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Long-term cultural stability in hunter-gatherers: A case study using traditional and geometric morphometric analysis of lithic stemmed bifacial points from Southern Brazil

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... CVs have been used to assess the standardization of bipolar knapping (Duke & Pargeter, 2015;Pargeter & Eren, 2017), Acheulean bifaces (Hoggard et al., 2019;Lycett & Gowlett, 2008;Shipton et al., 2013), Levallois blanks (Dibble, 1989;Eren & Lycett, 2012;Nowell, 2000;Schlanger, 1996), scrapers (Monnier, 2006;Nowell, 2000), burins (Marks et al., 2001), points (Okumura & Araujo, 2014), bladelet cores ; blades (Graf, 2010;Hoggard & Stade, 2018;Hoggard, 2017;Johnson, 2014;Muller et al., 2018;Nakazawa & Akai, 2020;Radinović & Kajtez, 2021), backed artefacts (Eerkens, 1997;Fisher, 2006;Hawkins & Mosig Way, 2020;Wurz, 1999;, ground stone tools (Aimers et al., 2011), and ceramics (Harush et al., 2020;Peelo, 2011;Roux, 2003;Roux & Karasik, 2018). This method has proven useful for quantifying artefact standardization in terms of size. ...
... But for standardization in terms of shape, we require geometric morphometric methods (GM). Recently, 2D and 3D GM methods have been employed to quantify the shape standardization of bifaces (Lycett & Gowlett, 2008), Levallois blanks (Eren & Lycett, 2012;Lycett et al., 2016;Lycett & Von Cramon-Taubadel, 2013), points (Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Way & Hiscock, 2021), and backed artefacts (Delpiano et al., 2021;Hawkins & Mosig Way, 2020). Elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) has also recently proven useful in shape comparisons of lithic artefacts (Chacón et al., 2016;Hoggard et al., 2019;Radinović & Kajtez, 2021). ...
Article
Standardization can be applied to a lithic assemblage via raw material selection, blank production, blank selection, and/or retouch. Here we explore the baseline level of morphological standardization achievable through blank production alone. By quantifying how little morphological variability is inherently involved in different blank-producing lithic technologies that span much of the Stone Age, we seek to gain a long-term perspective on the evolution of lithic standardization. 728 flakes were knapped from 26 cores of 7 different lithic technologies: bipolar, multiplatform, discoidal, Levallois, direct percussion prismatic blade, indirect percussion prismatic blade, and pressure prismatic blade. Using generalized Procrustes analyses of blank outlines, we observed three noticeable jumps in shape standardization: between bipolar and free-hand flaking, between flake and blade technologies, and between the percussive blade and pressure blade technologies. Technologies that involve more skill and more investment in core preparation appear to create a more standardized set of blanks.
... During the information transmission process copying errors inevitably occur and constitute one of the major sources of variation of material or nonmaterial culture together with intentional innovation such as individual learning/trialand-error experiment. Compared with the study of the technological organization, this line of research has received less attention among archaeologists with the exception of the Accumulated Copying Error (ACE) model proposed by Eerkens and Lipo (2005), which is frequently employed and discussed (Kempe et al., 2012;Okumura and Araujo, 2014;Schillinger et al., 2014). They argued that tiny mistakes will be generated during the process of copying a certain artifact for two reasons. ...
... The greatest strength of this equation lies in its ability to standardize data regardless of the difference between original dimensions, which is extremely beneficial for crossassemblage comparisons (Eerkens and Lipo, 2005;Okumura and Araujo, 2014). ...
... The fourth proxy, the coefficient of variation (CV) of geometric microliths width, is deeply rooted in the accumulated copying error (ACE) model. This model was proposed by Eerkens and Lipo (2005) and frequently employed and discussed later (Kempe et al., 2012;Okumura and Araujo, 2014;Schillinger et al., 2014). It argues that tiny mistakes will be generated during the process of copying a certain artifact for two reasons. ...
... The greatest strength of this equation lies in its ability to standardize data regardless of the difference between original dimensions, which is extremely beneficial for cross-assemblage comparisons (Eerkens and Lipo, 2005;Okumura and Araujo, 2014). According to the ACE model, larger CVs mean higher diversity of lithic manufacture and thereby indicating more transmission events and a larger pool of learners. ...
Article
The shift from mobile hunting-gathering lifeways to sedentism has been frequently studied, and the Natufian culture is commonly recognized as the earliest sedentary society in the Levant. Historically, the remarkably rich Natufian material remains, combined with certain research biases, turned it into a “scene-stealer” in the Levantine Epipaleolithic sequence. However, data from earlier Epipaleolithic sites suggest a more complex scenario. Accordingly, we hypothesize an increase in occupation intensity even before the Natufian. The new excavations at Neve David (ND), a key site of the Middle Epipaleolithic Geometric Kebaran entity, located in Mount Carmel, enables us to test this by tracing variations in the lithic assemblage from a 185 cm deep section. Drawing upon the models of cultural transmission and technological organization, we employed six proxies: lithic volumetric density, burnt artifacts volumetric density, lithic fragmentation rate, microlith shape variation, relative frequency of bladelet cores, and tool/blank ratio. The first five proxies suggest that the settlement dynamics at ND are characterized by increasing occupation intensity through time. Overall, this case study sheds new light on the tempo and mode of evolution in land use strategies during the Middle Epipaleolithic, which is pivotal to better understanding the Neolithization processes in the Levant.
... These studies have been especially innovative, taking to heart the critique in Systematics that archaeological typologies are often intuitive, arbitrary and difficult to replicate by other researchers. Motivated by this critique, scholars such as Marcelo Cardillo, Judith Charlin (Cardillo & Charlin, 2018), Mercedes Okumura (Okumura & Araujo, 2014) and others have conducted pioneering work in the application of geometric morphometrics to stone artefact assemblages in an effort to provide a materialist view of technological variation where the focus is on continuous quantitative phenomena. While geometric morphometrics has been applied by archaeologists to a range of regions and artefact types (including ceramic and metal), what makes this South American work remarkable as part of the legacy of Systematics is their exploration of modern phylogenetic comparative methods to model and quantify technological variation and change over space and time (e.g. ...
... Cardillo & Alberti, 2015). While the work by Cardillo and colleagues (Cardillo & Alberti, 2015;Cardillo & Charlin, 2018) focuses on phylogenetic signals and material culture diversity across time and space, Okumura and Araujo (2014) are more concerned with the persistence of attributes over long stretches of time. What these works have in common is the use of an explicitly cultural evolutionary rationale. ...
Preprint
Systematics in Prehistory. At the height of the debate between Culture History and New Archaeology, Dunnell’s work sought to address a more fundamental issue that was and still is relevant to all branches of prehistoric archaeology, and especially to the study of the Palaeolithic: systematics. Dunnell himself was notorious and controversial, however, but the importance of his work remains underappreciated. Like other precocious works of that tumultuous time Systematics in Prehistory today remains absent from most course reading lists and gathers dust on library shelves. In this contribution we argue for a greater appreciation of its as yet unfulfilled conceptual and analytical promise. In particular, we briefly chart its somewhat delayed impact via evolutionary archaeology, including how it has also influenced non-Anglophone traditions, especially in South America. The obstinate persistence of classification issues in palaeoanthropology and palaeoarchaeology, we argue, warrants a second look at Dunnell’s Systematics.
... A indústria Garivaldinense é definida pela presença de pontas de três tipos: Garivaldinense, Montenegro e Brochier (figuras 23 e 24, e tabelas 7 e 8). As pontas Garivaldinenses são morfologicamente caracterizadas pelo corpo triangular, com gumes retos ou irregulares, e pedúnculo reto ou bifurcado (Okumura & Araujo, 2014). Estas pontas, no entanto, são classificadas em três distintos padrões tecnológicos: [a] façonagem bifacial a partir de retiradas seletivas e transpassantes por percussão, seguida de retoques bifaciais por pressão, [b] façonagem bifacial a partir de retiradas convergentes nãotranspassantes por percussão, seguida de retoques bifaciais por pressão, e [c] apenas retoques bifaciais por pressão (Moreno de Sousa, 2019a e 2019b). ...
... Observamos, ainda, raras variações nos atributos morfológicos e tecnológicos dos distintos tipos de pontas de cada um dos sítios ao se considerar as diferentes profundidades em que foram obtidos em suas respectivas unidades de escavação. Se considerarmos a sobreposição da distribuição de artefatos e idade calibradas obtidas nos diferentes pontos das unidades de escavação dos sítios-base de cada indústria, pode-se sugerir uma persistência cultural de pelo menos 4 mil anos para a indústria Rioclarense, de 3 mil anos para a indústria Tunas e de até 8 mil anos (considerando a idade de 3 mil cal AP como limite máximo para datação relativa das camadas onde há presença de cerâmica Taquara) para a indústria Garivaldinense (Okumura & Araujo, 2014). Pode-se, assim, interpretar uma prolongada persistência cultural ao menos ao longo do Holoceno Inicial para as três industrias, à semelhança do anteriormente documentado por Okumura e Araujo (2014) A semelhança dos atributos tecnológicos das pontas da indústria Garivaldinense ao longo dos perfis das unidades de escavação se mostra como de especial relevância, tanto por envolverem um intervalo temporal potencialmente mais longo de permanência do padrão tecnológico, quanto por se associarem com segmentos dos perfis caracterizados por registros de mudanças paleoambientais mais sólidos do que nos demais sítios abordados, sobretudo pelos referidos cenários de oscilações paleoambientais se basearem em indicadores obtidos nos próprios perfis do sítio Garivaldino, e menos dependentes da extrapolação de estudos realizados em pontos situados nas imediações, como no caso dos sítios da indústria Rioclarense. ...
Article
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RESUMO Com o objetivo de ponderar conexões entre quadros naturais e a ocupação humana pré-colonial, caracterizou-se os artefatos e a contextualização geomorfológica e ambiental de quatro sítios líticos vinculados a antigos registros de grupos caçadores-coletores do sul e sudeste do Brasil, associados a três distintas indústrias líticas. Elencou-se associação dos sítios com terrenos de baixos declives e altimetrias em seus respectivos contextos (terrenos mais estáveis para fixação humana), adjacentes a córregos e próximos de faixas do terreno que registram maiores inclinações e desníveis verticais, mais propensas a apresentarem afloramentos rochosos (fontes potenciais de matérias-primas para a confecção de ferramentas lascadas). Elencou-se fontes de matérias-primas nos entornos de cada sítio e as matérias-primas associadas aos artefatos, e ponderou-se a correlação entre os dois conjuntos de dados. Analisou-se a relação dos padrões tecnológicos de artefatos líticos com a caracterização petrográfica das matérias-primas, verificando-se quais silcretes semelhantes foram usadas para produção de artefatos distintos. Ainda, verificou-se que alguns dos produtos líticos de um dos sítios analisados mostram padrões tecnológicos semelhantes, mesmo quando obtidos a partir de silcretes distintos. Caracterizou-se ausência de variação significativa dos atributos tecnológicos dos artefatos registrados em diferentes posicionamentos verticais nos perfis das unidades de escavação nas quais foram registrados, mesmo quando mostram-se associados a registros paleoambientais distintos (alternâncias entre climas mais secos que os atuais e condições caracterizadas por incrementos de umidade no intervalo de 11 a 7 mil anos atrás). Palavras chave: sítios arqueológicos líticos; Holoceno Inicial, paleoclimas, ameríndios, geoarqueologia A B S T R A C T In order to discuss connections between the natural landscapes and pre-colonial human occupation, were characterized the artifacts and the geomorphological and environmental contextualization of four lithic sites linked to ancient records of hunter-gatherer groups from the south and southeast of Brazil, associated with three distinct lithic industries. The association of sites with low slopes and altimetry in their respective contexts (more stable terrains for human settlement), adjacent to rivers and close to terrains that register greater inclinations and vertical unevenness, more likely to present rocky outcrops (potential sources of raw materials for making chipped tools) was listed. Were characterized sources of raw materials in the surroundings of each site, the raw materials associated with the artifacts, and the correlation between the two data sets was considered. The relationship between the technological standards of lithic artifacts and the petrographic characterization of the raw materials was analyzed, verifying which similar raw materials were used to produce different artifacts. Also, it was found that some of the lithic products from one of the analyzed sites show similar technological patterns, even when obtained from different raw materials. There was a lack of significant variation in the technological attributes of the artifacts recorded in different vertical positions in the profiles of the excavation units in which they were recorded, even when they are associated with different paleoenvironmental records (alternations between drier climates than current and others characterized by increments in the moisture between 11 to 7 thousand years ago). Keywords: lithic archaeological sites; Initial Holocene, paleoclimates, amerindians, geoarchaeology
... This implies a 5500 year occupation span, or at least 270 human generations, and there was a reasonable expectation that we would observe some kind of cultural change through time, which did not happen. All statistical analyses (general Procrustes analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, D'AD) showed no significant differences among the morphology of these points through time (Okumura & Araujo, 2014). ...
... This entails two questions for further thought: (1) are modern humans inherently innovative? and (2) what explains the fact that the South American record is so different from the North American? We already addressed these two questions elsewhere (Araujo, 2015;Okumura & Araujo, 2014), and we believe they are of interest for European researchers when discussing the longevity and geographic spread of cultural taxonomic units such as the "Aurignacian," "Gravettian," or "Solutrean." It is also interesting to note that "over-imitation," a concept readily applied to Neanderthals (e.g., Nielsen et al., 2020;Rossano, 2017), can be easily recognized in our case studies. ...
Article
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In this article, we will provide a brief history of the appropriation and development of the concepts of “culture,” “tradition,” “technocomplex,” among others, in Eastern South America (Brazil), and present its state of the art. We will discuss some of the convergences and divergences in the nature of the archaeological record of South America, North America, and Europe, as well as their possible theoretical implications, since classification templates or classificatory schemes are strongly dependent on the phenomena they address, whether we acknowledge that or not. Finally, we aim to present some results and the main lines of future action in our current work on this topic.
... However, no protocols for the technological analysis of lithic points were completely suited for our samples. This motivated the elaboration of new protocol, based on previous proposals (Binford, 1963;Mentz Ribeiro and Hentschke, 1976;Okumura and Araujo, 2014), but adapted to the cultural diversity that was observed in the South American assemblages, as well as to our research questions. ...
... The protocol can be used for both stemmed and unstemmed points, except that the stem features are not observable in the latter. Morphological categories were defined according to Figs. 3 and 4, while the section shapes and negative organization categories are defined according to Fig. 5. Metric and morphological categories are partially based on previous proposals by Binford (1963), Mentz Ribeiro andHentschke (1976) and Okumura and Araujo (2014), but some categories were created based on the shapes presented by the points from these assemblages. The protocol was designed to be (at least in principle) suitable to be applied to any stemmed (and unstemmed) lithic point, making the results comparable in statistic terms. ...
Article
The lack of a standard protocol for analyzing and comparing multiple assemblages of lithic artifacts has hindered the advance of a better understanding of the cultural diversity associated to prehistoric hunter-gatherer groups. This was the case of Brazilian archaeologists that for many decades associated lithic stemmed point assemblages to a cultural entity known as “Umbu Tradition”. However, most associations of assemblages to this “tradition” have been made regardless of the type of lithic points, as well as ignoring other elements related to the lithic industry, settlement patterns, among others. As a result, since the 1980s, several studies have been questioning the validity of such Tradition. Recent research has proposed new definitions for the previously associated Umbu Tradition lithic industries based on the stemmed points typology. However, no raw data on the technological analysis of such points have ever been presented. This article proposes a protocol for the technological study of lithic points that allows the application of descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis to verify if these types present or not significant differences. We present new data on the technological analysis of 501 lithic points from sites located in the supposed Umbu Tradition coverage area and period, as well two new Early Holocene C14 dates for one of the studied sites (Caetetuba site). Our results corroborate previous propositions of discarding Umbu Tradition as a valid cultural entity, as well as new typologies for the points. We also show that our protocol is suitable to unravel potential cultural patterns regarding many attributes in lithic points as well as to explore if there are significant differences among previously defined types.
... In this interpretation, the FPs were manufactured in the adjacent plains of Uruguay and perhaps in Argentina, but not in southern Brazil, which certainly was intriguing since the Uruguayan plain and most of southern Brazil constituted of the same biome during the end of the Pleistocene (and even today in some areas), with the same or similar faunal resources, and without significant topographic distortions (Adams & Faure 1997;Cione et al. 2009: 128;Gallo et al. 2009;Loponte & Carbonera 2017;Vivo & Carmignotto 2004). In fact, the southern states of Brazil, Uruguay and Northeast Argentina present a continuous distribution of other points (early and middle Holocene) from the so-called Umbú Tradition (Nami 2020a;Okumura & Araujo 2014;Prous 1992: 148-149;Rodríguez 2005). On the other hand, even in the presence of environmental differences, the subcontinental coverage of FPs (Nami 2020a) indicates a high degree of adaptive plasticity for the colonization of different environments of these early hunter-gatherers. ...
... The preference of cherts to produce the local FPs follows the same trend observed for other South American assemblages, where microcrystalline and amorphous raw materials are common (Briceño Rosario 2010: 262;Hermo et al. 2015;Miotti & Terranova 2015: 185;Nami 2013) to the detriment of basalts and quarzitic rocks, with the exception of the Argentinean Pampas, where the highest proportion are made of sedimentary quartzites (see Figure 6). Chert is probably the rock with the highest quality in the region to make points (see below), and in fact, cherts of the same qualities and appearance were used to produce other point-types by Holocene local hunter-gatherers grouped in the "Umbú Tradition" (Figure 5), although they also incorporated other rocks in major proportions (Beltrão 1974;Bond et al. 2018;Collet 1987;Costa 2016: 92;Okumura & Araujo 2014). Non-translucent cherts were also recovered in the Carbonera et al. 2016 for other assemblages with local cherts in the region). ...
Article
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This study analyses the lithic landscape and the selection of rocks used to manufacture Fishtail points (FP) in southern Brazil, their designs, and some functional aspects. In order to identify the offer of lithic resources, we carried out several surveys throughout 15 months in 47 counties in the Southern Brazil covered by the Botucatú - Serra Geral Vulcano Sedimentary Complex. The lithic composition of numerous hill slopes, fallen rocks, and accumulations of pebbles and boulders in the riversides was evaluated. The results show that basalts (including a small proportion of andesites and rhyodacites-rhyolites), and silicified sandstones, are ubiquitous in the landscape. Conversely, non-translucent cherts are scarce, so their acquisition would have been time-consuming. However, these local cherts were the rocks mostly used to manufacture these points, being another example of the selectivity for high quality rocks by Paleoamerican hunter-gatherers. The same cherts selected in southern Brazil to produce the FP were used to manufacture other point-types by local hunter-gatherers of the early and middle Holocene grouped in the so-called “Umbú Tradition”. Not a single FP of the entire collection analyzed here was made from silicified limestones, which is one of the most common raw materials among the Uruguayan FPs, nor were they made from quartzites as were most of the FPs of the Pampean plains. Regarding to the designs of these projectiles, some morphotypes appear to have been designed to produce multiple injuries through successive thrusts and withdrawals in the bodies of the prey, while in others, the design seems to have favoured penetration and fixation on the prey, suggesting in this case, a single shot technique for each projectile. As the maintenance process unfolded, especially for points below ~ 80 mm in length, they show features that negatively impacted their efficiency, including distinct asymmetries, somewhat open front angles, a decrease in the cutting perimeter and cross-sectional area, an increase in the bevel angle of the blade edges, and a tendency to a conical cross-section. Behaviours intended to counteract these problems were maximizing the length of the leading edge, maintaining the symmetry and the triangular blade resting on straight shoulders, and maintaining the aerodynamic properties as much as it were possible, in order to improve their lethality and the fixation capacity. Beyond these rejuvenation processes, three different morphotypes of points appear to be included within the sample. The first includes points over 120 mm and ~ 80 g in weight, with triangular or slightly lanceolate limbs, which mostly present straight shoulders, but there are also examples of rounded shoulders. The second design corresponds to projectiles between 110 and 87 mm and ~30 g in weight, with triangular or slightly lanceolate blades and straight shoulders. The third design presents the classic shape of these projectiles, with a fish silhouette, with maximum lengths below 90 mm, with a more robust and conceptually different design, where the angles of the edges of the blades and of the shoulders are equal, perhaps with the intention to facilitate the spear withdrawal to produce multiple injuries.
... The application of GM to bifacial point form is also prevalent in South America where a growing body of GM research has addressed morphological variation and the evolutionary history of the earliest point form "fishtail" during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene (Castiñeira et al. 2012;Suárez and Cardillo 2019). GM has also been used to assess patterns in morphological variation among South American forms during the middle and late Holocene in Patagonia (Cardillo andCharlin 2016, 2018;Cardillo, Borrazzo, and Charlin 2016;Charlin and González-José 2012), the South Andes (Cardillo 2009), Chile (Charlin, Borrazzo, and Cardillo 2013), and Argentina (Charlin, Cardillo, and Borrazzo 2014), impact of maintenance and rejuvenation procedures (de Azevedo, Charlin, and González-José 2014; Suárez and Cardillo 2019), function informed by a modular approach (González-José and Charlin 2012), and diachronic variation in early stemmed points from southern Brazil (Okumura and Araujo 2014). ...
Article
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Recent discussions of human dispersals into the Americas have integrated available genomic data, locations and dates of archaeological sites, chronologies for initial biological viability of the Pacific coast and western Canadian ice-free corridors, and respective hypotheses to explain the initial peopling of the continents. Currently, these lines of evidence are incomplete given the lack of geographically and chronologically continuous data available for any one avenue of research. Here we discuss the potential for geometric morphometric shape analysis of human skeletal remains and stone projectile artifacts to supplement these data and expand our understanding of human dispersals into the Americas. The evolutionarily plastic nature of human skeletons and artifacts offers an alternative means of testing hypotheses of initial dispersal events and human adaptation to changing climate and ecosystems.
... O material lítico, que apresenta abundantes pontas de projétil, foi analisado por diversos autores (Moreno de Sousa 2019a; Okumura e Araujo 2013Araujo , 2014aAraujo , 2014bAraujo , 2015Ribeiro e Ribeiro 1999). Okumura e Araujo (2014a), ao analisar a indústria lítica e os padrões de dieta já estudados por Queiroz (2004) e Rosa (2009) apontam para uma impressionante estabilidade cultural ao longo de pelo menos 160 gerações humanas. ...
Article
Dentre as inúmeras informações possíveis de se obter a partir da análise de artefatos ósseos, uma delas é a identificação das espécies e partes anatômicas utilizadas para a confecção desses artefatos. No território brasileiro, quatro espécies de cervídeos são comumente encontradas nas regiões sul e sudeste: Mazama americana, Mazama gouazoubira, Ozotoceros bezoarticus e Blastocerus dichotomus . Ao longo do Holoceno, ossos e galhadas dessas espécies de cervídeos foram utilizados no lascamento lítico, na produção de pontas ósseas e espátulas, entre outros artefatos. Estudos preliminares dos artefatos ósseos recuperados de três sítios arqueológicos de grupos caçadores-coletores do sudeste e sul do Brasil - sítio Lapa do Santo (MG), sítio Tunas (PR), e sítio Garivaldino (RS) - demonstram uma preferência por ossos de cervídeos para a confecção desses artefatos.
... Indeed, the archaeological record is characterized by the existence of flaked stone tools of extraordinary manufacture, revealing their makers' elevated technical knapping skills (e.g. Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Lourdeau et al., 2017;Nami, 2013Nami, , 2017b; among others). ...
... The recurring debates about Paleolithic systematics together with recent research in many parts of the world and across many of its subperiods-from the Early Stone Age to the Epipaleolithic-have shown, however, that a substantial number of traditional archeological types are no longer doing their diagnostic work and that many formally named archeological units based on such types contribute more to confusion rather than solution in regard to our core questions. [7][8][9][10][11] These issues are at the core of the European Research At what spatial and temporal scale and on the basis of which material matters of cultural taxonomy are best resolved and precisely which methods constitute an analytical gold standard remains to be resolved. Nonetheless, when an epistemological and computational invigoration is coupled to the more widespread adoption of Open Science and Team Science principles, 17 we may be able to rapidly move on from creating more and more mutually incompatible cultural taxonomies to the arguably more exciting business of using our taxonomies to understand the past patterns and processes of convergent and divergent cultural evolution, resilience, migration, and adaptation. ...
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Report on the 1st CLIOARCH workshop on cultural taxonomies in the Palaeolithic
... No que tange ao estudo dos materiais líticos, os quais são os primeiros registros sistemáticos de objetos técnicos que dão testemunho de sentido (tecnicidade), a abordagem neodarwiniana aposta no reconhecimento de tipologias de caráter morfológico, uma abordagem essencialmente hilemórfica (SIMONDON, 1989;BOËDA, 2013). Nos últimos anos tem sido transposta da biologia e aplicada no âmbito dos estudos litológicos o instrumental da morfometria geométrica (LYCETT/CHAUHAN 2010;OKUMURA/ARAUJO, 2014) na tentativa de compreensão das variações observadas em objetos sistematicamente descontextualizados de seus esquemas de tecnicidade (modos de produção, intenções, esquemas de uso -o que é tornado acessível pela análise tecno-funcional, Cf. Bourguignon et al., neste volume). ...
... The study of soil erosion can be primarily investigated using watershed attributes such as spatial slope distribution, length of overland flow, average and relative relief, drainage density and frequency, bifurcation ratio etc. Morphometry of a river basin is the outcome of fundamental computation and mathematical elucidation of basin surface formation and geophysical dimensions (Srivastava 2003;Jang et al. 2013). The efficiency of the river basin morphometry is very important in understanding the landform development processes, nature of slope and erosional behaviour (Malik et al. 2011;Okumura and Araujo 2014;Rodrigo-Comino et al. 2016). The drainage pattern, intensity and geometry of the drainage systems are governed by three basic factors like climate, relief and geology (Mesa 2006). ...
Article
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Assessment of spatial soil erosion risk is a viable effort signifying the needs of conservation measures due to the deterioration of land as well as soil quality degradation at various scales. Among several non-quantitative approaches regarding erosion risk prediction, watershed morphometry and other geo-environmental parameter based assessments were performed largely and separately which showed varied results. In the present work, using 15 morphometric and 13 geo-environmental parameters, spatial soil erosion risk was modelled in order to inspect the performances and consistency of both approaches in predicting Spatial Soil Erosion Risk (SSER). Field site erosion patch inventory (a total of 164 erosion patches), google earth imagery and a probabilistic model, i.e., Weight of Evidence (WoE) enabled the analysis. Training patches (115 patches) were used to model the SSER while validation patches (49 patches) were used to assess the consistency of model output. Both approaches quantify 25.41% and 20.18% of the area to high to very high susceptibility class, separately. The contribution of each factor of both parameter groups in risk predicting was analysed through Map Removal Sensitivity Analysis (MRSA). Further, the results of performance were evaluated through Repetitive Operator Choice (ROC) curve (success rate and prediction rate curves) measuring Area Under Curve (AUC). The success and prediction rate curves show that when considering morphometric parameters, the AUC is 0.775 and 0.729, respectively, whereas in the case of geo-environmental parameters, AUC = 0.892 and 0.878 accordingly. This reveals the better consistency of geo-environmental parameters in context with the spatial erosion risk zoning in the present scenario.
... Morphometric analysis is the measurements and mathematical analysis of land surface configuration, shape and dimensions of landforms (Adinarayana et al., 1995). The efficiency of the drainage network is very important for understanding the processes of landform formation, soil physical properties and erosion characteristics (Malik et al., 2011;Okumura andAraujo, 2014, Rodrigo-Comino et al., 2016) as it determines the runoff discharge such as land management (Tavares et al, 2016;Keesstra et al., 2016;Masselink et al., 2017). The drainage network pattern, density and geometry of the flow systems are primarily controlled by three attributes including topography, climate and geology (Mesa, 2006). ...
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GIS-based prioritization of sub-watersheds of Hoshangabad and Budhni industrial area, Madhya Pradesh, India were carried out to describe the importance of morphometric parameters in the field of water and soil conservation. In the study, four sub-watersheds were prioritized through geomorphologic analysis for soil and water conservation. Topographic maps 55 F/9, 55 F/10 and 55 F/13 on scale 1:50,000 were used to evaluate the drainage characteristics of watershed. SRTM DEM data has been processed for slope analysis and delineation of sub-watersheds. LISS-III, IRS data was processed for land use/land cover analysis. Soil map has been generated by processing of NBSS & LUP soil map. The various morphometric parameters evaluated in each sub-watershed includes drainage network, drainage geometry and texture analysis and relief parameters in ArcGIS. Each sub-watershed has been prioritized by assigning ranks using compound parameter. After prioritization, land use, soil type and slope classes of each sub-watershed were integrated to propose suitable soil and water conservation structures at appropriate places. It has been suggested that the proposed soil and water conservation structures must be executed on priority basis to reduce the adverse effect on the land and environment. The study shows that classification and prioritization of sub-watersheds are very relevant, supportive and useful in the watershed, where there is high diversity in agricultural practices, soil texture and land cover. Thus, priority wise execution of the proposed soil and water conservation structures will not only reduce the soil erosion but also increase the surface and groundwater availability in the area. Therefore, prioritization of these sub-watersheds is found very helpful for soil conservation and management of groundwater in the watershed.
... Morphometric analysis is the measurements and mathematical analysis of land surface configuration, shape and dimensions of landforms (Adinarayana et al., 1995). The efficiency of the drainage network is very important for understanding the processes of landform formation, soil physical properties and erosion characteristics (Malik et al., 2011;Okumura andAraujo, 2014, Rodrigo-Comino et al., 2016) as it determines the runoff discharge such as land management (Tavares et al, 2016;Keesstra et al., 2016;Masselink et al., 2017). The drainage network pattern, density and geometry of the flow systems are primarily controlled by three attributes including topography, climate and geology (Mesa, 2006). ...
Research
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GIS-based prioritization of sub-watersheds of Hoshangabad and Budhni industrial area, Madhya Pradesh, India were carried out to describe the importance of morphometric parameters in the field of water and soil conservation. In the study, four sub-watersheds were prioritized through geomorphologic analysis for soil and water conservation. Topographic maps 55 F/9, 55 F/10 and 55 F/13 on scale 1:50,000 were used to evaluate the drainage characteristics of watershed. SRTM DEM data has been processed for slope analysis and delineation of sub-watersheds. LISS-III, IRS data was processed for land use/ land cover analysis. Soil map has been generated by processing of NBSS & LUP soil map. The various morphometric parameters evaluated in each sub-watershed includes drainage network, drainage geometry and texture analysis and relief parameters in ArcGIS. Each sub-watershed has been prioritized by assigning ranks using compound parameter. After prioritization, land use, soil type and slope classes of each sub-watershed were integrated to propose suitable soil and water conservation structures at appropriate places. It has been suggested that the proposed soil and water conservation structures must be executed on priority basis to reduce the adverse effect on the land and environment. The study shows that classification and prioritization of sub-watersheds are very relevant, supportive and useful in the watershed, where there is high diversity in agricultural practices, soil texture and land cover. Thus, priority wise execution of the proposed soil and water conservation structures will not only reduce the soil erosion but also increase the surface and groundwater availability in the area. Therefore, prioritization of these sub-watersheds is found very helpful for soil conservation and management of groundwater in the watershed.
... Geometric morphometrics is a statistical methodology, originally developed in biology to study morphology in the form of digitized images, which has recently been adopted in archeology, especially in relation to the study of lithic artifacts (Cardillo, 2009;Andrefsky Jr, 2010;Cardillo and Charlin, 2009, 2016Iovită, 2009;Iovitã, 2010Iovitã, , 2011Buchanan and Collard, 2010;Cardillo, 2010;Cardillo et al., 2010;Charlin et al., 2010Charlin et al., , 2013Charlin et al., , 2014Charlin et al., , 2016Lycett et al., 2010, Lycett andvon Cramon-Taubadel, 2013;Trail, 2010, 2012;Buchanan et al., 2011Buchanan et al., , 2012Buchanan et al., , 2014Castiñeira et al., 2011Castiñeira et al., , 2012Iovitã and McPherron, 2011;González, 2012, 2018;González and Charil, 2012;Thulman, 2012;De Azevedo and Charlin, 2014;Okumura and Araujo, 2014, 2016, 2019Cardillo and Alberti 2015;Morales et al., 2015;Charlin and Cardillo, 2018). ...
Article
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Fishtail points are considered an indicator of the presence for one of the earliest and most successful human adaptations during the late Pleistocene in South America (~12,900-12,200 cal BP). Although these points display a wide range of variability both in size and shape, previous studies are mainly technological and descriptive observations. No efforts have been made to propose qualitative and quantitative indexes in order to understand how the rejuvenation/resharpening process may have affected the observed variability. In this paper, we explore different analytical methods to understand the rejuvenation process, explain the morphological variability of the Fishtail points and evaluate them from the perspectives of geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics. This analysis allows us to generate new fresh interpretations and ideas about the rejuvenation of points. The combination of 2d geometric morphometrics, linear measurements, and multivariate regression, supports the hypothesis that the continuum of shape variation is explained by the long life history trajectories of the Fishtail points.
... The form (size plus shape) of projectile points is usually used as a classification tool to characterize the variation of these artefacts in time and space (Beck 1998;Bettinger & Eerkens 1999;O'Brien et al. 2001;O'Brien & Lyman 2003;Okumura & Araujo 2014). Thus, morphological variations over time are often explained by changes in the strategies for obtaining resources (Hughes 1998;Ratto 2003;Restifo 2013, among others), or by the existence of particular traditions in design selection, without this necessarily having any functional implications. ...
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This work is focused in the study of Patagonian lithic projectile points shape variation from a phylogenetic perspective pursuing three main aims: first, generate a model of projectile point shape diversification and morphospace evolution; second, estimate shape variation through time, and finally, assess the robustness of previous results using the same methods but in a larger sample with better spatial coverage. A previous work using geometric morphometric and cladistic methods suggested a pattern of general morphological diversification across Patagonia related, at least in part, to the spatial distance between cases, distinguishing two main clades in northern (43-45° S) and southern (50-52° S) Patagonia. In the present work to study this pattern in a more detailed level, a sample of ca. 1200 projectile points was used to obtain statistically different morphological classes performing unsupervised K-means searching. Shape characters were used to describe the different taxonomic units and to perform the phylogenetic analysis (through the Neighbor Joining and Maximun Parsimony methods) using as an ancestor the earliest point type known to the region (Fishtail point). The new results suggest that projectile points with longer and narrow blades and smaller stems evolved later in Patagonia and occupy a different sector of morphospace that could be related to the emergence of different technical systems, like the bow and arrow. However, these results do not support the previous ones of a projectile point diversification pattern mediated by spatial distance, maybe due to the reduction of contrast between the extreme north and south of Patagonia by the larger spatial coverage used in the present analysis.
... In a similar sense, the computer has been widely used to assist in the projectile points shape analysis task. In most of these archaeological researches (e.g., see (Buchanan et al. 2011;Charlin and González-José 2018;Iovita 2011;Lycett et al. 2006;Okumura and Araujo 2014;Serwatka and Riede 2016;Smith and Goebel 2018)), the morphometrics method was used: "a branch of statics, that combines tools from geometry, computer graphics and biometrics in techniques for the multivariate analysis of shape variation" (Bookstein 1997). To implement this method, the archaeologists use landmarks in the projectile point outline (contour), and normally, a statical shape process analysis is used to investigate patterns that follow geographic and/or chronological changes. ...
Article
The manual archaeological projectile point morphological classification is an extensive and complex process since it involves a large number of categories. This article presents an algorithm that automatically makes this process, based on the projectile point digital image and using a classification scheme according to global archaeological approaches. The algorithm supports different conditions such as changes in scale and quality of the image. Moreover, it requires only a uniform background and an approximate north--south projectile point orientation. The principal computer methods that compose the algorithm are the curvature scale space map (CSS-map), the gradient contour on the projectile point, and the support vector machines (SVM) algorithm. Finally, the classifier was trained and tested on a dataset of approximately 800 projectile points images, and the results have shown a better performance than other shape descriptors such as Pyramid of Histograms of Orientation Gradients (PHOG), Histogram of Orientation Shape Context (HOOSC) (both used in a bag-of-words context), and geometric moment invariants (Hu moments).
... It has been used extensively within zooarchaeology, evolutionary anthropology, archaeobotany and paleoenvironmental ecology to investigate taxonomic relationships and species identifications (Bignon et al., 2005;Cucchi et al., 2011;Curran, 2012;Evin et al., 2013;Martinón-Torres et al., 2006;Owen et al., 2014;Ros et al., 2014;Seetah et al., 2014;Terral et al., 2004). It has also been useful in studying ceramic typologies (Wilczek et al., 2014) as well as temporal and technological investigations of lithic technologies (Archer and Braun, 2010;de Azevedo et al., 2014;Okumura and Araujo, 2014), with recent developments towards 3-dimensional GMM analysis (Lycett et al., 2010;Lycett and von Cramon-Taubadel, 2013). However, only a few GMM studies exist for metal artefacts (Odler, 2016, p. 248;Wilczek et al., 2015). ...
Article
Traditionally, standardisation of manufacture has been investigated using metrics (e.g. length and width) and compared in terms of the coefficient of variation (CV). This paper argues that standardisation should not only be investigated via metrics, but also in terms of shape. An Iron Age lance head type ('Havor'), known from three main weapon depositions in Southern Scandinavia, is used as a case study to test the effectiveness of shape analysis against traditional metric analysis for investigating standardisation. Geometric morphometric (GMM) analysis is used to measure the overall shape variation and to test shape difference of the same lance type coming from three different archaeological sites. The results demonstrate GMM to complement the traditional metric approach. Whilst metric measurements offer insights into Havor lance standardisation, the results from multivariate analysis of GMM data provides further explanation about the source of variation in terms of shape, including an assessment of object symmetry. This paper represents the first known methodological application of GMM analysis to iron weapons and demonstrates it to be an effective method for studying product standardisation in terms of shape variation.
... In most of these archaeological researches (e.g. [Buchanan et al. 2011;Charlin and González-José 2018;Iovita 2011;Lycett et al. 2006;Okumura and Araujo 2014;Serwatka and Riede 2016;Smith and Goebel 2018]), was used the morphometrics method: "a branch of statics, that combines tools from geometry, computer graphics and biometrics in techniques for the multivariate analysis of shape variation" [Bookstein 1997]. To implement this method, the archaeologists use landmarks in the projectile point outline (contour), and normally, a statical shape process analysis is used to investigate patterns that follow geographic and/or chronological changes. ...
... In Brazil, also, lithic analyzes have always been central to huntergatherer studies (Bueno, 2008;Rodet et al., 2011;Okumura and Araújo, 2014;Lourdeau, 2015;Bueno and Isnardis, 2017). Lithic implements from the Upper Pleistocene brought evidence of early human settlements in Northeastern Brazil (Parenti, 2001;Boëda et al., 2013Boëda et al., , 2014, greatly stimulating archaeological research in this region. ...
Article
Charcoal macroremains are evidence of past landscapes and of the uses different people made of it. These issues are investigated in this paper through the anthracological analysis of the most recent archaeological levels from Toca do Boqueirão da Pedra Furada (Piauí, Brazil)-dated from 10,050 ± 80 (11,822-11,241 cal yrs BP) to after 6150 ± 60 (7165-6797 cal yrs BP). Charcoal pieces were identified under reflected light optical microscopy. 71 taxa in 25 families and 30 genera were determinated in 1166 charcoal fragments. The results point to an intense use of the surrounding semideciduous Lauraceae forest vegetation in the early Holocene, with the presence of increasing cerrado vegetation thereafter and the development of caatinga after c. 6000 yrs. BP, associated to a drier climate. Low charcoal diversity suggests short-term occupations, implying that the site was probably used as a temporary settlement. Occupation was probably more intense around c. 8000-7000 cal yrs BP. Opportunistic firewood gathering of dry sound deadwood was probably made around the valley and the cuesta front. The selection of small logs was possibly a consequence of the vegetation structure itself, mostly composed of small trees. Indirect records of possible uses of plants as food and medicine are suggested.
... Weight (g): measured to the closest 0.01 g A geometric morphometric study was conducted on the backed artefacts to compare outline shape and symmetry across the raw material categories. Many recent studies have shown the utility of geometric morphometrics in the identification of patterns that are not able to be identified using traditional morphometric procedures (Lycett et al., 2010;Okumura & Araujo, 2014). The geometric morphometric study was conducted on all complete backed artefacts (n=28). ...
Article
Quartz is regularly held to be of lower quality than fine-grained siliceous (FGS) material and often correlated with lower levels of retouch. This paper examines the “desirability” of quartz as a raw material for the production of backed artefacts in a landscape which also contains fine-grained siliceous material. Quartz, chert and silcrete backed artefact manufacturing strategies and morphologies are compared to examine whether technological choices differ by raw material. Quartz and chert are found to display high degrees of similarity in terms of core reduction technology, flake selection and backed artefact morphology. This alignment challenges perceptions regarding the desirability of quartz for the manufacture of small, standardized retouched flakes.
... Bookstein applied GMM to studies on craniofacial growth in both humans and animals (Bookstein 1991, Glat et al.1996, Mitteroecker et al. 2004) and GMM has since been used in a very wide range of human, animal and plant studies (Komosa et al. 2006, Okumura and Araujo 2014, Muylle et al. 1999. ...
Article
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The geometric morphometrics method (GMM) is a technique to study scale and shape relationships of structures using Cartesian geometric coordinates rather than linear, areal (of area), or volumetric variables. GMM has been of great value in many biological studies, but does not appear to have been used to examine equine skulls. In this exploratory study, twenty-nine normal equine heads of three different age groups: <5 years old (N = 9), 6–15 years old (N = 10) and > 16 years old (N = 10) were examined. Computed tomography (CT) bone window DICOM images were reconstructed into isosurfaces (3-dimensional contoured surfaces), onto which landmarks were added using Stratovan Checkpoint® software. Data from 29 landmarks were analysed using MorphoJ analysis, which applies a Procrustes fit, prior to reducing data dimensionality through principal component (PC) analysis. PCs with and without allometry were considered. Allometric shape described by PC1 accounted for 27% of variance. Loading pertaining to: the pterygoid process, bilaterally; caudal aspect of hard palate; tip of nasal bone; ethmoid sinuses, bilaterally; caudal aspect of the ventral conchal bulla, bilaterally and caudal aspect of the vomer bone suggest that these anatomical structures are predictive of age group. When allometric effects (shape variation explained by size) were removed, PC1 was unable to distinguish horses by age group. Allometric shape differences could distinguish the youngest versus the two older age groups. The potential applications of GMM in equine diagnostic imaging are wide ranging and include the investigation of changes in the equine skull with respect to genetics and characterisation of conformation-related diseases affecting the teeth, jaws and sinonasal compartments.
... GM studies that compare dog and wolf skulls are so far limited (Drake et al., 2015;Parr et al., 2016;Schmitt & Wallace, 2014) and within very recent studies in this field, TM approach is more common (Boudadi-Maligne & Escarguel, 2014;Crockford & Kuzmin, 2012;Morey, 2014;Napierala & Uerpmann, 2012). Although GM possess indisputable advantages and has been shown to be more sensitive than the TM in discerning morphological differences, most studies directly comparing GM and TM have revealed that both methods perform equally well in classifying individuals into groups (Breno, Leirs, & Van Dongen, 2011;Franklin, Cardini, Flavel, & Kuliukas, 2012;Macholán, Mikula, & Vohralík, 2008;Mutanen & Pretorius, 2007;Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Santos, Gómez-Olivencia, Arlegi, & Arsuaga, 2017;Viscosi, Lepais, Gerber, & Fortini, 2009). In anticipation of studies based on GM concerning the wolf domestication (Grimm, 2015), our results using TMs yield an accurate and robust classification of large canid groups and may contribute to clarify the first steps in the process of wolf domestication. ...
Article
The antiquity of the wolf/dog domestication has been recently pushed back in time from the Late Upper Paleolithic (14,000 years ago) to the Early Upper Paleolithic (EUP; 36,000 years ago). Some authors questioned this early dog domestication claiming that the putative (EUP) Paleolithic dogs fall within the morphological range of recent wolves. In this study, we reanalyzed a data set of large canid skulls using unbalanced-and balanced-randomized discriminant analyses to assess whether the putative Paleolithic dogs are morphologically unique or whether they represent a subsample of the wolf morpho-population. We evaluated morphological differences between 96 specimens of the 4 a priori reference groups (8 putative Paleolithic dogs, 41 recent northern dogs, 7 Pleisto-cene wolves, and 40 recent northern wolves) using discriminant analysis based on 5 ln-transformed raw and allometrically size-adjusted cranial measurements. Putative Paleolithic dogs are classified with high accuracies (87.5 and 100.0%, cross-validated) and randomization experiment suggests that these classification rates cannot be exclusively explained by the small and uneven sample sizes of reference groups. It indicates that putative Upper Paleolithic dogs may represent a discrete canid group with morphological signs of domestication (a relatively shorter skull and wider palate and braincase) that distinguish them from sym-patric Pleistocene wolves. The present results add evidence to the view that these specimens could represent incipient Paleolithic dogs that were involved in daily activities of European Upper Paleolithic forager groups. K E Y W O R D S
... Recently, geospatial techniques (RS and GIS) have been applied efficiently with the goal of watershed management (Chatterjee, Krishna, & Sharma, 2013;Okumura & Araujo, 2014). The availability of free access high quality resolution digital elevation (DEM) has further enhanced the strength of the effective GIS tools that enabled many researchers to study drainage basins and to investigate with high accuracy the parameters of drainage basins. ...
Article
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Morphometric analysis and sub‐watersheds prioritisation were carried out for the Wadi Easal Basin, Jordan, which is characterised by a high topographic diversity. The total ranking method was applied to prioritise the sub‐watersheds in terms of susceptibility to flash flood. Results of morphometric analysis revealed that the study area is a fifth order drainage system with a dendritic drainage pattern and elongated shape. Prioritisation results showed that about 71% (15 out of 21 sub‐watersheds) of sub‐watersheds have high‐very high susceptibility to flooding, which forms about 64% of the total area of the basin. The main underlying morphometric parameters behind this are the high drainage density, stream frequency, high basin relief, basin slope, ruggedness number, and circulatory ratio, and the low value of basin shape. Overall, the basin has a rugged topography with steep slopes and high relief. Since the basin is ungauged, and no information about its past hydrological behaviour is present, the results of this study can be used as guidance for competent authorities to initialize flood mitigation or artificial groundwater recharge measures.
... These studies 144 have been especially innovative, taking to heart the critique in Systematics that 145 archaeological typologies are often intuitive, arbitrary, and difficult to replicate by other 146 researchers. Motivated by this critique, scholars such as Marcelo Cardillo, Judith Charlin 147 (Cardillo & Charlin, 2018), Mercedes Okumura (Okumura & Araujo, 2014) and others have 148 conducted pioneering work in the application of geometric morphometrics to stone 149 artefact assemblages in an effort to provide a materialist view of technological variation 150 where the focus is on continuous quantitative phenomena. While geometric 151 morphometrics has been applied by archaeologists to a range of regions and artefact types 152 (including ceramic and metal), what makes this South American work remarkable as part 153 of the legacy of Systematics is their exploration of modern phylogenetic comparative 154 methods to model and quantify technological variation and change over space and time 155 (e.g. ...
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2021 marked the fiftieth anniversary of the publication of Robert C. Dunnell's (1971) diminutive yet dense Systematics in Prehistory. At the height of the debate between Culture History and New Archaeology, Dunnell's work sought to address a more fundamental issue that was and still is relevant to all branches of prehistoric archaeology, and especially to the study of the Palaeolithic: systematics. Dunnell himself was notorious and controversial, however, but the importance of his work remains underappreciated. Like other precocious works of that tumultuous time Systematics in Prehistory today remains absent from most course reading lists and gathers dust on library shelves. In this contribution we argue for a greater appreciation of its as yet unfulfilled conceptual and analytical promise. In particular, we briefly chart its somewhat delayed impact via evolutionary archaeology, including how it has also influenced non-Anglophone traditions, especially in South America. The obstinate persistence of classification issues in palaeoanthropology and palaeoarchaeology, we argue, warrants a second look at Dunnell's Systematics.
... Therefore, this research of the basin morphometry can provide a very significant database in relation to their hydrological responses (Borga et al. 2008). Of late, remote sensing (RS) and geographical information systems (GIS) have been extensively employed with the objective of watershed management (Chatterjee et al. 2013;Okumura and Araujo 2014;Hasanuzzaman et al 2021). Digital elevation model (DEM) is a very high-resolution RS data and it's freely available for access. ...
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The present study investigates sub-watershed prioritization for floodFlood susceptibility mapping of the Silabati River basinSilabati River basin (India) based on morphometric parametersMorphometric parameters. This river basin is a sixth-order drainage system with an adendritic drainage pattern and traverses an area of 4247.99 km2. Almost every year, the lower stretch of the Silabati river basinSilabati River basin experiences floods due to physiographic characteristics and excessive rainfall during a short time. The present work has been conducted with an integrated outlook involving the morphometric parametersMorphometric parameters, geological, and climate data by geospatial techniquesGeospatial technology for determining the probability of spatial flood risk. A ranking method has been employed to prioritize the sub-watersheds for susceptibility to flooding. The results of this study depict that 48.18% area of the basin including 11 out of 26 sub-watersheds has a high to very high floodFlood susceptibility area. Drainage density, basin slope, circulatory ratio, relative relief, relief ratio, stream frequency, and ruggedness number are the most important morphometric parametersMorphometric parameters for flooding in the study area. Since there were no such government or private historical flood records that are required for floodFlood modeling, various morphometric parameters have been accurately used to measure sub-watershed-wise flood susceptibility. The performance and efficiency of this method are validated using ROC and AUC, which ensures a considerable amount of accuracy (89.2%) of the study. Moreover, this research may be used as a guideline for surface runoff harvesting and flood mitigation at the sub-watershed level.
... In the case of the lowlands of southeastern South America, many studies have been devoted to discussing the initial human occupation in the periods of Early Holocene and Late Pleistocene (Miller Jr;1968;Neves and Hubbe, 2005;Buchanan et al. 2007;Araujo 2015;Araujo, 2014 andHadler et al. 2013; Moreno de Sousa, 2019) based on lithics human artifacts (Moreno de Sousa, 2019), bone artifacts (Mingatos and Okumura, 2020), and human skeletons (Hubbe et al. 2014), linked to 14C, OSL and TL ages prior to 8 ka. Such material remains have been interpreted as evidence of early huntergatherer, of a time prior to Tupi and Jê farmers and ceramists. ...
Article
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Aiming to contribute to discussions of early (>8 thousand years ago) human-Earth interactions on South America, an integrated analysis was carried out between geological, geomorphological, paleoenvironmental and archaeological data in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Despite the climatic fluctuations registered in São Paulo during Early Holocene (11.5-8.0 thousand years ago), human occupation (evidenced by flaked rock tools, anthropogenic sedimentary deposits and human skeletons linked to 14C and OSL ages prior to 8 thousand years ago) remained present there throughout the period and without major changes along time in the technological attributes of at least part of their lithic industries, suggesting resilience of such early humans groups in the face of these environmental changes. It was found that around 8,5 thousand years ago, human occupation was present in all the major geomorphological-geological domains of São Paulo State, considered representative of the physical landscape units of the southeastern South America, even though each of them had different availability of attributes valued by the hunter-gatherer ways of life, suggesting significant adaptive capacity to different contexts of the physical environment by these ancient human groups. Also, it was registered that early human settlements are more numerous and older (>10 thousand years ago) in one of the state relief domains: the Cuestas (a transition between two major geomorphological domains of southeastern South America), characterized by the high availability of rocky outcrops of geological units of good capability for manufacturing of stone tools macroscopically similar to the raw materials of many of the artifacts found on such early settlements, highlighting the importance that sources of lithic materials had in the way of life of these ancient populations. Regardless of the different landscape provinces in which they are inserted, most of these ancient human occupations are located in places of relative similar altitudes, inclinations, drainages and proximity (<16 km) of sources of lithic raw materials (e.g, flint, sandstones and quartz found at in situ rocky outcrops and/or gravels fluvial deposits) that strong resembles those of the ancient artifacts, suggesting similar strategies to insert themselves in different geomorphological and geological contexts.
... Chacón et al., 2016;Serwatka, 2014) and elsewhere (Lycett, 2007), Holocene forager tools in South America (e.g. Charlin & González-José, 2012;Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Suárez & Cardillo, 2019) and later prehistoric metal axes (Wilczek et al., 2015), lances (Birch & Martinón-Torres, 2019) and adornments (Vestergaard & Hoggard, 2019) have all been subjected to geometric morphometric assessments, often leading to a substantial critique of established typologies. There is little methodological consistency across these emerging case studies, however, and rarely have such studies re-analysed different datasets comparatively (see Monnier & McNulty, 2010, for an exception), making it difficult to evaluate their conclusions independently of their methodological choices. ...
Article
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The identification of material culture variability remains an important goal in archaeology, as such variability is commonly coupled with interpretations of cultural transmission and adaptation. While most archaeological cultures are defined on the basis of typology and research tradition, cultural evolutionary reasoning combined with computer-aided methods such as geometric morphometrics (GMM) can shed new light on the validity of many such entrenched groupings, especially in regard to European Upper Palaeolithic projectile points and their classification. Little methodological consistency, however, makes it difficult to compare the conclusions of such studies. Here, we present an effort towards a benchmarked, case-transferrable toolkit that comparatively explores relevant techniques centred on outline-based GMM. First, we re-analyse two previously conducted landmark-based analyses of stone artefacts using our whole-outline approach, demonstrating that outlines can offer an efficient and reliable alternative. We then show how a careful application of clustering algorithms to GMM outline data is able to successfully discriminate between distinctive tool shapes and suggest that such data can also be used to infer cultural evolutionary histories matching already observed typo-chronological patterns. Building on this baseline work, we apply the same methods to a dataset of large tanged points from the European Final Palaeolithic (ca. 15,000–11,000 cal BP). Exploratively comparing the structure of design space within and between the datasets analysed here, our results indicate that Final Palaeolithic tanged point shapes do not fall into meaningful regional or cultural evolutionary groupings but exhibit an internal outline variance comparable to spatiotemporally much closer confined artefact groups of post-Palaeolithic age. We discuss these contrasting results in relation to the architecture of lithic tool design spaces and technological differences in blank production and tool manufacture.
... Our fourth case study is based on the morphology of stemmed bifacial projectile points excavated from the Garivaldino Rodrigues rockshelter in southern Brazil, which revealed that a specific set of bifacial point shapes and sizes was maintained for 3000 years (11,660 to 7540 cal BP) (Okumura and Araujo, 2014). Hunting was characterized by a preference for smaller mammals, although birds and lizards were also hunted (Dias, 2012). ...
Article
Prehistoric archaeology focuses on innovations, transformations, and turnovers. We focus instead on persistency, suggesting that technological persistency in prehistoric hunter-gatherers was triggered by the stability of prey. The technological persistency-faunal stability nexus was not only crucial to human prosperity but also provided safe ground for technological and behavioral innovations, facilitating further adaptation to changing conditions. This can be viewed in the framework of mosaic evolution. We present six cases of morphological stasis enabling trophic adaptations and five archaeological cases of technological persistency following faunal stability. This model could contribute to a better understanding of technological persistency and its evolutionary role.
... Recently, researchers used geospatial techniques like Geographical Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS) for sustainable watershed analysis and modeling. GIS and RS techniques have high efficiency and effectiveness for extraction of drainage components (Gong & Xie, 2009;Metz et al., 2011), watershed development, and management (Ameri et al., 2018;Chatterjee et al., 2014;Okumura & Araujo, 2014). Nowadays GIS techniques are inexpensive, reliable, and fast way to calculate morphometric analysis (Balasubramanian et al., 2017;Sreedevi et al., 2009) and used for drainage pattern, topography, and subsurface material studies (Balasubramanian et al., 2017;Chandniha & Kansal, 2017;Javed et al., 2011;Withanage et al., 2014). ...
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Water is an important resource of the earth’s surface and it is integral for all on this planet. The availability or the scarcity of water depends on the watershed characterizes that consider the basic, linear, and shape parameters of any waterbody. The objective of the study was to delineate 14 morphometric parameters in the Barind region (Dinajpur district, Bangladesh) for sustainable hydrological modeling. An ASTER-DEM of 30-meter resolution data, geographical information system (GIS), and Remote sensing technique were used for extracting drainage components of interest region. The whole study region was covered by the flow of the Purnovoba river, Jamuna river, Atrai river (part-1 and part-2). Research results found that the Purnovoba river had a high bifurcation ratio (0.9982) that defined hydrologically more disturbed than the other three watershed areas and it had a high stream frequency (0.8332) that denoted rocky having low infiltration capacity. Jamuna river had a low drainage density (0.7322) that defined more vegetation having higher permeability. Besides, the Jamuna river had the lowest no. of stream order that was insignificant in the steady runoff process and less prone to cause a flash flood. The research predicted that the availability of groundwater might decrease to Jamuna river in the future as it had the lowest basin area (217.42 sqr. km ) and perimeter (114.90 km) and the basin surface slope would become gentle to Atrai river part-1 for the lowest length of overland flow (0.6072). Purnovoba river experienced the lowest form factor (0.2351) which indicated the most possibility for erosion. The elongated ratio of all basins was greater than 0.5 which considered all the shapes were more elongated. These findings will help for further modeling of an integrated watershed for sustainable hydrological models in the Barind region.
... In archeology, the focus is naturally shifted slightly, to one where determining how (or if) social interactions between peoples leave observable traces in artifactual remains at temporal and/or spatial scales (Clarke 1968;Hodder 1982;Jordan 2015;Lycett and Shennan 2018). Indeed, the concept of cultural transmission, and the spatio-temporal patterns this leaves in artifacts and their traits, has demonstrably seen renewed emphasis and discussion in archeology in recent years (e.g., Vanhaeren and d'Errico 2006;Eerkens and Lipo 2007;O'Brien 2008;Stark et al. 2008;Cochrane et al. 2013;Jennings and Waters 2014;Okumura and Araujo 2014;Eren et al. 2015;Jordan 2015;Prentiss et al. 2015;Shennan et al. 2015;Lycett 2017;Buchanan et al. 2016Buchanan et al. , 2018. ...
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Understanding the patterns that result from intercommunity contact has long been an interest in anthropology. Although linguistically diverse, peoples of the Historic-period Great Plains came into contact through a diversity of means, both malevolent and benevolent in form. Accordingly, the idea that the Plains was an environment that led to high degrees of cultural interchange has long been held. Recently, it has been proposed that the among-tribe distribution of some material culture patterns, such as beadwork patterns on moccasins, is explicable in geographic terms. That is, geographically proximate groups exchanged cultural features at higher rates than those more geographically distant from each other. While logically sound, this pattern would only emerge at statistically significant levels if selective biases were not operating to prevent the “free flow” of information. However, there are viable and well-documented reasons why decorative features may be subject to such cultural selection. Moreover, previous assessments of the geographic hypothesis only examined the general layout of beadwork designs, rather than more detailed features such as motifs, beadwork techniques, and other decorative features. Here, the role of geographic spacing in explaining the among-tribe distribution of beadwork attributes on the High Plains during the Historic period is reexamined. A dataset describing motifs, beadwork techniques, and additional decorative features is used. These data are subjected to several sets of statistical analysis. The role of linguistic affinities is also considered. The results show that geographic “isolation by distance” does indeed explain the distribution of beadwork attributes among these ethnolinguistically diverse tribes, with no equivalent statistical effect for language patterns. In turn, these results highlight the role of specific processes operating among these communities. These results also underline the value of ethnographic museum collections for addressing the role of social processes among the people responsible for their manufacture, which can have anthropological relevance over much broader scales.
... El análisis cuantitativo también se ha centrado en el tema evolutivo debido a su potencialidad en identificar patrones culturales en los datos arqueológicos. La mayor parte de los estudios donde se aplica una metodologıá estadıśtica se encuentran relacionados con la observación de variaciones en los artefactos arqueológicos (Neff, 1992;Lyman & O'Brien, 2000;Li et al. 2014;Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Shennan et al., 2015). En el caso de estudios históricos, son pocos los ejemplos de los que se disponen, aunque en los últimos años se ha producido un auge significativo (Isaksen, 2008;Murrieta et al., 2015;Rubio-Campillo et al., 2017;Busto-Zapico, 2018;Coto-Sarmiento et al., 2018;Rubio-Campillo et al., 2018b;Turchin et al., 2018). ...
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Terra Incognita se ha configurado como un Libro Blanco que pretende identificar tendencias y reflexionar sobre las diferentes concepciones y prácticas de la investigación no disciplinar en nuestro entorno académico (el Sistema Español de Ciencia y Tecnología). Esta es una transición que implica un cierto cambio de paradigma, muy alineado con la investigación dirigida a retos sociales. Terra Incognita es resultado de la Red de Excelencia SimPastNet – Simular el pasado para entender el comportamiento humano (Redes de Excelencia 2017 I, HAR2017-90883-REDC). Esta red, coordinada por el Grupo de Ingeniería de Organización de la Universidad de Burgos (UBU), está formada por 10 grupos de investigación y 40 investigadores. Los integrantes de la red pertenecen tanto a grupos de investigación en Ciencias Sociales y Humanidades (Arqueología, Antropología y Sociología), como a grupos de investigación en Ciencias Formales (Matemáticas, Ingeniería e Informática). Todos ellos se caracterizan por su perspectiva transdisciplinar y presentan una larga experiencia de colaboración con especialistas de diferentes dominios. La Red SimPastNet surgió del proyecto de Investigación Consolider Ingenio SimulPast. Simulating the Past to Understand Human Behavior (MINECO – CSD2010-00034) un proyecto de Humanidades (fundamentalmente arqueológico), dirigido a promover el modelado y la simulación en la investigación histórica y, por tanto, con un marcado carácter innovador y transdisciplinar. A pesar de que Terra Incognita trate aspectos generales y ofrezca visiones de conjunto, esta genealogía explica el porqué de su perspectiva fundamentalmente anclada en las Ciencias Humanas y Sociales. Además, nos centraremos especialmente en el papel de las Humanidades y las Ciencias Sociales, porque constituyen una parte importante de esos ámbitos desde los que se están generando grandes aportaciones a esa transición que implica posicionarse en nuevos territorios, ajenos a las trayectorias históricas de nuestras disciplinas.
... El análisis cuantitativo también se ha centrado en el tema evolutivo debido a su potencialidad en identificar patrones culturales en los datos arqueológicos. La mayor parte de los estudios donde se aplica una metodologıá estadıśtica se encuentran relacionados con la observación de variaciones en los artefactos arqueológicos (Neff, 1992;Lyman & O'Brien, 2000;Li et al. 2014;Okumura & Araujo, 2014;Shennan et al., 2015). En el caso de estudios históricos, son pocos los ejemplos de los que se disponen, aunque en los últimos años se ha producido un auge significativo (Isaksen, 2008;Murrieta et al., 2015;Rubio-Campillo et al., 2017;Busto-Zapico, 2018;Coto-Sarmiento et al., 2018;Rubio-Campillo et al., 2018b;Turchin et al., 2018). ...
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The loss of cultural complexity and diversity is a common phenomenon throughout human and potentially non-human history, often in relation to major external shocks. Yet, there are few studies that analyse cultural loss as a topic of research. Difficult questions like the study of cultural resilience need to be answered by the use of a diverse set of tools and datasets that goes beyond the level of multidisciplinarity that currently exists on the cultural studies fields, what is needed is deep conversations and collaboration of multiple research fields and non academic actors, providing statistical methods, data extraction and analysis, as well as a global understanding of the topic. CLUB-DECES homes in on the resilience of culture under demographic, climatic and environmental shocks –the occurrence of which is prognosed to become more frequent and severe in the future. By modelling and analysing drastic changes in population or in the environment brought about by shocks CLUB-DECES pursues to measure the cultural resilience of culture by adapting methodologies based on Bayesian inference commonly used in cosmological studies. Thus CLUB-DECES involves multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary studies, combining numerical and analytical modelling from a wide suite of fields, primarily using tools developed to model cosmological datasets, data science, archaeological and anthropological data extraction, together with the most susceptible communities, their representatives and involved the institutions. This ambitious endeavour shall study culture in the human and non-human realm, aiming –on the basis of past datasets– to forecast the requirements to achieve a general measure of the shock-induced tipping-points of culture. This is highly relevant now at a global and European scale. Globally climate change and environmental degradation bring to the tipping-point many vulnerable societies, human and non-human. In Europe, rural areas and whole member states, like Bulgaria, are losing large amounts of population due to migration. CLUB-DECES results will shed new light on our understanding of the past, and thanks to that help our present and have influence on the preservation of cultural diversity for the future generations.
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The issue of cultural transmission has recently seen intensified interest across a broad geographical and temporal range of archaeological case studies. However, we must constantly assess our understanding of how cultural transmission and related issues (e.g., cultural selection) affect and effect material patterns, if the body of theory underpinning these types of studies is to continue to grow. The post-contact Plateau region of western North America has long been characterized as a region of relatively high cultural uniformity, facilitated by multiple means of intergroup contact. However, ironically, the region and its Historic-period communities have recently seen little work specifically targeted at these issues. Here, three cultural datasets—fishing practices, clothing styles, and funerary behaviors—were statistically examined for evidence of their relative extent of cross-community transmission. On theoretical grounds, relating to contrasts in function and the contextual and physical visibility of these practices, it was contended that differences may emerge in the extent of intergroup transmission. Specifically, it was predicted that funerary behaviors may have experienced less intergroup transmission compared to fishing practices and clothing patterns. The analyses consistently support these theoretical predictions, highlighting their validity as ways to conceive of similar likelihoods in the case of cultural transmission issues affecting archaeological data.
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Resumo: O artigo apresenta uma síntese do contexto arqueológico do Alto Vale do Itajaí do Sul, área serrana localizada entre o litoral e o planalto de Santa Catarina, a partir de uma revisão na literatura arqueológica e de dados obtidos em atividades de campo. Há mais de uma centena de sítios arqueológicos nesta área, indicando grande diversidade em termos de implantação, de conjunto artefatual, de cronologia e de associação cultural. A partir de uma comparação entre o contexto arqueológico desta área com áreas adjacentes, procuramos inserir a região do Alto Vale do Itajaí nas discussões mais amplas sobre processo de ocupação do Brasil meridional. Palavras-chave: Itajaí do Sul. Jê meridionais. Tradição Umbu. Abstract: This paper presents a summary of the archaeological context in the Upper Itajaí do Sul Valley, an area located between the coast and the Santa Catarina plateau, based on a review of archaeological literature and data obtained from field activities. There are more than a hundred archeological sites in this area, suggesting great diversity in terms of settlement, artifact assemblages, chronology, and cultural association. By comparing the archaeological context of this area with adjacent areas, an attempt is made to insert the Upper Itajaí do Sul Valley into broader discussions about the occupation process of southern Brazil.
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In the 1980s, feminists drew attention to the fact that when researching elements of material culture, archaeologists worked with a paradigm in which the sources used to deduce their implicit notions of gender arrangements in the past were rarely made explicit. Based on a binary and oppositional epistemology (nature/culture, sex/gender, female/male), public roles and different activities performed by men and women from past populations are often inferred from modern Western narratives and values. This is the case of the man-the-hunter paradigm, where man is presented as the only person responsible for hunting, an activity that would be the engine of human evolution, relegating women to collecting activities. Although these paradigms based on a masculinist view have been criticized, their legacy remains in formulation of archaeological discourses. This research seeks, through a theoretical methodological discussion, to analyze the Brazilian archaeological literature on past hunter-gatherer peoples, calling into question the supposed neutrality of interpretive models that privilege the analysis of projectile points to reconstruct early settlement dynamics in the Brazilian territory. Based on feminist and decolonial theoretical perspectives, it is understood that part of these investigations, of an evolutionist-Darwinist nature and linked to hegemonic currents of knowledge production, reproduce dominant masculinist biases in their research. Other possible ways of formulating archaeological/scientific knowledge about the first peoples to occupy the Americas are also discussed from the perspective of traditional peoples and their relationship with plants. Finally, I hold that by incorporating counter-hegemonic practices, it is possible to build not only other archaeologies, but also other worlds.
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Resumo O artigo apresenta uma síntese do contexto arqueológico do Alto Vale do Itajaí do Sul, área serrana localizada entre o litoral e o planalto de Santa Catarina, a partir de uma revisão na literatura arqueológica e de dados obtidos em atividades de campo. Há mais de uma centena de sítios arqueológicos nesta área, indicando grande diversidade em termos de implantação, de conjunto artefatual, de cronologia e de associação cultural. A partir de uma comparação entre o contexto arqueológico desta área com áreas adjacentes, procuramos inserir a região do Alto Vale do Itajaí nas discussões mais amplas sobre processo de ocupação do Brasil meridional.
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Criada originalmente como uma empreitada que visava construir uma crônica laudatória sobre as qualidades artísticas e os avanços morais e tecnológicos de nossa espécie, a Arqueologia acabou por abrir a caixa de Pandora. Sabemos muito, e sabemos coisas que não são necessariamente agradáveis. O lado positivo disso é que a Arqueologia tem a capacidade de nos instilar a humildade, a compreensão de que não somos intrinsecamente melhores do que nossos antepassados em nenhum aspecto. O papel da Arqueologia é o de apontar tendências e produzir interpretações muitas vezes contra-intuitivas. O papel de mostrar como temos sido, para entendermos quem somos. A Arqueologia é uma disciplina eminentemente anárquica, que demole certezas e traz em seu bojo a possibilidade de entrever um mundo diferente, às vezes desconfortavelmente diferente, do que sugere nosso senso-comum.
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En la decoración parietal de la Tumba Tebana 49, su propietario, Neferhotep, está representado junto con otros actores sociales desempeñando distintas actividades durante su vida terrena y en su proyección póstuma. Puede esperarse que algunas de estas expresiones visuales guarden altos grados de similitud con la realidad, mientras que otras se ajusten a una recreación de potenciales situaciones que ocurrirían a futuro, una vez que hubiese muerto. Al respecto, nos preguntamos si existe alguna clase de diferenciación en la forma de las representaciones que permita individualizar a las personas retratadas, o si sólo interesaba representar a aquellos grupos sociales que debían intervenir en los rituales de enterramiento. Persiguiendo este objetivo, nos proponemos evaluar la existencia de variaciones en la forma de los perfiles de las personas representadas, retomando algunos de los resultados alcanzados en trabajos precedentes. Dichos análisis, efectuados mediante las técnicas de morfometría geométrica, mostraron la existencia de diferencias dependientes del sexo como así también del estatus y/o rango social en los modos de representación de los perfiles de los personajes. Aquí nos interesa evaluar la interrelación de ambas variables y la importancia relativa del sexo (determinado mediante rasgos fisonómicos) en las variaciones morfológicas observadas en los retratos de hombres y mujeres.
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The emergence of ceramic specialization in past societies is often linked to shifts in the complexity of social structures, because standardized ceramic production can reflect craft specialization and the presence of elite control. Previous work on identifying specialization relies on typological or linear metric analysis. Here we demonstrate how to investigate ceramic standardization by analyzing outlines of ceramic vessels. Outline analysis is useful because, unlike more commonly-used landmark analysis methods, it can effectively quantify shape differences for objects that lack distinctive measurement points needed for landmark analysis. We demonstrate this method using pottery from Kiwulan, a large multi-component Iron Age site (CE 1350–1850) in northeastern Taiwan. To measure ceramic specialization, we quantified pottery standardization by analyzing shape variables with reproducible geometric morphometric methods. We computed coefficients of variation (CVs) for shape coefficients obtained by elliptical Fourier analysis to test for shape standardization. We found significant differences in pottery shape and shape standardization that indicate changes in pottery production resulting from contact with mainland Han Chinese groups in northeastern Taiwan. Our case study, which includes an openly available research compendium of R code, represents an innovative application of outline-based methods in geometric morphometry to answer the anthropological questions of craft specialization.
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Archeological artifacts that exhibit bilateral symmetry represent a large and important proportion of cultural heritage. Symmetry modeling provides a reliable approach of reconstructing the missing geometry by means of deforming the retained surface to the damaged area. However, it remains challenging to improve the quality of restoration when artifacts are heavily corroded and have irregular boundaries. This study presented a hybrid non-rigid deformation method to conserve and restore damaged artifacts. We also used geometric morphometrics (GM) and anthropometric measurements (AM) to capture the main features of the artifact. These methods have wider application to other forms of archeological and anthropological data.
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Fishtail points are considered an indicator of the presence for one of the earliest and most successful human adaptations during the late Pleistocene in South America (~12,900–12,200 cal BP). Although these points display a wide range of variability both in size and shape, previous studies are mainly technological and descriptive observations. No efforts have been made to propose qualitative and quantitative indexes in order to understand how the rejuvenation/resharpening process may have affected the observed variability. In this paper, we explore different analytical methods to understand the rejuvenation process, explain the morphological variability of the Fishtail points and evaluate them from the perspectives of geometric morphometrics and multivariate statistics. This analysis allows us to generate new fresh interpretations and ideas about the rejuvenation of points. The combination of 2d geometric morphometrics, linear measurements, and multivariate regression, supports the hypothesis that the continuum of shape variation is explained by the long life history trajectories of the Fishtail points
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We present in this article the description of a bifacial point found in the municipality of Boa Ventura de São Roque, in the state of Paraná, southern Brazil. Given that it is a piece of exceptional size, made with a complex manufacturing technique, we made a metric description and analysis of the knapping technique of this artifact, in order to compare it with other similar artifacts found in Brazil.
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The Indian sub-continent, midway between Africa and South-east Asia, offers great potential to contribute to the ongoing debates of hominin dispersals and techno-cultural transitions. The Malaprabha Valley sites, in south-western Peninsular India, provides a regional perspective on the transitional processes between Lower and Middle Palaeolithic. Three assemblages, from local Late Acheulean to Middle Palaeolithic were chosen as the key collections and then compared to two of their south-eastern counterparts. These assemblages, excavated or collected from surface, are housed in various museums in India, France and UK. The aim of this PhD was to trace the technological and typological changes of the Large cutting tools (LCTs: handaxes and cleavers) at the transition from Lower to Middle Palaeolithic. A second objective was to discern raw material and blank effects on the shape variabilities of the LCTs. Combining the classical techno-typological analysis and Geometric Morphometric approach (2D and 3D) allow us to get accurate, reversible holistic results. LCTs in Malaprabha Valley always include more handaxes than cleavers. They are constantly made from local quartzite on various types of blanks with gradual increasing use of the flakes. Their shape variability is mostly located on their periphery and is not influenced by the blank types. Whatever variability occurred it seemed to result from varying relative width and thickness. This study highlights that the technological and morphological traits of the LCTs reflect a regional continuity with gradual changes from the Lower to the Middle Palaeolithic, rather than an abrupt external introduction of new technical behaviors. Irrespective of the diverse blank types, the hominin tool makers in this part of Peninsular India were able to achieve similar tool forms, through adaptive shaping strategies, reflecting a mental template that continued through generations apart from the technical progress identifiable in other products.
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Gunflints represent a worldwide feature of lithic technology in modern times. This type of artefact was used to ignite the powder of firearms through a flintlock mechanism from the middle-seventeenth to the early-twentieth century in different contexts around the world. Taking what is a novel and exploratory approach in historical archaeology, this paper offers a quantitative analysis of a random sample of 200 unused gunflints recovered from the British shipwreck Deltebre I. This cargo ship belonged to an allied convoy that unsuccessfully tried to liberate Tarragona city from the Napoleonic forces, and sunk in the Ebro river delta, Catalonia, Spain, in 1813. The results from size and shape characterisation of the unused gunflints using geometric morphometric methods are presented. In order to assess morphometric variation between used and unused artefacts, this sample was compared with published images of 22 used British gunflints from different archaeological contexts. Finally, the usefulness of applied methodology to quantitatively characterise the design and morphometric variations of this kind of artefacts is highlighted.
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En la decoración parietal de la Tumba Tebana 49, su propietario, Neferhotep, está representado junto con otros actores sociales desempeñando distintas actividades durante su vida terrena y en su proyección póstuma. Puede esperarse que algunas de estas expresiones visuales guarden altos grados de similitud con la realidad, mientras que otras se ajusten a una recreación de potenciales situaciones que ocurrirían a futuro, una vez que hubiese muerto. Al respecto, nos preguntamos si existe alguna clase de diferenciación en la forma de las representaciones que permita individualizar a las personas retratadas, o si sólo interesaba representar a aquellos grupos sociales que debían intervenir en los rituales de enterramiento. Persiguiendo este objetivo, nos proponemos evaluar la existencia de variaciones en la forma de los perfiles de las personas representadas, retomando algunos de los resultados alcanzados en trabajos precedentes. Dichos análisis, efectuados mediante las técnicas de morfometría geométrica, mostraron la existencia de diferencias dependientes del sexo como así también del estatus y/o rango social en los modos de representación de los perfiles de los personajes. Aquí nos interesa evaluar la interrelación de ambas variables y la importancia relativa del sexo (determinado mediante rasgos fisonómicos) en las variaciones morfológicas observadas en los retratos de hombres y mujeres.
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Brazilian archaeological literature has insisted for decades upon associating hunter-gatherer sites dated to the Pleistocene–Holocene transition either to the Itaparica tradition, if located in central or northeastern Brazil, or to the Umbu tradition and Humaitá tradition, if located in southern Brazil, Uruguay, or any other adjacent part of Paraguay and Argentina. These associations have been based almost entirely on the presence or absence of lesmas and “projectile points,” regardless of their morphological and technological features. In the Uruguayan archaeological literature, three other cultures are recognised: Fell industry, Catalanense industry, and Tigre tradition, all in the Uruguayan region. However, the last 10 years of systematic studies on the lithic assemblages from these sites have shown that Paleoindian societies from Eastern South America are more culturally diverse than expected and that previously defined archaeological cultures present several issues in their definition, suggesting that many of these “traditions” are not valid and should no longer be used. Instead, new lithic industries and archaeological cultures should be defined only when cultural patterns are observable through systematic analyses.
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Originally created as an endeavor to build a laudatory chronicle about the artistic qualities and moral and technological advances of our species, Archeology ended up opening Pandora's box. We know a lot, and we know things that are not necessarily pleasant. The positive side of this is that Archeology has the capacity to instill humility in us, the understanding that we are not inherently better than our ancestors in any way. The role of Archeology is to point out trends and produce interpretations that are often counterintuitive. The role of showing how we have been, to understand who we are. Archeology is an eminently anarchic discipline, which demolishes certainties and brings with it the possibility of glimpsing a different world, sometimes uncomfortably different, than our common sense suggests.
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RESUMEN En este trabajo nos proponemos evaluar la existencia de variaciones en el diseño de puntas de proyectil bifaciales pedunculadas entre la cuenca del río Santa Cruz y el estrecho de Magallanes. Con este objetivo se aplicaron análisis morfométricos, métricos y de microdesgaste en los pedúnculos de estos instrumentos. Los mismos señalaron, por un lado, la existencia de semejanzas en su forma y por el otro, variaciones métricas y en el microdesgaste entre los conjuntos procedentes del norte y el sur del río Santa Cruz. Se discute si las causas de estas variaciones pueden relacionarse con características ambientales-como la disponibilidad de recursos líticos, faunísticos y vegetales-o con la existencia de diferentes poblaciones humanas. PALABRAS CLAVES: Patagonia, puntas de proyectil bifaciales pedunculadas, análisis morfomé-tricos, análisis métricos, análisis de microdesgaste. ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the existence of variations in the design of stemmed bi-facial projectile points recovered between the Santa Cruz basin and the Magellan Strait. Morphometric, metric and microwear analisys were applied on the stem of the proyectil points. While there are similar 1 CONICET – Universidad de Buenos Aries. Saavedra 15, 5to. piso,
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This chapter is concerned with war and technological change, concentrating on the aftermath of war, when the causes of technological innovation and its acceptance are less obvious. It proposes that the Salado polychrome was the result of intense female competition created by the influx of thousands of female war refugees and their children into central and southern Arizona and New Mexico. This chapter suggests that the Salado religion was not focused on elites but was instead “a poor woman's religion.” It shows that the Salado case reveals strong selective pressures which led to the formation and spread of a cultural adaptation over an expansive area while greatly limiting variation within the cultural trait.
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This chapter addresses the evolutionary advantages of noninnovation. It suggests two evolutionary benefits to traditions and the metatraditions that promote them, one beginning much earlier in human existence than the other. It notes that metatraditions may contribute to the “descent” aspect of the Darwinian principle of descent with modification. This chapter shows that although the emphasis on cultural preservation may seem to be incongruous with much of the current thinking about innovation and cultural evolution, it actually is compatible (if not synonymous) with Darwin's original views on natural selection.
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Conhecidas popularmente como “pontas de flecha”, as pontas de projétil associadas à Tradição Umbu no sul e sudeste brasileiros carecem de investigação acerca do modo como foram utilizadas. Há variações importantes de tamanho entre pontas de flecha e pontas de dardo, dadas as diferenças tecnológicas associadas aos meios de propulsão utilizados. Este trabalho visa explorar de maneira preliminar, através da técnica proposta por Shott (1997), a questão sobre o uso de dardos e flechas no sudeste e sul do Brasil durante a pré-história. Foram analisadas pontas de oito sítios do sul e sudeste do Brasil, datados desde o Pleistoceno tardio até o Holoceno final. Pelo menos um conjunto de pontas, datado do início do Holoceno, apresentou uma proporção relativamente alta de pontas classificadas com “flecha”, indicando a presença de pontas que potencialmente poderiam ser usadas nesse sistema.
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Since the beginning of systematic archaeological studies in southern Patagonia (Argentina and Chile), projectile points have played an important role as cultural markers. A sequence of projectile point types was established according to their changes in size and shape. These stone tools, along with others cultural evidences, sensed to differentiate a series of "cultural periods," which were, for decades, the frame of reference to understand the cultural evolution in southernmost Patagonia. Although later researches have questioned several of these assumptions, the classical typology of projectile points continued in use until the present day. The goal of this work is to evaluate size and shape variation in two late Holocene projectile point types, known as Fell. Bird, or Magallanes IV and V points or Patagónicas and Ona points, respectively. These two types are compared using geometric morphometries and multivariate statistical analyses. The reliability in the discrimination between types is tested at the light of reduction. The analyses have shown a major incidence of reduction on shape rather than on size, and on blade rather than on stem. However, in average, types IV and V can be distinguished in terms of size, and stem shape despite reduction. Thus, even though successive cycles of use, damage and resharpening have a great influence over size and shape of projectile points, resharpening techniques are specific enough to maintain the differences of size and shape between types, a pattern that is probably related with functional requirements.
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Computer simulations were used to investigate whether multivariate analysis of variance and multiple regression analyses based on partial-warp scores yielded the correct type I error levels. Several configurations of landmarks and models for the covariances among and within landmarks were studied. Good agreement was found for all models investigated.
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The numerical abundance of artifacts in the archaeological record is in some ways analogous to the occurrence of individuals in many species populations. Methods devised by biometricians for the geometric description of organism form may be applied to artifacts, provided that coordinates of landmarks on individual specimens are available. We have conceptualized two- and three-dimensional geometric models of a bifacial tool, the handaxe, defined landmark locations and from them transformed traditional linear measures into geometric coordinates, illustrated individual variations in handaxe shape, and found statistically significant differences in mean shape between two stratigraphic units in an excavation in northern Israel. The concept of a geometric model for a handaxe may be easily applied to other types of artifacts for which geometric coordinates may be calculated and may prove a useful tool for the archaeologist who desires to illustrate and analyze artifact form.
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The study of plant succession provides information on vegetation dynamics of a region and, therefore, improves our understanding of the natural trends of present ecosystems. With this objective, plant succession based on palynology of a sediment profile in a swamp forest was studied on the Lower Northeast Slope of Serra Geral, Rio Grande do Sul. Samples were treated with HCl, HF, KOH and acetolysis; slides were mounted in glycerol-jelly. For each sample a minimum of 500 grains of pollen + pteridophyte and bryophyte spores was counted and other palynomorphs were counted in parallel. Tilia and Tilia Graph software were used to construct percentage and concentration diagrams, with three 14C datings. The results show a local water reservoir in the beginning of the Holocene (± 9800 yrs. BP), creating a herbaceous plant marsh by hydrosere. The initial colonization of the marsh by trees occurred about 8800 yrs. BP, with tropical species from the Coastal Plain migrating in an east-west direction. Afterwards, there was a dry phase between 7000-5000 yrs. BP. The second appearance of regional tree species began at about 5000 yrs. BP, resulting in the present forest and in the west-east migration of tropical species from interior lowlands, like this one, to re-colonize the coast after the last marine regression.
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Lagoa Santa, a karstic area in eastern Central Brazil, has been subject to research on human paleontology and archaeology for 175 years. Almost 300 Paleoindian human skeletons have been found since Danish naturalist Peter Lund's pioneering work. Even so, some critical issues such as the role of rockshelters in settlement systems, and the possible paleoclimatic implications of the peopling of the region have yet to be addressed. We present some results obtained from recent excavations at four rockshelters and two open-air sites, new dates for human Paleoindian skeletons, and a model to explain the cultural patterns observed so far. It is also argued that the Paleoindian subsistence system at Lagoa Santa was similar to other locations in South America: generalized small-game hunting complemented by fruits, seed, and root gathering.
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The new morphometrics, or geometric morphometrics, is a rapidly evolving field. “Morphometrics” has been used to describe a number of fields that study measurements of organisms, and that is why the modifier “new” or “geometric” is necessary to set aside the special subject matter discussed here: the shape of biological organisms as it is studied using as data, point coordinates in two or three dimensions. This includes landmark and outline coordinates. Landmarks are specific points on an organism that correspond in a sensible way over the forms being studied, that is they are homologs; while outline points do not share this notion of homology. The data of morphometrics is now being extended to include tangent directions at coordinates as well (see Bookstein and Green, 1993; Little and Mardia, this volume). Shape is primarily concerned with properties of coordinates that are invariant to scale, location and orientation (see Appendix I, Glossary). The current status of morphometrics together with some future objectives are summarized in a review by Rohlf and Marcus (1993a).
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As evidências arqueológicas encontradas ao longo do litoral brasileiro atestam que essa área era ocupada, desde, pelo menos, 8.000 anos AP, por grupos pescadores coletores que exploravam os ambientes aquáticos costeiros. Embora a comunidade científica acredite que os sambaquieiros fossem exímios navegadores, evidências a esse respeito ainda são raras. Neste artigo, a partir de uma abordagem focada na Arqueologia Marítima, são apresentados argumentos, hipóteses e evidências que discutem o entendimento de que, além de uma forte relação econômica e simbólica com os ambientes aquáticos, os povos dos sambaquis se apropriaram de ou desenvolveram técnicas de navegação e artefatos náuticos.
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If archaeology is to succeed in explaining culture change, it must view the archaeological record from the perspective of cultural "descent with modification," in so doing returning to many of the issues addressed by the culture-history agenda rejected 30-40 years ago. This involves a consideration of the processes affecting cultural transmission. Many of these are strongly affected by the history of the biological populations in which cultural transmission occurs. It can be shown that prehistoric populations fluctuated much more than used to be thought and that these fluctuations can be hard to detect archaeologically. They can often be associated with cultural changes, and, in fact, the size of populations affects the nature of cultural processes in a variety of ways. These general points are illustrated with reference to a case study from the circum-Alpine Neolithic, where dendrochronology provides high-resolution dating. © 2000 by The Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research. All rights reserved.
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In human teratology, the magnitude of exposures cannot be experimentally controlled. But when dose and response are both measured redundantly, a new statistical approach, Partial Least Squares, can powerfully summarize the data while avoiding familiar inferential pitfalls. Procedures of this class have been exploited in a study of the enduring effects of prenatal alcohol exposure upon neurobehavioral development of some 500 children born in 1975-1976. In the context of that study, this article reviews the new methodology under 4 headings: (a) descriptions of dose and outcome measures jointly by way of new composite scores and their saliences (cross-correlations), (b) covariate adjustments for these summaries and scores, (c) methods for inspecting the dose-response relationship between the composites and the original measures, and (d) methods for studying the emergence or amelioration of deficits across developmental age.
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Standardized, quantified characterization of artifact shape is still problematic insofar as both intuitive shape typologies and multivariate analyses of shape attributes are limited to narrowly defined classes of artifacts exhibiting homologous morphological landmarks. The Fourier series in closed form is introduced as a mathematical description of irregular, two-dimensional shape, where the relative contributions of 20 standard components of shape, or "harmonics," are given in a series equation which can also regenerate the shape of the artifact as precisely as required. This method permits crossclass inspection of the variance of shapes of artifacts, and lends itself to classifications of shape or to intraclass analyses of variance. The level of descriptive precision may be set by the investigator in accordance with research interests. Applications of the method to archaeological samples, and different analyses of the data generated by the method, are discussed.
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Geometric Morphometrics for Biologists is an introductory textbook for a course on geometric morphometrics, written for graduate students and upper division undergraduates, covering both theory of shape analysis and methods of multivariate analysis. It is designed for students with minimal math background; taking them from the process of data collection through basic and more advanced statistical analyses. Many examples are given, beginning with simple although realistic case-studies, through examples of complex analyses requiring several different kinds of methods. The book also includes URLâs for free software and step-by-step instructions for using the software.
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In order to understand the relationship between human occupation and paleoenvironmental scenario in Southern Brazil during Holocene, multidisciplinary studies were carried out in two archaeological sites located at Northeast of Rio Grande do Sul State: Sangao rockshelter (RS-S-327) and Garivaldino rockshelter (RS-TQ-58). Both sites have radiocarbon ages from 9400 to 3730 C-14 BP, revealing a continuous occupation of this area by hunter-gatherer populations related to Umbu Tradition. Palynological studies conducted in areas near the archaeological sites demonstrated an increase in humidity and in arboreal taxa starting at 5400 C-14 BP, providing evidence of a mosaic of grasslands and forests. These findings are corroborated by the analysis of small-sized mammals related to non-human predation associated to these archaeological sites, which present contemporary taxa typical of forests and open areas. They also demonstrated that environmental changes were slow and gradual during the Holocene. Although paleoenvironmental data suggest that the landscape of this region evolve gradually from mosaic of forest and open landscapes to diverse and densest forests, zooarchaeological analysis indicates a pattern of adaptive stability that persists throughout the Holocene, characterized by generalist strategies of subsistence focused mainly in forest resources. Therefore, the favorable weather conditions and the presence of forest environments restricted to river valleys and mountain slopes until Mid-Holocene, played a central role for the initial human settlement of this area, related mainly with riverine routes.
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Traditional artifact typologies are typically poorly defined. While several attributes usually help define a “type,” shape is invariably the most important. Here I report on a study that uses landmark-based geometric morphometrics to better define three Paleoindian point types from Florida: Suwannees, Simpsons, and Transitional Side Notched. Bilaterally symmetric specimens were created from the original artifacts to capture the presumed ideational forms of the points. The shapes of the bases and the entire points were tested to determine whether the types could be discriminated, and if so which shape was best at discriminating the types. The results show that the base configurations were best at discriminating the groups in two different jackknife allocation tests. The entire point shape was less robust due to the variability in blade shape. The study demonstrates that the three point types can be rigorously defined in ways that are usable in daily archaeological practice, and that base shape, rather than the entire shape, is a better discriminator. Further, the study demonstrates the utility of using several freeware programs for processing and analyzing shape data.