Genetic Variants Reflecting Higher Vitamin E Status in Men Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Prostate Cancer
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 03/2014; 144(5). DOI: 10.3945/jn.113.189928
Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) plays a key role in the regulation of cell growth and differentiation and has been studied as a potential chemopreventive agent for prostate cancer. The association of serum vitamin E concentrations with cancer risk may be modified by genetic variations in vitamin E-related genes. We examined whether variants in vitamin E-related genes were associated with risk of prostate cancer in a nested case-control study using 483 prostate cancer cases and 542 matched controls of European ancestry from a large U.S. multicenter trial that had available measurements of serum vitamin E concentrations and genotyping of 3 genome-wide association study meta-analysis-identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with circulating vitamin E. ORs and 95% CIs were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer, and serum total cholesterol. Findings suggest lower prostate cancer risk for men whose genotypes reflect higher vitamin E (i.e., α-tocopherol) status. An SNP (rs964184) near budding-site selection protein 13 [BUD13 (yeast)], zinc finger protein 259 (ZNF259), and apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) on 11q23.3 was significantly associated with prostate cancer risk (per-allele OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.58, 0.98; P-trend = 0.03). The association between rs964184 and prostate cancer risk was stronger among homozygous carriers of the minor allele (OR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.83). Another variant, rs11057830 in scavenger receptor class-B member 1 (SCARB1) on 12p24.31, approached statistical significance (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.10, 1.01, P = 0.05; 2 minor allele copies). This study suggests that polymorphisms near BUD13/ZNF259/APOA5, involved in vitamin E transport and metabolism, may be associated with lower risk of prostate cancer. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00002540.
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ABSTRACT: Alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) is plant-derived antioxidant that is essential for human health. Studies with humans and with animal models of vitamin E deficiency established the critical roles of the vitamin in protecting the central nervous system, and especially the cerebellum, from oxidative damage and motor coordination deficits. We review here the established roles of vitamin E in protecting cerebellar functions, as well as emerging data demonstrating the critical roles of alphatocopherol in preserving learning, memory and emotive responses. We also discuss the importance of vitamin E adequacy in seemingly unrelated neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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ABSTRACT: In the last few years, the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) has been investigated in many tumors as predictor of disease aggressiveness and clinical outcome. We searched for relevant articles from 1998 to 2015 about the impact of SNPs in prostate cancer. Particularly, in this article, we review the pathogenetic, prognostic and predictive significance of gene polymorphisms in prostate tumor, providing a brief overview of studies in which the possible role of genetic variants was investigated in clinical settings. Because conflicting results often emerge about the impact of gene polymorphisms in prostate cancer, further larger studies are warranted in order to introduce gene polymorphism into clinical practice as biomarkers.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer (PCa) remains a leading cause of mortality in US men and the prevalence continues to rise world-wide especially in countries where men consume a ‘Western-style’ diet. Epidemiologic, preclinical and clinical studies suggest a potential role for dietary intake on the incidence and progression of PCa. 'This minireview provides an overview of recent published literature with regard to nutrients, dietary factors, dietary patterns and PCa incidence and progression. Low carbohydrates intake, soy protein, omega-3 (w-3) fat, green teas, tomatoes and tomato products and zyflamend showed promise in reducing PCa risk or progression. A higher saturated fat intake and a higher β-carotene status may increase risk. A ‘U’ shape relationship may exist between folate, vitamin C, vitamin D and calcium with PCa risk. Despite the inconsistent and inconclusive findings, the potential for a role of dietary intake for the prevention and treatment of PCa is promising. The combination of all the beneficial factors for PCa risk reduction in a healthy dietary pattern may be the best dietary advice. This pattern includes rich fruits and vegetables, reduced refined carbohydrates, total and saturated fats, and reduced cooked meats. Further carefully designed prospective trials are warranted.
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