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Le tecnologie assistive

Authors:
  • University of Perugia. Italy

Abstract

L’allungamento della vita media negli ultimi sessant’anni ha prodotto nei paesi occidentali il grande fenomeno dell’invecchiamento della popolazione, che ora avanza anche nei paesi emergenti sullo scenario mondiale. Oggi in Italia siamo al primo esprimersi di una generazione che vive così a lungo: poco meno di due milioni di ultraottantacinquenni, nella maggioranza soli o con un partner, pur affetti da malattie croniche, si trovano in una condizione di discreto compenso funzionale. Il testo presenta dati e conoscenze, raccolti dalle ultime ricerche nel settore, che spaziano dalla demografia all’epidemiologia, dall’espressività clinica delle patologie alla qualità della vita. Gli autori, impegnati per tanti anni nel campo della gerontologia e della geriatria, vogliono portare alla luce le caratteristiche psichiche e fisiche di questa estrema fascia d’età, la peculiarità dei problemi e le risposte possibili.
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In this chapter, the assistive technology assessment (ATA) model has been presented. The ATA model outlines an ideal process that provides reference guidelines for both public and private centers for technical aid provision, allowing them to compare, evaluate, and improve their own matching model. The actions required by the ATA model to centers for technical aid can be divided into four fundamental steps: access to the structure and activation of the process, evaluation and activation of the aid/AT selection, delivery, and follow-up. The ATA is a user-driven process through which the selection of one or more aids/ AT is facilitated by the utilization of comprehensive clinical measures, functional analysis, and psycho-socio-environmental evaluations that address, in a specific context of use, the personal well-being of the user through the best matching of user/client and assistive solution (Scherer et al. Early Online). Because the ATA process and the MPT model and accompanying measures share a user-driven working methodology and embrace the ICF biopsychosocial model, they can be integrated within a path aiming for the best combination of AT to promote user/customer’s personal well-being.
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This chapter focuses on the different contexts in which the assessment of individual functioning and disability for the assignment of assistive technologies is carried out. The theoretical framework constituted by the biopsychosocial model of disability is briefly described followed by a brief summary of the worldwide main classifications, international declarations and definitions of functioning and disability. Moreover, on the one hand some models of assistive technology service delivery are described according to an original classification proposed here for the first time and, on the other hand, some models of rehabilitation are included because of their relevance in the scientific literature. The assessment of Individual Functioning and Disability in the ATA process closes the chapter.
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Chapter
Introduction to ISO 9999 Scope of ISO 9999 Construction of ISO 9999 Coding System of ISO 9999 Other Classification Characteristics of ISO 9999 History of ISO 9999 Main Application Areas of ISO 9999 The Future of ISO 9999 Notes and References