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Background Propolis (also called bee glue) is a resinous substance derived from bees. It has long been used in medicine for its beneficial properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and local anaesthetic effects. In dentistry, propolis has been used for the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, as an interim transport medium for avulsed teeth, and in endodontics, orthodontics and periodontics. Objective To highlight the role of propolis in dentistry. MethodsA PubMed search was made using the keywords propolis, beeglue, antimicrobial, dental and herbs without any limits on the date of publication. No specific inclusion or exclusion criteria were applied as the purpose of the review was to make it as comprehensive as possible. DiscussionThe role of propolis is discussed in various branches of dentistry, including: preventive dentistry, dental traumatology, endodontics, periodontology, orthodontics and oral oncology. Conclusion Although most research published in the dental literature on propolis is based on in-vitro studies or animal studies, extrapolating the results of these present studies to clinical practice may be too early as these results may not be necessarily replicated in human trials. In future, propolis may find a definitive role in one or more applications in dentistry; however, clinical trials are necessary to isolate the individual components responsible for its beneficial effects and to study them.
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REVIEW
Focus on Alternative and
Complementary Therapies
Volume 18(3) September 2013 118–125
© 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society
DOI 10.1111/fct.12034
ISSN 1465-3753
Role of propolis in dentistry: review of the literature
Divesh Sardana, KR InduShekar, Sheetal Manchanda, Bhavna Gupta Saraf,
Neha Sheoran
Abstract
Background Propolis (also called bee glue) is a resinous substance derived from bees. It has long been used in medicine
for its beneficial properties, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and local anaesthetic effects. In dentistry,
propolis has been used for the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, as an interim transport medium for
avulsed teeth, and in endodontics, orthodontics and periodontics.
Objective To highlight the role of propolis in dentistry.
Methods A PubMed search was made using the keywords propolis, bee glue, antimicrobial, dental and herbs without
any limits on the date of publication. No specific inclusion or exclusion criteria were applied as the purpose of the review
was to make it as comprehensive as possible.
Discussion The role of propolis is discussed in various branches of dentistry, including: preventive dentistry, dental
traumatology, endodontics, periodontology, orthodontics and oral oncology.
Conclusion Although most research published in the dental literature on propolis is based on in-vitro studies or animal
studies, extrapolating the results of these present studies to clinical practice may be too early as these results may not be
necessarily replicated in human trials. In future, propolis may find a definitive role in one or more applications in dentistry;
however, clinical trials are necessary to isolate the individual components responsible for its beneficial effects and to study
them.
Keywords
Antimicrobial • bee glue • dental • interim-transport media • propolis
Introduction
Propolis (also called bee glue) is a resinous substance
derived from honey bees (Apis mellifera), and has long
been used in medicine for its beneficial properties.
The term ‘propolis’ is a Greek word meaning ‘in front
of the city’ (‘pro’ – in front and ‘polis’ – city), which
emphasises the protective role of propolis in bee
colonies. The medical literature is vast regarding the
potential benefits of propolis and its constituents,
with a range of effects reported to date including
anti-inflammatory,1antioxidant,2,3 anti-ulcer,4anti-
tumour,5antidiabetic,6,7 cardio-protective8and local-
anaesthetic effects.9The Greeks, Arabs, Romans and
Egyptians have long known about the medical prop-
erties of propolis, however the use of propolis in
dentistry is relatively new; but considering the effects
of propolis on infection, inflammation and carcino-
genesis, it may have more potential uses in the treat-
ment as well as the prevention of oral disease.
Propolis is mainly composed of plant resins and
exudates that are gathered by bees. Some wax, bee
secretions and pollen are added later by the bees to
give the final complex product, viz propolis. The
colour of the propolis may vary from yellowish-green
to dark brown depending on its source and age. Like
other waxes, it is hard and brittle when cold but
becomes soft and sticky when warmed.
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118
Several hundred compounds have been character-
ised in different propolis types; however, the main
chemical constituents of propolis are flavonoids,
various phenolic and aromatic compounds, amino
acids, minerals and vitamins A, E and B complex.
These constituents appear in various concentrations
depending on geographical location and botanical
origin. Howsoever the exact composition of propolis
from different botanical origins may vary, the biologi-
cal effects are similar. This may be because of similar
active ingredients in different types of propolis.
The purpose of this review is to highlight the role
of propolis in dentistry and to discuss any future
perspectives of this new ‘Api-herbal drug’.
Methods
Although propolis has been used in dentistry for
various indications, evidence from RCTs and control-
led clinical trials are lacking. Hence, no specific cri-
teria were applied a priori as to what articles would be
selected for this review. The purpose was to make this
review as comprehensive as possible, although only
articles indexed in PubMed were considered for inclu-
sion. A PubMed search was made using the keywords
propolis, bee glue, antimicrobial, dental and herbs
without any limits on the date of publication.
Discussion
Propolis has been widely used in dentistry; the earli-
est reference to its use was probably a medical book
named ‘The Carbadini’ published in the 13th century,
where its beneficial role had been suggested in tooth
decay. Since then, possibly due to its wide antimicro-
bial activity (including antibacterial, antifungal and
antiviral activity), propolis has been used for the
treatment and prevention of dental caries and peri-
odontal diseases, as an interim transport medium for
avulsed teeth, and for dental hypersensitivity and
denture and apthous stomatitis (Table 1).
Preventive dentistry
As an anti-caries agent
Apart from the numerous approaches already avail-
able for the prevention of dental caries (e.g. fluorides,
dietary counselling, povidone-iodine, probiotics,
caries vaccine), which affect one or more steps in the
caries process, propolis is a useful addition to this list
as it inhibits water-insoluble glucan synthesis and
affects acid production and the acid tolerance of
micro-organisms.10 Two mechanisms of action have
been associated with the anti-caries11 and anti-
plaque12 properties of propolis: the first is the anti-
microbial activity against cariogenic bacteria;13,14 the
second is the inhibition of glucosyltransferase
enzyme activity.15–18 However; the cariostatic effect of
propolis depends on its composition and, thus, the
region of collection of the propolis sample.19,20
Although propolis demonstrates in vitro inhibitory
activity against streptococcus and lactobacillus, long-
term clinical studies showing changes in decayed,
missing, filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed, missing,
filled surfaces (DMFS) are lacking. The exact dosage
and concentration of propolis that should be used
also needs to be conclusively determined. Propolis
has already been tested as an adjuvant to vaccines21
and hence, may have a future role in caries vaccina-
tion or as adjuvant therapy to other anti-caries
agents [e.g. fluorides, povidone-iodine, casein
phosphopeptide – amorphous calcium phosphate
(CPP-ACP)].
Dental trauma
Interim-transport media for avulsed teeth
Dental avulsion is a consequence of injury that
results in the complete displacement of a tooth from
its alveolar socket and damaging the adjacent
hard and soft periodontal tissues. Various interim
Table 1 Propolis and its role in dentistry
Composition (may vary
depending on
the source)
Flavonoids
Phenolic and aromatic
compounds
Amino acids
Minerals
Vitamins
Physical characteristics Colour: yellowish-green to dark
brown depending on source
and age
Hard and brittle when cold
Soft and sticky when warmed
Health-enhancing
benefits
Anti-inflammatory
Antioxidant
Anti-ulcer
Antidiabetic
Antibacterial
Antifungal
Antiviral
Anti-tumour
Cardio-protective
Dental uses Anti-caries agent
Interim transport media for
avulsed teeth
Anti-plaque agent
Anti-calculus agent
Intra-canal medicament
Intra-canal irrigant
Pulp capping agent
Adjunct to radiotherapy
Reduction of dentinal
hypersensitivity
Treatment of stomatitis
Anti-herpetic
Antifungal
Repair of oral wounds
Review 119
transport media for avulsed teeth have been used to
preserve the vitality of periodontal ligament (PDL)
cells; propolis is one of them. Propolis has been
found to be an effective storage media for periods of
6 h and above.22,23 However, the results do not appear
very promising for shorter periods of storage.
Propolis increases the metabolic activity and pro-
liferation of PDL cells and decreases apoptosis, sug-
gesting it has a beneficial role on the viability and
physiological health of periodontal ligament cells.24
Propolis has also been shown to inhibit external
root resorption similar to 2% acidulated-phosphate
sodium fluoride solution,25 although in another
study propolis caused time-dependent replacement
resorption similar to teeth maintained in saliva and
dry conditions.23 Lastly, propolis inhibits osteoclas-
togenesis and osteoclast activation in tissue culture
and may prove useful in future as a medicament to
reduce resorption associated with traumatic injuries
to the teeth.26
Various concentrations of propolis (either alone or
in combinations)27–29 with varied time periods have
been studied to determine its effectiveness in main-
taining PDL cell viability utilising different meth-
ods.30,31 Although found to be effective, the exact
concentration is yet to be conclusively determined.
Moreover, its ease of availability remains a question
when compared to other easily available and effective
media such as milk, coconut water and oral rehydra-
tion solution. Based on the data available for propolis
as an interim transport medium, it may be concluded
that propolis is an acceptable long-term storage
medium for avulsed teeth. However, long-term
human trials are necessary to term it the ‘best’ storage
medium for avulsed teeth.
Periodontology
A large number of mouth rinses have been used for
their ability to disrupt the formation of plaque. In a
double-blind cross-over study, propolis was found to
be significantly more efficacious than placebo in
reducing the plaque index and the concentration of
insoluble polysachharide.12 Reduction of insoluble
polysaccharide by propolis may not only reduce the
bulk of plaque but also affect the cariogenic potential
of plaque.32 In rat models, propolis when adminis-
tered systemically reduced alveolar bone loss when
assessed by morphologic and histologic parameters.33
Sub-gingival irrigation with propolis extract as an
adjuvant to periodontal treatment was found to be
more effective than conventional treatment accord-
ing to both microbiological and clinical para-
meters34,35 and, hence, may be recommended in cases
of gingivitis and periodontitis. Propolis has also been
studied for its effectiveness in reducing malodour
production and found to be ineffective,36 but it still
may find a future role in toothpastes and mouth
rinses as an anti-calculus agent (due to its inhibitory
effect on both the rate of amorphous calcium
phosphate transformation to hydroxyapatite and the
induction time)37 and anti-plaque agent. However,
propolis may have a limited role when compared to
chlorhexidine (CHX) as an anti-plaque agent.38
Endodontics
Intra-canal medicament
Calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] has remained a stand-
ard treatment against which intra-canal medica-
ments (ICMs) are compared.39,40 However, Ca(OH)2
has some disadvantages, like its longer time require-
ments for action41 and its inability to eliminate a
whole spectrum of micro-organisms.42 Propolis has
reportedly a greater inhibitory effect on Enterococcus
faecalis compared to Ca(OH)2, tri-antibiotic mixture,
ethanol and saline.43–45 However, in these studies the
methodologies differed in regard to antimicrobial
testing, duration of the study, strain of E. faecalis and
the concentration of propolis used. Although propo-
lis had better inhibitory activity against E. faecalis,
CHX and povidone iodine were found to be better
than propolis and Ca(OH)2.46 However, in another
study, Ca(OH)2paste containing propolis extract
was found to be better than Ca(OH)2alone against
polymicrobial cultures.47
Apart from the antimicrobial action of intra-canal
medicaments, another issue to be considered is the
peri-apical response of the ICM. Long-term studies on
peri-apical response of propolis are lacking, however,
when compared with corticosteroid–antibiotic paste,
it caused less peri-apical inflammation over a period
of 28 days in dogs’ teeth.48 As an ICM, both propolis
and Ca(OH)2have similar physical properties,49
although propolis has been reported to be 10 times
less cytotoxic to fibroblasts of the periodontal liga-
ment and dental pulp.50
Intra-canal irrigant
Propolis may be used as an intra-canal irrigant and
has been found to be effective in reducing endotox-
ins and inhibiting E. faecalis,Streptococcus aureus,
Candida albicans and E. coli.51–53
Pulp-capping agent/pulpotomy
Propolis has been used as a pulp-capping agent in
permanent teeth54 and as a pulpotomy agent in
primary teeth.55,56 It was found that teeth capped
with propolis form a hard tissue barrier. The probable
components of propolis responsible for the forma-
tion of the hard tissue barrier are the flavonoids,
which have been shown to cause less inflammation
and harder tissue formation than non-flavonoid
components.57 Flavonoids have anti-inflammatory
properties by virtue of their suppression of immune
cell activation, macrophage-derived nitric oxide and
cytokine production and neutrophil activation. Also,
Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies September 2013 18(3)120
flavonoids may inhibit bacterial growth in the pulp
chamber thereby reducing the host response to bac-
terial antigens.58
Orthodontics
Propolis solution was shown to have a positive effect
on bone formation during treatment with a device to
expand the palatine suture. An increased quantity of
osteoblasts and quicker bone remodelling was found
in preparations from rats that received propolis
during the treatment.59
Oral oncology
The radio-sensitising capacity of propolis was evalu-
ated in human head and neck squamous cell carci-
noma (HNSCC) cells and propolis was found to
enhance radio-sensitivity in one of the three HNSCC
lines and also reduced cell growth and clonogenic
survival.60 Hydro-alcoholic extract of green propolis
had a protective role against chemically induced
lingual carcinogenesis in rats61 and may be used as a
preventive agent or as adjunctive treatment for oral
cancers. Propolis may also have a role in reducing or
delaying radiation-induced mucositis.62
Miscellaneous
Dentin hypersensitivity
Dentin hypersensitivity has been defined as a short,
sharp pain arising from exposed dentin in response
to stimuli, typically thermal, evaporative, tactile,
osmotic or chemical, which cannot be ascribed to
any other form of dental pathology.63 Numerous
materials have been used to reduce dentin hypersen-
sitivity; propolis is one of them.64 When compared
with CPP-ACP F and sodium fluoride, topical appli-
cation of propolis was found to be most effective in
reducing hypersensitivity over a period of 90 days.65
The probable mechanism for the reduction in
hypersensitivity may be the occlusion of dentinal
tubules.66,67
Stomatitis
Systemic intake of propolis (500 mg/day) was found
to be effective in reducing the number of disease
outbreaks and improving the QoL of patients suffer-
ing from recurrent aphthous stomatitis.68
Antifungal
Candidiasis is a fungal infection commonly found in
denture wearers and immune-compromised patients.
Propolis has been found to inhibit C. albicans isolated
from HIV-seropositive individuals when compared to
nystatin in an in-vitro study,69 and also in denture
wearers, thus supporting its antifungal activity.70
Antiviral
Propolis may have a future role in the prophylaxis or
treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of
the oral cavity. The anti-HSV effect of propolis was
tested in an in-vitro and in-vivo study71 and propolis
was found to have an inhibitory effect on viral infec-
tion probably owing to the prevention of virus
absorption into the host cells and/or inhibition of an
internal step(s) during the viral replication cycle,
thus preventing the appearance and development of
symptoms in vivo. In another study, Brazilian propolis
showed not only direct anti-HSV-1 activity but also
immunological activity against intradermal HSV-1
infection in mice.72
Repair of oral wounds
Propolis in aqueous alcohol solution exerted a small
analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect and also aided
repair of intra-buccal surgical wounds after sulculo-
plasty by modified Kazanjian technique.73 Topical
application of propolis hydro-alcoholic solution
was found to accelerate epithelial repair after tooth
extraction but had no effect on socket wound
healing.74
Role in dental materials
Arslan et al.75 evaluated the effect of five cavity disin-
fection agents: chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite,
propolis, ozone, and erbium chromium: yttrium-
scandium-gallium garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser on bond
strengths of silorane-based resin composite. However,
no significant difference in mean bond strength was
observed between the groups. Troca et al.76 evaluated
the effect of adding green propolis on the mechanical
properties of glass ionomer cements (GICs). Water
sorption values of the experimental GICs were
increased compared to pure GIC; other mechanical
properties like diametral tensile strength and solubil-
ity were also affected, although the change in prop-
erties were dependent on the GIC material (i.e.
manufacturer). Silva et al.77 evaluated the effect of
nystatin, flucanazole and propolis on the roughness,
free energy and Knoop hardness number of poly-
methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin (both heat
cured and microwave cured). There was a significant
increase in surface roughness and surface hardness of
PMMA samples treated with propolis compared to
antifungal agents. The increase in surface hardness in
the propolis-treated group was probably due to the
deposition of propolis over the roughened area,
which may have formed a barrier to C. albicans.
Side-effects
Propolis is considered to be a safe medicine; however,
like other honey-bee products, it may be responsible
for causing allergic reactions.78–80 As such, propolis
should be avoided by asthmatic patients, patients
allergic to bee stings and patients allergic to honey
products. Patch testing should be done to rule out
Review 121
allergy to propolis before prescribing it to a patient.
Future studies are needed to identify the individual
components of propolis responsible for causing aller-
gic reactions.
Conclusion
Although most of the dental literature published on
propolis is based on in-vitro studies or animal studies,
extrapolating the results of these present studies to
clinical practice may be too early as these results may
not be necessarily replicated in human trials. In
future, propolis may find a definitive role in one or
more applications in dentistry; however, clinical trials
are necessary to isolate the individual components
responsible for its beneficial effects and to study them.
Further research is also needed to determine its
optimal concentration, time of application, method
of preparation and effects on the oral cavity. Lastly,
allergy to propolis and its constituents should be
considered before prescribing the product to patients.
Conflict of interest None declared.
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Focus on Alternative and Complementary Therapies September 2013 18(3)124
Divesh Sardana, BDS, MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department
of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sudha Rustagi
College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad
121002, India.
E-mail: doc_divesh@yahoo.co.in
KR InduShekar, BDS, MDS, Professor and Head, Depart-
ment of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sudha Rustagi
College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad
121002, India.
E-mail: indushekar66@yahoo.co.in
Sheetal Manchanda, BDS, Private Practitioner, NexGen
Dental Solutions, Gurgaon 122002, India.
E-mail: manchanda_sheetal@yahoo.co.in
Bhavna Gupta Saraf, BDS, MDS, Associate Professor,
Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sudha
Rustagi College of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad
121002, India.
E-mail: guptabhavna2000@yahoo.com
Neha Sheoran, BDS, MDS, Senior Lecturer, Department of
Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Sudha Rustagi College
of Dental Sciences and Research, Faridabad 121002, India.
E-mail: sheoran.neha@yahoo.co.in
Review 125
... 4 Intracanal medicaments forms a part of endodontic disinfection during root canal treatment. Propolis which is extract from honey bees has a wide variety of use in dentistry including anti-caries agent, interim transport media for avulsed teeth, intra-canal medicament, Intra-canal irrigant, pulp capping agent, adjunct to radiotherapy, reduction of dentinal hypersensitivity, etc. 5 In recent studies it has been shown that propolis is more effective against resistant microbes like E. faecalis & is biocompatible to the peri-radicular tissues when compared with existing intracanal medicaments. [6][7] This paper presents a retreatment case of extra-oral cutaneous sinus of odontogenic origin which was treated using Propolis as an intracanal medicament. ...
... The quality of Propolis depends on the geographic region from where Propolis is collected by the honey bees. 5 Propolis has been shown to suppress the production of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase and inhibit in vivo the elevated production of leukotrienes B4 (LTB4) and leukotrienes C4 (LTC4). [21][22] Madhubala et al. (2011) showed that 100% elimination of E. faecalis after 2 days with propolis as an intracanal medicament, hence in the present case propolis was renewed after 3 days. ...
... [9] Previous research revealed an increase of mechanical strength of powdered dental material after supplemented with propolis. [10] Thus, many researchers are interested in combining propolis with pulp capping agent to compensate its flaw. Studies found that combining propolis and calcium hydroxide can induce a better dental hard tissue formation, some others found its effect in multiple ratios. ...
Article
Previous research states that adding propolis to powdered dental materials can increase the mechanical strength of the material. To analyze the differences and correlation of dentin elastic moduli and pH value after the exposure of calcium hydroxide, a mixture of propolis and calcium hydroxide, also a mixture of propylene glycol (PG), calcium hydroxide, and propolis. The dentine of bovine incisors was exposed into various compositions of a mixture of propolis, PG, and calcium hydroxide. The measurement of pH value and dentin elasstic moduli was performed after 7 days. To find difference among groups, one-way ANOVA was used, and Honestly significant difference (HSD) Tukey to compare each groups, followed by Pearson to define the correlation. A statistically meaningful difference was recorded between the groups (P < 0.05), and there was correlation between dentin elastic moduli and pH value. The more alkaline the environment, the more rigid the dentin.
... Propolis extracts showed superior inhibitory effects against E. faecalis in many studies. 12,13,25 However, the contra-results on inhibition of propolis drops could be attributed to the content of groups. There are conflicting results over Brazilian green propolis against E. faecalis. ...
... Its usefulness in dentistry and oral health management is based on available in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo studies, as well as human clinical trials. Propolis has been successfully applied for the prevention of dental caries and periodontal diseases, surgical wound healing, as an interim transport medium for avulsed teeth, and in endodontics, orthodontics, and periodontics [180][181][182]. Research in this field has been particularly active in Brazil and Indonesia. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Propolis (bee glue) is a sticky resinous product manufactured by honeybees. In this book, dedicated to plant resins, propolis has a very special place: It is the only material which comes not from plants but from animals, from bees. This chapter summarizes the present status of knowledge on propolis: the approaches to its chemical analysis, the different chemical types of propolis, and the numerous plant resins known as propolis botanical sources. It demonstrates the potential of bee glue as a source of new chemical structures and new biologically active compounds due to its chemical diversity, resulting from the diversity of plant sources. The versatile and valuable biological activities of propolis have been reviewed, together with its diverse applications in medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, animal husbandry, beekeeping, food industry.
... Many studies have demonstrated the multiple biological activities of propolis [30][31][32][33][34][35][36] and highlighted its properties in the dental eld [13,[37][38][39]. In fact, the antimicrobial activity of propolis against various periodontal pathogens has been largely demonstrated, including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Prevotella intermedia [40,41]. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Objectives. We determined the polyphenol content in a defined volume of chemically characterized and standardized propolis sample to evaluate its effectiveness in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and methods. After having determined the polyphenol content of a given volume of propolis extract and characterized the molecular profile, 150 patients were enrolled, randomly divided into three groups and subjected to three different treatments, Scaling and Root planing (SRP) associated with propolis, SRP with 1% chlorhexidine gel and SRP only. Before the treatments, Full Mouth Plaque Score (FMPS), Pocket Depth at Probing (PPD), Full Mouth Bleeding Score (FMBS), Impaired furcations according to the Hamp Classification, Mobility, Gingival recession and Clinical Attack Level (CAL) were evaluated. Results. A significant reduction of all the studied variables was observed in the three examined groups even if in the group treated with propolis, after 6 weeks, the reduction, and therefore the improvement, was higher than SRP treatment alone and in the presence of 1% chlorhexidine gel. Finally, there were no significant differences in the reduction of PPD and CAL between the groups treated with chlorhexidine and the group treated with SRP alone. Conclusion. Compared to the other two groups, Subjects treated with 10.4 mg propolis showed a significant improvement in all four variables. Clinical relevance. This study shows that propolis could be used as a natural adjuvant in the treatment of periodontal disease.
... 48 In dentistry, it is used as an intra-canal irrigant, cariostatic and pulp capping agent and for the treatment of periodontal disease. 51 Owing to substantial levels of anti-oxidants, Propolis Resin has also been proposed to have anti-oxidant effects in periodontal disease. It has been proved to act as an anti-calculus agent in toothpastes and mouthwashes. ...
... Other important constituents of propolis include minerals, vitamins, and amino acids. 21 It has been researched extensively in the field of medicine and dentistry and has many clinical applications. 22 Dental caries initiate with the formation of a white spot lesion that can be reversed if the equilibrium shifts in favour of remineralisation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: The aim of this in-vitro study was to analyze the enamel remineralization potential of propolis. Materials and Methods: Twenty enamel blocks (N = 20) were divided randomly into two groups (n = 10); group 1 (control): enamel blocks were brushed with artificial saliva (AS), and group 2: enamel blocks were brushed with propolis oil. All the enamel blocks were subjected to demineralization by exposing them to 6 wt % citric acid (pH = 2.2) for 5 mins. Tooth brushing was performed inside a tooth brushing simulation machine with manual toothbrushes and each sample received 5,000 linear strokes. Surface micro-hardness analysis was performed on each sample at three-time intervals; pre-demineralization (baseline), postdemineralization, and post-remineralization to obtain Vickers hardness number (VHN). Results: The results demonstrated an enhancement in the micro-hardness of enamel samples post-brushing with propolis oil as compared with the samples brushed with AS only. For the control group, the mean baseline VHN was 583.66 which decreased to 116.23 postdemineralization, and then post-remineralization, the VHN was increased to 184.02. The mean baseline VHN for group 2 was 506.91, which decreased to 317.60 postdemineralization, and then increased to 435.19 post-remineralization. The VHN values of both groups on inter-group and intra-group comparisons revealed statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The brushing of enamel blocks with propolis led to an enhancement in its micro-hardness levels, more than the control group. Future studies are indicated to comprehend the exact mechanism of propolis’s beneficial effect on the enamel.
... In orthodontics, they found that Propolis solution was shown to have a positive effect on bone formation during treatment with a device to expand the palatine suture. An increased quantity of osteoblasts and quicker bone remodelling was found in preparations from rats that received propolis during the treatment (2) . ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted on seven native dogs, each dog was injected by ethanol extract of propolis. Split mouth technique was used in each maxilla of the dogs. The upper left canine was injected sub mucosal by 1 ml of propolis 500 mg/l dissolved in ethanol, the right side was the control side. Two orthodontic attachments were bonded at the canine & the third molar of the same side, and connected together by a NiTi open coil spring. The distance between each two attachment of each side was measured at days : 0, 7, 14, 21. Propolis was injected three times at days: 0, 7, 14. Sacrificing the animals was done at day 21 then histological sections from the canines and surrounding alveolar bone was prepared. The results showed non significant difference in orthodontic tooth movement between the 2 groups. We concluded that injection of propolis (500mg/l) in dogs didn’t affect the orthodontic tooth movement in dogs.
... During dental trauma, when the tooth is completely out of Review on propolis alveolar socket (avulsion), a storage medium is needed to carry the tooth to dental clinic and to maintain the vitality of the PDL cells; propolis is one of these solutions. It has been shown that it is a suitable preservative solution for a period of 6 h and more, but for shorter periods, there is no significant difference with other available solutions [76,77]. In this context, propolis works better than Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), milk and serum, as more PDL cells survive [78]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The aim of this study was to review the chemical composition of propolis and its application in endodontics. Methods and Materials For this purpose, keywords were searched on ScienceDirect, PubMed and World of Chemicals databases in order to find published papers from 1988 to February 2018. Results There are many different compounds in propolis of different geographic regions; flavonoids are one of the most important agents which have anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, anti-allergic, anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and antioxidant effects. According to the mentioned properties, propolis can be used as a canal irrigation solution as well as intracanal medicament in endodontic treatments. Studies have shown that propolis as a storage medium is capable of maintaining the vitality of the periodontal ligaments cells and also has the ability to inhibit osteoclastic activity due to one of the active compounds present in it. In vital pulp therapy, propolis can induce the production of tubular dentin and also decrease the inflammation of the pulp. Conclusion Considering the propolis components like resin, pollen, vitamins, flavonoids and phenols; it can be used for various purposes in endodontics and would have a promising role in future medicine as well as dentistry.
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to evaluate the fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer (GI) modified with flax fibers and/or ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) with and without thermo-cycling. Materials and Methods: 80 total discs of GI were prepared, 20 discs per group: Group (GI) conventional glass ionomer (control), Group (F) glass ionomer incorporated with 5% flax fibers, Group (P) glass ionomer incorporated with 1% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP), Group (FP) glass ionomer incorporated with 5% flax fibers and 1% ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP). Fluoride release testing was performed after the first day and after 7 days. Results: Conventional Fuji IX Gold Label (GI) revealed the lowest fluoride release mean values, Propolis modified Fuji IX Gold Label (P) showed higher mean values followed by Flax fibers and Propolis modified Fuji IX Gold Label (FP), while Flax fibers modified Fuji IX Gold Label (F) revealed the highest mean fluoride release value. Conclusion: Incorporation of 5% Flax fibers enhanced the initial fluoride release of conventional glass ionomer.
Article
Full-text available
Studies have demonstrated that flavonoid compounds of green propolis have antitumoral activity. Experimental study. To evaluate the effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of green propolis (EPV) on chemically induced epithelial dysplasias in rat tongues. DMBA was brushed on the lingual dorsum of rats 3x/week on alternate days--100 (PROP1), 200 (PROP2) and 300 mg/kg (PROP3) EPV was administered orally for 20 weeks. EPV or DMBA were replaced by their vehicles and applied as positive (TUM1 and TUM2) and negative controls (CTR1 and CTR2), respectively. The lingual epithelium was histologically analyzed and graded according a binary system and the WHO classification; the data were compared using ANOVA (*p<0.05). The EPV yield was 41% and the flavonoid yield was 0.95±0.44%. According to the Binary System, TUM1, TUM2 and PROP1 were considered high risk lesions, with significantly higher morphological alteration rates compared to the other groups (p<0.05), which were considered low risk lesions. Based on the WHO classification, moderate dysplasia was TUM1 and TUM2, mild dysplasia was PROP1, PROP2 and PROP3, and non-dysplastic epithelium was CTR1 and CTR2. EPV seems to play an important protective role against chemically-induced lingual carcinogenesis in rats.
Article
Full-text available
Dentine hypersensitivity is a transient condition that often resolves with the natural sclerotic obturation of dentinal tubules. A potent topically applied in-office desensitizing treatment is indicated as the choice of treatment when dentine hypersensitivity is localized to one or two teeth. The present study aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical efficiency of CPP-ACP F, sodium fluoride, propolis, and distilled water that was used as placebo in treating dentinal hypersensitivity. 120 patients aged 20-40 years reporting with dentinal hypersensitivity in relation to canine, premolar and molars with erosion, abrasion, and gingival recession were randomly assigned to four groups of 30 patients each. Response to air jet and tactile stimuli were measured using visual analogue scale initially on 1st, 7th, 15th, 28th, 60(th), and final assessment was done on the 90th day. A statistical analysis was done using Anova test (Fischer's test) and Tukey HSD test for multicomparison. The teeth treated with the test group showed decrease in the mean hypersensitivity values compared to control group, over a period of three months. The results showed propolis to be most efficient in treating dentinal hypersensitivity and CPP- ACPF showed to be the least efficient. All test groups were effective in reducing dentinal hypersensitivity, although they differed in rapidity of action over the period of 3 months. Further studies can be done using advanced materials and techniques. Multiple therapeutic modalities have been developed to treat dentinal hypersensitivity including products that impede nerve conduction of pain stimulus, products that mechanically occlude dentinal tubules, and calcium containing products designed to create plugs in the tubules utilizing a demineralization mechanism.
Article
Full-text available
We report a case of propolis allergy in an 18-year-old female patient. Medical history revealed self-prescribed topical use of propolis spray as a medication for gingival swelling caused by orthodontic molar bands. After 24 hours, the patient developed lip edema and erythema of the perioral skin accompanied by burning pain in her lips. Discrete erosions were present in the corners of her lips. Erythema of the right infraorbital region was also observed. The patient was prescribed betamethasone propionate cream two times daily. Complete recovery was observed after 10 days. Propolis allergy was confirmed by a patch test. We believe that the use of propolis for the treatment of oral diseases should be avoided due to sparse evidence of its efficacy and numerous cases of allergic reactions.
Article
Aim This in vitro study evaluated the effect of different cavity disinfection agents on bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. Materials and methods Thirty-six caries-free human third mandibular molars sectioned in mesio-distal direction were mounted in acrylic resin with their flat dentin surfaces exposed. After the dentin surfaces were wet ground with # 600 silicon carbide paper, the teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 12 each according to the cavity disinfection agents; chlorhexidine (CHX); sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), propolis, ozone, Er, Cr:YSGG laser and no treatment (control). After treatment of dentin surfaces with one of these cavity disinfection agents, Filtek Silorane adhesive system was applied. The silorane-based resin composite, Filtek Silorane was condensed into a mold and polymerized. After storage at 37°C for 24 hours, the specimens were tested in shear mode at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion The use of the tested cavity disinfection agents, chlorhexidine, sodium hypochlorite, propolis, ozone and Er, Cr:YSGG laser did not significantly affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite, Filtek Silorane. Clinical significance Cavity disinfectant applications did not affect the dentin bond strength of a silorane-based resin composite. How to cite this article Arslan S, Yazici AR, Gorucu J, Ertan A, Pala K, Üstün Y, Antonson SA, Antonson DE. Effects of Different Cavity Disinfectants on Shear Bond Strength of a Siloranebased Resin Composite. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4): 279-286.
Article
Aim To evaluate and compare antimicrobial effect of various root canal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . Materials and methods Six root canal medicaments: 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH) 2 ), EDTA, MTAD and propolis and three microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus , Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were used. These strains were inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. For the agar diffusion test (ADT), petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the microbial suspensions, using sterile swabs that were spread on the medium, obtaining growth injunction. Paper disks were immersed in the experimental solutions for 1 minute. Subsequently, four papers disks containing one of the substances were placed on the BHI agar surface in each agar plate. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The diameter of microbial inhibition was measured around the papers disks containing the substances. One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test were used. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Propolis and other irrigants were found to be effective on C. albicans , S. aureus and E. faecalis . CHX and MTAD were found to be most effective amongst all the materials tested followed by propolis. Conclusion Propolis showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis , S. aureus , C. albicans . It appears that propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans . Clinical significance Propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans . It could be used as an alternative intracanal medicament. How to cite this article Mattigatti S, Jain D, Ratnakar P, Moturi S, Varma S, Rairam S. Antimicrobial Effect of Conventional Root Canal Medicaments vs Propolis Against Enterococcus faecalis , Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . J Contemp Dent Pract 2012;13(3):305-309.
Article
The success of many vaccines relies on their association with selected adjuvants in order to increase their immunogenicity and ensure long-term protection. All available adjuvants have adverse effects due to their toxicity and reactogenicity. Pre-clinical in vivo investigations can identify new natural products for further applications. Several studies have confirmed the different medicinal benefits of propolis. However the studies that addressed its use as a potent, safe, vaccine adjuvant were limited to specific countries and languages, primarily Chinese. Those studies introduced the use of different extracts and formulations of propolis as adjuvants for bacterial, viral, and parasitic vaccines. This comprehensive up-to-date review categorizes, documents, and discusses those trials in a clear chronological manner.
Article
Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of propolis, egg albumen and Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells using a collagenase-dispase assay. Methodology: Fifty-five freshly extracted human teeth were divided into three experimental (HBSS, egg albumen and propolis) and two control groups. Fifteen teeth per experimental group were stored dry for 30 min and then immersed for 45 min in one of the three experimental media. The positive and negative controls corresponded to 0-min and 1-h dry time, respectively, with five teeth per control group. The teeth were then treated with collagenase II and dispase II for 30 min and labelled with 0.4% trypan blue for determination of viability. The number of viable cells was counted with a haemocytometer and analysed statistically by anova and post hoc Tukey HSD test. Results: Statistical analysis demonstrated there was no significant difference between HBSS, egg albumen and propolis in maintaining cell viability. Conclusion: Egg albumen and propolis may be able to maintain PDL cell viability as well as HBSS.
Article
This study was conducted to evaluate by clinical and microbiological parameters the effect of subgingival irrigation with propolis extract. Twenty patients diagnosed with chronic periodontitis, each presenting three non-adjacent teeth with deep pockets, were selected. Subgingival plaque sampling and clinical recording (at baseline) and scaling and root planing was performed. Two weeks later the selected periodontal sites were submitted to one of the following treatments: Irrigation with a hydroalcoholic solution of propolis extract twice a week for 2 weeks (group A); irrigation with a placebo twice a week for 2 weeks (group B); or no additional treatment (group C). Clinical and microbiological data was collected at baseline and after 4, 6, and 8 weeks. A decrease in the total viable counts of anaerobic bacteria (P=.007), an increase in the proportion of sites with low levels (≤10⁵ cfu/mL) of Porphyromonas gingivalis (P=.044), and an increase in the number of sites negative for bleeding on probing was observed in group A sites as compared to group B and C sites. Subgingival irrigation with propolis extract as an adjuvant to periodontal treatment was more effective than scaling and root planing as assessed by clinical and microbiological parameters.
Article
To evaluate and compare antimicrobial effect of various root canal medicaments against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Six root canal medicaments: 2% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), EDTA, MTAD and propolis and three microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans were used. These strains were inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI) and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. For the agar diffusion test (ADT), petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with 0.1 ml of the microbial suspensions, using sterile swabs that were spread on the medium, obtaining growth injunction. Paper disks were immersed in the experimental solutions for 1 minute. Subsequently, four papers disks containing one of the substances were placed on the BHI agar surface in each agar plate. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 48 hours. The diameter of microbial inhibition was measured around the papers disks containing the substances. One way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test were used. p-value >0.05 was considered statistically significant. Propolis and other irrigants were found to be effective on C. albicans, S. aureus and E. faecalis. CHX and MTAD were found to be most effective amongst all the materials tested followed by propolis. Propolis showed antimicrobial activity against E. faecalis, S. aureus, C. albicans. It appears that propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans. Clinical significance: Propolis is an effective intracanal irrigant in eradicating E. faecalis and C. albicans. It could be used as an alternative intracanal medicament.