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Influence of edaphic factors on the floristic composition of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west

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This study describes the influence of edaphic factors on the floristic composition of an area of cerradão (woodland savanna) in the city of Campo Grande, located in the Brazilian central-west. In 10 plots (5 × 20 m each), we evaluated all trees with a diameter at breast height > 4.77 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for each plot in order to determine edaphic variables correlated with species composition. We sampled 1180 individuals of 61 species. The evenness index was 0.74, which indicates uneven distribution of species, which was explained by a high abundance of Qualea parviflora, Curatella americana, Qualea grandiflora, Terminalia argentea and Astronium fraxinifolium. We registered more trees in the smallest diameter class and in the middle layer of the vertical structure. The soil was dystrophic with a clay texture, which explains the higher abundance of species related to dystrophic cerradão. However, we also found some trees typical of mesotrophic cerradão and deciduous forests, which could be attributable to the presence of patches of fertile soil within the dystrophic cerradão or could indicate that those mesotrophic species are tolerant of lower levels of soil nutrients.
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1 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Botânica, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2 Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro, Departamento de Genética e Melhoramento, Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ, Brazil
3 Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, Departamento de Biologia, Programa da Pós-Graduação em Biologia Vegetal, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil
4 Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
5 Author for correspondence: buenotanica@gmail.com
Submitted: 30 March, 2012. Accepted: 16 April, 2013
ABSTRACT
This study describes the influence of edaphic factors on the floristic composition of an area of cerradão (woodland
savanna) in the city of Campo Grande, located in the Brazilian central-west. In 10 plots (5 × 20 m each), we evaluated
all trees with a diameter at breast height ≥ 4.77 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for each plot in order to determine
edaphic variables correlated with species composition. We sampled 1180 individuals of 61 species. The evenness
index was 0.74, which indicates uneven distribution of species, which was explained by a high abundance of Qualea
parviflora, Curatella americana, Qualea grandiflora, Terminalia argentea and Astronium fraxinifolium. We registered
more trees in the smallest diameter class and in the middle layer of the vertical structure. The soil was dystrophic
with a clay texture, which explains the higher abundance of species related to dystrophic cerradão. However, we also
found some trees typical of mesotrophic cerradão and deciduous forests, which could be attributable to the presence
of patches of fertile soil within the dystrophic cerradão or could indicate that those mesotrophic species are tolerant
of lower levels of soil nutrients.
Key words: cerrado, dystrophic cerradão, mesotrophic cerradão, phytosociology, soil-plant interaction
Acta Botanica Brasilica 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
Influence of edaphic factors on the floristic composition
of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west
Marcelo Leandro Bueno1,5, Danilo Rafael Mesquita Neves1, Anderson Fernandes Souza2, Elio Oliveira Junior3,
Geraldo Alves Damasceno Junior3, Vanessa Pontara1, Valdemir Antônio Laura3 and James Alexander Ratter4
Introduction
The Cerrado biome of Brazil possesses physiognomies
that comprise grassland, savanna and forest formations.
Edaphic factors such as effective depth, presence of con-
cretions in the soil profile, proximity of the water table to
the surface, drainage, and fertility are among the most im-
portant determinants of the floristic composition, structure
and productivity of the native vegetation (Haridasan 2000).
Of the forest formations, the woodland known as
the cerradão is distinct because of its low height and
xeromorphic features, corresponding to a “mesophilous
sclerophyllous forest”, with trees of 8-15 m, understory
composed of shrubs and treelets that can reach 3 m, and
a sparse herbaceous layer with low species richness. The
cerradão contains species that co-occur in the cerrado típico
(a savanna formation that constitutes the most widespread
physiognomy of the cerrado biome) and in several other
types of forests (Ribeiro & Walter 2008).
Haridasan (1992) argued that factors such as water
availability in the soil and soil composition might play
a role in phytophysiognomic differentiation, providing
higher nutrient availability, thus enabling the establish-
ment of vegetation with greater density and height, as in
the case of the cerradão. The author also argued that such
physiognomy could remain in dystrophic soils because of
the closed nutrient cycle.
Two types of cerradão with floristic and soil differences
have been described, one characteristics of mesotrophic
soils with higher pH and levels of Ca and Mg and the other
of dystrophic soils of lower pH, Ca and Mg (Ratter 1971,
Ratter et al. 1973, 1977, 1996, 2003, 2006, 2011; Furley &
Ratter 1988). In the earlier publications of the series these
communities were named after characteristics marker tree
species: Hirtella glandulosa Spreng and Emotum nitens
(Benth.) Miers for dystrophic and Magonia pubescens St.
Hill., and Callisthene fasciculata (Spreng) for mesotrophic,
but later the terms “dystrophic cerradão” and mesotrophic
cerradão” were used. The soils of dystrophic cerradão show
pH and minerals similar to these open forms of cerrado, but
higher clay content, indicating greater retention of water in
cases that have been analyzed (Assis et al. 2011).
446 Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Danilo Rafael Mesquita Neves, Anderson Fernandes Souza, Elio Oliveira Junior,
Geraldo Alves Damasceno Junior, Vanessa Pontara, Valdemir Antônio Laura and James Alexander Ratter
In keeping with the observations of many of the
previously cited authors, Assis et al. (2011) found no
correlation between soil fertility and cerradão. However,
those authors described the considerable correlation that
dystrophic cerradão displays with high levels of clay and
microporosity, resulting in greater water retention, thus
enabling the occurrence of a more exuberant vegetation
(i.e., cerradão). Therefore, considering the latest discus-
sions on this subject, it seems that soil texture determines
the vegetation structure, whereas soil fertility determines
the floristic type of cerradão (Ratter 1971; Ratter et al.
1973, 1977; Furley & Ratter 1988).
Because studies of soil-plant interaction are useful tools
to improve the understanding of the floristic patterns of the
cerrado biome and to aid in its preservation, in this study,
we evaluated the relationship between floristic composition
and edaphic variables in the cerradão in the municipality
of Campo Grande, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. We
hypothesized that the distribution and dominance of spe-
cies in the cerradão are related to chemical and physical
attributes of the soil.
Material and methods
Study site
The study was conducted in an urban cerrado fragment
of 36.5 hectares, located within the Reserva Particular do Pa-
trimônio Natural (RPPN, Private Nature Reserve) operated
by the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS,
Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul), in the munici-
pality of Campo Grande (20°30’33.83”S; 54°36’57.07”W).
According to the Köppen climate classification system
(Köppen 1948), the climate is type Aw (rainy tropical savan-
na), characterized by a dry period during winter and a rainy
period during summer, with an average annual precipitation
of 1,532 mm (Embrapa 1985). According to the Brazilian
Agency for Agricultural Research (Embrapa 2006), the
predominant soil types in the region are dystroferric red
latosol and udorthent.
General aspects of the vegetation
Using the phytophysiognomic classification of the cer-
rado biome proposed by Ribeiro & Walter (2008) as a refe-
rence, we identified the following formations in the RPPN
of the UFMS: cerrado típico, gallery forest and cerradão.
Sampling
We used the plot method (Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg
1974). The survey was conducted in one hectare, in ten 50
× 20 m plots, randomly distributed. We included all living
woody individuals with a diameter at breast height (DBH)
≥ 4.77 cm. The total height of trees was estimated visu-
ally, using a 5 m graduated measuring stick. All botanical
material was preserved and later deposited in the Campo
Grande-Mato Grosso do Sul Herbarium (code, CGMS).
We identified specimens by consulting the literature, by
comparing them with specimens deposited in the CGMS
Herbarium or by enlisting the aid of specialists. The plant
families were listed according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny
Group III guidelines (APG III 2009).
Soil collection
The collection of soils for the analysis of fertility was car-
ried out with a probe type auger. In each plot, we collected
a sample comprising 20 subsamples, randomly collected at
depths of 0 cm to 20 cm. The chemical and physical analy-
ses were conducted in the Soil Fertility Laboratory of the
Anhanguera University for the Development of the Pantanal
Region, following the methodology described by the Bra-
zilian Agency for Agricultural Research (Embrapa 1998).
Data analysis
We analyzed the following phytosociological parameters
(Mueller-Dombois & Ellenberg 1974): basal area, absolute
density, relative density, absolute frequency, relative fre-
quency, absolute dominance, relative dominance, cover
value, and importance value (IV). We evaluated floristic
diversity by calculating the Shannon index (H’) and Pielou’s
evenness index (J’), as described by Brower & Zar (1984). All
parameters were estimated with the software Mata Nativa
2 (Cientec 2007).
For the analysis of diametric classes, the individuals were
distributed in diameter classes with the ideal class interval
(CI=7.1) calculated according to the formulae put forth by
Spiegel (1976):
CI = A/NC
NC = 1+3.3 logN
where A is the amplitude of diameters, NC is the number
of classes, and N is the number of individuals.
Although there are several criteria for height stratifi-
cation to estimate the absolute sociological position per
species in the plant community, we used three height layers,
following the recommendation of Paula et al. (2004). A
posteriori, we applied the D’Agostino-Pearson normality
test, according to Zar (1999).
To establish the relationships between plots/species and
soil parameters, we performed canonical correspondence
analysis (CCA), as described by ter Braak (1988). The CCA
requires two matrices, one with the species per plot data
and another with the explanatory variables. The highest
correlations were found for the following variables: texture
(clay), organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, aluminium
447
Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
In uence of edaphic factors on the  oristic composition of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west
saturation, base saturation, sum of bases, cation exchange
capacity (CEC) and pH.
There are several advantages in the use of the CCA, the
greatest of which is the Monte Carlo test, which consists
in randomly permuting the lines of the matrix of environ-
mental variables to test the significance of the correlation
between the two matrices, identifying the probability that
the relationship observed between the two original ma-
trices is correct. The CCA and the Monte Carlo test were
processed by the program PC-ORD for Windows, version
5.0 (McCune & Mefford 2006).
Results and discussion
Floristics and structure
We recorded 61 species, belonging to 52 genera, dis-
tributed in 31 families (Tab. 1). Of the sampled families,
Fabaceae had the highest richness, with 11 species; followed
by Vochysiaceae (6 species); Erythroxylaceae (4 species);
Annonaceae, Anacardiaceae, and Myrtaceae (3 species
each); and Bignoniaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Combretace-
ae, Connaraceae, Malpighiaceae, and Malvaceae (2 species
each). These families accounted for 68.85% of the species
observed at the study site. The remaining 19 families were
represented by only one species each.
The most prominent families in this study were the same
families found in other cerradão areas (Batalha & Mantovani
2001; Salis et al. 2006; Silva et al. 2008; Souza et al. 2008;
Araújo et al. 2011), especially Fabaceae and Vochysiaceae
in areas of dystrophic cerradão (Costa & Araújo, 2001;
Marimon Júnior & Haridasan, 2005; Araújo et al. 2011).
The H’ value obtained (3.03) was similar to those repor-
ted for other areas of cerradão in the state of Mato Grosso do
Sul, which have ranged from 2.90 to 3.36 (Salis et al. 2006),
and lower than those reported for areas of cerradão in the
southeast (range, 3.38-3.54; Gomes et al. 2004; Guimarães
et al. 2001), northeast (range, 3.31-3.32; Silva et al. 2008;
Alencar et al. 2007) and central-west (range, 3.42-3.84;
Andrade et al. 2002; Felfili & Silva Junior 1992; Marimon
Junior & Haridasan 2005). The J’ value obtained (0.74) in-
dicated an unequal distribution of individuals per species.
The high abundance of five species, Qualea parviflora Mart.,
Curatella americana L. Qualea grandiflora Mart., Ter m i na l ia
argentea Mart. and Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata
(Benth.) Altschul, collectively accounting for 55.71% of the
relative density, contributed to the low evenness observed.
The variation in richness and diversity might be related
to factors such as the inclusion criterion for trees, basal
area, sample size (Pinheiro & Durigan 2012), soil (Assis et
al. 2011; Neri et al. 2013) and biogeography (Ratter et al.
1997). The cerrado areas in the Alto Araguaia region in the
state of Mato Grosso, the state of Tocantins and the Federal
District have a high species richness in comparison to the
marginal and disjunct areas of the cerrado biome (Ratter
et al. 1997). However, in marginal areas, floristic elements
from adjacent plant formations occur, adding to the richness
of the cerrado (Ratter et al. 2003).
Regarding the vertical structure (Fig. 1), 60.25% of
individuals belonged to the middle layer (height, 4.01-
7.88 m), 21.69% belonged to the lower layer (0-4 m), and
18.13% belonged to the upper layer (7.89-12 m). According
to Ratter (1986), the tallest species in the cerradão usually
reach 10-12 m, although taller individuals can occur. In
the present study, the tallest species were Andira cuyaben-
sis Benth., Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Callisthene minor
Mart., Curatella amer icana, Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex
Hayne, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil., Luehea paniculata Mart.,
Qualea parviflora, Matayba guianensis Aubl., Stryphnoden-
dron obovatum Benth., Ta chigali aurea Tul., and Te r mi n al i a
argentea, with individuals between 10 and 12 m tall. Of the
61 species recorded, 30 had no individuals in the lower
layer, suggesting the existence of restrictions to the natural
processes of reproduction, dispersal and regeneration (Silva
& Soares 1999; Toppa 2004). An important factor that might
be related to this condition is the human impact on the areas
surrounding the study site. This impact causes the isolation
of the area, restricting the flux of pollinators, and is a major
negative factor in the regeneration process, considering that
most tree species depend on animals for their pollination
and dispersal (Reis et al. 1999).
The analysis of diametric distribution revealed that most
of the individuals belong to the smallest size classes (71.86%
for the first two classes) (Fig. 2), and that this community
has an inverted “J” pattern, which indicates the regenerative
capacity of the community. According to Silva Júnior & Sil-
va (1988), the concentration of individuals in the first two
diameter classes might indicate possible past disturbances,
natural or anthropic, such as timber harvesting, selective
logging, fires, deforestation and herbivory, and might also
be explained by the genetic potential of most cerrado species
for small size.
The absolute density in the cerradão was 1,180 ind.ha−1.
This result was lower than that observed for other areas of
dystrophic cerradão, such as those in the municipality of
Uberlândia, in the state of Minas Gerais (Costa & Araújo
2001), with 2,071 ind.ha−1; in the state of Mato Grosso, with
1,884 ind.ha−1 (Marimon Junior & Haridasan 2005); and in
the Federal District, with 2,231 ind.ha−1 (Ribeiro et al. 1985).
This difference demonstrates the effect of dominant species
on the structure, considering that the 10 species with the
largest IV accounted for 59.11% of the total density value
and covered 74.51% of the basal area (Tab. 2). Such numbers
might indicate the presence of a restricted group of species
with competitive advantages, high DBH and large number
of individuals, thus affecting the previously discussed values
of density, diversity and evenness.
The fact that the highest IV was obtained for Qualea
parviflora corroborates the patterns reported by Ratter et
al. (2003), in which Q. parviflora had the second highest
448 Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Danilo Rafael Mesquita Neves, Anderson Fernandes Souza, Elio Oliveira Junior,
Geraldo Alves Damasceno Junior, Vanessa Pontara, Valdemir Antônio Laura and James Alexander Ratter
Table 1. List of the species recorded in the cerradão of the Private Nature Reserve operated by the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the city of Campo
Grande, Brazil.
Family Scientific name Herbarium record
Anacardiaceae
Astronium fraxinifolium Schott 24898
Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão 24897
Tapirira guianensis Aubl.24894
Annonaceae
Annona coriacea Mart. 24932
Annona crassiflora Mart. 24931
Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. 24900
Araliaceae Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin 24880
Asteraceae Piptocarpha rotundifolia (Less.) Baker 24896
Bignoniaceae Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham.) Mattos 24886
Tabebuia aurea (Manso) Benth. & Hook. f. ex S. Moore 24933
Caryocaraceae Caryocar brasiliense Cambess.24934
Chrysobalanaceae Hirtella hebeclada Moric. ex DC. 24890
Licania humilis Cham. & Schltdl. 24891
Clusiaceae Kielmeyera coriacea Mart. & Zucc. 24930
Combretaceae Terminalia argentea Mart. 24879
Buchenavia tomentosa Eichler 24927
Connaraceae Connarus suberosus Planch. 24893
Rourea induta Planch. 24929
Dilleniaceae Curatella americana L. 24926
Erythroxylaceae
Erythroxylum anguifugum Mart. 24887
Erythroxylum deciduum A. St.-Hil. 24889
Erythroxylum suberosum A. St.-Hil. 24888
Erythroxylum tor tuosum Mart. 24889
Fabaceae
Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata (Benth.) Altschul 24905
Andira cuyabensis Benth. 24902
Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth 24906
Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. 24922
Dimorphandra mollis Benth. 24923
Dipteryx alata Vogel 24925
Diptychandra aurantiaca Tul. 24903
Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne 24920
Leptolobium dasycarpum Vogel 24924
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium Mart. 24904
Tachigali aurea Tul. 24921
Lauraceae Ocotea minarum (Nees & Mart.) Mez 24881
Lythraceae Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. 24917
Malpighiaceae Byrsonima coccolobifolia Kunth 24883
Byrsonima verbascifolia (L.) DC. 24882
Malvaceae Eriotheca pubescens (Mart. & Zucc.) Schott & Endl. 24877
Luehea paniculata Mart. & Zucc. 24918
Melastomataceae Miconia albicans (Sw.) Triana 24916
Myrtaceae
Eugenia aurata O. Berg 24908
Eugenia egensis DC. 24909
Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC. 24907
Continues
449
Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
In uence of edaphic factors on the  oristic composition of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west
Family Scientific name Herbarium record
Nyctaginaceae Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz. 24892
Opiliaceae Agonandra brasiliensis Miers ex Benth. & Hook. f. 24895
Primulaceae Myrsine guianensis Aubl. Kuntze 24919
Proteaceae Roupala montana Aubl. 24911
Rubiaceae Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth. 24884
Rutaceae Zanthoxylum rigidum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd. 24899
Salicaceae Casearia sylvestris Sw. 24912
Sapindaceae Matayba guianensis Aubl. 24878
Sapotaceae Chrysophyllum marginatum (Hook. & Arn.) Radlk. 24885
Styracaceae Styrax ferrugineus Nees & Mart. 24915
Verbenaceae Aegiphila verticilata Vell. 24901
Vochysiaceae
Callisthene minor Mart. 24874
Qualea grandiflora Mart. 24910
Qualea multiflora Mart. 24913
Qualea parviflora Mart. 24914
Salvertia convallariodora A. St.-Hil. 24875
Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl 24876
Table 1. Continuation.
Figure 1. Distribution of the frequency of individuals, by height (m), in the plots in the tree community of an area of cerradão in the Private Nature Reserve ope-
rated by the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil. Lower layer (L1: 0-4.0 m), middle layer (L2: 4.01-7.88 m), and upper
layer (L3: 7.89-12 m) identified by horizontal lines.
1 L. dasycarpum; 2 A. klotzkiana; 3 A. brasiliensis; 4 A. peregrina; 5 A. cuyabensis; 6 A. coriaceae; 7 A. crassiflora; 8 A. fraxinifolium; 9 B. virgilioides; 10 B. tomen-
tosa; 11 B. coccolobifolia; 12 B.verbasifolia; 13 C. minor; 14 C. brasiliense; 15 C. sylvestris; 16 C. marginatum; 17 C. suberosus; 18 C. langsdorffii; 19 C. americana;
20 D. mollis; 21 D. alata; 22 D. aurantiaca; 23 E. pubescens; 24 E. anguifugum; 25 E. deciduum; 26 E. suberosum; 27 E. tortuosum; 28 E. aurata; 29 E. egensis; 30 G.
opposita.; 31 H. hebeclada; 32 H. stigonocarpa; 33 K. coriacea; 34 L. pacari; 35 L. humilis; 36 L. paniculata; 37 M. guianensis; 38 M. albicans; 39 M. urundeuva; 40 M.
guianensis; 41 O. minarum; 42 P. rotundifolia; 43 Q. grandiflora; 44 Q. multiflora; 45 Q. parviflora; 46 R. guianensis; 47 R. montana; 48 R. induta; 49 R. viburnoides;
50 S. convallariodora; 51 S. morototoni; 52 S. obovatum; 53 S. ferrugineus; 54 Tab. aurea; 55 H. ochraceus; 56 T. aurea; 57 T. argentea; 58 T. pallida; 59 V. thyrsoidea;
60 X. aromatica; 61 Z. hasslerianum.
450 Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Danilo Rafael Mesquita Neves, Anderson Fernandes Souza, Elio Oliveira Junior,
Geraldo Alves Damasceno Junior, Vanessa Pontara, Valdemir Antônio Laura and James Alexander Ratter
Figure 2. Distribution of the number of individuals by diameter class, with an ideal class interval
(CI) of 7.1 cm, in plots within the tree community of an area of cerradão in the Private Nature
Reserve operated by the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the city of Campo Grande,
Brazil.
Table 2. Phytosociological parameters of the species recorded for the cerradão of the Private Nature Reserve operated by the Federal University of Mato Grosso do
Sul, in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil.
Scientific name N RD RF RDo CV% IV%
Qualea parviflora 291 24.66 4.17 24.78 24.72 17.87
Curatella americana 92 7.8 3.75 13.48 10.64 8.34
Qualea grandiflora 127 10.76 4.17 7.93 9.35 7.62
Terminalia argentea 112 9.49 4.17 8.63 9.06 7.43
Anadenanthera peregrina var. falcata 29 2.46 2.5 9.27 5.86 4.74
Astronium fraxinifolium 51 4.32 4.17 2.23 3.28 3.57
Salvertia convallariodora 24 2.03 4.17 1.49 1.76 2.56
Annona crassiflora 21 1.78 2.92 2.75 2.27 2.48
Callisthene minor 37 3.14 0.83 2.99 3.07 2.32
Tabebuia aurea 21 1.78 3.75 1 1.39 2.18
Vochysia thyrsoidea 17 1.44 2.5 1.6 1.52 1.85
Diptychandra aurantiaca 34 2.88 0.83 1.6 2.24 1.77
Xylopia aromatica 32 2.71 1.67 0.78 1.74 1.72
Bowdichia virgilioides 14 1.19 2.08 1.9 1.54 1.72
Matayba guianensis 22 1.86 2.5 0.63 1.25 1.67
Stryphnodendron rotundifolium 12 1.02 2.92 0.9 0.96 1.61
Andira cuyabensis 9 0.76 3.33 0.6 0.68 1.56
Connarus suberosus 17 1.44 2.5 0.66 1.05 1.53
Tachigali aurea 12 1.02 1.67 1.86 1.44 1.52
Lafoensia pacari 16 1.36 1.67 1.49 1.43 1.51
Luehea paniculata 19 1.61 2.08 0.58 1.1 1.42
Eriotheca pubescens 9 0.76 2.92 0.55 0.66 1.41
Continues
451
Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
In uence of edaphic factors on the  oristic composition of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west
Scientific name N RD RF RDo CV% IV%
Hymenaea stigonocarpa 5 0.42 0.83 2.94 1.68 1.4
Kielmeyera coriacea 16 1.36 1.67 1.01 1.18 1.34
Copaifera langsdorffii 17 1.44 0.83 1.47 1.46 1.25
Qualea multiflora 13 1.1 2.08 0.46 0.78 1.21
Caryocar brasiliense 8 0.68 2.08 0.83 0.76 1.2
Licania humilis 6 0.51 2.5 0.29 0.4 1.1
Miconia albicans 6 0.51 2.08 0.42 0.47 1.0
Myrcia guianensis 8 0.68 2.08 0.22 0.45 0.99
Erythroxylum suberosum 6 0.51 1.67 0.64 0.57 0.94
Roupala montana 6 0.51 1.25 0.4 0.46 0.72
Piptocarpha rotundifolia 10 0.85 0.83 0.33 0.59 0.67
Dipteryx alata 4 0.34 1.25 0.25 0.3 0.61
Annona coriacea 5 0.42 1.25 0.09 0.25 0.59
Rapanea guianensis 5 0.42 1.25 0.08 0.25 0.59
Myracrodruon urundeuva 4 0.34 1.25 0.06 0.2 0.55
Eugenia aurata 3 0.25 1.25 0.08 0.17 0.53
Chrysophyllum marginatum 3 0.25 1.25 0.06 0.16 0.52
Handroanthus ochraceus 3 0.25 1.25 0.05 0.15 0.52
Erythroxylum tortuosum 3 0.25 1.25 0.04 0.15 0.52
Rudgea viburnoides 2 0.17 0.83 0.44 0.31 0.48
Tapirira guianensis 3 0.25 0.83 0.31 0.28 0.46
Styrax ferrugineus 1 0.08 0.42 0.76 0.42 0.42
Byrsonima coccolobifolia 3 0.25 0.83 0.15 0.2 0.41
Dimorphandra mollis 3 0.25 0.83 0.11 0.18 0.4
Agonandra brasiliensis 3 0.25 0.83 0.05 0.15 0.38
Erythroxylum anguifugum 2 0.17 0.83 0.09 0.13 0.36
Byrsonima verbascifolia 2 0.17 0.42 0.33 0.25 0.3
Eugenia egensis 1 0.08 0.42 0.07 0.08 0.19
Rourea induta 1 0.08 0.42 0.05 0.07 0.18
Hirtella hebeclada 1 0.08 0.42 0.03 0.06 0.18
Buchenavia tomentosa 1 0.08 0.42 0.03 0.06 0.18
Zanthoxylum rigidum 1 0.08 0.42 0.01 0.05 0.17
Aegiphila verticilata 1 0.08 0.42 0.01 0.05 0.17
Casearia sylvestris 1 0.08 0.42 0.02 0.05 0.17
Erythroxylum deciduum 1 0.08 0.42 0.01 0.05 0.17
Guapira opposita 1 0.08 0.42 0.02 0.05 0.17
Leptolobium dasycarpum 1 0.08 0.42 0.02 0.05 0.17
Table 2. Continuation.
Continues
452 Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Danilo Rafael Mesquita Neves, Anderson Fernandes Souza, Elio Oliveira Junior,
Geraldo Alves Damasceno Junior, Vanessa Pontara, Valdemir Antônio Laura and James Alexander Ratter
Table 2. Continuation.
frequency (78%) in 376 areas within the cerrado biome.
The most common species was Q. grandiflora, which has
a wide distribution in the cerrado, occurring in 85% of the
areas listed by those same authors (Ratter et al. 1996; 2003).
Some of the species recorded at our study site also oc-
cur in semi-deciduous forests, although with different IVs
(Araújo & Haridasan 1997; Araújo et al. 1997): Matayba
guianensis, Rudgea viburnoides (Cham.) Benth., Tap i r ir a
guianensis Aubl., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf., Casearia syl-
vestris Sw., and Guapira opposita (Vell.) Reitz. Oliveira-Filho
& Ratter (1995) conducted a study of the forest formations
of central Brazil and demonstrated the high exchange of
species between the cerradão and other vegetation types. It
is evident that the flora of the cerradão has an intermediate
nature, with various aspects of savanna, forest and generalist
species and therefore no indication of exclusive species.
Some species sampled in this study require additional
comments. Astronium fraxinifolium Schott (with 51 indivi-
duals, IV% 4.74) is a common species in deciduous forests
and was classified as slightly mesotrophic by Ratter et al.
(2011); Terminalia argentea Mart. (112 individuals, IV%
7.62) belongs to the same category. In contrast, Luehea pa-
niculata (19 individuals, IV% 1.42) was classified as strongly
mesotrophic by those same authors, as was Dipteryx alata
Vog. (4 individuals, IV% 0.61); whereas Myracrodr uon
urundeuva Allemão, frequently referred as the archetype
calcicolous species, had 4 individuals and an IV% of 0.55.
The occurrence of Astronium fraxinifolium and Te r mi n al i a
argentea, which have a weak preference for mesotrophic
soils, is not surprising; however, the other species are cer-
tainly unexpected. These anomalies have been recorded in
other studies (Ratter, personal communication; Araújo et al.
2011; Neri et al. 2012), and it has been suggested that they
occur on mesotrophic soils within dystrophic landscapes.
Edaphic factors
Also in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Ratter et al.
(2003) found a higher frequency of cerrado areas on meso-
trophic soils: 20 of the 33 areas analyzed. However, consi-
dering base saturation as an indicator of soil fertility, base
saturation values < 50% being indicative of dystrophic soil
(Embrapa 2006), the soil at our study site was dystrophic
(base saturation, 9-29%). Aluminum saturation was 27-73%,
representing the proportion of aluminum in relation to
the sum of Ca²+, Mg²+, K+, Na+, and Al³ in the soil; higher
aluminum saturation values indicate soils with less fertility
and higher aluminum concentration.
In the CCA, the eigenvalues obtained for axes 1 and 2
were low (0.40 and 0.27; respectively), which implies low
floristic turnover between the plots (ter Braak 1995). Axes
1 and 2, respectively, explained 26.8% and 18.1% of the
variance (P < 0.001 for both), collectively accounting for
44.9% of the accumulated variance (Fig. 3). A considerable
proportion (65.1%) was not explained by the predictors or
was stochastic in nature (Hubbell, 2001). However, this high
level of noise is common in vegetation studies and does not
compromise the species-environment relationship (ter Braak
1988). In the diagram of the CCA (Fig. 3), axis 1 was efficient
in segregating plots 3 and 7. Those plots had lower CEC va-
lues and higher aluminum saturation (Tab. 3), which might
explain the differentiation in species composition. The fact
that Qualea parviflora and Qualea grandiflora were the most
abundant species in these plots corroborates those results,
because species of the family Vochysiaceae are classified as
Figure 3. Canonical correspondence analysis of sampled plots and edaphic
variables in the cerradão of the Private Nature Reserve operated by the Federal
University of Mato Grosso do Sul, in the city of Campo Grande, Brazil.
OM – organic matter; CEC –cation exchange capacity.
Scientific name N RD RF RDo CV% IV%
Schefflera morototoni 1 0.08 0.42 0.02 0.05 0.17
Ocotea minarum 1 0.08 0.42 0.02 0.05 0.17
Total 1180 100 100 100 100 100
N – number of individuals; RD – relative density; RF – relative frequency; RDo – relative dominance; CV% – cover value (proportional); IV% – importance
value (proportional).
453
Acta bot. bras. 27(2): 445-455. 2013.
In uence of edaphic factors on the  oristic composition of an area of cerradão in the Brazilian central-west
tolerant to and obligate accumulators of aluminum (Harida-
san 2000). Axis 2 was efficient in segregating plots 6, 9 and
10, with more fertile soils, higher values of CEC and lower
aluminum saturation. These three plots had species that co-
-occur in areas of cerradão with mesotrophic soils (Ratter et
al. 1977), such as Terminalia argentea, Luehea paniculata and
Astronium fraxinifolium. This demonstrates that soil fertility
is a determinant of species composition in the cerrado.
In general, the soil of the plots had a clay texture (Tab. 3).
According to Marimon-Junior & Haridasan (2005), clay
soils under cerradão vegetation have a higher water-reten-
tion capacity and are therefore more capable to support
the processes of biomass synthesis and maintain higher
fertility, because water availability regulates the dynamics of
nutrients in the soil, and consequently, their absorption by
the plants. Ribeiro (1983), comparing cerradão and cerrado
típico, found differences in the physical characteristics of
the soil: that of the cerradão had higher porosity and higher
water-retention capacity. This water regime, which is more
favorable to the community than is that of the cerrado típico,
might be an important factor restricting the distribution
of cerradão. It should be noted that many soils in Brazil,
although classified as clay soils, behave similarly to sandy
soils in terms of CEC. This is explained by the fact that these
clays are, predominantly, of low activity (kaolinite, iron
and aluminum sesquioxides, etc.), and most latosols under
cerrado are part of this category (Lopes & Guilherme 1992).
Conclusion
Our findings, together with those of the other studies
discussed, support the hypothesis of our study, that there
is a relationship between edaphic factors and species dis-
tribution in the cerradão. The clay soils favored the predo-
minance of tree species, whereas the dystrophic soils, with
considerable variation in aluminum saturation, influenced
the floristic turnover between the plots.
Although the study site is classified as an area of dystro-
phic cerradão, we recorded species that are characteristic
of mesotrophic soils and deciduous forests. The presence
of those species might be related to the existence of areas
with mesotrophic soils within a dystrophic landscape, as
has previously been suggested.
Acknowledgments
We thank the UFMS for authorizing the collection wi-
thin the RPPN. We are also grateful to professors Arnildo
Pott and Ângela Lúcia Bagnatori Sartori (curator of the
CGMS Herbarium), who assisted in the identification of
the botanical material, as well as to Carlos R. Lehn and the
two anonymous reviewers, for their essential suggestions
to improve the manuscript.
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A fragmentação de habitats causa diversos impactos ecossistêmicos. A resposta da vegetação às mudanças ambientais a tornam um bom indicador do estado de conservação da biodiversidade. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a conservação de um fragmento de Cerradão no município de Cáceres, MT, pela análise da estrutura horizontal e da diversidade de espécies do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo. O levantamento foi baseado em dois conglomerados aleatorizados, totalizando 8 parcelas em 0,8 ha. O critério de inclusão foi o diâmetro a 1,30 m do solo ≥ 10 cm. Foram amostrados 411 indivíduos, 44 espécies e 21 famílias botânicas. As famílias Fabaceae e Bignoniaceae apresentaram as maiores riquezas. Os valores dos índices de diversidade de Shannon-Weaver e de equabilidade de Pielou foram considerados elevados (3,18 e 0,84, respectivamente). A similaridade florística entre os conglomerados foi alta (índice de Sørensen = 74,63%), indicando homogeneidade no fragmento. A distribuição diamétrica apresentou o padrão J-invertido. A comunidade apresentou tendência ao agregamento, com índice de agregação de Payandeh médio (1,40). A riqueza e estrutura da vegetação indicaram bom estado de conservação do estrato arbóreo-arbustivo, pois não foram observadas alterações florístico-estruturais no fragmento oriundas das pressões antrópicas do entorno da área.
... Vegetation structure and plant diversity are influenced by soil traits across landscape formations [86][87][88]. This vegetation relationship with elevation is important for execution of proactive plans for the maintenance of biodiversity as water availability in water held in soil determines physiognomic gradient [1,89,90]. ...
... Esto implica que, aunque hubo una consistencia en la riqueza de especies en la formación sabánica, la composición de especies varió significativamente entre cada transecto. A partir de la comparación de composición de especies hecha en este análisis, se corrobora la disimilitud florística típica entre las formaciones forestales y sabánicas del Cerrado en el área de estudio (3,36) , derivada de la combinación de la estacionalidad de las lluvias, las condiciones del suelo, el régimen del fuego y el factor de tolerancia a la sombra de las plantas (3,(41)(42)(43)(44) , lo que sugiere un buen estado de conservación del área protegida. No obstante, debido al tipo de evaluación que se realizó, y dado que los indicadores analizados no se contrastaron con factores como la frecuencia de la perturbación ocasionada por el fuego y la presencia de plantas exóticas con potencial de invasión observadas, se recomienda monitorear de forma continua el área, y establecer investigaciones que exploren estos elementos, de manera a avanzar hacia una mejor comprensión de la dinámica vegetacional local y una mejor valoración de su biodiversidad. ...
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El objetivo de este estudio fue realizar una evaluación ecológica rápida de la flora nativa de la formación forestal y sabánica del Cerrado Aguará Ñu, Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú de Paraguay, determinando la riqueza de especies y las diferencias de composición entre las mismas, de manera a complementar los levantamientos florísticos ya existentes. Se registró in situ la flora vascular nativa del Cerrado mediante diez transectos de 50 m x 2 m (1000 m2) en cada formación vegetal (forestal y sabánica). Se obtuvo un total de 171 especies en 61 familias. La formación sabánica presentó la mayor riqueza de especies en relación a la formación forestal, con 106 especies en 40 familias y 81 especies en 40 familias, respectivamente. Las especies más frecuentes en la formación sabánica fueron Axonopus cfr. siccus (Nees) Kuhlm., Butia paraguayensis (Barb. Rodr.) L.H. Bailey, Duguetia furfuracea (A. St.-Hil.) Benth. & Hook. f., Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg, y Pradosia brevipes (Pierre) T.D. Penn. En cuanto a la formación forestal, las especies más frecuentes fueron Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. var. langsdorfii, Didymopanax morototoni (Aubl.) Decne. & Planch., Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl.) Marchand, y Vochysia tucanorum C. Mart. Ambas formaciones vegetales sólo compartieron 14 especies de plantas. La familia Fabaceae registró el mayor número de especies. Por otro lado, se evidenció la disimilitud florística típica entre las formaciones forestales y sabánicas del Cerrado en el área de estudio, lo que sugiere un buen estado de conservación del área protegida. No obstante, dadas las características y limitaciones de la evaluación ecológica rápida, se recomienda seguir monitoreando el área de manera a avanzar hacia una mejor comprensión de la dinámica vegetacional local y una mejor valoración de su biodiversidad.
... We conducted the study at a Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN-"Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural") of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS; Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; 20.4990S, 54.6134W; WGS84). The RPPN has an area of 50.11 ha (Imasul 2014), composed of a mosaic of savannah sensu stricto gallery forest and dense savannah forest (Bueno et al. 2013). The RPPN is enclosed by a continuous wire fence, separating it from the surrounding urban area (Fig. 1). ...
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Studying how different variables influence the size and shape of animals’ home ranges helps our understanding of the ecology of individuals and populations. This study aims to assess the effects of sex and body mass on home range size and the sexual differences in the use of terrestrial habitats of a population of aquatic turtles Phrynops geoffroanus from an urban area in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Turtles were captured along a river by active search, occasional encounter and hoop traps. Using individual VHF radio transmitters, 13 individuals (7 females and 6 males) were radio-tracked by homing in on the signal strength of the transmitter. Home ranges were estimated by 95% and 50% core one-dimensional fixed kernel and linear distance method. Home ranges were similar for both sexes (t = -0.50, DF = 12, p = 0.62) and independent of body mass (t = -0.53, DF = 12, p = 0.60). However, females seemed to use terrestrial habitats more than males (females = six recorded locations out of 767 points; males = none), probably to nest. To gain insight on how males and females use their space, it would be useful to focus future studies on the influence of sex in microhabitat selection of Phrynops geoffroanus. Finally, as sex did not influence home range, studying the contribution of other variables – both intrinsic, as age or personality, and extrinsic, as habitat composition or distribution of trophic resources – shaping the home ranges of the species is proposed.
... Soil granulometry is also a key factor in the emergence of species richness and composition patterns in the plant community (Bueno et al. 2013, Decker & Boerner 2003. Soil texture directly influences porosity and consequently the availability of water, the status of P, N, Al and organic matter, as well as the activity of edaphic microorganisms (Galantini & Suñer 2008, Galantini et al. 2004). ...
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Unlike well-known global patterns of plant species richness along altitudinal gradients, in the mountainous areas of the Brazilian Caatinga, species richness and diversity reach their maxima near mountain tops. The causes of this unusual pattern are not well understood, and in particular the role of edaphic factors on plant community assembly along these gradients has not been investigated. Our goal was to assess the role of edaphic factors (fertility and soil texture) on plant community composition and structure on two mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region. In 71 plots (Bodocongó site, twenty-one 200-m 2 plots, 401-680 m asl; Arara site, fifty 100-m 2 plots, 487-660 m asl) we recorded 3114 individuals representing 61 plant species; in addition, at each plot we collected composite soil samples from 0-20 cm depth. Significant altitude-related changes were observed both for community structure and composition, and edaphic variables. A canonical correspondence analysis allowed the distinction of two groups of plots according to species abundances, indicating a preferential habitat distribution of species depending both on altitude and soil variables. Although soil fertility was lowest at the highest altitudes, these areas had high richness and diversity. Conversely, the more fertile foothills were characterized by the dominance of generalist pioneer species. Despite the relatively short alti-tudinal range that characterizes the studied mountains, this study elucidates the role of edaphic factors on the floristic composition and species richness patterns on the mountains of the Brazilian semi-arid region.
... We conducted the study at a Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN-"Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural") of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS; Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil; 20.4990S, 54.6134W; WGS84). The RPPN has an area of 50.11 ha (Imasul 2014), composed of a mosaic of savannah sensu stricto gallery forest and dense savannah forest (Bueno et al. 2013). The RPPN is enclosed by a continuous wire fence, separating it from the surrounding urban area (Fig. 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Studying how different variables influence the size and shape of animals’ home ranges helps our understanding of the ecology of individuals and populations. This study aims to assess the effects of sex and body mass on home range size and the sexual differences in the use of terrestrial habitats of a population of aquatic turtles Phrynops geoffroanus from an urban area in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Turtles were captured along a river by active search, occasional encounter and hoop traps. Using individual VHF radio transmitters, 13 individuals (7 females and 6 males) were radio-tracked by homing in on the signal strength of the transmitter. Home ranges were estimated by 95% and 50% core one-dimensional fixed kernel and linear distance method. Home ranges were similar for both sexes (t = -0.50, DF = 12, p = 0.62) and independent of body mass (t = -0.53, DF = 12, p = 0.60). However, females seemed to use terrestrial habitats more than males (females = six recorded locations out of 767 points; males = none), probably to nest. To gain insight on how males and females use their space, it would be useful to focus future studies on the influence of sex in microhabitat selection of Phrynops geoffroanus . Finally, as sex did not influence home range, studying the contribution of other variables – both intrinsic, as age or personality, and extrinsic, as habitat composition or distribution of trophic resources – shaping the home ranges of the species is proposed.
... In this case, soil chemicalphysical properties are acting as environmental filters, selecting particular groups of species among the phytophysiognomies, which highlights the importance of this component as a determinant of the temporal and spatial species distribution in the Cerrado Biome. Other studies have also demonstrated similar effect with predictions of soils on species richness, diversity, structure, distribution and floristic composition of vegetation in the Cerrado (Bueno et al., 2013;Maracahipes-Santos et al., 2017;Skorupa et al., 2012;Torres et al., 2017). ...
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We tested the hypothesis that topographic/soil gradient and ecological succession are the main factors driving the high tree diversity in a protected area in Amazonia/Cerrado transition. The gradient is a slope composed by savanna-like vegetation of rocky cerrado on the top, typical and dense savanna cerrado in the middle, and cerradão ecotonal forest in the bottom. The ecological succession is a result of Cerrado encroachment when protected from fire. The cerradão and dense cerrado were associated to higher values of clay, silt, Mg and organic matter, whereas the typical and rocky cerrado were the opposite, with highest sand, altitude and Al. The PCA analysis revealed 73% of the influence of such habitat conditions in the species distribution along the slope. The most important determinants of species distribution are the topography and soil properties, specially texture, organic matter and concentrations of Mg. The species richness was higher in the dense and typical cerrado (intermediate slope), probably due to the mutual influence of the top flora of rocky cerrado and the lower gradient flora of cerradão. The influences of topography and soil texture is probably related to the water availability, where the sandy soil and full drainage in the top of the slope provide less water supply to the vegetation (rocky cerrado) compared to the bottom (cerradão). Patches of fire-protected Cerrado encroachment are common in Bacaba Park, with forest and savanna species coexisting. The substitutions of species across space and time, corroborates our hypothesis about the successional and topographic/edaphic variations acting as the main determinant of high tree diversity in the protected area.
... Cerrado (a savanna-like vegetation; Ratter et al. 1997), is a vegetation mosaic composed of different phytophysiognomies, varying from open vegetation with continuous herbaceous and sparse woody plants (cerrado sensu stricto) to a true forest formation (cerradão) (Oliveira and Marquis 2002). Cerrado is characterized by seasonal climate, with slightly dry winter (June to August) and rainy summer (December to February), and dystrophic and acidic soils with extremely low levels of available nutrients and high levels of soluble aluminum (Coutinho 2002;Bueno et al. 2013). The studied species were sampled during the dry period. ...
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Gelatinous fibers (G-layer) occur widely in various organs and plant tissues of both primary and secondary origin, but they are best known in tension wood. Here, we describe the occurrence, distribution patterns, and structural features of G-fibers in non-woody species of xerophytes and hydrophytes in Brazilian Cerrado (dry soil) and Chaco (wet or periodically waterlogged soils). G-fibers were present in all of the studied species, but were more abundant and more developed in xerophytes. They were associated with the phloem of leaves and primary stems and with the xylem of three xerophytic species that exhibited incipient secondary growth. The G-layer was non-lignified and characterized by greater thickness, lower density, and loose appearance in relation to the secondary layers. Under a transmission electron microscope, G-fibers displayed two secondary parietal layers (S1 and S2) in Prosopis rubriflora Hassle. (xerophyte), three secondary layers (S1, S2, and S3) in Eriosema campestre Benth. var. campestre (xerophyte), and a single secondary layer (S1) in Ludwigia leptocarpa Nutt. (hydrophyte). In P. rubriflora, mature G-fibers exhibited a loose-appearing electron-lucent region (transition zone) between G- and S-layers (secondary layers). In addition to mechanical support, this study suggests the involvement of G-fibers in water storage.
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Ant-plant relation is a diverse phenomenon in nature. Generalist and highly specialized interactions are known. Plants benefit from increased reproductive success and herbivory protection, while ants receive shelter and food. Abiotic factors are extensively studied to understand the mirmecofilic relation variations; however, few studies deal with aspects such as morphological differences and availability of resources. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of this on the diversity of species of this interaction. The field work was conducted at Faexp-UFAM, BR-174, Km 30, Amazonas, in 01/2017. Three individuals of two species of plants with extrafloral nectaries (NEF) of primary forest were selected. The ants that visited them were collected. The ratio NEF / leaves / plant species was calculated. 11 genera of ants were identified, with occurrence of 06 morphospecies in Inga stipularis DC. (ratio: 0,5 NEF/leaf), of which 01 occurred regardless of the time, 02 only in the morning, 01 in the afternoon and 02 in the evening. In Piptadenia minutiflora Ducke (ratio: 0,4 NEF/leaf) 13 morphospecies were identified, of which 02 occurred regardless of the time, 05 only in the morning, 03 in the afternoon and 01 at night. It was observed the presence of polidomic nests of Crematogaster sp. in Inga stipularis. The lower diversity of ants present in Inga stipularis, although greater availability of nectars, may be associated with the presence of colonies of Crematogaster. The amount of food resources may not have an exclusive relationship with the diversity of ants, since territorial behavior exerts greater influence on the richness of ants species.
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Coléteres são estruturas secretoras presentes em ápices vegetativos de espécies de diversas famílias botânicas. Estes produzem substâncias viscosas, constituídas por mucilagens ou mistura de mucilagem, terpenos e proteínas, que lubrifica e protege as gemas em início de desenvolvimento. Os coléteres contribuem para o processo adaptativo das plantas que os possuem, principalmente para as inseridas no bioma Cerrado. Em Myrtaceae, recentemente foi comprovado anatomicamente a ocorrência de coléteres. Esta família é composta por cerca de 132 gêneros e 5800 espécies. O presente trabalho apresenta a caracterização morfoanatômica e histoquímica de coléteres dos ápices vegetativos de duas espécies de dois gêneros de Myrtaceae do Cerrado. Meristemas apicais de ramos vegetativos foram selecionados com auxílio de microscópio estereoscópico. As amostras foram fixadas em FAA70, e estocadas em etanol 70%, desidratadas em série etílica e incluídas em metacrilato. Cortes transversais e longitudinais de 7-8 μm foram obtidos em micrótomo rotativo de avanço automático. os cortes foram corados com Azul de Toluidina para caracterização estrutural. Os testes histoquímicos foram realizados em material fresco e incluído em resina. Ambas as espécies apresentaram coléteres. Foram observados coléteres euriformes em Campomanesia sp. e cônicos em Myrcia multiflora. Os testes histoquímicos confirmaram a presença de mucilagem na secreção produzida pelos coléteres, confirmando sua função ecológica de proteção das gemas apicais contra dessecação. Não detectou-se a presença de proteínas nas secreções. As características dos coléteres das duas espécies de Cerrado em estudo não diferem daquelas espécies ocorrentes em outros biomas.
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Este capítulo analisa e descreve as principais fitofisionomias ocorrentes no bioma (ou domínio) do Cerrado. São descritos 11 tipos de vegetação principais, enquadrados em formações florestais (4 tipos), savânicas (4 tipos) e campestres (3 tipos). Considerando também os subtipos, neste sistema são reconhecidas 25 fitofisionomias.
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A revised and updated classification for the families of flowering plants is provided. Many recent studies have yielded increasingly detailed evidence for the positions of formerly unplaced families, resulting in a number of newly adopted orders, including Amborellales, Berberidopsidales, Bruniales, Buxales, Chloranthales, Escalloniales, Huerteales, Nymphaeales, Paracryphiales, Petrosaviales, Picramniales, Trochodendrales, Vitales and Zygophyllales. A number of previously unplaced genera and families are included here in orders, greatly reducing the number of unplaced taxa; these include Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales), Haptanthaceae (Buxales), Peridiscaceae (Saxifragales), Huaceae (Oxalidales), Centroplacaceae and Rafflesiaceae (both Malpighiales), Aphloiaceae, Geissolomataceae and Strasburgeriaceae (all Crossosomatales), Picramniaceae (Picramniales), Dipentodontaceae and Gerrardinaceae (both Huerteales), Cytinaceae (Malvales), Balanophoraceae (Santalales), Mitrastemonaceae (Ericales) and Boraginaceae (now at least known to be a member of lamiid clade). Newly segregated families for genera previously understood to be in other APG-recognized families include Petermanniaceae (Liliales), Calophyllaceae (Malpighiales), Capparaceae and Cleomaceae (both Brassicales), Schoepfiaceae (Santalales), Anacampserotaceae, Limeaceae, Lophiocarpaceae, Montiaceae and Talinaceae (all Caryophyllales) and Linderniaceae and Thomandersiaceae (both Lamiales). Use of bracketed families is abandoned because of its unpopularity, and in most cases the broader circumscriptions are retained; these include Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceace and Xanthorrheaceae (all Asparagales), Passifloraceae (Malpighiales), Primulaceae (Ericales) and several other smaller families. Separate papers in this same volume deal with a new linear order for APG, subfamilial names that can be used for more accurate communication in Amaryllidaceae s.l., Asparagaceace s.l. and Xanthorrheaceae s.l. (all Asparagales) and a formal supraordinal classification for the flowering plants.
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Este trabalho foi realizado na Floresta Nacional de Paraopeba - FLONA, Município de Paraopeba, Estado de Minas Gerais (19º16'19"S e 44º24' 06"W), com os objetivos de conhecer a composição florística do estrato arbóreo de uma formação florestal (cerradão) e avaliar sua semelhança com outros levantamentos florísticos realizados em cerradões de Minas Gerais e São Paulo. Foram encontradas 78 espécies, pertencentes a 66 gêneros, representados em 31 famílias. As famílias mais representativas em números de espécies foram Fabaceae-Leguminosae (22), Myrtaceae (10) e Vochysiaceae (3). Floristicamente, os cerradões são mais próximos às formações florestais que aos Cerrados e poderiam, formalmente, ser classificados como um subtipo dessas formações florestais, visto que 83% das espécies são acessórias e apenas 17%, peculiares.
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Cerrado is the natural vegetation of the poorer soils in central Brazil and covers approximately 23% of the land area of the country. It has a marked seasonal climate and posseses a large characteristic flora of fire-resistant plants including about 800 species of trees and large shrubs. The soils are acidic with low CEC and high levels of Al saturation. They are well drained and the majority are Oxisols (ferrallitic soils). The vegetation ranges from treeless grasslands to closed xeromorphic forests. Attempts have been made to correlate increased density of the woody vegetation with gradients in soil nutrients but the relationship is complex. Two floristically different types of cerrad $\tilde {a}$ o (closed savanna woodland) are associated with mesotrophic and dystrophic soils respectively. Fire is also an important factor in influencing the density of woody vegetation. A distinct commununity of cerrado trees and shrubs occurs in areas where the water table is periodically high. Aluminium is an important factor in cerrado soils and frequently occurs at levels toxic to cultivated plants. On the other hand, the native species are adapted to high Al levels and a number are Al accumulators. Much of the cerrado area is now cultivated. The strategy has been to neutralize the effects of soil acidity and build up soil fertility, mainly by adding P and Ca. Extensive areas have also been turned over to cattle pasture and pine or eucalypt plantations. A plea is made for greater conservation of cerrado areas since, at present, only a small fraction of this vegetation lies within protected reserves.