50-0.53, P<0.001). VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization. However, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power. International Journal of Obesity (2000)24, 38-48
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The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of weight loss on appetite as measured by visual analog scale (VAS). Seventeen subjects (10 men and seven women) took part in a 15 week weight loss program which consisted of drug therapy (fenfluramine 60 mg/day) or placebo coupled to an energy restriction (-2930 kJ/day; phase 1) followed by an 18 week low-fat diet-exercise follow-up (phase 2). Subjects were given a standardized breakfast before and after phase 1 as well as after phase 2. Individuals were asked to fill out VAS before and at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 min after this test meal. Blood samples were drawn before the meal and at 0, 30 and 60 min postprandially and analyzed for glucose and insulin. Fasting plasma cortisol and leptin were also determined. An increase in the fasting desire to eat, hunger and prospective food consumption (PFC) was observed after phase 1 and to an even greater extent after phase 2 in both men and women. In the fasting state, positive correlations were observed between changes in the desire to eat (r=0.76; P<0.05) as well as changes of PFC (r=0. 82; P<0.05) and changes in cortisol at the end of phase 1 for women. In response to phase 1, statistically significant correlations were found between changes of hunger (r=0.64; P<0.05) and desire to eat (r=0.67; P<0.05) as measured by AUC in response to the meal and changes of fasting plasma cortisol in men. The most consistent predictor of changes of baseline desire to eat (r=0.68 P<0.05), fullness (r=-0.78, P<0.05) and PFC (r=0.91, P<0.01) during phase 2 was the change in fasting cortisol in men. Changes of fullness were also associated with changes of fasting leptin in men (r=0.68; P<0. 05) during phase 2. These results suggest that weight loss is accompanied by an increase of baseline appetite in both men and women and that the most consistent predictor of these changes in appetite seems to be changes in fasting plasma cortisol.
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The effects of red pepper and caffeine ingestion on energy and macronutrient balances were examined in eight Caucasian male subjects. All subjects participated in two randomly assigned conditions: control and experimental (red pepper and caffeine). After ingesting a standardized breakfast, subjects ate three meals ad libitum (lunch, dinner and breakfast) and snacks which were served approximately 2 h after the lunch and dinner over a 24 h period. Two appetizers with or without 3 g red pepper) were given before lunch and dinner, and a drink (decaffeinated coffee with or without 200 mg caffeine) was served at all meals and snacks except for the after-dinner snack. It is also important to note that on the experimental day, 8.6 and 7.2 g red pepper were also added to lunch and dinner respectively. Red pepper and caffeine consumption significantly reduced the cumulative ad libitum energy intake and increased energy expenditure. The mean difference in energy balance between both conditions was 4000 kJ/d. Moreover, the power spectral analysis of heart rate suggested that this effect of red pepper was associated with an increase in sympathetic:parasympathetic nervous system activity ratio. These results indicate that the consumption of red pepper and caffeine can induce a considerable change in energy balance when individuals are given free access to foods.
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Previous studies suggest consumption of red pepper (RP) promotes negative energy balance. However, the RP dose provided in these studies (up to 10 g/meal) usually exceeded the amount preferred by the general population in the United States (mean=~1 g/meal). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of hedonically acceptable RP doses served at a single meal in healthy, lean individuals on thermogenesis and appetite. Twenty-five men and women (aged 23.0 ± 0.5 years, BMI 22.6 ± 0.3 kg/m(2), 13 spicy food users and 12 non-users) participated in a randomized crossover trial during which they consumed a standardized quantity (1 g); their preferred quantity (regular spicy food users 1.8 ± 0.3 g/meal, non-users 0.3 ± 0.1 g/meal); or no RP. Energy expenditure, core body and skin temperature, and appetite were measured. Postprandial energy expenditure and core body temperature were greater, and skin temperature was lower, after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP. Respiratory quotient was lower after the preferred RP dose was ingested orally, compared to in capsule form. These findings suggest that RP's effects on energy balance stem from a combination of metabolic and sensory inputs, and that oral exposure is necessary to achieve RP's maximum benefits. Energy intake was lower after test loads with 1 g RP than no RP in non-users, but not in users. Preoccupation with food, and the desire to consume fatty, salty, and sweet foods were decreased more (or tended to be decreased more) in non-users than users after a 1 g RP test load, but did not vary after a test load with no RP. This suggests that individuals may become desensitized to the effects of RP with long-term spicy food intake.
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Many dietary factors or substances exert effects on the three components of energy balance, and one strategy for tackling weight gain could be to use the inherent properties of these substances. Here, we will review the evidence regarding nutritional factors with a potential impact on energy balance, such as wholegrain foods, dietary fiber and protein content, calcium, and certain spices. There is ample evidence to suggest that dietary protein, wholegrain, and fiber promote satiety and either reduce energy absorption or stimulate energy expenditure. Dietary calcium reduces fat absorption, and a sufficient intake may also prevent excessive hunger during weight loss diets. Chili and mustard have beneficial effects on energy balance, although the quantitative importance of this may be modest. Manipulation of diet composition with an aim to prevent weight gain and weight regain is a promising avenue of research.
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Capsaicin enhances adrenal medullary catecholamine secretion. The participation of the central nervous system on this enhancement by capsaicin was investigated in alpha-chloralose-urethan- or halothane-anesthetized rats. Intravenous administration of capsaicin caused a rapid and marked increase in adrenal sympathetic nerve activity. The nerve activity began to show an increase with the administration of capsaicin at a dosage of 20 micrograms/kg and significantly increased with a dosage of 200 micrograms/kg, i.e., capsaicin was found to cause a dose-dependent increase in adrenal nerve activity. Cholinergic blocking with hexamethonium bromide and atropine sulfate (1 and 5 mg/kg iv, respectively) attenuated the adrenal epinephrine secretion caused by capsaicin. The direct action of capsaicin on adrenal catecholamine secretion was examined using a retrograde perfusion system of left adrenal gland. Up to 8.2 X 10(-5) M capsaicin did not enhance catecholamine secretion from the adrenal gland. These results suggest that the enhancement of physiological catecholamine secretion by capsaicin is mainly through activation of the central nervous system.
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Adrenaline (A) produces a strong anorexic effect, possibly by acting on hepatic receptors (nerve endings on hepatocytes). To study whether this is mediated by alpha- or beta-adrenergic mechanisms, or both, the anorexigenic effects of intraperitoneal injections of A, noradrenaline (NA) and isoproterenol (I) were studied under four different experimental conditions: (I) at the beginning of the dark period in rats fed ad libitum, or (II) on a 24 h-feeding/24 h-fasting schedule; (III) during the light period, under the same feeding schedule; (IV) after an acute 24 h fast. In condition I, the three catecholamines produced a marked decrease in feeding, slightly larger for A. In condition II (dark), they elicited a decrease in food intake about double that in condition III (light), their relative potencies also differed: A greater than I greater than NA in II and A greater than I = NA in III. In IV, the same relative potencies were obtained as in III. A mixture of half-doses of NA and I had the same effect in III and IV as either NA or I alone, suggesting that the alpha and beta effects are additive. However, even a mixture of the full doses of NA and I was not as effective as A in condition IV. This suggests that A is more potent than NA or I at stimulating hepatic adrenergic receptors that cannot be classified as either alpha or beta.
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Using a direct monitoring system for catecholamine (CA) secretion into the adrenal vein, we have demonstrated that capsaicin (CAP) evokes CA secretion from the adrenal medulla of pentobarbital-anesthetized rats. A significant increase in epinephrine (E) secretion was seen in rats infused with CAP (200 micrograms/kg, i.v.) without a detectable lag after the infusion. Norepinephrine (NE) secretion evoked by CAP was fairly weak compared with E secretion. The secretion of E evoked by CAP was dose-amount dependent. The stimulation of E release by CAP was barely detectable at 20 micrograms/kg, half-maximal at 100 micrograms/kg, and maximal at 600 micrograms/kg. When CAP (200 micrograms/kg) was infused into rats, the weight-ratio of E to NE was significantly higher (47.6) than when acetylcholine (12.5 micrograms/kg) was infused (13.0). These results indicate that CAP can evoke CA secretion from the adrenal medulla of rats.
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This study examined the metabolic effects of weight cycling, i.e., repeated periods of weight loss followed by regain. There were three groups of adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats: (1) Chow Controls (a normal weight control group fed chow throughout); (2) Obese Controls (animals fed a high-fat diet throughout); and (3) Obese Cycling (obese animals cycled through two bouts of caloric restriction and refeeding). The cycled animals showed significant increases in food efficiency (weight gain/kcal food intake) in the second restriction and refeeding periods compared to the first, i.e., weight loss occurred at half the rate and regain at three times the rate in the second cycle. Several physiological changes were associated with this cycling effect. At the end of the experiment, cycled animals had a four-fold increase in food efficiency compared to obese animals of the same weight who had not cycled. These data suggest that frequent dieting may make subsequent weight loss more difficult. The possible metabolic and health consequences of "yo-yo" dieting are discussed.
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This report describes the construction of a questionnaire to measure three dimensions of human eating behavior. The first step was a collation of items from two existing questionnaires that measure the related concepts of 'restrained eating' and 'latent obesity', to which were added items newly written to elucidate these concepts. This version was administered to several populations selected to include persons who exhibited the spectrum from extreme dietary restraint to extreme lack of restraint. The resulting responses were factor analyzed and the resulting factor structure was used to revise the questionnaire. This process was then repeated: administration of the revised questionnaire to groups representing extremes of dietary restraint, factor analysis of the results and questionnaire revision. Three stable factors emerged: (1) 'cognitive restraint of eating', (2) 'disinhibition' and (3) 'hunger'. The new 51-item questionnaire measuring these factors is presented.
Article
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether capsaicin assists weight maintenance by limiting weight regain after weight loss of 5 to 10 %. In this randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study, ninety-one moderately overweight subjects were randomly assigned to an intensive group that underwent all the measurements, and an extensive group that underwent the same measurements except the metabolism measurements. After a 4-week very-low-energy diet (VLED) intervention, a 3-month weight-maintenance period followed. During weight maintenance, subjects were divided into a capsaicin (135 mg capsaicin/d) and a placebo group. Body mass was measured before and after the VLED and after 1, 2 and 3 months of weight maintenance. The mean body-mass loss during the VLED was 6.6 (SD 2.0) kg (7.8 (SD 1.8) % initial body mass), and was not different between the subsequent treatment and placebo group. During weight maintenance, mean % regain during treatment was not significantly different compared with placebo (33.3 (SD 35.7) v. 19.2 (SD 41.8) %, P=0.09). RQ was significantly less increased during weight maintenance in the treatment group compared with placebo (0.04 (SD 0.06) v. 0.07 (SD 0.05), P<0.05), indicating a relatively more sustained fat oxidation. Fat oxidation (g/h) after weight maintenance was higher in the capsaicin group compared with placebo (4.2 (SD 1.1) v. 3.5 (SD 0.9), P<0.05). These results indicate that capsaicin treatment caused sustained fat oxidation during weight maintenance compared with placebo. However, capsaicin treatment has no limiting effect on 3-month weight regain after modest weight loss.
Article
Decreased appetite and increased energy expenditure after oral consumption of red pepper has been shown. The aim of the present study was to assess the relative oral and gastrointestinal contribution to capsaicin-induced satiety and its effects on food intake or macronutrient selection. For 24 subjects (12 men and 12 women; age: 35+/-10 y; BMI: 25.0+/-2.4 kg/m2; range 20-30), 16 h food intake was assessed four times during 2 consecutive days by offering macronutrient-specific buffets and boxes with snacks, in our laboratory restaurant. At 30 min before each meal, 0.9 g red pepper (0.25% capsaicin; 80,000 Scoville Thermal Units) or a placebo was offered in either tomato juice or in two capsules that were swallowed with tomato juice. Hunger and satiety were recorded using Visual Analogue Scales. Average daily energy intake in the placebo condition was 11.5+/-1.0 MJ/d for the men and 9.4+/-0.8 MJ/d for the women. After capsaicin capsules, energy intake was 10.4+/-0.6 and 8.3+/-0.5 MJ/d (P<0.01); after capsaicin in tomato juice, it was 9.9+/-0.7 and 7.9+/-0.5 MJ/d, respectively (compared to placebo: P<0.001; compared to capsaicin in capsules: P<0.05). En % from carbohydrate/protein/fat (C/P/F): changed from 46+/-3/15+/-1/39+/-2 to 52+/-4/15+/-1/33+/-2 en% (P<0.01) in the men, and from 48+/-4/14+/-2/38+/-3 to 42+/-4/14+/-2/32+/-3 en% (P<0.01) in the women, in both capsaicin conditions. Satiety (area under the curve) increased from 689 to 757 mmh in the men and from 712 to 806 mmh in the women, both (P<0.01). Only in the oral exposure condition was the reduction in energy intake and the increase in satiety related to perceived spiciness. In the short term, both oral and gastrointestinal exposure to capsaicin increased satiety and reduced energy and fat intake; the stronger reduction with oral exposure suggests a sensory effect of capsaicin.
Article
Excess bodyweight is the sixth most important risk factor contributing to the overall burden of disease worldwide. 1.1 billion adults and 10% of children are now classified as overweight or obese. Average life expectancy is already diminished; the main adverse consequences are cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and several cancers. The complex pathological processes reflect environmental and genetic interactions, and individuals from disadvantaged communities seem to have greater risks than more affluent individuals partly because of fetal and postnatal imprinting. Obesity, with its array of comorbidities, necessitates careful clinical assessment to identify underlying factors and to allow coherent management. The epidemic reflects progressive secular and age-related decreases in physical activity, together with substantial dietary changes with passive over-consumption of energy despite the neurobiological processes controlling food intake. Effective long-term weight loss depends on permanent changes in dietary quality, energy intake, and activity. Neither the medical management nor the societal preventive challenges are currently being met.
Article
Inter-individual variation in energy expenditure is mainly a function of differences in body size and physical activity. Intra-individually, the energy expenditure associated with physical activity, i.e. muscular contractions to perform body postures and -movements, is the most variable component of total energy expenditure. Determinants of activity associated energy expenditure (AEE), as derived from observational and intervention studies are presented. Twin studies showed that most of the between subject variation in AEE is explained by genetic factors. AEE of subjects in the confined environment of a respiration chamber was on average halve the value as observed in the same subjects in free-living conditions with doubly labeled water. In young adults, non-training activity was not affected by exercise training. However, in elderly subjects, exercise training induced an equivalent compensatory decline in non-training activity. Similarly, AEE was reduced during energy restriction and in patients with chronic disease increasing resting energy expenditure. Studies with exercise training showed the reduction is difficult to overcome.
  • D W Haslam
  • W P James
Haslam, D. W., & James, W. P. (2005). Obesity. Lancet, 366, 1197-1209.
A biometric study of human basal metabolism
  • J A Harris
  • F G Benedict
Harris, J. A., & Benedict, F. G. (1918). A biometric study of human basal metabolism. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 4, 370-373.