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Biological characterization and analysis of metastasis-related genes in cell lines derived from the primary lesion and lymph node metastasis of a squamous cell carcinoma arising in the mandibular gingiva

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Controlling metastatic lesions is an important part of improving cancer prognosis, in addition to controlling the primary lesion. There have been numerous histological studies on primary and metastatic lesions, but little basic research has been performed using cell lines from primary and metastatic lesions belonging to the same patient. In this study, we successfully established a cell line derived from lower gingival carcinoma (WK2) as well as a line derived from secondary cervical lymph node metastasis (WK3F) through primary cultures of tissue from a patient with oral squamous cell carcinoma. We then investigated the biological characteristics of the cancer cell lines from these primary and metastatic lesions and analyzed metastasis-related genes. Comparison of the biological characteristics in vitro showed that WK3F had higher cell proliferation ability and shorter cell doubling time than WK2. WK3F also had increased cell migratory ability and higher invasive and self-replication abilities. Heterotransplantation into nude mice resulted in high tumor formation rates in the tongue and high metastasis rates in the cervical lymph nodes. Changes in WK2 and WK3F gene expression were then comprehensively analyzed using microarrays. Genes with increased expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≥2.0 and the ratio was ≥5.0, while genes with reduced expression in WK3F compared to WK2 were extracted when the Z-score was ≤-2.0 and the ratio was ≤0.2; differences were found in 604 genes. From these, MAGEC1 (88.0-fold), MMP-7 (18.6-fold), SNAI1 (6.6-fold), MACC1 (6.2-fold), and HTRA1 (0.012-fold) were selected as metastasis-related candidate genes. The results suggest that these molecules could be important for clarifying the mechanisms that regulate metastasis and provide new therapeutic targets for inhibiting tumor invasion.
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... The remainder of the paper is organised as follows. In Section 2, we explain the 50 role of epithelial-and mesenchymal-like cancer cells, as well as of the transition of cells between those phenotypes, in cancer invasion. Moreover, we describe the biological background, setup and result quantification of the organotypic invasion assay experiments by [15], which we we use to calibrate our model to in the following sections. ...
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We develop a three-dimensional genuinely hybrid atomistic-continuum model that describes the invasive growth dynamics of individual cancer cells in tissue. The framework explicitly accounts for phenotypic variation by distinguishing between cancer cells of an epithelial-like and a mesenchymal-like phenotype. It also describes mutations between these cell phenotypes in the form of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). The proposed model consists of a hybrid system of partial and stochastic differential equations that describe the evolution of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like cancer cells, respectively, under the consideration of matrix-degrading enzyme concentrations and the extracellular matrix density. With the help of inverse parameter estimation and a sensitivity analysis, this three-dimensional model is then calibrated to an in vitro organotypic invasion assay experiment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
... In univariate analysis, we found that OS of MACC1+ HNSCC patients was significantly lower than that for the MACC1patients. Our results were similar to the previous studies of HNSCC [33,34], which suggested that MACC1 should be considered as a useful biomarker for HNSCC. ...
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We develop a three-dimensional genuinely hybrid atomistic-continuum model that describes the invasive growth dynamics of individual cancer cells in tissue. The framework explicitly accounts for phenotypic variation by distinguishing between cancer cells of an epithelial-like and a mesenchymal-like phenotype. It also describes mutations between these cell phenotypes in the form of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and its reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). The model consists of a hybrid system of partial and stochastic differential equations that describe the evolution of epithelial-like and mesenchymal-like cancer cells, respectively, under the consideration of matrix-degrading enzyme concentrations and the extracellular matrix density. With the help of inverse parameter estimation and a sensitivity analysis, this three-dimensional model is then calibrated to an in vitro organotypic invasion assay experiment of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
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