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Fibrous structures: An integrative approach to design computation, simulation and fabrication for lightweight, glass and carbon fibre composite structures in architecture based on biomimetic design principles

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... At the University of Stuttgart, the integration of industrial robots into CFW processes for technical fiber systems, glass fibers (GF), and CF composes the Robotic Coreless Filament Winding (RCFW) research stream. 17,18 The ongoing research yields novel industrialized production models exhibiting various automation, scalability, and efficiency. 13,[17][18][19][20][21][22] Continuing this line of research, we investigate materialaware automation strategies for RCFW adapted to the structural and functional needs of lightweight construction. ...
... 17,18 The ongoing research yields novel industrialized production models exhibiting various automation, scalability, and efficiency. 13,[17][18][19][20][21][22] Continuing this line of research, we investigate materialaware automation strategies for RCFW adapted to the structural and functional needs of lightweight construction. The challenge to develop smarter RCFW construction methods extends our research scope beyond file-to-factory application, into the field of cyber-physical systems (CPS). ...
... Toward construction-ready RCFW CPS Recent research has sought to develop manufacturing methods and verify them at building scale, utilizing technology transfer from the composite industry to construction. Interesting for our work are several academia 13,17,19 and industry [30][31][32] applications that have adopted CFW to reduce the need for formwork in AM construction elements. With the reduction of formwork come limitations in the types of producible structures. ...
Article
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Digitization and automation are essential tools to increase productivity and close significant added-value deficits in the building industry. Additive manufacturing (AM) is a process that promises to impact all aspects of building construction profoundly. Of special interest in AM is an in-depth understanding of material systems based on their isotropic or anisotropic properties. The presented research focuses on fiber-reinforced polymers, with anisotropic mechanical properties ideally suited for AM applications that include tailored structural reinforcement. This article presents a cyber-physical manufacturing process that enhances existing robotic coreless Filament Winding (FW) methods for glass and carbon fiber-reinforced polymers. Our main contribution is the complete characterization of a feedback-based, sensor-informed application for process monitoring and fabrication data acquisition and analysis. The proposed AM method is verified through the fabrication of a large-scale demonstrator. The main finding is that implementing AM in construction through cyber-physical robotic coreless FW leads to more autonomous prefabrication processes and unlocks upscaling potential. Overall, we conclude that material-system-aware communication and control are essential for the efficient automation and design of fiber-reinforced polymers in future construction.
... The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012 [43,44] was a small-scale monocoque structure ( Fig. 1a; Fig. 2a). The CFW application utilized an industrial robot arm geometrically coupled with a horizontal turntable. ...
... Fiber rovings were wound between grooves in the edges of a modular metallic winding tool. The technology was geared towards placing G/CFRP along digitally designed and structurally evaluated loadbearing paths [44,45]. ...
... One way of upscaling is prefabrication. It is essential for research to focus on industrialized prefabrication for large-scale building components rather than monocoque structures (e.g., the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012 [43,44]) which are currently still limited in scale by the work envelope of the machines utilized. Another essential requirement is to allow geometry variation yet ensure reasonable rationalization for an efficient fabrication process. ...
Article
Novel fabrication methods are necessary to capitalize on the high strength-to-weight ratio of composites engineered for construction applications. This paper presents prefabrication strategies for geometrically-complex building elements wound out of Glass and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (G/CFRP). The research focuses on Robotic Coreless Filament Winding (RCFW), a technology that eliminates formwork, proposing upscaling and industrialization strategies combined with updated robot programming and control methods. Our application addresses the prefabrication of hyperboloid, tubular components with differentiated geometry and fiber layout. We examine how the proposed methods enabled the industrial prefabrication of a building-scale G/CFRP dome structure and discuss the industrial process relative to key fabrication parameters. Highlighting the interdisciplinary nature of the research, we envisage future directions and applications for RCFW in construction. Overall, we find that synergy between academia and industry is essential to meeting research, productivity, and certification goals in the rather conservative building industry.
... Alternatively, multiple robots can be used [18]. The fibers are impregnated remotely by a resin bath and then run freely to the robot end-effector [19], which usually consists of a metallic ring to catch the fibers and a nozzle to position the fiber bundles [20]. The drawbacks that characterize such equipment include dripping resin from traveling impregnated fibers and potential points of contact that can damage fiber rovings. ...
... The end-effector was designed to house the impregnation unit ( Figure 3 (17)) and the sensor equipment ( Figure 3 (3,4,20,21)). This increases process robustness by incorporating process parameters of fiber tension and fiber impregnation into the digital robot control model. ...
Article
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The manufacturing process of robotic coreless filament winding has great potential for efficient material usage and automation for long-span lightweight construction applications. Design methods and quality control rely on an adequate digital representation of the fabrication parameters. The most influencing parameters are related to the resin impregnation of the fibers and the applied fiber tension during winding. The end-effector developed in this study allows efficient resin impregnation, which is controlled online by monitoring the induced fiber tension. The textile equipment was fully integrated into an upscaled nine-axis robotic winding setup. The cyber-physical fabrication method was verified with an application-oriented large-scale proof-of-concept demonstrator. From the subsequent analysis of the obtained datasets, a characteristic pattern in the winding process parameters was identified.
... Alternative approaches to the use of composite materials in architecture and construction, based on the study of fibrous systems in nature, have been investigated by the Institute for Computation al Design and Construction (ICD) and the Institute for Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart. Since the logic of CFRP and GFRP is quite closely related to that of natural fibrous systems , integrative computational design and simulation methods (Reichert et al. 2014) and novel manufacturing processes for G/CFRP, which facilitate automated tailored fiber placement in terms of quantity, direction and orientation while also keeping the production costs relatively low (La Magna, Waimer, and Knippers 2014), were developed by ICD and ITKE researchers. Such methods were then applied for the realization of demonstrators which would showcase principles of locally adapted fiber layups in a single layer shell structure as well as in a composite segmented shell with highly differentiated components (Parascho et al. 2015). ...
... Alternative approaches to the use of composite materials in architecture and construction, based on the study of fibrous systems in nature, have been investigated by the Institute for Computation al Design and Construction (ICD) and the Institute for Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) of the University of Stuttgart. Since the logic of CFRP and GFRP is quite closely related to that of natural fibrous systems , integrative computational design and simulation methods (Reichert et al. 2014) and novel manufacturing processes for G/CFRP, which facilitate automated tailored fiber placement in terms of quantity, direction and orientation while also keeping the production costs relatively low (La Magna, Waimer, and Knippers 2014), were developed by ICD and ITKE researchers. Such methods were then applied for the realization of demonstrators which would showcase principles of locally adapted fiber layups in a single layer shell structure as well as in a composite segmented shell with highly differentiated components (Parascho et al. 2015). ...
Conference Paper
This research demonstrates the development of a hybrid FRP-timber wall and slab system for multi-story structures. Bespoke computational tools and robotic fabrication processes allow for adaptive placement of material according to specific local requirements of the structure thus representing a resource-efficient alternative to established modes of construction. This constitutes a departure from pre-digital, material-intensive building methods, based on isotropic materials towards genuinely digital building systems using lightweight, hybrid composite elements. Design and fabrication methods build upon previous research on lightweight fiber structures conducted at the University of Stuttgart and expand it towards inhabitable, multi-story building systems. Interdisciplinary design collaboration based on reciprocal computational feedback allows for the concurrent consideration of architectural, structural, fabrication and material constraints. The robotic coreless filament winding process only uses minimal, modular formwork and allows for the efficient production of morphologically differentiated building components. The research results were demonstrated through Maison Fibre, developed for the 17th Architecture Biennale in Venice. Situated at the Venice Arsenale, the installation is composed of 30 plate like elements and depicts a modular, further extensible scheme. While this first implementation of a hybrid multi-story building system relies on established glass and carbon fiber composites, the methods can be extended towards a wider range of materials ranging from ultra-high-performance mineral fiber systems to renewable natural fibers.
... Since 2012, several pavilions and building demonstrators have served to investigate the system's possibilities. The manufacturing process of CFW for the fabrication of composite structures requires computational design, integrating different simulation methods [8], resulting in relatively low production costs [9]. The research questions investigated by the demonstrators are very diverse. ...
... The research questions investigated by the demonstrators are very diverse. Some demonstrators explored the fibre interaction through digital simulation or the discretization of carbon and glass fibres to achieve different stiffness gradients [8]. Others focused on extending the fabrication method by implementing a membrane scaffolding system to achieve synclastic curvatures [10] or extending the fabrication span using mobile robots [11]. ...
Article
Coreless filament winding is a robotic fabrication technique in which conventional filament winding is modified to reduce the core material to its minimum. This method was showcased and developed through a series of pavilions demonstrating its potential to create lightweight structures. The latest project, Maison Fibre, goes one step further and adapts the fabrication into a hybrid structure combining fibre-polymer composites (FPC) with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) to allow for walkability. The result is the first multi-storey building system fabricated with this novel technique. During the integrative design process of the slab system, the optimum fibre layup was negotiated between the timber support span, load induction, boundary conditions, and material amount required. A total of four iterations of the hybrid component were load tested and compared with the maximum enveloped forces resulting from the global structural simulation. The full-scale load tests were used to calibrate the refined structural simulation of the slab components. The experimental process allowed for material reduction and validated the structural system's capability to withstand the design forces. In addition, the fibre layup was tailored and load adapted for the non-tested wall and slab components of the installation using the test results and achieving further material optimisation. This publication describes the integrative design process of the hybrid slab system from initial concepts to the iterative optimisation of the structural system, demonstrating its potential for future applications.
... However, the opportunity to utilize prototyping in biomimicry to address abstraction and transfer as well as cross domain collaboration is not yet described in a way that provides general prototyping guidance to practitioners of biomimicry design as we have in other design and engineering domains. Architectural scale prototype of engineered structure demonstrating biomimicry design principle of lobster shell structure using fibrous composite materials assembled through robotic fabrication [57]. research. ...
... Architectural scale prototype of engineered structure demonstrating biomimicry design principle of lobster shell structure using fibrous composite materials assembled through robotic fabrication[57]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A key challenge faced by biomimicry practitioners is making the conceptual leap between biology and design, particularly regarding collaborating across these knowledge domains and developing and evaluating design principles abstracted from biology. While many tools and resources to support biomimicry design exist, most largely rely on semantic techniques supporting analogical translation of information between biology and design. However, the challenges of evaluation and collaboration are common in design practice and frequently addressed through prototyping. This study explores the utility of prototyping in the unique context of biomimicry by investigating its impact on the abstraction and transfer of design principles derived from biology as well as on cross-domain collaboration between biologists and designers. Following a survey exploring current practices of practitioners, in depth interviews provided detailed accounts of project experiences that leveraged prototyping. Four primary themes were observed: (1) Approximation; (2) The Prototyping Principle; (3) Synthesis and Testing; and (4) Validation. These themes introduce a unique abstraction and transfer process based on form-finding and collaborative performance evaluation in contrast to the widely accepted semantic language-based approaches. Our findings illustrate how designers and engineers can leverage a prototyping skillset in order to develop boundary objects between the fields of biology and design to navigate challenges uniquely associated with the biomimicry approach.
... ICD and ITKE have thus explored several bottom-up strategies over the last decade, following an integrative interdisciplinary design approach. (Reichert et al. 2014 Building on top of previous investigations, the research in this paper showcases the advancement of design and modelling of long-span, coreless-wound, load-bearing fibre composite structures, by the example of design and development of the 2019 BUGA fibre pavilion in Heilbronn, Germany. (Fig. 1) The presented approach merges robotic fabrication constraints, architectural design input, organizational requirements and material principles in one process loop. ...
Chapter
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The aim of this research is to showcase processes and methodologies for the design and development of long-span, core-less wound structural building elements for architectural applications. Departing from established, iterative design methods and a linear digital toolchain, integrative design strategies incorporate parameters like material and fabrication constraints, structural performance and architectural design from the very beginning, establishing feedback loops. This approach seems particularly promising with the architectural application of high performance, long-span fibre components in mind, given their vast range of different and often antagonistic requirements. Building upon previous research in the realm of fibre composites conducted at the Institute for Computational Design (ICD), novel strategies and methods for the design and development of long-span fibre composite components are discussed, based on the 2019 BUGA fibre pavilion, a full scale glass and carbon fibre structure developed for the Bundesgartenschau - a garden fair in Heilbronn, Germany.
... CFRP is a well-researched domain, with current research in fibre technologies, filament deposition and computer-controlled robotic manufacturing that investigate novel approaches to the geometric, material and structural use of fibres. These include CFRP composites formed as discrete material expressions (Menges 2016), in core-less fibre winding (Reichert et al. 2014;Menges 2014;Knippers et al. 2015;Prado et al. 2014), modular fibre winding (Wit et al. 2017;Wit and Kim 2016), fibre placements on pneumatic volumes Doerstelmann et al. 2015), onsite tensile expressions woven by semi-autonomous mini robots Yablonina and Menges 2018, or flying robotic deposition (Mirjan et al. 2016). It is significant that carbon-fibre applications commonly require curing and baking to achieve optimal structural stability, resulting in limited fabrication scales, modularity or prefabrication for adoption to architecture projects that require both tension and compression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Among current adoptions of standard industrial robotic arms for automation and mass customisation in the building industry, robotic fabrication is of interest for bespoke manufacturing and advancing mobile and onsite construction processes. The use of robotic arms can be of significance particularly where access and site conditions limit further construction of building elements to be inserted in an existing architectural fabric. This paper introduces research and development of robotic carbon-fibre winding of an integrated ceiling structure to support open and flexible workspaces scenarios. The project Systems Reef 1.0 explores the potential and viability for an integrated infrastructure that expands standard office-ceiling grid systems to support flexible workspace scenario and the agency of networked, dynamic and self-organising teams. To this extent, multiple soffit-hung, rotational and retractable data booms provide fibre-optic data, electrical cabling and integrated lighting. Through geometrically complex, fibre-reinforced building elements that are robotically manufactured onsite, a new distribution system for data and light can be provided to support individual and multi-group collaborations in a contemporary open-plan office for maximum flexibility. In this paper, we discuss research into the development of robotic carbon-fibre threading sequences and physical demonstrators for an integrated ceiling structure that takes into account local ceiling constraints. Using a KUKA KR10 industrial robot and mobile platform, carbon-fibre threading prototypes were integrated with onsite conditions and synthesised in four physical demonstrators that support data provision for flexible desking in open-plan office environment where prefabrication of large-sized building modules is restricted due to access constraints. The paper discusses challenges in integrating robotic carbon-fibre threading, data-driven occupancy, structural performance and results for workspace flexibility, and concludes with an outlook towards future potentials.
... To be more specific, in our built environment more efficient usage of materials have been a point of research interest for multiple engineers and researchers. From development of 3D printed topological optimal concrete slabs ( Jipa et al. 2016), to adaptive robotic carving in wood surfaces( (Brugnaro and Hanna 2017) to the deployment of self-supporting pavilions composed of fiber-composites advocating for lighter structures (Reichert et al. 2014); these research developments focused mostly on understanding material's intrinsic qualities and performance to expand and innovate its use, creating more controlled results, with the aid of computational tools. ...
Thesis
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Pattern generation in automated knitting systems has always relied on following knit intrinsic row-column structures, resulting in traditional, grid-like patterns (Narayanan et al. 2018). In order to break from these conventions, researchers began experimenting with mesh typology structures to derive irregular patterns that could also be translated to machine instructions(Popescu et al. 2018; Narayanan et al. 2019). Influenced by these existent methodologies, this dissertation asks the question of how can a segmentation method can be applied to mesh typologies of non-grid nature to create irregular knitting patterns? The aim of this paper is to introduce a new approach to create irregular knitting patterns of any 3D geometry, using a remeshing tool and a crawling algorithm as a segmentation method. The remeshing tool is used to transform a geometry into an isotropic triangular mesh. Then, an algorithm is performed to divide the geometry into several ribbon-like segments, resulting in a composition of mesh strips that can be instructed for stitch generation of our resultant irregular pattern. In order to validate this methodology, several 3D geometries of different complexities have been tested and visualized in Unity engine platform. The results prove this method is partially successful to produce irregular knitting patterns that may not be able to be fabricated but sets the stage for further development.
... Consequential research on composites and coreless filament-wound structures has been conducted at the University of Stuttgart since 2012. The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012 (Reichert et al., 2014) proposed a monocoque FRP structure translating biological fibrous morphology into a pavilion-scale installation. Longer spans and increased efficiency in load distribution were achieved with the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14. ...
Chapter
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Synergy between academia and industry stands at the core of the BUGA Fibre Pavilion, a research-driven project focused on a novel, robotically-fabricated composite building system suitable for long-span architectural applications. Lightweight, load-bearing elements were fabricated entirely out of Glass and Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymers (G/CFRP), to complete this largescale composite structure at the Bundesgartenschau 2019 in Germany, the first building of this kind. Accelerating development in the field of research into composite building structures at the University of Stuttgart, the project integrated design-engineering that conceptually and technically transferred biological principles from natural fibre morphology into architecture.
... In the last ten years, the growing computing power has been complemented by the possibility of storing and processing in real-time an unprecedented amount of data, the Big Data. These have opened the 'second digital turn', in which design has moved away from the mathematical determinism of modern science to appropriate heuristics through evolutionary design, optimisation processes and adaptive digital fabrication techniques (Reichert et al. 2014;Carpo 2017). ...
Article
This paper presents the methodology adopted in an application of shape optimisation and digital fabrication conducted in the field of wooden furniture design. Experience has allowed the authors to define the models that support the creative process, identifying their respective peculiarities and their contribution to the design process as a process of experimentation, which takes place between digital and physical, not only defining the form of the idea but also correctly representing the tested model and its use, and allowing a dialogue between the stylistic requirements of the designed shape and the technical needs of the built one. The phases of the methodology are applied to the project of furnishing the lounge bar and restaurant area of the Oasis Skyview hotel in Doha (Qatar). The coordinated dialogue between the different models allows the definition of the design project, creating a workflow that significantly reduces the distance between the project and construction.
... CFRP is a well-researched domain, with current research in fibre technologies, filament deposition and computer-controlled robotic manufacturing that investigate novel approaches to the geometric, material and structural use of fibres. These include CFRP composites formed as discrete material expressions (Menges 2016), in core-less fibre winding (Reichert et al. 2014;Menges 2014;Knippers et al. 2015;Prado et al. 2014), modular fibre winding (Wit et al. 2017;Wit and Kim 2016), fibre placements on pneumatic volumes Doerstelmann et al. 2015), onsite tensile expressions woven by semi-autonomous mini robots Yablonina and Menges 2018, or flying robotic deposition (Mirjan et al. 2016). It is significant that carbon-fibre applications commonly require curing and baking to achieve optimal structural stability, resulting in limited fabrication scales, modularity or prefabrication for adoption to architecture projects that require both tension and compression. ...
... Mostly relying on expensive and time-consuming production techniques such as manual layup, closed moulding processes, or pultrusion for the realization of both large scale structural elements, as in the BMW Guggenheim Lab (Schittich 2014), and non-structural elements, as the façade of the recently completed SFMOMA (Sterret and Piantavigna 2018), these materials are still striving to find their place in the commonly used materials palette for architecture. In recent years several research projects-focusing on integrative computational design as well as simulation and fabrication processes for fibre composite construction (Reichert et al. 2014)-were conducted by the Institute for Computational Design and Construction (ICD) and the Institute of Building Structures and Structural Design (ITKE) at the University of Stuttgart. ...
Conference Paper
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This research showcases the integrated design process and development of an ultra-light-weight, composite dome structure as a case study for the investigation of high-performance, long-span, fibre-reinforced-polymer (FRP) based building systems. Particular emphasis is given to the exploration of design strategies and the exposure of multidirectional flows of information across different fields under the premise of going beyond preliminary investigations on a demonstrator level, towards full scale architectural applications. Building upon previous research in the realm of lightweight fiber composites conducted at the University of Stuttgart, novel design strategies and fabrication methods are discussed. Based on the design and development of the Buga Fibre Pavilion for the Heilbronn Bundesgartenschau 2019, previously prototypically tested processes are further developed and implemented at a larger scale which attempts to reduce the necessary formwork to a minimum while achieving a flexible and scalable building system.
... As architecture rarely goes into serial production and almost every project is a unique structure, complex formwork often defies the economical applicability of FRP in architectural projects. Still, FRP also show great potential for strong and lightweight structures in architecture (Reichert et al. 2014;Doerstelmann et al. 2015;Vasey et al. 2015); (Felbrich et al. 2017;Bodea et al. 2020;Kayser et al. 2019). In particular carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) can reach impressive tensile strength, much higher than steel wires, while their densities are much lower (Liu et al. 2015). ...
Article
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This research presents a cooperative heterogeneous multi-robot fabrication system for the spatial winding of filament materials. The system is based on the cooperation of a six-axis robotic arm and a customized 2 + 2 axis CNC gantry system. Heterogeneous multi-robot cooperation allows to deploy the strategy of Spatial Winding: a new method of sequential spatial fiber arrangement, based on directly interlocking filament-filament connections, achieved through wrapping one filament around another. This strategy allows to create lightweight non-regular fibrous space frame structures. The new material system was explored through physical models and digital simulations prior to deployment with the proposed robotic fabrication process. An adaptable frame setup was developed which allows the fabrication of a variety of geometries within the same frame. By introducing a multi-step curing process that integrates with the adaptable frame, the iterative production of continuous large-scale spatial frame structures is possible. This makes the structure's scale agnostic of robotic reach and reduces the necessary formwork to the bare minimum. Through leveraging the capacities of two cooperating machines, the system allows to counteract some of their limitations. A flexible, dynamic and collaborative fabrication system is presented as a strategy to tailor the fiber in space and expand the design possibilities of lightweight fiber structures. The artifact of the proposed fabrication process is a direct expression of the material tectonics and the robotic fabrication system.
... Os artigos demonstram que as aplicações da modelagem paramétrica estão atreladas a um conhecimento teórico que embasam protocolos e parâmetros para a geração de resultados. Por exemplo, no uso da biomimética como componente da conformação no The Scales Biodigital System Pavilion abordado no artigo de Estévez & Navarro (2017), também no artigo de Reichert et al. (2014) que utiliza a tesselação (padrão têxtil, nesse caso) aplicada ao desenvolvimento de uma conformação com auxílio da robótica para a fabricação de um protótipo ou no artigo de Stavric & Wiltsch (2016) que aborda a dobra como forma de modificar a forma da envoltória afim de gerar uma tesselação. ...
Conference Paper
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The materialization of architectural forms uses new processes aided by digital manufacturing techniques (FD). Five FD techniques stand out: sectioning (serial planes), tessellation, folding, contouring, and forming. This article's objective is to characterize the state of the art of these techniques, from 2009 to 2020 in national and international research bases. The Systematic Literature Review is used from three stages and nine protocol phases. The results indicate the techniques, methods, computer simulations, and applicability in more recurrent materials.
... Some researchers have started engaging with computation and biology for architectural applications. Reichert et al. (2014) talk about integrative computational design methodology while using a robotic implementation of fiber-composite systems. They integrate biological principles such as lobster's pincher claw with material and structural analysis while robotic filament winding within a coherent computational design process. ...
... In addition, the examples provided by these surveys point to one-layered responsive envelope elements. In academia, material studies are conducted to develop material-environmental driven responsive elements through hydrodynamics [14,15] and thermodynamics [16,17]. These studies aim to utilize energy that is available in the environment of a system to do work, also known as exergy systems [18][19][20], to actuate responsive behaviors. ...
Article
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Many operable and complementary layers make up a vernacular adaptive envelope. With vertical operable translucent textile blinds, horizontal foldable glass doors with thin structural framing, wooden horizontal foldable frames with vertical rotational shutters, plants with dynamic densities, humidity concentrations, and opaque operable textile blinds forming the deep responsive façades of many Southern European buildings as part of the building envelope. This low-tech configuration utilizes behavioral human interaction with the building. On their own, these are singular mechanisms, but as coupled systems, they become highly advanced adaptive building systems used to balance temperature sensations. The research investigates such an adaptive envelope structure through identification of operable elements and their thermal and energy performances through computer simulation models. The designed research computational model includes assessment of heat reception and transfer, resultant operative temperatures, and adaptive comfort sensations. The aim of the research and the material presented in this paper is understanding the performance of native, local, low-tech systems as an opposing approach to contemporary high-tech, complex mechanical systems. The study finds that the operable elements and various compositions make a significant, yet less than anticipated, impact on adaptive thermal comfort temperatures.
... Masselter et al. zeigen 2016, wie Ergebnisse aus biomimetischen Untersuchungen an dreidimensionalen Pflanzenteilen, zum Beispiel an Astgabeln, zur Optimierung von faserverstärkten Bauteilen genutzt werden können [23]. Neben Pflanzen können auch Tiere wie der amerikanische Hummer (Homarus americanus) auf Grund der Differenzierung in Geometrie und Materialität seines Exoskelettes als Inspirationsquelle für die Entwicklung biomimetischer Konstruktionsprinzipien dienen[24]. ...
... Introduction of Coreless Filament Winding (CFW) enabled novel applications of fibre composites beyond conventional aerospace and car manufacturing scenarios towards the fabrication of architectural elements. Research conducted in this field (Reichert et al. 2014;Doerstelmann et al. 2015;Vasey et al. 2015;Felbrich et al. 2017;Bodea et al. 2020;Solly 2020;Kayser et al. 2019) relied on the additive deposition of filament layers for fabrication of complex geometries with minimal formwork requirements. The majority of precedent projects deployed simple reconfigurable frames contrary to solid moulds used in conventional industrial applications (Prado et al. 2014) (fig. ...
Conference Paper
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A cooperative multi-robot system was developed to leverage the fibre's potential to act as formwork and allows to create wound filament connections which reduce the necessary formwork to a bare minimum. The developed process results in a novel ty-pology of lightweight fibrous space frame structures. This paper contextualizes the presented work and introduces design methods for the developed spatial filament winding process. Syntax logics and rules were informed by geometric dependencies and fabrication-driven constraints. Computational design tools were developed to simulate the interdependent material behaviour and structurally inform the created artefacts. The proposed strategies and fabrication system expand the design possibilities of lightweight fibre structures and demonstrate the potentials of tailoring the fibres in space.
... In architecture and design contexts, morphology refers to the topological continuity and diversity of form and its continuous transformation [19,65]. For instance, to study the formal transformation of structures, Reichert et al. [73] developed an architectural scale fiber-reinforced polymer pavilion based on architectural morphology and biomimetic design principles. By abstracting and translating biological role models into design strategies, they have created generative algorithms for optimizing and exploring novel design solutions. ...
Conference Paper
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As design thinking shifted away from conventional methods with the rapid adoption of computer-aided design and fabrication technologies, architects have been seeking ways to initiate a comprehensive dialogue between the virtual and the material realms. Current methodologies do not offer embodied workflows that utilize the feedback obtained through a subsequent transition process between physical and digital design. Therefore, narrowing the separation between these two platforms remains as a research problem. This literature review elaborates the divide between physical and digital design, testing and manufacturing techniques in the morphological process of architectural form. We first review the digital transformation in the architectural design discourse. Then, we proceed by introducing a variety of methods that are integrating digital and physical workflows and suggesting an alternative approach. Our work unveils that there is a need for empirical research with a focus on integrated approaches to create intuitively embodied experiences for architects. ACM Link: https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=3290605.3300290
... A sensible shaping process of the material, with regards to material waste, machine time and manual labour, is a driver for various research projects. Some recent research projects address this barrier with robotic filament winding techniques, developing FRP material systems that focus on the single fibre bundle (Prado et al. 2017;Reichert et al. 2014). This research develops an alternative approach focusing on the fibre constituent of the material, used largely under the form of fabrics; it suggests the integration fabric materiality as a FRP material system (FM-FRP). ...
Article
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FRP material properties offer unique opportunities for architecture, but their mould-based standard forming processes stand in contrast to contemporary practices, aiming for variation and surface articulation. Fabric materiality FRP (FM-FRP) is an alternative approach to the design and fabrication of architectural FRP that enhances the textile qualities of the fibre material in the composite. Through integration of key textile attributes and a set methodology, two FM-FRP material systems are developed. Released from the necessity of moulds, design principles of biological composites can be integrated into synthetic FRP shaping processes and resilient properties show. A new materiality of FRP emerges, blurring boundaries between material and structure. Functionality is achieved by the intricate spatial distribution of voids and matter, resulting in highly porous volumetric FRP material. Taking-up on the approach and terminology of material-science, a new understanding of FM-FRP as architectured material is suggested. It opens a new path for its development towards enhanced functionalities, to enable future more sustainable application for the architectural field.
... development of integrated design, engineering and fabrication methods that allow the harnessing of the material characteristics of fibrous materials for building construction while reducing the need for surface moulds , Waimer, 2013, Reichert, 2014. The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 showcased the ability to make a dual-layered composite structural system from highly differentiated components using a 'coreless filament winding' system and reconfigurable winding frame . ...
... Machine toolpath generation for free-form surfaces has been a critical area of investigation for decades [15]. New materials and especially new computercontrolled manufacturing techniques have been formulated to produce consistent and reproducible quality structures [21]. One key area that still remains to be optimized is the path in which the robot travels to deposit composites on the (typically curved) surface. ...
... Finally, the composite material gains strength during resin hardening and curing in the oven. In the previous studies, an integrated component design-fabricationconstruction strategy was explored to implement CFW into architecture [6][7][8][9]. With this approach, architectural morphologies with larger scales are decomposed and rationalized into a series of sub-construction modules. ...
Article
The applications of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites extend rapidly along with the development of new manufacturing techniques. However, due to the complexities introduced by the material and fabrication processes, the application of conventional structural design methods for construction members has been significantly challenging. This paper presents an alternative methodology to find optimum fiber layups for a given tube-shape geometry via a graphical optimization strategy based on structural performance requirements. The proposed technique employs simplified shell element models based on classical lamination theory (CLT) to avoid explicit fiber modeling in the FEA simulations. Lamination parameters are utilized to generate the reduced stiffness matrices for continuous multi-layer FRP lamination. The fiber layup of the component is retrieved from the optimal lamination parameters that maximize the structural performance. The case study results demonstrate that the developed method provides compact solutions, linking the structural design requirements with optimal fiber orientations and volumetric proportions. In addition, the determined solutions can be interpreted directly by the winding fabrication settings.
... With the introduction of coreless filament winding, two significant advantages are achieved: the first is the overcoming of geometrical limitations, as not only synclastic but also double-curved surfaces or free spanning fibres can be realized; the second being the reduction of waste material from the core towards a more sustainable method. The new technique was showcased and incrementally developed through a series of pavilions investigating different fabrication features and their structural and architectural implications ( Fig. 1 [7][8][9][10][11]). ...
Article
The BUGA Fibre Pavilion was built in 2019 in the Bundesgartenschau (National Gardening exhibition) at Heilbronn, Germany. The pavilion consists of modular fibre-polymer composite components made out of glass and carbon fibres with an epoxy resin matrix. The fabrication technique employed, called coreless filament winding (CFW), is a variant from conventional filament winding where the core is reduced to minimum frame support. The fibres are wound between these frames, freely spanning and creating the resulting geometry through fibre interaction. For the structural design of these components, conventional modelling and engineering methods were not sufficient as the system cannot be adequately characterized in the early stage. Therefore, a more experimental design approach is proposed for the BUGA Fibre Pavilion, where different levels of detailing and abstraction in the FE simulations are combined with prototyping and structural testing. This paper shows the procedure followed for the design and validation of the structural fibre components. In this process, the simulations are used as a design tool rather than a way to predict failure, while mechanical testing served for the verification and validation of the structural capacity.
... This barrier is reflected in numerous contemporary research projects, seeking for alternative, adaptive, reconfigurable moldless forming processes and material systems in architecture [9][10][11]. In fiber composites, a major approach to alternative shaping is tackled at the fiber-bundle level, through robotic filament winding fabrication [12,13]. plastic deformation of extensive micro-cracking, rather than general buck gether with the high ratio of density to flexural stiffness make FRP materia suitable domain for the development of such solutions [30]. ...
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L_FMFRP is an architectural fiber composite surface element with an airy internal structure and variable section. This architectured material is the product of an alternative design and fabrication process that integrates fabric materiality, suggesting moldless shaping of the material through pleating and layering. Initial study of the mechanical properties of the element showed a structural behavior that would satisfy the requirement for schematic architectural cladding configurations, indicating a unique hysteretic behavior of the material. This paper further investigates the hysteretic capacities of L-FMFRP, examining the behavior under repeated loading and the effect of its internal material architecture. Parallels to entangled materials are suggested for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon, and the potential future application as an energy-absorbent material for façade cladding is outlined.
... This allows occurring loads to be transferred directly into the continuous fibers in a form-fit manner, leading to high utilization of the fibers' mechanical properties. Depending on the application, the fiber skeletons are used either as pure skeletal structures [1][2][3] or as local reinforcements within molded parts or laminates [4][5][6]. In both cases they generally serve to carry significant mechanical loads while minimizing the component's mass [4,7,8]. ...
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This work aims to enhance and validate a systematic approach for the structural finite element (FE) analysis of thermoplastic impregnated 3D filament winding structures (fiber skeletons). The idealized modeling of geometrically complex fiber skeletons used in previous publications is refined by considering additional characteristic dimensions and investigating their mechanical influence. Moreover, the modeling approach is transferred from the meso- to the macro-level in order to reduce modeling and computational effort. The properties of meso- and macro-level FE models are compared using the example of simple loop specimens. Based on the results, respective application fields are defined. In the next step, the same modeling approach is applied to a more complex, three-dimensional specimen—the inclined loop. For its macro-level FE model, additional material characterization and modeling, as well as enhancements in the modeling of the geometry, are proposed. Together with previously determined effective composite properties of fiber skeletons, these results are validated in experimental tensile tests on inclined loop specimens.
... CFW aims for an alternative fabrication method in architecture that produces less waste material during manufacturing [9] and, at the same time, creates geometries inspired by natural fibrous systems' biomimetic principles [10]. The design process of CFW structures requires an integrated approach of computational design, simulation and fabrication methods [11]. ...
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Coreless filament winding (CFW) is a novel fabrication technique that utilises fibre-polymer composite materials to efficiently produce filament wound structures in architecture while reducing manufacturing waste. Previous projects have been successfully built with glass and carbon fibre, proving their potential for lightweight construction systems. However, in order to move towards more sustainable architecture, it is crucial to consider replacing carbon fibre’s high environmental impact with other material systems, such as natural fibre. This paper evaluates several fibres, resin systems, and their required CFW fabrication adjustments towards designing and fabricating a bio-composite structure: the LivMatS Pavilion. The methods integrate structural design loops with material evaluation and characterisation, including small-scale and large-scale structural testing at progressive stages. The results demonstrate the interactive decision-making process that combines material characterisation with structural simulation feedback, leveraged to evaluate and optimise the structural design. The built pavilion is proof of the first successful coreless filament wound sustainable natural fibres design, and the developed methods and findings open up further research directions for future applications.
... The resulting sheets show high fracture toughness and density specific properties. Moreover, the adaptation of the basic principles of fibre arrangement in crustacean exoskeletons led to the development of fibre-reinforced epoxy panels with increased toughness [19] as well as large-scale, lightweight fibre-reinforced architectural structures [20]. Other approaches to fibre-reinforced plastics with enhanced impact properties were inspired by the babassu nut (Orbignya speciosa), the pericarp of the green coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and red rhubarb (Rheum rhabarbarum L.) petioles and involve the combination of different natural fibre types, fibre alignments and matrices in graded composite panels [21][22][23]. ...
Article
Due to good density specific mechanical properties and low carbon footprint, natural fibre-reinforced plastic composites made from fleeces and felts are frequently used as automotive interior parts. The industry targets further mass reduction. Following a biomimetic technology-pull approach, natural fibre-reinforced polypropylene plates with improved lightweight potential were produced using compression moulding. Best results were obtained for a sandwich structure with thin, unidirectional flax fibre layers surrounding a needle felt based core. It was inspired by the carapace structure of the red-eared slider Trachemys scripta elegans. The lay-up performed well, not only with a high density specific flexural stiffness of 2.33 GPa1/3 cm³/g and strength of 9.46 MPa1/2 cm³/g and energy dissipation but also through less abrupt failure due to an asymmetric orientation of unidirectional fibres in the two face sheets. Combined with a mass-reduced needle felt as a core, this concept displays a promising and unconventional approach for further mass reduced, sustainable interior panels used as non-visible and visible design elements in the vehicle.
... Also, using additive technologies to use eatable materials in architectural design is increasingly popular and appealing [87,88]. However, numerous attempts of houses 3D printing in real-scale have been made in multiple materials, such as concrete, soil, clay [89], and structural elements in such materials as sand-print, steel [90] and, carbon fibre [91], bamboo and wood-based materials [92,93]. ...
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Contemporary interdisciplinary design requires architects' knowledge and cooperation with such fields as construction, material engineering, fabrication methods, and knowledge in optimisation of the design process, production, and minimisation of used materials and energy. Following the example of other disciplines, contemporary architecture seeks inspiration from Nature on various levels. The development of modern tools and materials opens unprecedented opportunities for designers to shape free forms with precision, following sustainable development guidelines. The article presents the influence of biomimicry inspiration on shaping spatial structures of 20th and 21st-century architecture. The primary conclusion of the review indicates the need for further implementing bio-logic strategies into interdisciplinary, holistic building design.
... Although novel production processes such as Coreless Filament Winding (CFW) developed at the ICD University of Stuttgart, have made significant advances in removing the mold from FRP manufacturing for architectural components, they still require a frame which sometimes becomes embedded within the final product [9,10]. Part of our research investigates a moldless forming process that allows for geometric freedom without the need to create multiple costly molds, therefore improving resource efficiency of FRP production. ...
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This research demonstrates an integrative computational design and fabrication workflow for the production of surface-active fibre composites, which uses natural fibres, revitalises a traditional craft, and avoids the use of costly molds. Fibre-reinforced polymers (FRPs) are highly tunable building materials, which gain efficiency from fabrication techniques enabling controlled fibre direction and placement in tune with load-bearing requirements. These techniques have evolved closely with industrial textile processes. However, increased focus on automation within FRP fabrication processes have overlooked potential key benefits presented by some lesser-known traditional techniques of fibre arrangement. This research explores the process of traditional bobbin lace-making and applies it in a computer-aided design and fabrication process of a small-scale structural demonstrator in the form of a chair. The research exposes qualities that can expand the design space of FRPs, as well as speculates about the potential automation of the process. In addition, Natural Fibre-Reinforced Polymers (NFRP) are investigated as a sustainable and human-friendly alternative to more popular carbon and glass FRPs.
... From a computational design perspective, each fiber can be understood as a vector (Knippers, 2014) where the internal mechanical forces can be homogeneously distributed through the component (Hensel, 2008). Generative Design for topological mechanical optimization in two dimensions of vector forces has been successfully deployed in the Bionic project developed by The Living in 2016, where the goal was to decrease in 30% the weight of an Airbus A320 internal partition. ...
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This article presents the development of robotically fabricated and topological optimized fibreglass weaved panels. The process was led under the material intelligence workflow composed of the digital simulation of mechanical behaviour of the component, programming and optimization of the toolpath, and digital manufacturing with a common CNC machine. Through this process, the panels are optimized to minimize the use of material, decreasing the production time, to achieve its maximum mechanical and functional performance within its own design space.
... The diving bell of a species of a spider, living underwater (Agyroneda aquatica), inspired another monocoque GFRP (Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer) dome. In 2016-17, researchers studied the net of two silkworm species, Lyonetia clerkella and Leucoptera erythrinella, which guided the design of an FRP cantilever (Knippers et al., 2019;Schieber et al., 2015;Knippers et al., 2015;Reichert et al., 2014), (Fig. 2). It is primarily the vehicle manufacturing industry that has used lightweight, but high performance, composite materials where they replace aluminium. ...
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Load bearing organic structures are often composed of fibrous materials. Trees that create their own structure in an architectural scale are good examples. It is no wonder trees have been a living inspiration for architecture from the very beginning. However, there is an alternative way of using fibrous materials. Cellulose, which builds trees and herbaceous plants, shows many similarities to chitin from a chemical point of view. In nature, chitin is one of the structural materials of fungi and insect exoskeletons. In addition, it is also a building material for shell structures (Vincent, 2012). Research on ultra-lightweight structures has already proven that the microstructure geometry of insect exoskeletons can be used to construct vaults built from fibrous materials (Knippers et al., 2015). Long-fibre reinforced composites have a high resistance to tensile stress but they usually perform poorly to compression and bending. Because of this, it is more practical to apply geometries that are mainly subject to tension. Our goal was to create a biocomposite structure that is tensile to the greatest possible extent. The "tensegrity" structures bear continuous tension, and their bar elements are separately positioned in order to resist pressure (Gan, 2020). Kenneth Snelson (2012) pointed out that enveloping a tensegrity structure produces an origami form. Accordingly, one can easily turn a tensegrity framework into a folded board construction. Following this idea, several related experiments were performed. In 2012, a life-size model of a pavilion was shown, which had fixed aluminium bars covered with a textile membrane. The textile membrane was formed into a mechanically ideal shape so that we could use it as a basic form to explore new models of biocomposite construction. Hence, we followed the path of structurally ideal shapes defined by nature itself.
... The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2012/2013 was a result of the biomimetic analysis of the structure and behavior of the cuticle of the American lobster (Figure 5c). S. Reichert et al. [98] presented a new integrative computational design methodology for design and fabrication of complex geometry structures with robotic filament winding technology. The methodology was demonstrated on the full-scale ultra-lightweight architectural pavilion of glass and fiber composites. ...
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This article is a survey discussing the application of fiber-reinforced polymer composites in freeform structures and their impact on the design and shape generation process. The analysis of case studies showed that the use of FRP composites not only helps to overcome some challenges in the construction of objects with complex geometry, but also creates brand new types of structures and design approaches. On the other hand, there is a problem—although FRP materials are frequently used in construction, the shapes of structures and design methods are often traditional and are simply copied from materials such as wood, concrete, and steel. FRP composites have been applied in civil engineering for several decades, since the 1960s, as building envelopes, façade skins, load-bearing structures, and internal and external reinforcement. The article aims to analyze this accumulated experience and to explore the role of FRP materials in the design of buildings with free, complex, fluid, and organic shapes. A new classification of freeform composite structures is proposed. They are classified in this article according to the methodology applied at the conceptual design stage: structures created by using a geometric approach, a form-finding (equilibrium) approach, or a biomimetic approach. Each approach is described in its own separate section, with a thorough literature and state-of-the-art review.
... CFW aims for an alternative fabrication method in architecture that produces less waste material during manufacturing [9] and, at the same time, creates geometries inspired by natural fibrous systems' biomimetic principles [10]. The design process of CFW structures requires an integrated approach of computational design, simulation and fabrication methods [11]. ...
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It is observed that in the vast majority of 21st century pavilion designs biomimetic researches and science of biology are used to transfer information and methods to architectural disciplines, innovative production methods are tested, and new-generation materials are used to investigate shells or similar tectonics sensitive to environmental conditions. It is clear that these experiments are the forerunner models in the development of innovative design and production methods. However, the subject of design process and final products’ adopting a “biomimetic approach” with an interdisciplinary design concept has many questions. In this context, this study investigates the theories, concepts, topics, methodologies, materials and tectonics of pavilions produced by “biomimetic design” approaches. In the study aiming to discuss the reflection of biomimesis concept in pavilion design to the final product and process in a systematic way 5 pavilions which have been prominent in recent years are examined. In the research, the researchers tried to answers the questions of why biological model /and organism were applied with biomimetic approaches, and what learned at what level, and it was found out that designs were made by making conclusions from features such as life forms, functions and materials. Keywords: Biomimetics, biomimeticdesign, biomimeticadaptation, pavilions.
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L_FMFRP is a novel fibre composite architectured material of articulated surface, airy internal structure and variable section. It is the product of an alternative process of FRP design and fabrication which integrates fabric materiality principles, suggesting mouldless fabrication of architectural FRP elements. Stacking of pleated sheets form a thick plate of intricate internal structure, blurring boundaries between matter and structure. L-FMFRP satisfies initial requirements for schematic loading configurations as architectural cladding. It presents a unique elasto-plastic behaviour, with a capacity for large quasi-elastic deformation as the generation of large displacement under load does not lead to failure. Examined here under repeated loading/unloading cycles, it demonstrates properties of hysteresis indicating the dissipation of energy within the system. Hysteresis loop is found as a property of its internal material architecture. Its capacity for energy dissipation outlines potential architectural application in the context of resilient building environments.
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The HygroSkin project explores a novel mode of climate responsive architecture based on the combination and interrelationships of material-inherent behaviour, computational morphogenesis and robotic manufacturing. The dimensional instability of wood in relation to moisture content is employed to develop a meteorosensitive architectural skin that opens and closes in response to climate changes with no need for any technical equipment or a supply of external energy. Embedded within robotically fabricated, lightweight structural components made of elastically bent plywood panels, the responsive wood-composite apertures adjust the envelope’s porosity in direct feedback to changes in ambient relative humidity. The HygroSkin Pavilion was commissioned by the Fonds Régional d’Art Contemporain du Centre and now forms part of the permanent collection of the FRAC Centre in Orleans.
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How can we inter-mingle the virtual design space and the physical realization space? In an integrated design process for fiber composite structures in architecture, form generation and materialization are highly interrelated thereby leading to a collaboration of form and materiality. This research explores the concept of bridging both virtual and physical space with design computation as an interface, examining the framework of integrative computational design methodologies incorporating material, structure, fabrication and morphogenetic principles for the design development and digital fabrication of lightweight fiber-reinforced composite components. The ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14, at University of Stuttgart, a structure created out of 36 unique components, is taken as the case study for discussing the process, project-specific applications and the implementation of computational tools.
Thesis
Il s’agit d’une recherche en architecture portant sur l’intégration de la mécatronique dans la conception des chantiers de construction. La mécatronique est une démarche de conception par combinaison des techniques électroniques informatiques et mécaniques. On retrouve la mécatronique dans des objets du quotidien, mais surtout comme outil de production dans l’industrie avec la robotique. La recherche sur la « mécatronique de construction » existe depuis les années 70 à l’initiative du secteur de la construction au Japon. En architecture la « mécatronique de conception » a permis l’émergence de nouvelles pratiques autour de la fabrication. Celles-ci sont apparues dans les années 2000, grâce à l’accès aux machines à commandes numériques et aux microcontrôleurs dans le milieu académique.Ces objets de recherche et ces nouvelles pratiques sont difficilement observables dans l’industrie de la construction. La mécatronique semble relativement absente des chantiers et la robotique de construction ne fait pas encore partie des catalogues d’engins de construction. La mécatronique de conception ne fait pas encore partie des outils des bureaux d’études. Nous avons donc cherché à connaitre les processus de conception des systèmes mécatroniques pour la construction. Pour cela nous avons confronté la mécatronique aux processus de conception des chantiers d’une entreprise générale de construction.Nous avons réalisé une série d’expériences sous forme de cas d’étude en observation participante. Ces cas d’étude concernent la production de concepts de mécatronique de construction associés à la mise au point des chantiers. Nous avons mobilisé les acteurs de la conception des chantiers (bureaux d’étude, services d’ingénierie technique, conducteurs de travaux) pour travailler sur différents aspects de la mécatronique adaptée à leurs métiers.Cette connaissance de la conception doit nécessairement s’appuyer sur un socle scientifique. L’architecture n’étant pas une discipline scientifique, nous nous sommes appuyés sur des théories de la conception telles que l’Architecturologie développée au sein du laboratoire MAACC. Celles-ci nous ont servi de grille de lecture pour nos observations et de support pour proposer des méthodes de conception de la mécatronique de construction.
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This study focuses on the design of behavioural mechanisms for a hybrid informed adaptive envelope. Based on a full-scale experimental demonstrator, including a material responsive and a sensor–processing–actuation adaptive system, quantitative and qualitative methods are applied to identify, describe and study behavioural modes of the adaptive envelope. Through sensor data values and observations, the study finds that the adaptive response patterns are best based on subjective, human-mapped sensations, rather than prescribed environmental comfort, numeric-based sensor values. Those adaptive response patterns should account for change in tempi of the environment, occupier and envelope to establish advanced cause and effect relations, beyond generic thermal comfort performance metrics.
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The term “digital design” has become complex and multifaceted. This testifies that this dynamic term has been used in various ways across theory and practice in the field of architecture. Throughout its history, various meanings and interpretations have been layered and overturned sometimes. Through this study, by tracing the historical development of “digital design”, we could understand the fundamental “ideas” that is underneath seemingly various and unrelated series of contemporary design experiments. For this reason, this paper suggests three flows of ideas, “Mathematics and Function”, “Nature and Structure”, “Imagination and Form”, that integrate various architects and their works.
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Trends in the contemporary architecture sector constantly change the quality of engineering and construction solutions. Broadly understood optimisation processes improve material usage, as well as precision in mass production. Digital fabrication becomes not only a means of aesthetic concepts or architectural models. The central idea of additive technologies becomes the effective use of sources and energy and creating lightweight and easy to produce structural elements. A vital aspect of new technology development is understanding the possibilities and improvements that bring additive fabrication and the need to create a new material range to manufacturing methods simultaneously. The article presents selected examples of how new tools and techniques for assembling and optimising the structural elements engaged in the computational design improve the end-result quality.
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Today material is the driving force in architectural design processes run by Computational Design (CD). The architect may lead the design process and its outputs by analysing material type and properties, as well as constraints, at the beginning of the process. This article reviews the state of the art in Material-based Computational Design (MCD) and aims to analyse the role of materials in efficient and sustainable MCD processes. A set of critical projects developed over the past decade have been selected and grouped based on how material is incorporated into the process. In the process, three main categories are identified—namely, Material Performance, Informed Materials and Programming Materials. Based on predefined criteria on efficiency (E) and sustainability (S) in architectural design processes, the projects are analysed to calculate their E + S ratings. The analysis identifies two principal approaches implemented in MCD. One focuses on integrating material properties with other critical parameters—including form, performance and fabrication. The other concerns enhancing material properties by designing new materials. The analysis verifies that MCD generates both efficient and sustainable design solutions. By using CD in architectural design processes, existing materials can be re-interpreted and innovative materials can be produced to achieve new spatial experiences and meanings.
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The BUGA fibre pavilion built in April 2019 at the Bundesgartenschau in Heilbronn, Germany, is the most recent coreless fibre winding research pavilion developed from the collaboration between ICD/ITKE at the University of Stuttgart. The research goal is to create lightweight and high-performance lattice composite structures through robotic fabrication. The pavilion is composed of 60 carbon and glass fibre components, and is covered by a prestressed ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) membrane. Each of the components is hollow in section and bone-like in shape. They are joined through steel connectors at the intersecting nodes where the membrane is also supported through steel poles. The components are fabricated by coreless filament winding (CFW), a technique where fibre filaments impregnated with resin are wound freely between two rotating scaffolds by a robotic arm. This novel structural system constitutes a challenge for the designer when proving and documenting the load-carrying capacity of the design. This paper outlines and elaborates on the core methods and workflows followed for the structural design, optimization and detailing of the BUGA fibre pavilion.
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Regenerative development calls for built environment design, construction and operation approaches that do not degrade social and ecological systems but actively regenerate them, with net positive performance outcomes. Within infrastructure, existing industry approaches focus on improving sustainability and resilience through progressive reductions in negative impact. To shift beyond damage reduction towards regenerative performance, it will be necessary to harness new and innovative technologies, design and engineering approaches as they emerge. The field of biomimicry looks to biology and ecology to identify natural models that can inspire design and engineering solutions. Despite increasing biomimicry research, enquiry into infrastructure opportunities for biomimicry has been limited, and the potential for biomimicry to support regenerative performance in infrastructure has not been explored. This paper uses a systematic literature review to identify applications of biomimicry in built environment, with a focus on the potential for infrastructure applications. The paper identifies a need for further investigation into ‘system-level’ biomimicry opportunities; for clearer articulation of sustainability and resilience benefits; and for greater alignment with broader industry and global trends. The paper is relevant for practitioners, academics and government agencies looking to leverage emerging technologies and innovation to achieve project and organisational sustainability, resilience and regenerative performance objectives.
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The demand for products made of fiber‐reinforced polymer composites (FRPC) is constantly growing. These lightweight products are characterized by high stiffness, high tensile strength, and high service life. FRPC processes that employ thermoset‐impregnated continuous rovings are easily automated and provide the products with the highest unidirectional tensile strength. A critical disadvantage of continuous fiber‐reinforced polymers is caused by relatively high production costs. Among others, three main factors contribute to these production costs: (1) material costs, especially when carbon fibers are used, (2) costs for manufacturing semi‐finished products, such as textiles or preimpregnated fabrics, and (3) costs for waste occurring along the entire chain of process steps. In this context, one group of processes shows outstanding characteristics: processes in which rovings are in situ impregnated with a thermoset resin and then directly processed. Wet filament winding and pultrusion are the most popular but not the only representatives of this group. For all these processes, in situ impregnation is the key element, and various technologies have been developed for this purpose, each with its own unique fluid‐mechanical effects on rovings. A fundamental understanding of these effects is crucial to achieve products of the utmost quality. The paper at hand provides an overview of manufacturing processes that employ in situ impregnation of continuous rovings, specifically focusing on impregnation technologies. On this basis, phenomenological models describing the effects on the rovings during processing (impregnation, tension, and spreading) are reviewed. Review on the state of the art of processing continuous filament bundles impregnated with thermoset resins
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This paper will explore recent collaborative design research into Symbiotic Colony of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY), also known as Kombucha. This material is being utilised by both product and fashion designers working within the field of bio-design. Suzanne Lee's BioCouture SCOBY garments are well known examples of SCOBY used in an experimental fashion context. However, up until now upscaling of SCOBY and the challenges of working with it as an architectural medium, both structural and expressive, have not been investigated. In this research, the architectural possibilities of this biodegradable leather-like material have been investigated - supported by three separate, yet related, projects: a team-teaching development grant that brought together chemistry and architecture/design, research undertaken by a student in a Deans Summer Research Scholarship programme, and other students in an Advanced Design Research unit. In this paper, the collaborative cross-disciplinary process will be outlined, including the challenges encountered and the SCOBY outcomes produced. The process of up-scaling the growing process will also be described. To facilitate this up-scaling of the growing process, large 'farms' were constructed - the largest 2.4m x 1.2m. This process extended the dialogue beyond the initial team to include the knowledge and expertise of a SCOBY artist. The next stage of the research and investigation involved students exploring the bio-fabrication possibilities of the material. SCOBY presents unique challenges for fabrication. It has variable moisture content, lacks self-supporting structural integrity and is a living material. The 3D-printability of SCOBY was piloted; and subsequently, through further student research development, techniques of folding and creasing tested. This multi-dimensional project, with its various outputs and investigations, represents a collaborative, cross-disciplinary material investigation that seeks to operate at the porous edges of disciplines, technologies and design paradigms.
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In the current paper, the authors developed two different numerical methods for fibre reinforced polymers. The first method deals with the simulation of an innovative manufacturing process based on filament winding for glass and carbon fibre reinforced polymers. The second developed numerical method aims at modelling a high level of material complexity and allowing reciprocal confrontation with a geometric differentiated global structure. The developed numerical techniques served as a basis for the design and implementation of a Pavilion built on the campus of the University of Stuttgart in 2012 and could thus be tested and proved.
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The basics of construction with synthetic materials From transparent to translucent – new construction options with a versatile material Whether as translucent tiling, wide-spanning membranes, air-filled foil cushions or in organically curved form: Plastics are used in architecture in the widest variety of forms and application areas. Innovative technical developments constantly improve their material properties. Plastics today are an alternative to be taken seriously in the building trade, whether they are used in the supporting structure, roof, facade or interior furnishings. The 'Construction Manual for Polymers + Membranes' returns to the basics of the series by addressing an individual building material. From the material properties to the requirements for drafting and construction, it encapsulates well-founded and comprehensive expertise in familiar DETAIL quality. Select project examples complete the reference work and make it indispensable for day-to-day planning. Historical development of plastics and membranes in architecture Comprehensive information regarding the basics of manufacturing, processing and application Precise descriptions of materials and semi-finished products Physical-structural properties and environmental effects Form finding and calculation of plastic supporting structures and membranes For the first time a complete overview of the most important details compiled according to the most recent state of the research
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We applied quantified differential-dynamic logic (QdL) to analyze a control algorithm designed to provide directional force feedback for a surgical robot. We identified problems with the algorithm, proved that it was in general unsafe, and described exactly what could go wrong. We then applied QdL to guide the development of a new algorithm that provides safe operation along with directional force feedback. Using \KeYmaeraD (a tool that mechanizes QdL), we created a machine-checked proof that guarantees the new algorithm is safe for all possible inputs.
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This paper will focus on how the emerging scientific discipline of biomimetics can bring new insights into the field of architecture. An analysis of both architectural and biological methodologies will show important aspects connecting these two. The foundation of this paper is a case study of convertible structures based on elastic plant movements.
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Architecture and construction are highly interdisciplinary fields, integrating many professions and many disciplines on different levels of scale and complexity. Studies of natural systems have at all times been inspirational for design. Investigating the overlaps between biology and architecture we find that a biological paradigm inspires the current frontier of research and innovation in many sectors. Using biology's categories to analyse the field we discover many 'signs of life' in architecture projects, and many researchers are actively involved with ways to implement more and more aspects of life into buildings without calling themselves biomimeticists. Meanwhile the architectural landscape has adopted biomimetics, bionics, biologically inspired design or biomimicry as valid strategies. However, it still lacks a showcase of innovative products or real breakthrough in the form of a 'really biomimetic building'. This implies the interpretation of biomimetics as an architectural style, defining the entirety of a building, best reflected in the overall form. Architecture is developed in different layers and has to meet often contradictory requirements that make information transfer difficult. Too many possibilities and levels of information are interconnected to identify simple straightforward questions and answers. In addition, other challenges have to be met for the adoption of principles from biology in architecture and there is still a difficulty in the gathering of information. Finding phenomena that lend themselves as role models is a challenge for architects and designers in spite of various attempts at generating databases and knowledge transfer systems. Whenever designers stumble across an interesting phenomenon, the relevant information is often available only in a generic manner or, even worse, limited to a narrow view angle related to a specific interest. In order to get hold of transferable information, research from another perspective in life sciences is needed, so that interdisciplinary collaboration can provide the platform essential for successful developments, as illustrated in the present collection of papers. In spite of all of the participating research groups working with a biomimetic focus, the translations and inspirations discussed in the papers are located mostly on the level of generic abstract principles, sometimes also referred to as 'deep principles'. Examples include composite materials aspects, anisotropy and heterogeneity, when we talk about materials and systems, and morphological differentiation and adaptation when we consider form generation processes. Tom Wiscombe designs visionary buildings that explore the potentials of architectural surfaces to be shifted from two-dimensionality to one or three dimensionality by introducing de-lamination, winding, fusing, blending and embedding of building systems. The use of non-mineral materials and suggestion of the logic of healing and weaving are directly taken from biological material processing. Functionally graded materials and the introduction of microparticles and biochemical systems shall further extend the possibilities to create future environments. Jan Knippers, Thomas Speck and Achim Menges have initiated a successful interdisciplinary collaboration between architecture, computational design, engineering and biology. They interpret architecture and biological evolution as nondeterministic processes, sharing parallels but fundamental differences at the same time. Those differences are the basis for the investigation of new technologies. The ICD/ITKE Research Pavillion 2010 stands as an example for a homogenous construction using a single textured material, parametric differentiation and shaping of large elastic deformations, using digital simulation, planning and production processes. The development of the so-called Flectofin® lamellas for shading of facades is based on the kinematics of the Strelitzia reginae flower, and again exploits an effect usually unwelcomed in engineering—torsional buckling—together with the use of fibre reinforced material. The introduction of such a system into a large scale building facade is presented with the thematic pavilion at EXPO 2012 in Korea, designed and engineered by SOMA Architects, Vienna and Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering, Stuttgart, New York. These large scale implementations of principles derived from nature show the potential for the application of biomimetics in architectural design. Achim Menges' paper is a concise discussion of morphogenetic computational design, presenting form generation in contrast to the traditional form definition and form finding strategies in architectural design. Computational design allows for radically new approaches in the use, processing and generation of information that is translated into architectural form via new technologies. The generative design process is limited by phylogenetic and physical constraints. According to Menges, the challenge of this approach lies in resolving the complexity arising from the interrelation and reciprocal effects of material systems and dynamic environments. Evolutionary design exploration is introduced as a method together with a detailed description of case studies exploring the design of form-performance relations of overall building morphologies and urban block morphologies. Taken together, the presented papers show a promising development towards the implementation of biomimetics in the design of future built environments. References Wiscombe T 2012 Beyond assemblies: systems convergence and multi-materiality Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 015001 Knippers J and Speck T 2012 Design and construction principles in nature and architecture Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 015002 Menges A 2012 Biomimetic design processes in architecture: morphogenetic and evolutionary computational design Bioinspir. Biomim. 7 015003
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Robots have become significantly more powerful and intelligent over the last decade, and are moving in to more service oriented roles. As a result robots will more often be used by people with minimal technical skills and so there is a need for easier to use and more flexible programming systems. This paper reviews the current state of the art in robot programming systems. A distinction is made between manual and automatic programming systems. Manual systems require the user/programmer to create the robot program directly, by hand, while automatic systems generate a robot program as a result of interaction between the robot and the human; there are a variety of methods including learning, programming by demonstration and instructive systems.
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Emergence - the process by which new and coherent structures, patterns and properties 'emerge' from within complex systems
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Due to their relative affordability and ease of use industrial manipulators aka robots have become increasingly common in the field of architectural experimentation and research. Specifically for timber construction, their higher degrees of kinematic freedom and fabricational flexibility, compared to established and process-specific computer numerically controlled (CNC) wood working machines, allow for new design and fabrication strategies or else the reinterpretation and re-appropriation of existing techniques — both of which offer the potential for novel architectural systems. In the case study presented here an investigation into the transfer of morphological principles of a biological role model (Clypeasteroida) is initiated by the robotic implementation of a newly developed finger-joint fabrication process. In the subsequent biomimetic design process the principles are translated into a generative computational design tool incorporating structural constraints as well as those of robotic fabrication leading to a fullscale built prototype.
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Julian Vincent, Professor of Biomimetics and Director of the Centre for Biomimetics and Natural Technologies within the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Bath, identifies three distinct levels at which patterns can be translated from biology to architecture. Emphasising the importance of pattern recognition in the transfer of the most abstract derivations, he demonstrates that the greatest potential for biomimetics lies in its application for problem solving rather than straightforward mimicry of biological shapes and forms. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Is the widespread adoption of existing design software appropriated from other disciplines limiting architects' potential for pattern-making? Could the development of complex code applied to equally complex pattern problems open up alternative avenues of expression? Mike Silver illustrates work by himself and other architects and artists that suggest that new kinds of software-driven pattern recognition and simulation computer models are opening up the field. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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The Arthropoda use chitin and various proteins as basic materials of their cuticle which is forming their exoskeletons. The exoskeleton is composed of skeletal elements with physical properties that are adapted to their function and the eco-physiological strains of the animal. These properties are achieved by forming elaborate microstructures that are organized in several hierarchical levels like the so-called twisted plywood structure, which is built by stacks of planar arrays of complex chitin-protein fibres. Additionally, the properties are influenced by variations in the chemical composition of the cuticle, for instance by combining the organic material with inorganic nano-particles. From a materials science point of view, this makes the cuticle to a hierarchical composite material of high functional versatility. The detailed investigation of microstructure, chemical composition and mechanical properties of cuticle from different skeletal elements of the crustacean Homarus americanus shows that cuticle can combine different design principles to create a high-performance anisotropic material. Numerical modelling of the cuticle using ab initio and multiscale approaches even enables the study of mechanical properties on hierarchical levels where experimental methods can no longer be applied. Understanding and eventually applying the underlying design principles of cuticle bears the potential for realization of a completely new generation of man-made structural materials. KeywordsChitin-Biological materials-Multi-scale model-Mechanical properties
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Design computation has profound impact on architectural design methods. This paper explains how computational design enables the development of biomimetic design processes specific to architecture, and how they need to be significantly different from established biomimetic processes in engineering disciplines. The paper first explains the fundamental difference between computer-aided and computational design in architecture, as the understanding of this distinction is of critical importance for the research presented. Thereafter, the conceptual relation and possible transfer of principles from natural morphogenesis to design computation are introduced and the related developments of generative, feature-based, constraint-based, process-based and feedback-based computational design methods are presented. This morphogenetic design research is then related to exploratory evolutionary computation, followed by the presentation of two case studies focusing on the exemplary development of spatial envelope morphologies and urban block morphologies.
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Most natural materials are composites based on biopolymers and some minerals. Despite the relative paucity of these constituents, their combination yields materials with outstanding properties and a great variation in functionality. A particular characteristic of biological composites is their multifunctionality. The basis for achieving this property is usually a complex hierarchical architecture in which an adaptation to the function(s) is possible at different structural levels. Only a few biological composites have been thoroughly studied from a materials science perspective; nacre is a prominent example. Fueled by the increasing interest in bioinspired materials research, biological composites are now studied more widely, and it has become apparent that Nature often solves materials problems in an unexpected way. This review discusses some striking examples. Many more are likely to emerge in the near future.
Form-und materialwerdung
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Kunststoffbauten-die pioniere. Weimar: Verlag der Bauhaus-Universität Weimar
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Real-time robot simulation and control for architectural design
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Braumann J, Brell-Çokcan S. Real-time robot simulation and control for architectural design. In: Achten H, Pavlicek J, Hulin J, Matejdan D, editors. Digit. phys.-proc. 30th eCAADe conf. 2012. p. 479-86.