Article

Nutritional and antioxidant contributions of Laurus nobilis L. leaves: Would be more suitable a wild or a cultivated sample?

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  • REQUIMTE/LAQV University of Porto
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Abstract

Medicinal and aromatic plants are used since ancient times in folk medicine and traditional food, but also in novel pharmaceutical preparations. The controversy lies in the use of cultivated and/or wild plants presenting both advantages and disadvantages in biological, ecological but also economic terms. Herein, cultivated and wild samples of Laurus nobilis L. were chemically characterized regarding nutritional value, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity (scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and individual phenolic profile of L. nobilis extracts and infusions were evaluated. Data showed that the wild sample gave higher nutritional contribution related to a higher content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols. It also gave better PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Regarding antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds, it was the cultivated sample (mostly the infusion) that showed the highest values. The present study supports the arguments defending the use of wild and cultivated medicinal and aromatic plants as both present very interesting features, whether nutritional or antioxidant, that can be an assessed by their consumption. In vitro culture could be applied to L. nobilis as a production methodology that allows combination of the benefits of wild and cultivated samples.

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... The leaves of this plant have traditionally been used in folk medicine to treat various health conditions, mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders [1]. Due to their beneficial effects, which nowadays can be attributed to various biological activities of leaf extracts and essential oils including antioxidant [2,3], antiinflammatory [4,5], antimicrobial and antifungal [6,7], the chemical composition of Laurus nobilis L. leaves has been studied to a greater extent than that of other plant parts. Laurus nobilis L. leaves comprise the aforementioned essential oils, alkaloids, norisoprenoids, sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, tocopherols and a wide range of polyphenols including different flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and lignans [8]. ...
... Laurus nobilis L. leaves comprise the aforementioned essential oils, alkaloids, norisoprenoids, sugars, polysaccharides, organic acids, tocopherols and a wide range of polyphenols including different flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins and lignans [8]. Polyphenols are a group of compounds that are of particular interest due to their redox properties, as they can act as antioxidant agents [9] and, thus, are largely responsible for the antioxidant activity of Laurus nobilis L. [3,10,11]. Plant material usually contains a wide range of polyphenols, including simple to highly polymerized compounds which can also be conjoined with various other components, making their recovery a challenging process [12]. Establishing an optimal methodology for the isolation of polyphenols is a crucial step for the utilization of their beneficial properties, and various techniques can be applied in order to achieve their effective recovery. ...
... Compound 8 was tentatively assigned as epicatechin due to a precursor ion at m/z 291 and fragment ion at m/z 139. All detected flavan-3-ols have previously been found in Laurus nobilis L. leaves [3,70,72,73]. Catechin and epicatechin were the most abundant with similar concentrations, which is in agreement with results reported by Vallverdu-Queralt et al. (2014) [70]. ...
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Laurus nobilis L. is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves have been known for various health-promoting effects mainly attributed to polyphenols. Microwave- (MAE) and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) are green extraction techniques that enable effective isolation of polyphenols from plant material. Therefore, the aim of this research was to optimize the extraction conditions of MAE (ethanol percentage, temperature, extraction time, microwave power) and UAE (ethanol percentage, extraction time, amplitude) of polyphenols from Laurus nobilis L. leaves and to assess their polyphenolic profile by ultra performance liquid chromatography- tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and antioxidant capacity by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Optimal MAE conditions were 50% ethanol, 80 °C, 10 min and 400 W. Optimal UAE conditions were 70% ethanol, 10 min and 50% amplitude. Spectrophotometric analysis showed the highest total phenolic content in the extracts was obtained by MAE, compared to conventional heat-reflux extraction (CRE) and UAE. The polyphenolic profile of all obtained extracts included 29 compounds, with kaempferol and quercetin glycosides being the most abundant. UPLC-MS/MS showed the highest total phenolic content in the extracts obtained by CRE. ORAC assay showed the highest antioxidant capacity in extracts obtained by CRE, which is in agreement with the polyphenolic profile determined by UPLC-MS/MS.
... Results were expressed as IC 50 , calculated by interpolation from the % AA vs. concentration curve. Gallic acid was used as a control of inhibition of the β-carotene bleaching activity. ...
... Ω-3). The preponderance of these two acids agrees with what was observed in wild L. nobilis leaves [50]. α-Linolenic acid is an essential polyunsaturated acid in the human diet, being described as having anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, neuroprotective and antiobesity effects [51,52]. ...
... The results obtained also show that saturated fatty acids correspond to 68.2% of the total fatty acids, a higher percentage than that of unsaturated acids, which is in opposition to the results obtained by Dias et al. [50] for wild L. nobilis leaves, but in agreement with those obtained by the same research group in cultivated plants. This means that the saturated:unsaturated acid proportion is variable and dependent, not only on the species, but also on other factors, such as being cultivated or wild. ...
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Laurus azorica (Seub.) Franco is an endemic species from the Azores, traditionally used in all the islands as a seasoning in cooking. The studies carried out with this species refer mainly to its essential oils. The study that was developed here allowed, for the first time, to determine the chemical composition and biological activities of the ethanol extract, fractions, and pure compounds from L. azorica. The hexane fraction was analyzed by GC–MS and revealed the presence of 48 compounds, comprising mainly fatty acids, fatty alcohols and terpenes, the family of fatty alcohols identified here for the first time in the genus Laurus. Three sesquiterpene lactones—costunolide, 11,13-dehydrosantonin and reynosin—were isolated for the first time in L. azorica from the same fraction, and structurally characterized using spectroscopic techniques. The compounds identified belong to families known to have relevant medicinal and nutritional properties. Regarding antioxidant activities, the results obtained showed a moderate radical scavenging effect of extracts and fractions, while in the β-carotene bleaching assay, costunolide was shown to be the most active (IC50 = 4.08 ± 0.76 μg/mL), about 3.6 times more active than the standard, gallic acid, which presented IC50 = 14.56 ± 0.13 μg/mL. Although the inhibition of extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes was not detected, the ethanol extract showed good inhibitory activity of tyrosinase, with an IC50 of 12.04 ± 0.23 μg/mL, only 6.6-fold lower than the control kojic acid. The results presented deepen the knowledge about a little studied species, opening new perspectives for the development of value-added applications in the food and cosmeceutical fields.
... Dehydrocostus lactone (22), zaluzanin D (24) and eremanthin (26) were the first lactones isolated from laurel with a guaiane skeleton [38], and santamarine (28) and reynosin (31) the first ones with a eudesmane skeleton [40]. More guainolides (23,25,27) and eudesmanolides (29,30,(32)(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38)(39)(40)(41)(42)(43)(44)(45)(46)(47) were further isolated from both laurel fruits and leaves (Table 1). Lactone spirafolide (48), found in leaves [42,46] and fruits [39], has a rare molecular structure carrying an oxepine ring, and lactone 49 was a new sesquiterpene derivative [50]. ...
... In addition to this group of sesquiterpene lactones, which represent a characteristic group of phytochemicals in L. nobilis, other sesquiterpenoids have been isolated from methanol or chloroform extracts of laurel fruits [38,39] and leaves [41][42][43][44]47,[52][53][54] such as compounds 50-72 ( Figure 4). Eleven of all the sesquiterpenoids found in laurel tree were new natural products (25,27 Norisoprenoids: Twelve C 13 norisoprenoids (73)(74)(75)(76)(77)(78)(79)(80)(81)(82)(83)(84) have been isolated from a methanolic extract of laurel leaves by countercurrent chromatography and further HPLC purification ( Figure 5, Table 1) [47,59]. All of them are megastigmane glucosides, with the exception of 4,5-dihydroblumenol A (77) and blumenol C (82), which are sugar-free terpenoids. ...
... Four tocopherols (, , , and ) have been detected in laurel leaves [27] and seeds [23] (Figure 7). Among them, and -tocopherols are the most abundant in leaves, while -tocopherol is the predominant one in seeds. ...
Article
This review summarizes the chemical composition reported up to date on Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), an evergreen shrub or tree cultivated for its aromatic leaves and ornamental interest. It has been focused on non-volatile phytochemicals such as sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids and proanthocyanidins, among others. Moreover, biological activities of laurel extracts and pure compounds have also been reviewed.
... 6,12 Essential oils extracted from the leaves and fruits of laurel have demonstrated various types of bioactivity, such as antimicrobial, analgesic, anticonvulsant, antiviral, anticholinergic, and insect repellency. 6,13 Most previous EO studies were conducted on laurel leaves and flowers; however, a few studies on laurel fruit EO and fatty acids (FAs) have been carried out [13][14][15][16] (Supplemental Table S1). These studies reported the effects on various factors of laurel fruit EO and FA composition. ...
... The difference to 100% is explained by the content of carbohydrates, organic acids, dyes, minerals, and other compounds not identified in the present work, but their presence has been quoted by other authors. 16 Table 5 shows the amounts of the main biologically active lipids (sterols, phospholipids, and tocopherols) in the lipid fractions from the investigated samples. The FA composition of laurel fruit from both the countries is presented in Table 6. ...
... 24 The previous research has shown that the chemical composition of laurel fruits may be altered by cultivation. Dias et al 16 studied the chemical composition of fruits from wild and cultivated laurel trees and found that the fruits from the cultivated trees had higher lipid fraction and carbohydrate content. In the same study, the content of FAs in the lipid fractions obtained from fruits of the wild and cultivated trees was also different. ...
Article
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Bay laurel ( Laurus nobilis L.) is an evergreen tree. The objective of this study was to determine the chemical composition (polyphenols, essential oil [EO], lipid fraction, cellulose, and protein content) of laurel fruits collected from Greece (Mount Athos) and Georgia (the village of Meria), and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of laurel fruit EOs. The major phenolic acids in the fruits from Greece were p-coumaric acid (free 261.6 µg/g) and vanillic acid (free 253.1 µg/g and conjugated 925.8 µg/g). The major phenolic acids in fruits from Georgia were vanillic acid (free 105.6 µg/g and caffeic acid [conjugated 439.2 µg/g], and syringic acid [conjugated 390.7 µg/g]). The laurel fruit EOs from Greece (1.4% content) and Georgia (1.6%) had distinct composition. Monoterpene hydrocarbons were the dominant group of compounds in the EOs, with 49.7% in the EO from Greece and 68.7% in the EO from Georgia. The major constituents of the fruit EO from Greece were 1,8-cineole (18.2%), α-phellandrene (15.0 %), β-pinene (9.4%), and α -pinene (9.1%), whereas the ones from Georgia were trans-β-ocimene (59.4%) and 1,8-cineole (7.6%). Laurel fruit EO from Greece and Georgia demonstrated low to moderate antimicrobial activity against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms and the dimorphic yeast Candida albicans. The main fatty acids (FAs) in the lipid fractions were oleic, palmitic, and linoleic; there were differences in FA composition between the shells and the seeds of the fruits from the two countries. γ-Тocopherol predominated in the tocopherol fraction of the lipids from fruits shells and seeds from Greece (65.3% and 54.4%, respectively), whereas β-tocopherol predominated in fruits shells and seeds from Georgia (93.7% and 45.6%, respectively). Currently underutilized, the laurel fruits from both Greece and Georgia contain various valuable compounds that may potentially be used for perfumery, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical applications.
... Therefore, L. nobilis leaves have traditionally been used in Mediterranean cuisine [3] for seasoning, as well as in folk medicine along with L. nobilis fruits for treating viral infections, cough, rheumatism, impaired digestion, diarrhea and other health conditions [4]. Numerous scientific studies highlight the antimicrobial [5,6], antifungal [7,8], anticonvulsant [9], antioxidant [10][11][12], anti-inflammatory [13,14], antidiabetic [15][16][17], anticancer [12,18], neuroprotective [19] and anticholinergic [20] activities of L. nobilis leaf extracts and essential oils. These properties offer various application possibilities of L. nobilis extracts in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. ...
... Therefore, L. nobilis leaves have traditionally been used in Mediterranean cuisine [3] for seasoning, as well as in folk medicine along with L. nobilis fruits for treating viral infections, cough, rheumatism, impaired digestion, diarrhea and other health conditions [4]. Numerous scientific studies highlight the antimicrobial [5,6], antifungal [7,8], anticonvulsant [9], antioxidant [10][11][12], anti-inflammatory [13,14], antidiabetic [15][16][17], anticancer [12,18], neuroprotective [19] and anticholinergic [20] activities of L. nobilis leaf extracts and essential oils. These properties offer various application possibilities of L. nobilis extracts in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. ...
... The main constituent out of around 150 identified by GC-MS in the essential oil is usually 1,8-cineol with a content ranging up to 50%, or even 70% [1,22,23]. The leaves also contain a small portion of fixed oils with 25 identified fatty acids with levels of polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids higher than saturated fatty identified fatty acids with levels of polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids higher than saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the levels of omega-3 fatty acids higher than omega-6 fatty acids, which is considered desirable for the human diet [12]. Sesquiterpene lactones also represent a characteristic group of phytochemicals present in L. nobilis leaves. ...
Article
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In recent years, the market demand for products enhanced with ingredients derived from natural products, such as polyphenols, is rapidly increasing. Laurus nobilis L., known as bay, sweet bay, bay laurel, Roman laurel or daphne is an evergreen Mediterranean shrub whose leaves have traditionally been used in cuisines and folk medicine due to their beneficial health effects, which can nowadays be scientifically explained by various biological activities of the leaf extracts. Many of these activities can be attributed to phenolic compounds present in L. nobilis leaves which include flavonoids, phenolic acids, tannins (proanthocyanidins) and lignans. In order to enable efficient industrial utilization of these valuable compounds, it is crucial to establish optimal extraction procedures resulting in the highest yields and quality of the extracts. This paper offers the first systematic review of current literature on the influence of conventional and advanced extraction techniques, including microwave-assisted, ultrasound-assisted, enzyme-assisted, supercritical-CO2 and mechanochemical-assisted extraction on the phenolic content of L. nobilis leaf extracts, allowing more efficient planning of further research and simplifying the steps towards industrial utilization of this plant.
... Additionally, this mixture had a high percentage of R. officinalis; its main phenolic compounds were not the ones described for the aqueous form of this plant (infusions and decoction) [20] or for hydroethanolic extracts [6], namely rosmarinic acid and its derivatives. In the case of the mixture, C. nobile [8] and L. nobilis [21] seemed to have a greater influence on the phenolic composition, with luteolin-O-glucuronide being the major peak detected. Tuberonic acid hexoside (peak 7, [M − H] − at m/z 387) showed fragments at m/z 207, which corresponds to the aglycone after loss of hexose [M−H−162] − , and has been previously described in other plants of the Lamiaceae family [22]. ...
... Finally, ten compounds were tentatively identified in mix 6, with peak 31 ([M − H] − at m/z 447) being tentatively identified as kaempferol-O-hexoside, the major compound in this mix (35 ± 1 mg/g extract). This was an expected result, since the presence of this compound was described in the individual assessment of the phenolic composition of T. mastichina [6], L. nobilis [21], and J. regia [27]. ...
... The antimicrobial capacity of Thymus sp. infusion has often been correlated with the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids [6,21,46]. ...
Article
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Several plants have been used for medicinal applications and have been traditionally consumed as decoctions and infusions. Although some herbs are used alone as a beverage, they are often blended in mixtures to maximize their effects. Herein, the nutritional characterization of six infusions from herbal blends was evaluated using the official methods of analysis (AOAC international). A further characterization of the individual phenolic profile was also performed by HPLC-DAD/ESI-MSn, and finally bioactive potential was determined by evaluating the antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of each blend. The wide variety of plants in each sample led to variability in the results for all analyzed parameters. However, blends containing 15% Laurus nobilis L. and 15% Juglan regia L. in their composition showed higher sugar content and energy contribution; higher concentration of phenolic compounds (phenolic acids and flavonoids); greater antioxidant, cytotoxic, and anti-inflammatory capacity; and also better antimicrobial effects against all the tested bacterial and fungal strains. Further studies will be necessary to evaluate the real synergistic effects that these two species show in the presence of other plants, and to evaluate their potential for application in various food, pharmaceutical, and nutraceutical products as infusion preparations.
... Bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) belongs to Laureacea family, being a native plant from the warm Mediterranean region of Croatia, but also including countries like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal. It is widely used as a spice in cuisine, and in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry (Dias et al., 2014). Many reports have shown the antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bay leaf extracts and its EO in vitro and in vivo (Kaurinovic et al., 2010;Basak and Candan, 2013;Dias et al., 2014). ...
... It is widely used as a spice in cuisine, and in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry (Dias et al., 2014). Many reports have shown the antimicrobial and antioxidative activities of bay leaf extracts and its EO in vitro and in vivo (Kaurinovic et al., 2010;Basak and Candan, 2013;Dias et al., 2014). Addition of bay leaf EO to fresh and dry sausages showed good potential for application by the industry to improve safety and shelf life. ...
... Nassu et al. (2003) added rosemary EO to fermented goat meat sausages and found no difference in pH value nor in TBARS values, but they observed significantly lower water activity values in treatments with EO. The effect of addition of bay leaf EO on TBARS values could be ascribed to the known antioxidative effect of bay leaf EO as stated by many authors (Kaurinovic et al., 2010;Basak and Candan, 2013;Dias et al., 2014). Likewise, antimicrobial effect of bay leaf EO in sausages was also stated (Silveira et al., 2014;García-Díez et al., 2016). ...
Article
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The aim of this paper was to determine basic technological traits and sensory acceptance of dry game sausages with addition of bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.) essential oil. For that purpose, three treatments were established: controlled C, L1 with addition of 0.005% of bay leaf essential oil, and L2 with addition of 0.01% of bay leaf essential oil. Measurement of pH, water activity and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values were performed at the end of production, while after storage for 2 months in vacuum and cold sensory hedonic test on 106 subjects was done. It was found that sausages with added bay leaf essential oil had significantly lower pH values (L1 and L2 treatment), water activity (L1 treatment) and TBARS values (L1 and L2 treatment) compared to control treatment C. Statistical analysis of sensory data revealed that sausages from C treatment were rated with significantly higher acceptability and willingness to buy than L1 and L2 treatments. It was established that sensory traits of sausages from treatment C were liked in 98.61% of consumers, from treatment L1 in 90.93%, while sausages from treatment L2 were liked in 85.71% of consumers. The highest proportion of consumers willing to buy sausages were in treatment C (91.11%), followed by sausages in treatment L1 (84.31%), and the lowest proportion were in treatment L2 (66.67%). Although beneficial impact of addition of bay leaf essential oil on technological traits was found, there was an unfavorable effect on sensory traits and willingness to buy sausages possibly due to the consumers’ existing expectation of sensory characteristics of dry game sausages.
... mg/100 g dm). Similar results were obtained in the study of Dias et al. (2014) [49] where concentration of isoramnethin-3-O-hexoside in cultivated and wild bay leaves ranged from 0.2 to 1.29 mg/g of extract. ...
... mg/100 g dm). Similar results were obtained in the study of Dias et al. (2014) [49] where concentration of isoramnethin-3-O-hexoside in cultivated and wild bay leaves ranged from 0.2 to 1.29 mg/g of extract. ...
... Berries [49] also reported similar concentrations of quercetin-3-glucoside (0.76-4.32 mg/g) and kaemferol-3-O-hexoside (0.76-4.32 mg/g) in bay leaves. The high content of kaempferol-3-rutinoside (30-190.45 ...
Article
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Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (AC) was evaluated in extracts of bay, sage and thyme leaves, myrtle leaves and berries, and sea buckthorn berries obtained by conventional (CE) and advanced extraction techniques [ultrasound-assisted (UAE) and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE)] using 80% acetone (v/v) as extraction solvent. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic content using UPLC/ESI MS2 and AC by ORAC method. Results indicated the variations in the phenolic composition and concentrations among analyzed plant species and applied extraction methods. Flavonoids showed to be the predominant phenolic group represented by flavonols kaemferol-3-O-hexoside (182.58–321.45 mg 100−1 g dm) and quercetin-3-glucoside (253.05–315.67 mg/100 g dm) in bay leaves, by flavonol isorhamnetine-3-O-hexoside (27.76–45.16 mg/100 g dm) in sea buckthorn berries and by flavone luteolin-7-O-glucoside (470.27–781.78 mg/100 g dm) in sage leaves. Among the phenolic acids, hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivates were the predominant phenolic group in thyme leaves and myrtle. Statistical analysis showed that ASE contributed to the highest content of total flavonols, flavones, hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acids as well as AC. CE was more efficient method for the extraction of total flavan-3-ols, while UAE showed the highest efficiency in extraction of total anthocyanins. Analyzed plant extracts proved to be a rich source of various phenolics and results indicated suitable extraction methods for target phenolic compounds characteristic for certain plant species.
... Previous phytochemical investigations revealed that 1,8- cineole, linalool and ␣-terpinyl acetate were the basic components of the essential oil of bay leaves (da Silveira et al., 2014). Epicatechin , procyanidin dimer, procyanidin trimer, flavonol and flavone derivatives were the most prominent phenolic compounds (Diaz et al., 2014). Due to their intriguing biological activities, secondary metabolites from bay leaves are widely applied as a flavouring agent and potential preservative in perfumery, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries (Ertas¸and Alma, 2010). ...
... In contrast, the ABTS +@BULLET scavenging activity appears to be consistent with the high TF found in xylanase-treated samples despite the non significant (p > 0.05) differences with samples treated with cellulase and the ternary enzyme mixture. These results were in accordance with those reported by Pacifico et al. (2013) and Diaz et al. (2014) ...
... For that reason, their chemical composition and biological activities have been more well researched than other plant parts [1]. Laurel leaves, which have shown antioxidant [2], anti-inflammatory [3] and antimicrobial activity [4], comprise essential oils, alkaloids, polysaccharides, sugars, norisoprenoids, tocopherols, organic acids and a variety of polyphenols comprising flavonoids and non-flavonoids (phenolic acids and lignans) whose structure varies in complexity [5]. Polyphenols can be considered largely responsible for the laurel leaf extracts' antioxidant activity [2,6] since they possess redox properties which allow them to act as antioxidant agents [7]. ...
... Laurel leaves, which have shown antioxidant [2], anti-inflammatory [3] and antimicrobial activity [4], comprise essential oils, alkaloids, polysaccharides, sugars, norisoprenoids, tocopherols, organic acids and a variety of polyphenols comprising flavonoids and non-flavonoids (phenolic acids and lignans) whose structure varies in complexity [5]. Polyphenols can be considered largely responsible for the laurel leaf extracts' antioxidant activity [2,6] since they possess redox properties which allow them to act as antioxidant agents [7]. Recovery of these antioxidants is a challenging process since the plant material comprises a variety of polyphenolic structures including simple to complex and highly polymerized polyphenols that often interact with other constituents such as polysaccharides and lipids [8]. ...
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Laurus nobilis L., known as laurel or bay leaf, is a Mediterranean plant which has been long known for exhibiting various health-beneficial effects that can largely be attributed to the polyphenolic content of the leaves. Pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) is a green extraction technique that enables the efficient isolation of polyphenols from different plant materials. Hence, the aim of this research was to determine optimal conditions for PLE (solvent, temperature, number of extraction cycles and static extraction time) of laurel leaf polyphenols and to assess the polyphenolic profile of the optimal extract by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) as well as to evaluate the antioxidant activity determined by FRAP, DPPH and ORAC assays. The optimal PLE conditions were 50% ethanol, 150 °C, one extraction cycle and 5 min static time. The polyphenolic extract obtained at optimal PLE conditions comprised 29 identified compounds, among which flavonols (rutin and quercetin-3-glucoside) were the most abundant. The results of antioxidant activity assays demonstrated that PLE is an efficient green technique for obtaining polyphenol-rich laurel leaf extracts with relatively high antioxidant activity.
... A recent retrospective on L. nobilis chemistry and biological activities of its EO was published by Chahal et al. (2017). In addition, laurel leaf EO has exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities (Bahmanzadegan et al., 2015;Caputo et al., 2017;Dias et al., 2014;El et al., 2014;Fidan et al., 2019). ...
... The main laurel leaf suppliers on the international market are Turkey, Portugal, Spain, and Iran, although native populations are rare and scattered around the Mediterranean, they could potentially be used for development of new varieties. Besides, wild-collected L. nobilis may have better nutritional value than cultivated laurel (Dias et al., 2014). The goal of this study was to compare the chemical composition of the laurel leaves from wild-grown trees found in two different European countries (Greece and Georgia) and assess the antimicrobial activity of their EOs against pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. ...
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Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) is a plant species from Lauraceae family, and is native to the Mediterranean region. The goal of this study was to compare chemical composition of laurel leaves and antibacterial activity of its essential oil (EO) from wild-grown trees in Greece and Georgia. The laurel leaves from the two native habitats had dissimilar concentrations of phenolic acids. Of the conjugated flavonols and flavons, kaempferol (1981.3 μg/g) and apigenin (1433.6 μg/g) were the major representatives in the leaves from Greece, while luteolin (839.1 μg/g) and kaempferol (688.1 μg/g) were the major ones in the leaves from Georgia, respectively. The EO content was 1.42% and 4.54% in the leaves from Greece and Georgia, respectively. The main EO constituents of the Greek laurel plants were 1,8-cineole (30.8%), α-terpinyl acetate (14.9%), α-terpineol (8.0%), sabinene (7.9%), and terpinen-4-ol (6.0%). The main EO constituents of the Georgian laurel plants were 1,8-cineole (29.2%), α-terpinyl acetate (22.6%), sabinene (12.2%), and methyleugenol (8.1%). The EO antimicrobial activities against 20 microorganisms were determined. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, the Enterococcus faecalis strain was the most sensitive, followed by Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538. Among the Candida species, C. albicans ATCC 10231 was the most sensitive to the laurel leaf EOs.
... Afterwards, the mixture was left to stand at room temperature for 5 min, filtered under reduced pressure, frozen, and then lyophilized to obtain a powder dry extract. 14 The extract was further dissolved in water at a concentration of 20 mg/mL, based on the phenolic compounds concentration in this solution (336 µg/mL) and on the GI 50 value obtained in the in vitro studies performed with HeLa cells (88 µg/mL). 11 Taking into account these values, it was decided to give 4x the concentration of the GI 50 value, to guarantee the phenolic compounds concentration. ...
... Thirty-two compounds were detected, from which fourteen were flavan-3-ols (i.e., catechins and proanthocyanidins), fourteen flavonols and four flavones. These compounds were previously described 14 in methanol and infusion extracts obtained from laurel leaves, where (-)-epicatechin was the most abundant compound, as also visualized in the present study. ...
Article
Cancers induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remain a significant public health threat, fueling the study of new therapies. Laurel (Laurus nobilis) compounds and extracts recently showed in vitro activity against HPV-transformed cell lines. This work aims to evaluate the in vivo efficacy and hepatic toxicity of a laurel extract, in a transgenic mouse model of HPV16-induced cancer. The extract was administered in drinking water (20 mg/animal/day) for three consecutive weeks, using four experimental groups (n=10) (group I: HPV16-/- without treatment, group II: treated HPV16-/-, group III: HPV16+/- without treatment and group IV: treated HPV16+/-). Following the treatment period animals were sacrificed and skin samples were used to classify skin lesions histologically. Toxicological parameters included hematological and biochemical blood markers, splenic and hepatic histology and hepatic oxidative stress. The extract did not prevent the progression of HPV16-induced cutaneous lesions in this model. Treated wild-type animals showed mild hepatitis, while transgenic animals suffered weight loss. However, there were no changes concerning hematological, biochemical and hepatic oxidative stress markers.
... Laurus nobilis L. is a large shrub with dark-green smooth leaves (1) belonging to the family of Lauraceae, native to the Mediterranean region countries and southern Europe (2). The leaves of laurul traditionally used as herbal medicine to treat earaches, indigestion, rheumatism, sprains, epilepsy, neuralgia, cough, diseases, viral infections (3), skin diseases, wound healing and widely used for food seasoning (4). Laurus nobilis Lextracts and essential oils have been extensively investigated in terms of antioxidant activity, anticancer activities for various types of cancer, such as liver and leukemia, Antidiuretic, Antifungal, Antimicrobial (4)(5)(6). ...
... The leaves of laurul traditionally used as herbal medicine to treat earaches, indigestion, rheumatism, sprains, epilepsy, neuralgia, cough, diseases, viral infections (3), skin diseases, wound healing and widely used for food seasoning (4). Laurus nobilis Lextracts and essential oils have been extensively investigated in terms of antioxidant activity, anticancer activities for various types of cancer, such as liver and leukemia, Antidiuretic, Antifungal, Antimicrobial (4)(5)(6). The main volatile compounds in laurel herb extract are usually 1,8-cineole, methyl eugenol, α-terpinyl acetate, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, and linalool. ...
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The current study aims to reveal the protective effect of the aqueous extract of Laurus noboilis L. leaves against the toxic effects of aluminum chloride on liver tissue. 36 male albino rats (Wistar) were randomly divided into six groups (n=6) treated for 30 days: Group 1 considered as the control group, Group 2 received Aluminum Chloride 90 mg/kg body weight orally by gavage, Group3: normal rats received aqueous extracts of Lurus Nobilis L. leaf 150 mg/kg body weight, Group 4: normal rats received aqueous extracts of Lurus Nobilis L. leaf 200 mg/kg body weight, Group 5: normal rats received aqueous extracts of Lurus Nobilis L. leaf 150 mg/kg body weight after a period of 4 h following treatment by Aluminum Chloride 90 mg/kg body weight, Group 6: normal rats received aqueous extracts of Laurus nobilis L. 200 mg /kg after a period of 4 h following treatment by Aluminum chloride with 90 mg/kg body weight. All the experimental animals were scarified and sections of the liver were stained with Hematoxylin-Eosin for histological evaluations. Also, the liver enzymes and immune cytokines such as ALP, ALT and AST were measured TNF-α and interleukin-10 (IL-10). The results of the current study showed that treatment with aqueous extract of Lurus Nobilis L. leaves at a dose of 150 and 200 mg/kg body weight orally contributed to reducing the toxic effects of Aluminum Chloride in albino rats by reducing the damage and inflammation in the hepatocytes. The study suggested that the aqueous extract of Lurus Nobilis L. enhances the protective effect against liver toxicity.
... In the past decades, research has shown the potential exploitation of plant products as a source of new bioactive compounds for the production of nutraceuticals, functional foods, and food additives (Gil-Chávez et al., 2013). Leaves, stems and flowers may present distinct biological activities (Dias et al., 2014). Moreover, the study of plants used as infusions and other beverages has gained recent significance in the scientific field, due to its proven constituents with bioactive potentials, well-being advantages and functional ingredients (Farzaneh & Carvalho, 2015). ...
... On the other hand, the n −6/n− 3 ratio is recommended to be low, in order to avoid the prothrombotic and proaggregatory state induced by a high level of n−6 PUFA (Lira, Silva, Figueirêdo, & Bragagnolo, 2014). Thus, for health beneficial effects PUFA/SFA ratios should be higher than 0.45, while n − 6/n − 3 fatty acid ratios should be lower than 4.0 (Dias et al., 2014), as observed in the present study for all studied samples (Table 3). ...
Article
The leaves, stems and whole plant of Ilex paraguariensis (yerba mate) were characterized in terms of their chemical composition and biological activities in order to determine which part of the plant is more interesting to develop bioactive formulations. The yerba mate samples contain at least five free sugars, five organic acids, eighteen fatty acids, one tocopherol, nine hydroxycinnamoyl derivatives and two flavonols. The leaf extract revealed the highest antioxidant activity, correlating with its highest levels of phenolic compounds. By contrast, the stem extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory potential and was also the most potent against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines, probably due to the presence of other phytochemicals. The absence of hepatotoxicity in the extracts was confirmed in porcine liver primary cells. Although the yerba mate extracts have been widely studied, this report shows for the first time the distinct potentialities of each individual part of the plant.
... Aussi, la plante peut être utilisée traditionnellement en phytothérapie [2]. En outre, les feuilles du laurier noble possèdent une activité anti-oxydante [3] et des propriétés spécifiques capables de conserver les aliments [4], les olives [5], les saucisses [6], les poissons [7] et d'améliorer en général la sécurité des produits [8]. Dans l'objectif de contribuer à une meilleure valorisation de cette plante dans la conservation antimicrobienne, dans le domaine médical ou alimentaire dont la recherche a montré que les conservateurs utilisés se sont révélés perturbateurs endocriniens, voire cancérigènes, ce travail a pour but de présenter l'huile essentielle des feuilles du Laurus nobilis L. comme un nouvel agent antimicrobien naturel et efficace. ...
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Ce travail porte sur l'extraction de l'huile essentielle d'une plante spontanée de la flore Marocaine, le Laurus nobilis L., sa caractérisation sur le plan physicochimique et l'étude de son activité microbiologique. La composition de l'huile essentielle extraite par hydrodistillation des feuilles a été analysée par GC / FID. La teneur moyenne en huile essentielle est de 1,7 % par rapport à la matière sèche. Quarante-cinq composés ont été identifiés. L'Eucalyptol (30,52 %) était quantitativement le composé majoritaire. Sur les cinq souches testées (trois bactéries et deux champignons), l'Aromatogramme a montré qu'Escherichia coli et Pseudomonas aeruginosa sont insensibles à la concentration de 10 µL de l'huile essentielle, par ailleurs, cette dernière s'est montrée très active sur les trois souches restantes. Outre, la détermination de la concentration minimale inhibitrice (CMI) et la concentration minimale bactéricides / Fongicides (CMB) ont confirmé, qu'à la concentration de 5 mg / mL, l'huile essentielle du Laurus nobilis L. a une activité bactériostatique sur Staphylococcus aureus, fongistatique sur Aspergillus niger, et fongicide sur Candida albicans. Bien plus, l'huile essentielle du Laurus nobilis L. peut présenter, dans le domaine de la conservation antimicrobienne, des activités biologiques prometteuses et moins risquées que celles des produits de synthèse. Des applications dans l'industrie pharmaceutique et alimentaire sont désormais possibles. Mots-clés : Laurus nobilis L., huile essentielle, activité antimicrobienne, conservateur antimicrobien. Abstract Physicochemical characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. in Morocco This work aims to extract the essential oil of the spontaneous Moroccan flora plant, Laurus nobilis L., the physicochemically characterization and the study of its microbiological activity. The essential composition of the oil is extracted by steam distillation of leaves which was analyzed by GC / FID. The essential average oil content is 1.7 % relative to the dry matter. Forty-five compounds were identified. Quantitatively, the Eucalyptol (30.52 %) was the major compound. Of the five strains tested (three bacteria and two fungi), the Aromatogram showed Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were insensitive to the concentration of 10 µL of the essential oil. The latter was very active on the remaining three strains. Moreover, the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration / Fungicides 350 Afrique SCIENCE 13(1) (2017) 349-359 Kamal OULED TAARABT et al. (CMB) have confirmed that the concentration of 5 mg / mL, the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. bacteriostatic activity Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus Niger on fungistatic and fungicide on Candida albicans. Moreover, the essential oil of Laurus nobilis L. may be taking part in the field of antimicrobial preservation, promising biological activities and less risky than synthetic products. Applications in the pharmaceutical and food industry are now possible.
... 45 Interestingly, tetracosanoic acid (C24:0), better known as lignoceric acid, was detected only in laurel leaves (3.97 ± 0.30%). This compound was also found in L. nobilis leaves also by Dias et al. 46 who reported higher content in cultivated samples compared to wild samples (11.96 ± 0.03% and 5.71 ± 0.31%, respectively). There is still little information on the physiological role of lignoceric acid; a few experimental studies reported an altered content of this metabolite in peroximal disorders, 47 diabetes 48 and cardioembolic stroke. ...
Article
Introduction: Arbutus unedo L. (strawberry tree), Ceratonia siliqua L. (carob), Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. (eucalyptus), Laurus nobilis L. (laurel), Mentha aquatica L. (water mint), Myrtus communis L. (common myrtle), and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary) are aromatic plants from the Mediterranean region whose parts and preparations are used for their nutritional properties and health benefits. Objectives: To evaluate and compare the metabolites profile, total phenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity of plant leaves for their future use. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for metabolomics. Data comparison was performed by chemometrics. Methodology: Polar and apolar extracts were analysed using untargeted GC-MS metabolomics followed by chemometrics (principal component analysis, heatmap correlation and dendrogram) to identify, quantify and compare the major organic compounds in the plants. Additionally, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was used for the laurel polar extract to identify d-gluco-l-glycero-3-octulose whose presence was unclear from the GC-MS data. TPC and antioxidant assays were performed using classical methods (Folin-Ciocalteu, 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)) and correlated to the phytochemical profiles. Results: Forty-three metabolites were identified including amino acids, organic acids, carbohydrates, phenols, polyols, fatty acids, and alkanes. Eight metabolites (d-fructose, d-glucose, d-mannose, gallic acid, quinic acid, myo-inositol, palmitic and stearic acids) were in common between all species. d-Gluco-l-glycero-3-octulose (37.29 ± 1.19%), d-pinitol (31.33 ± 5.12%), and arbutin (1.30 ± 0.44%,) were characteristic compounds of laurel, carob, and strawberry tree, respectively. Carob showed the highest values of TPC and antioxidant activity. Conclusion: GC-MS metabolomics and chemometrics analyses are fast and useful methods to determine and compare the metabolomics profiling of aromatic plants of food and industrial interest.
... Flavon-3-ols (Epicatechin, procyanidin), quercetin, luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, myricetin are the predomi- nant phenolic compounds in bay leaves. ( Dias et al., 2014;Skerget et al., 2005). Antioxidant activity of green tea is dependent on tea polyphenol content, which increases with the tea concentration. ...
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Green tea and bay leaf extracts are natural preservatives for increasing the shelf life of food products. Effects of green tea and bay leaf extract on anchovy marinades were determined by measuring microbiological, sensory, and physical properties. Marinated anchovies were prepared with 4.2% wine vinegar, 9% salt solution and ripened for 24 h at 10°C in a fish processing factory. Green tea extract (1%, 2% w/v), bay leaf extract (0.1%, 0.2 w/v) were added to the marination solution. Following the draining procedure, marinated anchovies were vacuum packaged and stored at 4°C for 240 days. The addition of green tea and bay leaf extract reduced microbial load, TVB-N (total volatile basic nitrogen) level, and TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value. Green tea extract was most effective on lipid peroxidation and yielded a darker color, which is not preferred by customers. Biogenic amines amount in all of the samples were very low due to low acidity level and good manufacturing practices. Plant extracts had no significant effect on biogenic amine accumulation in marinated anchovies.
... The oil is used mainly as a fragrance ingredient in creams, lotions, perfumes, soaps, and detergents; maximum use level reported is 0.2% in perfumes (Leung and Foster 2003). And also, its leaves and essential oil are mainly used for the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and for the treatment of gastrointestinal, flatulence, and eructation problems (Chmit et al. 2014;Dias et al. 2014). Monoterpene hydrocarbons are found in higher concentrations in laurel essential oils; 1,8-cineole, −terpinyl acetate, and terpinene-4-ol are main chemical compounds present in laurel essential oil expressing a great antibacterial, antifungal, and antioxidant activity (Yalçın et al. 2007), while some other important chemicals are α-terpineol, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, and terpin-4-01 (Özcan and Chalchat 2005). ...
Chapter
Medicinal plants have gained the world’s attention due to their application in various ways. Laurel (Laurus nobilis. L) is a very important medicinal plant of the Mediterranean region. Traditionally this plant has been successfully used in medicine, and its essential oil has great importance. Genomics, breeding, and metabolomics of different crops have remained the main focus of researchers, which made this plant to less known to the world. Most of the researchers only worked about the essential oil and its antibacterial and antioxidant activities. However, still almost no work has been done about the breeding aspects of this important plant. The present review offers an overview about the origin, diffusion, genomics, phenomics, breeding, and metabolomics of laurel. This information would be very helpful for the researchers who are interested in the breeding of this plant.
... However, domestication has improved the antioxidant activity of other aromatic and medicinal plants such as sage (Salvia aucheri subsp. Blancoana) (Khiyari et al., 2014), laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) (Dias et al., 2014) and damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd) (Soriano-Melgar et al., 2012). ...
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The objective of this study is to clarify, for the first time in Morocco, the impact of culture on seed yield, growth parameters, yield and antioxidant activity of seed essential oils obtained from wild and cultivated fennel. The cultivation test was installed according to the principles of organic agriculture in a parcel at the oasis of Oukhite South East of Morocco under a completely randomized design with three replications. The agro-morphological characteristics were evaluated during two successive years (2014 and 2015). The results showed that fennel produces more of seed and total dry matter under culture conditions and both are more important in second year. The best performance of seed yield and total dry matter are 20.53 qx/ha and 199.79 qx/ha respectively. Domestication has not improved the yield and the antioxidant activities of fennel seed essential oils. In fact, wild fennel presented an essential oil yield significantly high (3.67%) compared to cultivated fennel (2.13%). For both applied tests DPPH and reducing power, essential oil obtained from wild plant presented the most important antioxidant power (IC50:10.62 ± 0.33 and 29.49 ± 0.52 mg/mL) compared to that extracted from cultivated plant (IC50:13.08 ± 0.34 and 32.30 ± 0.02 mg/mL). However, fennel cultivation is promising. It will permit to achieve interesting seed yields and may be good alternative to safeguard this species as well as to be used as an antioxidant natural source.
... This quantitative method [12,18] is mainly based on the reduction of molybdate (VI) to molybdate (V) in the presence of the extract, as well as the formation of a phosphate product M (V). The aqueous extract is characterized by a total antioxidant activity which is 5 times higher than that of the ethanolic and methanolic extract, whereas the acetate extract showed a lower total antioxidant activity with value 28.6±2.07 ...
Article
Objective: The present study was undertaken to determine antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Laurus nobilis L.Methods: Antioxidant properties were measured using three tests: Free radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reduction of molybdate, and reducing (Fe3+/Fe2+) power. Total phenolic and flavonoid content was measured by Folin–Ciocalteu and rutin reagent, respectively.Results: The results showed that both the ethanol and water extracts had greater antioxidant activity than ethyl acetate. Aqueous extract exhibited a higher DPPH radical scavenging and reducing molybdate 545.83±5.89 mg equivalent to ascorbic acid/g dry extract. The strong antioxidant activity of water extract was probably due to its high content of phenols. Furthermore, ethanol and water extracts showed higher total flavonoid content with the values: 153.33±3.59 and 127.25±2.60 mg equivalent rutin/g dry extract, respectively.Conclusion: Our results suggested a potent and excellent antioxidant activity of L. nobilis L. extracts of Morocco. Further research has to be done to isolate the pure bioactive compound and could be considered as a potential source of biomolecules for pharmaceutical and food industry.
... Aussi, la plante peut être utilisée traditionnellement en phytothérapie [2]. En outre, les feuilles du laurier noble possèdent une activité anti-oxydante [3] et des propriétés spécifiques capables de conserver les aliments [4], les olives [5], les saucisses [6], les poissons [7] et d'améliorer en général la sécurité des produits [8]. Dans l'objectif de contribuer à une meilleure valorisation de cette plante dans la conservation antimicrobienne, dans le domaine médical ou alimentaire dont la recherche a montré que les conservateurs utilisés se sont révélés perturbateurs endocriniens, voire cancérigènes, ce travail a pour but de présenter l'huile essentielle des feuilles du Laurus nobilis L. comme un nouvel agent antimicrobien naturel et efficace. ...
... In another study, ethyl acetate extract and water extract of L. nobilis leaves exhibited an IC50 value of 83.24 μg.mL -1 and 161.83 μg.mL -1 , respectively, using by DPPH • assay [42]. More studies in the literature indicated that leaf extracts of L. nobilis provide significant antioxidant effect [43,44]. Our results are compatible with the literature with respect to antioxidant effect. ...
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In this study, the components of the volatile oil obtained from Laurus nobilis leaves by steam distillation were determined using Agilent 6890 Gas Chromatography (GC) - 5975 Mass Spectrometry (MS). The antioxidant activities of different extracts of L. nobilis leaves were determined by using DPPH•(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging activity, β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching assay and ABTS•+(2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) cation radical decolorization assay. Determination of the total phenolic contents of L. nobilis leaf extracts were performed using the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure and total flavonoid contents were measured using a spectrophotometric assay. According to the GC/MS results, 1,8-cineole (46.16%), alpha-terpinyl acetate (10.62%), alpha-pinene (6.27%), terpinen-4-ol (5.07%) and sabinene (4.99%) were found to be the major compounds in volatile oil. The obtained volatile oil was used to make skin care lotion. Stability tests and organoleptic analyses of final product were performed after 1, 5, 30 and 90 days of production. The highest amounts of total flavonoid content were found to be 5.48 ± 0.65 and 8.60 ± 0.12 μg QEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. The highest amounts of total phenolic compounds were found to be 54.42 ± 0.14 and 25.32 ± 0.10 μg PEs/mg in ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts, respectively. According to the results of ABTS•+, DPPH•and β-carotene linoleic acid assays, ethyl acetate extract was found to be the most active extract (24.98±0.87 μg mL-1, 75.65±0.77 μg mL-1 and 19.32±1.04 μg mL-1)
... LC-ESI-MS / MS data were collected and processed with Analyst 1.6 software. The results are compared with the literature [45][46][47][48][49][50][51] and the possible definitions are given in Table 3. ...
... The extract is distinguished by the presence of antioxidants that help to lower glucose levels. Proteins, free sugars, organic acids, and tocopherols, as well as antioxidant activity, such as scavenging, decreasing strength, lipid peroxidation inhibition, and glucose reduction, are found in L. nobilis (29). Since the high effectiveness of liver enzymes (ALT, AST) in the blood is the best indicator of liver damage, their high levels in the blood can be used to predict inflammatory changes in the liver (6). ...
Article
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This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Laurus Nobilis (Bay leaves) alcoholic extract on glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine, and urea levels; moreover, it was attempted to examine the histological changes induced in the liver and kidney among female albino rats treated with Depakene (Sodium Valproate). The L. nobilis leaves were dried in the shade, and they were then ground in mechanical processing. The resulting substance (250 gm) was processed in 70% ethanol for 24 h using a Soxhlet extractor at 45°C. Before being measured, the extract was concentrated in vacuo and stored in a vacuum desiccator until the elimination of all the solvents. In total, 20 female adult Wistar rats (230-250 g) were bred in the Animal House Lab at the University of Kufa, Faculty of Education for Girls, Kufa, Iraq. These animals were randomly divided into four groups (n=5), housed in a typical laboratory setting, and given a standard diet and water. Each animal received the treatments intraperitoneally for 30 days. The experimental groups were designed as follows: group 1 (the control) was given only physiological saline solution; group 2 received alcoholic extract of L. nobilis leaves at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW; group 3 received Depakene (Sodium Valproate) at a dose of 500 mg/kg BW; and group 4 received alcoholic extract+Depakene at a dose of 150 mg/kg BW and 500 mg/kg BW. The animals were euthanized following anaesthesia 24 h after the last day of the experiment. Heart blood samples were gathered in gel tubes, the serum was then centrifuged for 15 min at 3000 rpm to measure the biochemical parameter levels, which included glucose, HbA1C, ALT, AST, creatinine, and urea. The liver and kidney organs were removed and placed in a 10% formaldehyde solution instantly. Following fixation, they were processed as usual before being embedded in paraffin for histological analysis. Morphological changes were assessed using hematoxylin and eosin staining techniques. The recorded data showed a major drop (P<0.05) in blood glucose and HbA1c levels in group 2 which was given ethanol extract, compared to the other groups. Interestingly, the level of blood glucose and HbA1c levels reduced significantly in group 4, which was given L. nobilis+Depakene, compared to the control and the animals treated with only Depakene. Moreover, the results showed a major rise (P<0.05) in the liver enzyme among the animals treated with Depakene, compared to other groups. On the other hand, the recorded data showed a substantial drop (P<0.05) in creatinine levels in the animals treated with L. nobilis leaves extract (group 2) and group 4, compared to group 3 and the control group, respectively. However, no changes were recorded in the case of urea levels among the groups. Finally, the findings of this study showed that the ethanol extract of L. nobilis leaves was effectively reduced the adverse effects of Depakene. On the other hand, it had a significant effect on the reduction of blood glucose.
... The degree of activity of all the samples tested was also determined qualitatively from observation of the yellow color intensity. It is observed that methanolic extract of Bay leaves displayed the most prominent level of antioxidant activity where it has an intense yellow color compared with the control using vitamin C. Several previous studies assessed the quantitative antioxidant activity of different extracts of Bay leaves by using different models, all of them indicated that Bay leaves extracts provide both In vitro and In vivo antioxidant effect [26][27][28][29][30]. ...
... In particular, apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin were the major flavonoid derivatives along with the related flavan-3-ols. In addition, the plant shows a rich content of free sugars, proteins, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols (Dias et al. 2014). ...
Article
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Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae), commonly known as laurel, is an evergreen and edible tree that possess biological properties positively correlated with human health. It is a very popular plant known since ancient times in traditional medicine and considered a symbol of peace and sign of victory in military and sport competitions. Laurel is used as flavoring agent in kitchen for meat, fish, broths, and vegetables. The plant shows a rich content of metabolites including proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols and exhibit a biological potential with a wide range of bioactivity including antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. This review is aimed to contribute to the knowledge of the plant by providing a critical overview of the botanic characteristics, the traditional uses, the plant chemistry and the biological activities.
... It grows in many warm regions of the world, particularly in Southern Europe and around the Mediterranean Sea area (Chmit et al. 2014). Laurus nobilis presented high levels of nutritional support due to the content of proteins, free sugars, organic acids, PUFA and tocopherols together with antioxidant activity, such as scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition (Dias et al. 2014). Laurus nobilis leaves showed to improve insulin function in in vitro study, whereas in in vivo human-trial exhibited a significant decrease of fasting serum glucose, serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, together with an increase in HDL (high density lipoprotein) cholesterol, after the intake of 1 and 3 g per day (Khan et al. 2009). ...
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Fat-enriched diet is strongly associated with cataract development. Laurus nobilis shows antioxidant activity. Herein we evaluated the effect of Laurus nobilis oral administration on the blood and lenses antioxidant activity in rabbits under fat-enriched-diet. Sixty rabbits divided into 4 groups were used. One group represented the control (N-CTR). The second group (P-CTR) fed a diet supplemented with 2.5% of pig fat; the third group (EXP1) received a diet supplemented with 2.5% of pig fat and 1 g/kg of dried-bay leaves; the fourth group (EXP2) was treated with dried-bay leaves at the rate of 1 g/kg of feed. At baseline and at the end of the study (56 days) the following blood parameters were determined: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), total phenols, superoxide dismutase (SOD), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC(pca)), ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), retinol and alfa-tocopherol. At the end of the follow-up, the eyes were enucleated and the antioxidant profile, such as total antioxidant activity (TAC), TBARS, retinol and alfa-tocopherol of lenses was evaluated. Plasma ROMs and TBARS levels were statistically lower in the groups receiving bay leaves integration. A significant increase of plasma retinol, FRAP and ORAC(pca) levels was found in EXP1 and EXP2 groups, whereas plasma alfa-tocopherol resulted statistically higher only in EXP2 group. Bay leaves supplementation enhanced TAC, retinol and alfa-tocopherol in rabbit lens, particularly in EXP2 group; whereas lenses TBARS levels significantly decreased in both treated groups. These findings demonstrate that Laurus nobilis oral administration exerts a protective effect on the risk of cataract development in rabbits under fat-enriched diet.
... Исследование M. Dias с коллегами ставило своей целью сравнительное изучение образцов культивируемых и дикорастущих листьев лавра по пищевой ценности, некоторых групп природных соединений, в том числе фенольных [57]. Для этого образец сырья (воздушно-сухие листья) от культивируемых растений был куплен в компании Ervital в Каштру-Дайри (Castro Daire) в Португалии. ...
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One of the most famous plants of the laurel family (Lauraceae) is Laurus nobilis L. The aim of the study was to review scientific information on the study of phenolic compounds of wild-growing and cultivated Laurus nobilis L. Materials and methods. The study was performed using information retrieval (PubMed, ScholarGoogle) and library databases (eLibrary, Cyberleninca), as well as ResearchGate application for semantic search. The research methods are analysis and synthesis of the scientific literature data for the period from 2000 up to the present. Results. The data presented in the review show that leaves, fruits, and shoots of Laurus nobilis L. are valuable sources of phenolic compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins. The quantitative content of these groups of substances varies depending on the collecting ground, the source of raw materials (cultivated or wild plants), the time (phase) of their harvesting, the method of drying, extraction from raw materials, etc. Phenolic compounds exhibit a pronounced antioxidant and antiradical activity, have an inhibitory effect on NO production, sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase, on tumour cell lines (HeLa, MCF7, NCI-H460 and HCT15), and are characterised by an antibacterial action against grampositive and gram-negative bacteria. Conclusion. The analysis of the available scientific information showed that the phenolic compounds of Laurus nobilis L. are one of the main groups of the active compounds of this plant. The use of this information is essential for the development of new effective medicines based on the raw materials of Laurus nobilis L.. Keywords: Laurus nobilis L., phenolic compounds, quantification, antioxidant, anticancer activity
... A previous study has established that Laurus nobilis presented high levels of chemical compounds that possess antioxidant activities such as the scavenging activity, reducing lipid peroxidation [15]. In addition, it was found that consumption of dried aqueous extracts of Laurus nobilis improves glucose and insulin metabolism as well as circulating blood lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes [16]. ...
Preprint
Background We investigated whether Laurus nobilis tea consumption affects lipid profile and oxidative stress in healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of serum lipid profile parameters and Catalase, Uric acid, carbonylated proteins and superoxide dismutase levels were measured. Results We found a significant positive correlation between Delta- high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and Delta-Uric Acid (R = 0.396, p = 0.036) as well as Delta-Triglyceride and Delta- carbonylated proteins (R = 0.438, p = 0.020). Also, there was a negative correlation between Delta- Low-density Lipoprotein cholesterol and Delta- superoxide dismutase (R= -0.479, p = 0.009).A significant positive correlation between Delta- Low-density Lipoprotein cholesterol, Delta- triglyceride down and Delta- Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor up (p = 0.017, p = 0.038 respectively).In addition, a statistically significant negative correlation between the mean levels of Delta-Low-density Lipoprotein cholesterol down and of Delta-Low-density Lipoprotein receptor (p = 0.013). A statistically significant negative correlation between the mean concentrations of Delta-Low-density Lipoprotein cholesterol down and of Delta-Low-density Lipoprotein receptor up was observed (p = 0.010). The mean levels of Delta-triglyceride down and Delta-Low-density Lipoprotein receptor showed a significantly negative correlation (p = 0.005). There has been a significant increase in Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor levels over the period of study as it went from 444.54 (±241.03 pg/mL)day 0 to 634.00 (± 290.19 pg/mL)day 11 (p=0.000). Our study showed a significantly negative correlation only between Delta- superoxide dismutase up (superoxide dismutase Day11 - superoxide dismutase Day0) and age (p = 0.03), where Delta is the difference in the level of parameters between day 11 and day 0. Conclusion These findings highlight that the infusion of Laurus nobilis can be added to foods to enhance or regulate Low-density Lipoprotein Receptor activity levels with an elevation of HDL-cholesterol serum concentration concomitant to high antioxidant activity. Trial registration Not applicable
... Bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), an evergreen tree of the Luraceae family, is popular in the culinary and food industries as a spice and as a flavoring agent [21]. Although the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil have already been studied, its activities can vary depending on which extraction method is used as well as areas and conditions where it is grown [22,23]. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of white wormwood and rose-scented geranium essential oils remain to be explored. ...
Article
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Essential oils are natural antimicrobials that have the potential to provide a safer alternative to synthetic antimicrobials currently used in the food industry. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of essential oils from white wormwood, rose-scented geranium and bay laurel against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on fresh produce and to examine consumer acceptability of fresh produce treated with these essential oils. Our results showed that essential oil derived from rose-scented geranium exhibited the most effective antimicrobial activity at the same and similar minimum inhibition concentration levels (0.4%, v/v and 0.4% and 0.5%, v/v) respectively against Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7. All three essential oils showed antioxidant properties, with the highest activity occurring in bay laurel essential oil. In a sensory test, tomatoes, cantaloupe and spinach sprayed with 0.4% rose-scented geranium essential oil received higher scores by panelists. In conclusion, rose-scented geranium essential oil could be developed into a natural antimicrobial to prevent contamination of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh produce, plus this oil would provide additional health benefits due to the antioxidant properties of its residue.
... Laurus nobilis L. (Laureaceae), commonly known as laurel, is a native plant from the Mediterranean region. Most widely used as culinary spice, it is also consumed as infusion to treat some gastrointestinal problems (Dall'Acqua et al., 2009) and has been reported as a rich source of bioactive compounds namely, essential oils and phenolic compounds (Dadalioğlu et al., 2004; Dias et al., 2013). In the present work, methanolic and aqueous extracts of wild and cultivated L. nobilis were studied for their in vitro antitumor (against five different human tumor cell lines) and antimicrobial (antibacterial and antifungal) activities. ...
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... Fennel has also been used in the treatment of diabetes, bronchitis, chronic coughs, kidney stones, besides having have diuretic, stomachic and galactogogue properties [89,[93][94][95]. Laurel leaves and extracts are used to suppress high blood sugar, to fight fungal and bacterial infections, to treat eructation, arthritis, rheumatic pains, skin inflammation, asthma, flatulence and gastrointestinal problems [101,[106][107][108][109]. Infusions of dry bay leaves are used in folk medicine for their stomachic and carminative remedies [99]. ...
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Culinary herbs are herbaceous (leafy) plants that add flavour and colour to all types of meals. There is a wide variety of herbs that are used for culinary purposes worldwide, which are also recognized for their beneficial health effects, and thus have also been used in folk medicine. Besides their nutritional value herbs are rich in many phytochemical components with bioactive effects, thus improving human health. The aim of the present work was to make a general overview of some of these herbs, including their gastronomic usage, their chemical composition in bioactive components and their reported health effects. This work showed that the health effects are very diverse and differ according to the herb in question. However, some of the most frequently citted biological activities include antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antiviral effects.
... L. nobilis are used as antihyperglycaemic herbs, used to treat bacterial and fungal contaminations, to treat eructation, flatulence and gastrointestinal problems. It also exhibits anti-inflammatory, anticonvulsive, antiepileptic and antioxidant properties [44,45]. ...
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been treated with herbs for centuries and many herbs reported to exert antidiabetic activity. Laurus nobilis is an aromatic herb belonging to the Lauraceae family, commonly known as bay. This study aimed to investigate the activity of Laurus nobilis leave extracts on histopathological and biochemical changes in β-cells of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Thirty healthy adult male albino rats were included in the study and divided equally into 5 groups for 4 weeks, control group (C), diabetic group (D), diabetic Laurus nobilis extract group (DLN), Laurus nobilis extract group (LN) and diabetic acarbose (DA) group. The results revealed that the administration of LN to diabetic rats significantly decreased (p < 0.05) blood glucose within 4 weeks of treatment. Additionally, LN also showed protection of liver and kidney functions. The glucose concentration decreased significantly in both diabetic rats treated with L. nobilis and acarbose (p < 0.05), the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) enzyme were insignificantly decreased in both diabetic rats treated with L. nobilis and acarbose (p ˃ 0.05). Outcomes of this study said that leave extracts of L. nobilis has valuable effect on blood glucose level and ameliorative effect on regeneration of pancreatic islets, it also restored the altered liver enzymes, urea, creatine kinase, total protein levels, calcium and ferritin to near normal.
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Vitamins and mineral elements are among the most important phytochemicals due to their important role in the maintenance of human health. Despite these components had already been studied in different plant species, their full characterization in several wild species is still scarce. In addition, the knowledge regarding the in vivo effects of phytochemicals, particularly their bioaccessibility, is still scarce. Accordingly, a membrane dialysis process was used to simulate gastrointestinal conditions in order to assess the potential bioaccessibility of mineral elements in different preparations of Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Laurus nobilis (laurel) and Taraxacum sect. Ruderalia (dandelion). The retention/passage dynamics was evaluated using a cellulose membrane with 34 mm pore. Dandelion showed the highest levels of all studied mineral elements (except zinc) independently of the used formulations (dried plant or infusion), but yarrow was the only species yielding minerals after the dialysis step, either in dried form, or as infusion. In fact, the ability of each evaluated element to cross the dialysis membrane showed significant differences, being also highly dependent on the plant species. Regarding the potential use of these plants as complementary vitamin B9 sources, the detected values were much lower in the infusions, most likely due to the thermolability effect.
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The use of agricultural wastes as biosorbents is gaining importance in bioremediation of heavy metal-polluted water and soils, due to their effectiveness and low cost. This work assesses the Cd, Pb and Cu adsorption capacity of the raw materials used in the production of substrates for mushroom production (Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus ostreatus) and the spent mushroom composted (SMC), based on the functional groups of their organic carbon. The raw materials studied included agricultural wastes (wheat straw, wheat and rice poultry litter, grape pomace) and inorganic substances (gypsum and calcareous sand). Organic carbon from wastes and their composting products were characterized by CP-MAS ¹³C NMR. Langmuir adsorption isotherms of metals were plotted for each raw material, composting step, spent A. bisporus and P. ostreatus substrates and the final SMC. The maximum adsorption capacities of SMC were 40.43, 15.16 and 36.2 mg g⁻¹ for Cd, Pb and Cu, respectively. The composting process modified the adsorption properties of raw materials because of the enhanced adsorption of Cd and Cu and decreased adsorption capacity of Pb. CP-MAS ¹³C NMR and potentiometric titration were used to identify the functional groups of the organic carbon responsible for the metal adsorption. The content of cellulose was correlated with Pb adsorption (p < 0.001), alkyl and carboxyl carbon with Cd adsorption (p < 0.001), and N-alkyl (p < 0.001) and carboxyl (p < 0.010) groups with Cu adsorption. These results are valuable to develop new biosorbents based on agricultural wastes and demonstrate the high potential of SMC to adsorb heavy metals from polluted environments.
Chapter
Laurus nobilis L. is evergreen aromatic shrubs or trees, belongs to Lauraceae family, and is cultivated because of its aromatic leaves and ornamental interest. This chapter first summarized the description and distribution of the plant. Its chemical composition and traditional use were demonstrated in detail. The biological activities of its extracts, fractions, and pure compounds have been highlighted for further studies of the researchers. Besides, its toxicity and allergenicity properties were indicated.Keywords Laurus nobilis Traditional useChemical compositionBiological activities
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Laurus nobilis is an herb that has historically been used not only for cooking by many cultures, but also for its proposed medicinal benefits, including aiding digestion and alleviating nausea. It has been studied for its antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic effects, which may suggest future areas of research for application in medicine. A summary of the potential benefits and safety is presented in this article.
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This study was conducted in order to determine fruit charasteristics of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) populations of Turkey between 2013-2015. Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) populations in flora of Turkey were used in this study. Fruit samples were collected from 100 different locations where spread Mediterranean, Aegean, Blacksea and Marmara Regions. While fresh fruit weight varied from 0.48 to 1.72 g, average fruit weight was found 1.06 g. Fruit samples were collected, dried, oils extracted by soxhlet and oil yields were determined. Oil yields changed between 19.37-35.87% in dried furits. Oils were analyzed by GC/MS and their chemical compounds were identified. 15-16 components were characterized in oils according to samples. Oleic acid, linoleic acid, lauric acid and palmitic acid were determined as the main components in oils and their ratio changed between 24.22-64.81%, 18.49-28.09%, 10.28-33.62% and 10.15-21.25%, respectively in the samples.
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A substantial amount of macro-botanical remains has been recorded at Tel Megiddo since the initiation of the renewed excavations in 1992. We constructed a database with 1,162 identified samples and analysed them diachronically. This dataset enables us to trace environmental trends and human impact on the vegetation in the vicinity of the site during the Bronze and Iron Ages (∼3,500–500 BCE). The earlier periods in the studied sequence are characterised by a higher availability of common natural arboreal elements (oak, conifers and terebinth) and the later periods by a dramatically reduced presence of these elements, with a much stronger occurrence of anthropogenically dependent species (olive), foreign species (cedar of Lebanon, sycamore fig), and less prevalent forest/maquis elements. Our investigation also provides some context for the appearance of both horticultural and rare/special species in the assemblage (almond, walnut, myrtle, laurel, sage). The appearance of prestigious species such as the imported cedar in one sector of the site (Area H) provides botanical support to other finds which rendered this area an elite neighbourhood.
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Laurel tree (Laurus nobilis L.) wood is a byproduct of the pruning of this tree widely cultivated for its aromatic leaves. The phenolic composition of laurel wood has not been reported yet. The aim of this work was to study the phenolic profile of an ethyl acetate extract of laurel wood in order to know its potential as a source of antioxidants and valuable compounds. Three flavan-3-ols, 4 dimeric B-type proanthocyanidins, and 2 trimeric A-type procyanidins were isolated by preparative column chromatography and semi-preparative HPLC, using a fast online post-column radical scavenging detection technique as guidance. All isolated compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic (NMR, IR, UV) and spectrometric (MS) techniques. In addition, 17 minor proanthocyanidins were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC–ESI–MS). The extract was dominated by the presence of cinnamtannin B-1, a bioactive trimeric A-type procyanidin reported as a strong antioxidant of commercial value. According to the chemical composition found, it can be concluded that laurel wood is a renewable source of potential bioactive phenolic compounds.
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Seventy-two mature New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit's bucks were randomly and equally divided into eight groups each of nine bucks to evaluate the impact each of rocket seeds (RS), carrot seeds (CS), or bay laurel leaves (BLL) and their mixtures on semen quality, biochemical components and the physiological response of NZW rabbits bucks during hot summer conditions. The study started in June and lasted for 8 weeks. Eight experimental diets were formulated such that diet (D1) free additives as a control group. Diets 2, 3 and 4 contained 1.0% RS, 1.0% CS and 1.0% BLL, respectively. Diet 5, 6 and 7 contained a mix of 0.5% RS+0.5% CS, 0.5% CS+0.5% BLL and 0.5% RS+0.5% BLL, respectively, while diet 8 contained 0.33% RS+0.33% CS+0.33% BLL. Insignificant effect on buck's body weight, however, feed intake was significantly increased as compared to bucks group given the control diet. Supplementation with RS, CS, BLL, and their mixtures caused significant improvement in ejaculate volume, individual motility, total motile sperm, sperm concentration, live sperm%, total functional sperm fraction, total sperm output, and decreased abnormal sperm%. Seminal plasma initial fructose and globulin increased significantly with RS, CS, BLL, and their mixtures treatments. Seminal plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) appeared reduction significantly with the RS, CS, BLL and their mixtures treatments. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) increased, while, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels significantly decreased in all supplemented groups compared with the control bucks' value. Most of the supplemented groups showed a significant decrease in blood plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, and total lipids, low-density lipoproteins, AST and ALT as compared to the control group. However, blood plasma total protein and albumin were increased in comparison with the control group. Blood plasma TAC significantly increased due to the addition of RS, CS, BLL, and their mixtures as compared to the control group, but MDA levels decreased.
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Natural herbs incorporated novel meat breads were studied for their shelf life analysis. Novel meat breads were formulated by fortifying whole wheat breads with protein (30% spent hen chicken meat), fiber (10% amaranth flour) and were flavored with culinary herbs, 0.5% oregano and 0.5% bay separately. These breads were stored at ambient temperature (27 ± 1 °C) for 9 days. Storage stability was analyzed in terms of various parameters such as pH, aw, oxidation parameters (PV, TBARS, free fatty acids, DPPH), microbiological estimation such as SPC, Coliforms, Yeast and mold count, Color analysis and sensorial profile. The outcome of present study was that the shelf life of novel protein and fiber fortified bread can be increased by incorporation of natural herbs viz. bay and oregano. Bread is a staple food item which is consumed worldwide and its consumption among snack food items ranks highest. Bread is cereal‐based snack product but deficient in good quality protein therefore addition of high quality animal protein would enhance its quality attributes, which is essential for healthy life. The practical implication of the study is that natural herbs (bay and oregano) can be efficiently used to enhance the quality and safety of novel meat breads stored at ambient temperature under aerobic packaging condition.
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Bi2S3 nanoparticles were synthesized by the green chemistry process via Laurus nobilis plant extract as a stabilizing agent. Structure and crystallite size were investigated by X-ray diffraction. The average particle size was explored by transmission electron microscopy. Optical properties were carried out using UV–Visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Electrical properties were performed using complex impedance spectroscopy. The effect of Bi2S3 nanoparticles on the superconducting properties of bismuth-based compound ((Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oδ) was reported. It was found that Bi2S3 nanoparticles exhibit an orthorhombic structure with an average particle size of 30 nm, and a band gap of 1.73 eV. Furthermore, the inclusion of a suitable amount of Bi2S3 nanoparticles into the (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oδ superconducting compound is an efficient route for improving the superconducting performances.
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Aqueous extracts of three aromatic and medicinal plants, viz. lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), laurel (Laurus nobilis) and cotton-lavender (Santolina chamaecyparissus) were tested against the growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lentis. The aqueous extracts concentrations were evaluated from 0.05 to 20 mg/mL. Ultra-High-Performance Liquid ChromatographyQuadrupole Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-QToF-MS) and Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with a Photodiode Array detection (UHPLC-PDA) were used to identify and quantify the major phenolic compounds. Lemongrass extract revealed the best antifungal activity; a concentration of 0.05 mg/mL inhibited 67% of conidial germination and 77% sporulation, 5 mg/mL restrain 70% of mycelial growth and 20 mg/mL stopped almost completely the pathogen. The extracts of laurel and cotton-lavender exhibited a moderate inhibition on conidial germination and mycelial growth even at 20 mg/mL, while laurel extracts inhibited 75% of sporulation at 0.05 mg/mL. Four phenolic acids and 16 flavonoids were identified and quantified in the three aqueous extracts. Luteolin derivatives represent 96% of the phenolic compounds identified in lemongrass while procyanidin and caffeic acid derivatives represent 76% and 96% in laurel and cotton-lavender, respectively. Our investigation demonstrates that lemongrass was an actual source of aqueous extract with a biomolecule content that could effectively be used for the control of lentil Fusarium wilt.
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The aim of this study was to establish the potential effect of Laurus nobilis ethanolic extract on improving insulin sensitivity and protecting liver cells from apoptosis, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress (OS), and inflammation; all of which considered as major alterations occurring during insulin resistance (IR) as well as diabetes onset, in hyperinsulinemic and hyperglycemic-induced HepG2 cell line. Thereby, L. nobilis ethanolic extract has been first chemically characterized using LC-MS/MS technique. Subsequently, HepG2 cells were pre-treated with an optimal concentration of L. nobilis ethanolic extract for 24 h, and then, subjected to 30 mM D-glucose and 500 nM insulin mixture for another 24 h in order to induce hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycaemia (HI/HG) status. Several parameters such as biocompatibility, hepatotoxicity, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial transmembrane potential, dynamics, and metabolism, multicaspase activity, glucose uptake, in addition to genes and proteins expression levels were investigated. The obtained results showed that the bioactive extract of Laurus nobilis increased the number of living cells and their proliferation rate, significantly attenuated apoptosis by modulating pro-apoptotic pathways (p21, p53 and Bax genes), allowed a relative normalization of caspases-activity, and decreased the expression of inflammatory markers including c-Jun, NF-κB and Tlr4 transcripts. L. Nobilis ethanolic extract reduced considerably total intracellular ROS levels in challenged HepG2 cells, and regulated the mitochondrial OXPHOS pathway, demonstrating the potential antioxidant effect of the plant. Ethanolic plant extract increased insulin sensitivity, since an elevated expression of master transcripts responsible for insulin sensitivity including IRS1, IRS2, INSR was found. Taken together, obtained data suggest that L. nobilis ethanolic extract offers new insights in the development of potential antioxidant, insulin sensitizing as well as hepatoprotective drugs.
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The novel coronavirus infection is also called COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). The infection has affected millions of people worldwide and caused morbidity as well mortality in patients with pre-existing chronic conditions such as metabolic, respiratory and cardiovascular disorders. The severity of the disease is mostly seen in people with low immunity and chronic sufferers of respiratory, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. To date, there is no specific treatment available for COVID-19. Precaution and prevention are the most recommended options followed for controlling the spread of infection. Trace elements such as zinc, calcium, iron and magnesium play an important role in boosting the immunity of the host system. These components assist in the development and functioning of lymphocytes, cytokines, free radicals, inflammatory mediators and endothelial functioning. This review summarizes the common dietary supplements that are regularly consumed in Saudi Arabia and are known to contain these vital trace elements. Data available in Google Scholar, NCBI, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science about COVID-19, micronutrients, trace elements and nutritional supplements of Saudi Arabia was collected. By highlighting the traditionally used dietary components containing the essential elements, this review could provide useful knowledge crucial for building immunity in the population.
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The antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and major phenolic compounds of a total of 19 commonly consumed spices in China were systematically investigated. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with photodiode array detector (PDA) was used to identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in the spice extracts. Galangal exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, associated with the highest total phenolic content. Furthermore, galangin was identified as the principal phenolic component and the main contributor to the highest antioxidant capacity of galangal. Spices in the family Rutaceae and Lauraceae possessed very high antioxidant capacity and high levels of phenolics. Generally, chlorogenic acid and rutin were identified as the dominant phenolic compounds in the spice extracts. This study might provide useful information not only for human health, but also for screening new economic natural antioxidants that could be used in foods.
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Bay leaves (BL) (Laurus nobilis L., Family: Lauraceae) are traditionally used orally to treat the symptoms of gastrointestinal problems, such as epigastric bloating, impaired digestion, eructation, and flatulence. In this study, lyophilized extracts (both water and ethanol) of BL were studied for their antioxidant properties. The antioxidant activity, reducing power, free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities were evaluated to determine the total antioxidant capacity of both BL extracts. Both extracts exhibited strong total antioxidant activity in linoleic acid emulsion. Concentrations of 20, 40, and 60 μg ml−1 showed 84.9, 95.7, 96.8, and 94.2, 97.7, and 98.6% inhibition of lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, for water and ethanol extracts, respectively. On the other hand, 60 μg ml−1 of the standard antioxidants butylated hydroxyianisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and α-tocopherol exhibited 96.6, 99.1, and 76.9% inhibition of lipid peroxidation in linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, the both BL extracts had effective reducing power, DPPH⋅ free radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities at 20, 40, and 60 μg ml−1. The total amount of phenolic compounds in each BL extract was determined as gallic acid equivalents.
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Extraction of laurel leaves by using supercritical carbon dioxide was carried out on a supercritical fluid (SF) pilot-scale plant. The extraction pressure and temperature were set to 250bar and 60°C, respectively, using a 4% of ethanol as modifier. The employed apparatus, owing to a two-stage separation, allowed us to obtain two different fractions (F1 and F2), whose antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Two different methods, β-carotene bleaching test and DPPH• free radical–scavenging assay, were carried out to determine the antioxidant activity. Moreover, antimicrobial activity of laurel fractions was tested against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 10145, Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Candida albicans ATCC 60193 and Aspergillus niger ATCC 16404. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal and fungicidal concentration (MBC) were obtained. Both fractions showed a similar antioxidant activity, although it was slightly higher for the fraction recovered in separator 2. However, antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested was only found when fraction 2 was used. Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive microorganism to this fraction, with maximal inhibition zones (25mm) and the lowest MBC values (1.25mg/ml), whereas the least susceptible was the fungi Aspergillus niger. In order to determine the compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity, fraction 2 was analysed by GC–MS; results obtained showed that most of the compounds identified in the supercritical extract have been previously described to show antimicrobial activity; among them, the major compound found in the supercritical extract corresponded to a sesquiterpene lactone of the germacrolide type (6-epi-desacetyllaurenobiolide) previously described in laurel.
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In recent years, there has been increasing interest in finding naturally occurring antioxidants from plants for use in food and medicinal materials to replace synthetic antioxidants since such antioxidants are being restricted due to their side effects like carcinogenicity. The aim of this work was to examine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Laurus nobilis and Emex spinosus leaves and to isolate and structurally elucidate the active compounds in those leaves. The aqueous ethanolic extracts (70%) of Laurus nobilis and Emex spinosus leaves exhibited free radical scavenging action against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Their concentrations of 50% inhibition (IC(50)) were 25.3 and 20.73 μg/mL, respectively. Activity-guided separation of these extracts using a combination of different chromatographic methods (TLC and column chromatography) resulted in the isolation of five chromatographically pure compounds (three from Laurus nobilis and two from Emex spinosus leaves). Spectroscopic methods ((1)H, (13)C-NMR, UV and MS) and chemical methods (detection tests and acidic hydrolysis) revealed the isolated antioxidant compounds to be flavonoid substances that were identified as kaempferol, kaempferol-3-rhamnopyranoside, and kaempferol-3,7-dirhamnopyranoside from Laurus nobilis extract and luteolin and rutin from Emex spinosus extract. The five flavonoids had varying ability to inhibit DPPH radicals (IC(50) from 4 to 35.8 μg/mL). Luteolin and rutin had strong scavenging action with an IC(50) of 4 and 4.6 μg/mL, respectively, and this action was stronger than that of synthetic antioxidant BHA, i.e., butylated hydroxyanisole (IC50 = 5.6 μg/mL).
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Laurus nobilis L. is an aromatic plant frequently used as a spice in Mediterranean cookery and as a traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to characterise the antibacterial and antioxidant activities of bay laurel essential oil (EO), ethanolic extract (EE) and hot/cold aqueous extract (AE). The major components detected in bay laurel EO were eucalyptol (27.2%), α-terpinenyl acetate (10.2%), linalool (8.4%), methyleugenol (5.4%), sabinene (4.0%) and carvacrol (3.2%). The EO exhibited strong antibacterial activity against all tested foodborne spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, whereas this activity was less pronounced or even nonexistent in the EE and AE. In contrast, EO exhibited low antioxidant activity compared to extracts (EX), and among the EX, the hot AE revealed the highest antioxidant ability. The results show that bay laurel EO and its EX have potential as natural alternatives to synthetic food preservatives, in order to enhance food safety and increase food shelf life.
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This study was carried out to determine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil, seed oil, and methanolic extract of seed oil obtained from Laurus nobilis L. (Lauraceae). The methanolic extract of seed oil exhibited more effective antibacterial activity comparing to essential oil and seed oil, GC-MS analyses of the essential oil resulted in the identification of 25 compounds. 1.8-Cineol (44.72%), a-Terpinyl acetate (12.95%), Sabinene (12.82%) were the main components. The fatty acid composition was characterized with the high content of linoleic acid (40.79%) and lauric acid (38.08%). The 50% (IC50) inhibition activity of the essential oil on the free radical DPPH was determined as 94.655 mg ml(-1), whereas IC50 value of methanolic extract of seed oil was found unstable. In the case of the linoleic acid system, oxidation of linoleic acid was inhibited by essential oil and methanolic extract of seed oil, which showed 64.28 and 88.76% inhibition, respectively. The inhibition value of the methanolic extract of seed oil was quite close to the synthetic antioxidant BHT, 92.46% inhibition.
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Laurus nobilis L. (Family Lauraceae) is an evergreen tree widely distributed in the Mediterranean area and Europe. It is used in folk medicine of different countries as a stomachic and carminative as well as in treatment of gastric diseases. Extracts obtained with different methods (methanol and chloroform) from laurel leaves were evaluated for their gastroprotective activities in the rat. The antioxidant capacity of the different extracts has been also measured in vitro. In order to confirm the activities investigated, histological observations were performed. The gastric damage was significantly reduced by all extracts administered. The more effective protection was produced by chloroformic and methanolic crude extracts. The results obtained after oral administration of L. nobilis leaf extracts are in good agreement with their antioxidant capacity, confirming the relationship between pharmacological efficacy and antiradical activity. Histological evidences confirm the results evaluated with the animal procedures.
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The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant activities of different extracts of laurel leaves were studied. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated measuring the scavenging activity on the DPPH, NO, O(2)(.-) and OH radicals. The effects on lipid peroxidation (LP) were also evaluated. Experimental results indicate that ethyl acetate extract of leaves has exhibited the largest RSC capacity in neutralization of DPPH, NO, O(2)(.-) and OH radicals. The same result was obtained in investigation of extracts impact on LP. The in vivo effects were evaluated on some antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, LPx, Px, CAT and XOD, and GSH content) in the mice liver and blood-hemolysate after treatment with the examined laurel extracts, or in combination with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts exhibited a certain protective effect, which is more pronounced on the liver than on blood-hemolysate parameters. The results obtained indicate toxicity of CCl(4), probably due to the radicals involved in its metabolism. Combined treatments with CCl(4) and the examined extracts showed both positive and negative synergism. Based on the experimental results, the strongest protective effect was shown by the EtOAc extract.
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Laurus nobilis L. (laurel) leaves are frequently used as a spice for cooking purposes. Folk medicine in many countries uses the infusion of the plant in stomachic and carminative remedies, as well as for the treatment of gastric diseases. Little information is available about the phytochemical composition of the infusion of dried leaves, which is a way to consume this aromatic and medicinal plant. Phytochemical investigations on the infusion were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a diode array detector (DAD) and direct electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Several flavonoid derivatives were detected. Semipreparative HPLC from the infusion of laurel leaves isolated 10 flavonoid O-glycosides, one flavonoid C-glycoside, catechin, and cinnamtannin B1. Structures of the isolated compounds were computed on the basis of spectral measurements including high-resolution mass spectrometry spectroscopy and one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance techniques. The amount of the flavonoids was also determined by HPLC-DAD. The antioxidant activity of the tea and the isolated compounds was also measured using two different in vitro methods: the Briggs-Rauscher oscillating reaction test, at a pH similar to that of the gastric juice, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay, at the pH of blood. For the infusion and the methanol extract the total phenolic content was also measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent.
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Essential oil, ethanolic extract and decoction of 10 plant species from interior Portugal were analyzed for their activity towards acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme and their antioxidant activity. Of these, Melissa officinalis, Paronychia argentea, Sanguisorba minor, Hypericum undulatum and Malva silvestris are used in herbal medicine, Laurus nobilis and Mentha suaveolens as condiments, and Salvia officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia and Lavandula pedunculata also as aromatics. Melissa officinalis and Mentha suaveolens showed AChE inhibitory capacity higher then 50% in the essential oil fraction. Laurus nobilis, Hypericum undulatum, and Sanguisorba minor showed a high inhibition value of AChE in the ethanolic fraction, 64% (1 mg ml(-1)) 68% (0.5 mg ml(-1)), and 78% (1 mg ml(-1)), respectively. Higher values of AChE inhibitory activity were found using decoctions of Lavandula pedunculata, Mentha suaveolens and Hypericum undulatum, 68, 69 and 82% (at a concentration of 5mg dry plant ml(-1) of assay), respectively. The free radical scavenger activity was higher for the polar extracts. In the water extracts most of the plants showed values around 90%. When antioxidant activity was measured with the beta-carotene-linoleic acid assay high activity (65-95%) was also found in the water extracts. Hypericum undulatum, Melissa officinalis and Laurus nobilis showed both high AChE inhibitory capacity and antioxidant activity.
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The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of wild and cultivated Laurus nobilis leaves and Foeniculum vulgare subsp. piperitum seeds were determined. Differences were found in the total phenolic content of fennel. GC-MS analysis of the non polar fractions showed a different composition between wild and cultivated plants. Cultivated laurel had a high content of terpenes such as linool, alpha-terpinol, alpha-terpinyl acetate, thymol, caryophyllene, aromandrene, selinene, farnesene, and cadinene, while wild laurel had a high content of eugenol and methyl eugenol, vitamin E, and sterols. The antioxidant potential of the extracts was determined using three complementary methods. Wild plants showed greater radical scavenging activity than the cultivated plants. The extracts also exhibited a significant antioxidant capacity also in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid test system. A high level of antioxidant activity was observed in wild laurel (IC50 = 1 microg/ml). Significant antioxidant activity measured in bovine brain was observed in wild laurel.
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Many studies have been conducted with regard to free radicals, oxidative stress and antioxidant activity of food, giving antioxidants a prominent beneficial role, but, recently many authors have questioned their importance, whilst trying to understand the mechanisms behind oxidative stress. Many scientists defend that regardless of the quantity of ingested antioxidants, the absorption is very limited, and that in some cases prooxidants are beneficial to human health. The detection of antioxidant activity as well as specific antioxidant compounds can be carried out with a large number of different assays, all of them with advantages and disadvantages. The controversy around antioxidant in vivo benefits has become intense in the past few decades and the present review tries to shed some light on research on antioxidants (natural and synthetic) and prooxidants, showing the potential benefits and adverse effects of these opposing events, as well as their mechanisms of action and detection methodologies. It also identifies the limitations of antioxidants and provides a perspective on the likely future trends in this field.
Article
Analysis of organic acids has become increasingly important due to their role in the physiological activity of plants, and many separation methods have been developed for the simultaneous determination of these compounds in plant samples. Herein, ultra fast liquid chromatography and photodiode array detection (UFLC-PDA) was applied to the analysis of organic acids in young shoots, leaves, aerial parts and flowering shoots, as well as in flowers and fruits, of 35 plant species, according to their traditional use. The studied plants were divided in three groups: traditionally cultivated food plants, wild edible plants and wild medicinal plants. Most of the species were characterized for the first time. Among all the analysed species, Rumex acetosella leaves and aerial parts revealed the highest content of total organic acids. Overall, the organic acids found in the studied plant species make them suitable to be used as food additives such as antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid) or acidulants (e.g. citric and malic acids).
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Crataegus monogyna has been extensively studied due to its various alleged health benefits. This study aimed to determine the human tumor cells growth inhibitory activity of phenolic extracts of its flower buds and fruits in three phenological stages, and further characterize the extracts by HPLC–DAD–ESI/MS. Flower bud extract showed the highest antiproliferative activity as indicated by the lowest GI50 values obtained in all the tested cell lines: MCF-7, breast adenocarcinoma; NCI-H460, non-small cell lung cancer; HeLa, cervical carcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, porcine liver primary cell culture (PLP2) was used to evaluate toxicity to non-tumor cells. Flavonoids, particularly flavonols and flavones (higher in flower buds) and proanthocyanidins (higher in unripe fruits) were the main classes in the studied samples. Phenolic acids (mainly hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were also detected in significant amounts, especially in flower bud extract. Regarding anthocyanins, over ripened fruits gave the highest content. The higher bioactivity observed in flower buds might be related with its higher content in phenolic compounds.
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Medicinal plants used in folk medicine are being increasingly studied and used on pharmaceutical, food and nutraceutical fields. Herein, wild and commercial samples of Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) were chemically characterized with respect to their macronutrients, free sugars, organic acids, fatty acids and tocopherols. Furthermore, in vitro antioxidant properties (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and antitumour potential (against breast, lung, cervical and hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines) of their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction (the most consumed forms) was evaluated and compared to the corresponding phenolic profile obtained by high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Data obtained showed that the chemical profiles of wild and commercial samples, and also their methanolic extract, infusion and decoction were similar, varying only in the quantities found. Commercial yarrow have higher content of fat and saturated fatty acids, proteins, ash, energy value, sugars and flavonoids, while the wild sample revealed higher levels of carbohydrates, organic acids, unsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols and phenolic acids. The heterogeneity among the antioxidant and antitumour results of the samples and some low correlations with total phenolic compounds indicates that specific compounds, rather than the totality of them, are involved in the bioactive properties of samples.
Article
Hexane extracts obtained by percolation from the leaves of nine Mediterranean plants (Daphne oleoides, Myrtus communis, Pelargonium zonale, Phillyrea latifolia, Pistacia terebinthus, Quercus pubescens, Rhamnus lucioides, Sideritis syriaca, Smilax aspera) and from five leaf spices (Rosmarinum officinalis, Coridothymus capitatus, Laurus nobilis, Salvia fruticosa, Salvia pomifera) were examined for the presence of tocopherols by thin layer chromatography, gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and combined gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. With the exception of Sideritis syriaca, in all the plants and spices examined α-tocopherol was found to be present. The β- and γ-homologues were detected only in the extracts of Pelargonium zonale and Smilax aspera. Quantitative analysis by HPLC gave values ranging from 250 to 1325 ppm total tocopherols (on a dry leaf basis). These values are higher than those reported for oil seeds (sunflower seed, cottonseed, rapeseed, sesame seed) or other oil sources (peanut, soybean, maize).
Article
Antioxidant properties of extracts prepared from native (non-irradiated) ground caraway (Carum carvi, L.) and bay leaves (Laurus nobilis, L.) samples, as well as from those γ-irradiated by Co60 source at doses from 5 to 30kGy were studied by EPR and UV–VIS spectroscopy, and expressed as Trolox Equivalent. Ferric reducing power, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total phenolic compounds content of each extract were characterised, as well. In addition, character of radicals formed upon the γ-irradiation in solid phase was studied by means of EPR spectroscopy. For the first time, multivariate statistical methods were used for γ-irradiation detection. The experimental data obtained from UV–VIS and EPR, were successfully used in canonical, step-wise and kth-neighbour discriminant analyses for the differentiation and classification of γ-irradiated samples from those of reference. More than 92% predictability of γ-irradiation was achieved by cross-validation tests for both caraway and bay leaves samples, exposed even at low radiation doses.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. Aim of the study: This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. Materials and methods: The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. Results: A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Conclusions: Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L.
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Roman chamomile, Chamaemelum nobile L. (Asteraceae), has been used for medicinal applications, mainly through oral dosage forms (decoctions and infusions). Herein, the nutritional characterisation of C. nobile was performed, and herbal material and its decoction and infusion were submitted to an analysis of phytochemicals and bioactivity evaluation. The antioxidant activity was determined by free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the antitumour potential was tested in human tumour cell lines (breast, lung, colon, cervical and hepatocellular carcinomas), and the hepatotoxicity was evaluated using a porcine liver primary cell culture. C. nobile proved to be an equilibrated valuable herb rich in carbohydrates and proteins, and poor in fat, providing tocopherols, carotenoids and essential fatty acids (C18:2n6 and C18:3n3). Moreover, the herb and its infusion are a source of phenolic compounds (flavonoids such as flavonols and flavones, phenolic acids and derivatives) and organic acids (oxalic, quinic, malic, citric and fumaric acids) that showed antioxidant and antitumour activities, without hepatotoxicity. The most abundant compounds in the plant extract and infusion were 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid and an apigenin derivative. These, as well as other bioactive compounds, are affected in C. nobile decoction, leading to a lower antioxidant potential and absence of antitumour potential. The plant bioactivity could be explored in the medicine, food, and cosmetic industries.
Article
Tocopherol contents of Tunisian Laurus nobilis vegetative organs were screened for antioxidant activity. Tocopherol isomers extracted by probe sonication and micro-scale saponification were analysed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with UV detection to determine the optimum extraction method. Total phenolic, flavonoid and proanthocyanidin contents were determined spectrophotometrically. Significant variations in the amounts of α-, γ- and δ-tocopherols were observed with the two different extraction methods as well as with different plant parts. Leaf extract contained the highest amount of α-tocopherol (139 mg/100 g fresh weight), but root extract contained the highest content of flavonoids (11.12 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/g dry weight or DW), total phenolics (55.45 ± 2.9 mg GAE/g DW) and condensed tannins (9.76 ± 0.1 mg CE/g DW). Acetonic extract of laurel leaf exhibited the highest antioxidant activity response to lipid peroxidation in the β-carotene–linoleic acid system, which may have been due to the high content of α-tocopherol. These findings suggest that laurel leaf may be a source of natural α-tocopherol and that it may be increasingly important for human consumption, as well as for the agro-food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
Article
Broccoli, carrots, and green beans (grown in 2 consecutive years) were randomly divided into 3 treatments: fresh-refrigerated (F-R), frozen (FZ) or canned (C) (carrots only). FZ or C vegetables were processed within 24 h and stored for up to 1 yr. F-R vegetables were held at 4 °C for 3 wk (broccoli and green beans) or 6 mo (carrots). Trans b-carotene (Tb-C) and total ascorbic acid (AA) were determined at specified times, before and after microwave cooking. Vitamin content differed between years due to environmental conditions. Blanching resulted in AA loss, but retention remained stable after freezing broccoli and green beans. F-R green beans lost >90% AA after 16 d storage. Linear decreases in AAwere found in most F-R or FZ vegetables. Tb-C decreased slightly during freezer storage. Reductions in Tb-C occurred in canned carrots. Microwave cooking had minimal effects on AA or Tb-C.
Article
Aqueous-methanol extracts were prepared from basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), bay (Laurus nobilis L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), savory (Satureja hortensis L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) by maceration and their phytochemical and antioxidant characteristics were assessed. Each extract was submitted to an acid treatment (1.2 N HCl in 50% methanol) to determine whether such a process had an effect upon their chemistry and antioxidative efficacy. The treatment appeared to have improved the antioxidant potency of the extracts in general; however, there were some exceptions. The treatment did not increase the Fe(III) reductive activity of the extracts from basil or bay samples nor the ability of the oregano and sage extracts to scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals at pH 7.4. The Folin-Ciocalteu phenol content of the basil extract was not increased with acid treatment.
Article
Methanol extracts prepared from five plant materials native to the Mediterranean area, namely olive tree (Olea europaea) leaf, St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum), hawthorn (Crataegus laevigata), oregano (Origanum vulgare) and laurel leaf (Lauris nobilis), were examined for their phenolic components. Total phenolic content was determined by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. The content of proanthocyanidins in acid-hydrolysed extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The contents of free flavones (apigenin and luteolin) and flavonols (kaempferol, myricetin and quercetin) were determined by HPLC analysis. The time of hydrolysis of flavones, flavonols and proanthocyanidins was optimised.Antioxidant activities of apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and of plant extracts were examined. Antioxidative activities were studied in sunflower oil at 98 °C, by measuring peroxide value, and in an aqueous emulsion system of β-carotene and linoleic acid by measuring the absorbance of the sample. Among flavones and flavonols investigated, only myricetin inhibited oxidation of sunflower oil. All other flavones and flavonols showed pro-oxidative activity. Oppositely, in the emulsion system, only apigenin showed pro-oxidative activity while other flavones and flavonols and plant extracts inhibited oxidation of β-carotene.
Article
The total lipidic content and the distribution of fatty acids in twenty edible wild plants in S.E. Spain was determined by GC. The lipidic content was higher than usual in the common vegetables. The high ratio of the omega 3 series of unsaturated fatty acids relative to the omega 6 series demonstrates the good nutritional qualities of these plants.
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The possible antiulcerogenic activity of Laurus nobilis seeds was tested on experimentally (ethanol) induced gastric ulcer in rats. The results indicated antiulcerogenic activity for 20 and 40% aqueous extracts as well as for the oily fraction of these seeds. In acute toxicity studies, the aqueous extract was found safe with LD50 compared to oil LD50 0.33 ml/kg body weight.