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Gaming in the Game of Love: Effects of Video Games on Conflict in Couples

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Abstract

The current study assessed how playing video games can influence conflict and aggression in relationships. A sample of 1,333 heterosexual couples reported their video game playing habits, conflict regarding the media, and physical and relational aggression (both self and partner directed). Results showed that for men (but not women), time spent playing video games was associated with increased conflict over the amount of time spent using media, as well as the content of those media. Conflict over the media, in turn, was associated with increased physical and relational aggression in the relationship. Thus, conflict over the media offers one explanation for why video game play may increase aggression in romantic relationships.

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... Stevenson (2011) in the U.K., not only found that personal computers are essentially acquired for educational purposes as an extension of school activities at home, but also that the prior ICTs experiences by parents, their availability to become involved in ICTs activities with children and the desire to establish and maintain family rules, result in a complex set of family practices which leads the decisions around why and how ICTs is used in the home. Thus, to understand the adoption and use of ICTs by families, it is important to focus on the previous relations and interactions between household members (Coyne, Busby et al., 2012;Stevenson, 2011) and on the politics of the home that lie behind tensions on the one hand and the formation of areas of consensus on the other (Haddon, 2006). Based on the domestication theory, Hertlein (2012) suggests a conceptual multitheoretical model about the role of ICTs in everyday couple and family life, which provides us with the most useful framework for understanding how the use of media by families might influence family functioning as a system. ...
... Van Rompaey, Roe, and Struys (2002), created a typology based on family ICTs possession: the traditional, characterized by low technological density (54% of the cases; e.g., television and a low number of audio systems), intermediate (31%; medium technological density, including more televisions and audio systems), and the multimedia, characterized by high technological density, including the possession of new technologies (15%; e.g., internet and email). However, besides the technological resources that the families have, the discussions about the role they assume in their lives and the amount of time they spend using them (Huisman, Catapano, & Edwards, 2012), other variables may influence the selection of the ICTs and their pattern of use, such as: the family socioeconomic status (SES; Blinn-Pike, 2009;Brandtzaeg, 2010;Correa et al., 2010;Livingstone, 2007;Mesch, 2003Mesch, , 2006bNie, 2001 (Coyne et al., 2013;Sherry et al., 2006) and the stage of the family life cycle (Bacigalupe, 2011;Bartholomew, Schoppe-Sullivan, Glassman, Kamp Dush, & Sullivan, 2012;Coyne, Busby et al., 2012;Davies & Gentile, 2012;Lanigan, 2009;Mesch, 2006b;Watt & White, 1999). ...
... Due to the proliferation of new technologies the number of ways in which it is possible to communicate has undergone exponential growth in recent years (Stern & Messer, 2009). Traditional forms of communication such as face-to-face or using landlines, have today assumed new technological formats to include email and cell phones (Coyne, Busby et al., 2012;Stern & Messer, 2009), for example. The daily management of family activities in real time through mobile devices (Devitt & Roker, 2009;Hertlein, 2012;Lanigan, 2009;Stern & Messer, 2009;Watt & White, 1999), such as paying bills online or changing appointments by phone, tends to induce feelings of safety for those who have these technologies (Devitt & Roker, 2009) the disconnection between verbal and nonverbal signals can result in misunderstanding or family members in the same house becoming isolated from each other instead of establishing personal connections (Cardoso et al., 2008;Huisman et al., 2012;Mesch, 2006b;Watt & White, 1999;Williams & Merten, 2011). ...
... Hertlein and Ancheta (2014) suggest that clinicians could do well to facilitate a discussion regarding the roles media-use plays during couple interactions in order for clients to develop clearer boundaries around expectations of media-use. Similarly, Coyne et al. (2012) posits that the time spent with media and technology is not what impacts relationship satisfaction, rather it is the conflict introduced by the media-use (Coyne et al. 2012). ...
... Hertlein and Ancheta (2014) suggest that clinicians could do well to facilitate a discussion regarding the roles media-use plays during couple interactions in order for clients to develop clearer boundaries around expectations of media-use. Similarly, Coyne et al. (2012) posits that the time spent with media and technology is not what impacts relationship satisfaction, rather it is the conflict introduced by the media-use (Coyne et al. 2012). ...
Article
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The present study examined 175 heterosexual couples’ perceptions of their partners problematic bedtime media-use and their own sexual satisfaction. Using actor partner independence modeling (APIM), results indicate a significant negative association between couples’ report of their partners’ problematic media-use at bedtime and their own sexual satisfaction. Furthermore, there was a significant pathway between male participant’s perception of their female partner’s problematic bedtime media-use and her self-report of her own sexual satisfaction. Marriage and family therapists may consider taking a more proactive approach to their clients’ media-use by assessing and, when appropriate, intervening and developing treatment plans that address how problematic media-use within their relationship is a potential barrier to sexual satisfaction and a harmful to other relationship outcomes.
... Asimismo, el internet ha permitido que el proceso de contacto y comunicación a distancia ocurra en tiempo real desde cualquier lugar (García & Ilabaca, 2013). Sin embargo, a pesar de las ventajas que ofrecen estos dispositivos, la intrusión o interferencia de la tecnología (tecnoferencia) en las relaciones interpersonales puede generar conflictos intrafamiliares (Hertlein & Blumer, 2014), así como afectar negativamente las relaciones de pareja (Coyne et al., 2012). Varios autores como, Carbonell et al. (2012), Cotten, Anderson y Tufekci (2009), McDaniel y Coyne (2016, y Villafuerte y Vera (2016), encontraron que, tanto en Estados Unidos como en otros países, es la mujer quien suele reconocer el impacto negativo del uso directo e indirecto de las TIC en su bienestar personal, mientras que los hombres son los que incurren con mayor frecuencia en conductas asociadas a la tecnoferencia en presencia de su pareja. ...
... Es decir, la tecnoferencia provocará conflictos en la relación cuando uno o ambos miembros se sientan amenazados o afligidos por el uso de la tecnología por parte de su pareja (Turkle, 2012). Es más, existen autores que plantean que no es la tecnología en sí misma la que causa un efecto negativo en las relaciones de pareja, sino la percepción del individuo dentro de la relación y cómo éste reaccione ante la irrupción de la tecnología, la cual pudiese ser conflictiva cuando amenaza la comunicación, la seguridad y la estabilidad de la pareja (Coyne et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate if interference of technology (technoference) directly relates with couple’s satisfaction, and an indirect effect on the psychological well-being and mental health of Puerto Rican women. We collected a non-probabilistic sample of 342 Puerto Rican women, selected by availability. The statistical analyses showed a significant mediation of couple’s satisfaction in the relationship between technoference and different variables of well-being and mental health in women. Overall, participants who rated more technoference in their relationships also reported lower couple’s satisfaction, more symptoms related to depression, anxiety and stress, lower flourishing, lower life satisfaction and lower self-esteem. Our study provides empirical evidence on the harmful effect of excessive use of electronic devices within romantic relationships, as well as on the emotional well-being of Puerto Rican women.
... Keywords Couples · Media use · Relationship satisfaction · Demand-withdraw · Criticism-defensiveness 1 3 in person social relationships, increased relational conflicts, and lower levels of relational satisfaction (Ahlstrom et al. 2012;Coyne et al. 2012;Sublette and Mullan 2010). At the same time video games have been demonstrated to be an effective way for many individuals to reduce stress and relax (Reinecke 2009) as well as a positive method of engagement when partners play video games together (Ahlstrom et al. 2012). ...
... This study increases our understanding of how relational dynamics play an important role in understanding the variation in why some individuals experience their partner's media use as problematic. Previous research has noted that the time spent with media is not what contributes to declined relationship satisfaction, but rather the conflict created by the media use that is linked to lower levels of relationship satisfaction (Coyne et al. 2012). This study builds off the existing literature and extends our understanding by identifying that perceptions of problematic media use increases reports of demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness patterns, which leads to lower relationship satisfaction. ...
Article
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Previous research has indicated that it is common for couples to experience conflict over media use. However, until recently clinicians and researchers have not explored the implications of media use within romantic relationships. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between individuals’ perception of problematic media use in connection with relationship satisfaction, and to what extent demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness dynamics mediate this association. Data was collected with a sample of 242 respondents completing an online survey. Results showed that demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness patterns were found to be negatively associated with relationship satisfaction, and that the association between problematic media use and relationship satisfaction was partially mediated by the demand-withdraw and criticism-defensiveness patterns. Based on these results, there is potential for clinicians to view couple media use as a process level interaction, and by doing so, clinicians will be better able to implement interventions that utilize clients’ media use to promote relationship satisfaction and stability while reducing problematic media use.
... For example, not being fully present during conversations or shared time together because of cell phone-related distractions could lead to lower levels of satisfaction with one's romantic partner. In a study of video game playing and relationships, Coyne et al. (2012) claim that conflict over video game use may not be because of the game playing itself but because it usurps time available for activities that the partner may enjoy more. ...
... In a large scale survey of 1333 couples, Coyne et al. (2012) found that men's time spent playing six different types of video games was positively correlated with spousal conflict over such play. The authors conclude that playing video games can lead to conflict in romantic relationships. ...
Article
Full-text available
Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) can be best understood as the extent to which an individual uses or is distracted by his/her cell phone while in the company of his/her relationship partner. The present study is the first to investigate the oft-occurring behavior of Pphubbing and its impact on relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. In Study 1, a nine-item scale was developed to measure Pphubbing. The scale was found to be highly reliable and valid. Study 2 assessed the study's proposed relationships among a sample of 145 adults. Results suggest that Pphubbing's impact on relationship satisfaction is mediated by conflict over cell phone use. One's attachment style was found to moderate the Pphubbing - cell phone conflict relationship. Those with anxious attachment styles reported higher levels of cell phone conflict than those with less anxious attachment styles. Importantly, Pphubbing was found to indirectly impact depression through relationship satisfaction and ultimately life satisfaction. Given the ever-increasing use of cell phones to communicate between romantic partners, the present research offers insight into the process by which such use may impact relationship satisfaction and personal well-being. Directions for future research are discussed.
... Our findings provide additional evidence for how technoference can hinder intimacy. 26,42 We found evidence that couples who experience greater amounts of technoference in their romantic relationships are more likely to perceive their partner's technology use as negative and intrusive, 13,43,44 and that negative perception is associated with poorer ratings of communication satisfaction. 34,35 This supports prior theory and research suggesting technoference co-opts attentional resources away from the conversation at hand, 13,26 reducing the level of active listening 13 and empathy 25 within interactions, and is negatively perceived by the partner if the use is incidental to the conversation. ...
Article
Intimacy is essential for fulfilling romantic relationships. Although many factors can impact intimacy, the increased regular use of technological devices within our daily lives makes technoference an important one to consider. Technoference (i.e., interference in face-to-face interactions caused by the use of technological devices) is commonly associated with relationship difficulties, including conflict, dissatisfaction, and decreased relational well-being. However, less is known about the direct and indirect impact of technoference on intimacy among couples. We hypothesized that negative perceptions of a partner's technology use and poor communication satisfaction within a romantic relationship help explain the association between technoference and intimacy. University students (N = 141), who were in a romantic relationship of at least 6 months duration, completed online questionnaires assessing technoference, perceptions of their partner's technology use, communication satisfaction, and intimacy in their romantic relationship. PROCESS macro model 6 was used to test the serial mediation models. Results suggest that the relationship between technoference (general, partner's, and participant's) and intimacy is serially mediated by negative perceptions of partner's technology use and communication satisfaction. These findings can help to identify and inform strategies to maximize intimacy levels between couples, thus fortifying romantic relationships as a whole.
... Due to the proliferation of new technologies the number of ways in which it is possible to communicate has undergone exponential growth in recent years (Stern & Messer, 2009). Traditional forms of communication such as face-to-face or using landlines, have today assumed new technological formats to include email and cell phones (Coyne, Busby et al., 2012;Stern & Messer,2009), for example. The daily management of family activities in real time through mobile devices (Devitt & Roker, 2009;Hertlein,2012;Lanigan, 2009;Stern & Messer, 2009;Watt & White, 1999), such as paying bills online or changing appointments by phone, tends to induce feelings of safety for those who have these technologies (Devitt & Roker, 2009). ...
Article
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Purpose: The aim of present study is investigation the role of family functioning and generation gap in the relationship between parental controls style and addiction to social networks. Methodology: The present study is a descriptive one. Theoretical bases of the study were collected by reputable sites, books and related articles. The information and data for hypothesis testing were gathered by standard and a researcher-made questionnaire. Statistical society was all of male and female student of the second year of high schools in district 5 of Tehran (140 persons). After data collection, data analysis was performed using SPSS and PLS. In this study, Validity and reliability of the questionnaire was approved. Validity of the questionnaire was accepted by expert opinion of university and reliability of that was calculated by Cronbach's alpha and the value of that was 0.82. Findings: Results showed that family functioning and generation gap have significant roles in the relationship between parental controls style and addiction to social networks. Discussion: Therefore, it can be concluded that by improving family functioning and reducing the generation gap, better control of addiction to social networks can be created.
... Research exploring the impacts of gaming on romantic relationships is in its relative infancy, however similarly mixed findings are evident (see Hertlein & Hawkins, 2012 for a review). Some research has suggested that gaming can be associated with increased aggression, notably amongst males, which can negatively impact relationships (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Coyne et al., 2012). Ahlstrom et al. found that marital satisfaction is more affected by conflict arising from differences in couples' gaming patterns and attitudes toward gaming, rather than the amount of time spent on gaming per se (see also Dew & Tulane, 2015). ...
Article
Objectives: A body of research is clarifying the complexity of the effects of online gaming on the lives of gamers. We explored self-reported negative emotional states, satisfaction with life, and relationship satisfaction in a sample of young adults. Methods: We recruited 165 student participants (70.9% female; Mage = 24.24, SD = 6.15) who completed an online survey. Two-way ANCOVAs were used to assess the relationships between online gaming, gender and the measures of negative emotional states, satisfaction with life, and relationship satisfaction. Results: No effects of gaming on relationship satisfaction were evident. However, gaming was positively related to satisfaction with life. In contrast, when negative emotional states were examined, female gamers had higher levels of depression, anxiety, and stress than both non-gamers and male gamers. Conclusion and Implications: This highlights the complexities of the effects of gaming and that gaming itself should not be pathologized. The interactions evident in female gamers require further investigation, with the results supporting the notion that in some cohorts pre-existing characteristics of gamers might be a factor, as could how female gamers engage with online gaming environments. Further, the distinction between cognitive judgmental measures of satisfaction with life and negative emotional states was reiterated.
... According to existing literature, children's perception of their parents' problematic smartphone use may result in parent-child conflict and affect their relationship. However, if a mother's smartphone use is not perceived as a problem, it does not cause conflict, and smartphone use can replace other shared activities between mothers and children [40,41]. Therefore, in this study, children's perception of their mothers' smartphone use may not affect their PSU. ...
Article
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Mothers play a key role in ensuring their children’s healthy life. This study aimed to identify the maternal factors affecting problematic smartphone use in children. We adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design using structured questionnaires. Participants were fourth to sixth grade elementary school students in Korea (n = 184). The following maternal factors were evaluated: maternal mediation, children’s perception of mothers’ smartphone use, mother–child communication, and parenting style. Data regarding maternal factors’ effect on problematic smartphone use were analyzed by computing descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis using SPSS Win 27.0. The results show that the maternal factors that influenced problematic smartphone use in children were maternal control over smartphone usage (odds ratio (OR) = 5.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.33–19.60), smartphone usage time for social network service (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.10–2.01), and problematic mother–child communication (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00–1.14). Therefore, to promote appropriate smartphone use among school children, it is necessary to develop an intervention comprising maternal supervision of their children’s smartphones, guidance provision for social network service usage, and strategies for the reinforcement of positive mother–child communication.
... However, males are more likely to engage in phubbing behaviour because of internet and game addiction. According to a survey by Coyne et al. (2012), the time men spent on playing video games was significantly correlated with spousal conflict over such play. This is because conflict arises when the time spent on video games displaces the time that could have been spent with one's spouse or partner. ...
Article
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Smartphones and the internet have indeed revolutionized our lives in innumerable ways, among them the emergence of a social phenomenon called ‘phubbing.’ Phubbing is a portmanteau combining the words “phone” and “snubbing”. A person engaging in “phubbing” interacts obsessively with his/her phone rather than communicating with nearby people. Partner phubbing (Pphubbing) is defined as phubbing behaviour when in the presence of one’s spouse or significant other. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between Pphubbing and marital quality, and to investigate the moderating role of gender and age in this relationship. The participants in the survey were 390 married adults living in Kuala Lumpur. The respondents were selected randomly and volunteered to answer a series of questionnaires made up of the Partner Phubbing Scale, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and a section on demographic data. Results showed that Pphubbing behaviour has a significant negative relationship with marital quality. Moreover, gender and age were found to have significant moderating effects on the relationship between Pphubbing and marital quality. The reported impact of Pphubbing on marital quality was stronger among females than males, and the effects were also stronger among younger adults. These findings may have implications for family and couple counselling and for the coaching profession. Future research should be done to address this phenomenon more thoroughly. Keywords: interpersonal communication; marital quality; partner phubbing; phubbing; relationship
... In past literature, players had problems associated with their academic responsibilities (Bargeron & Hormes, 2017;Dindar, 2018;Hartanto, Toh, & Yang, 2018), which occurred because of the uncontrolled amount of time spent in gaming. At the same time, they experience relationship conflicts because of excessive time consumed playing games (Cheng, Cheung, & Wang, 2018;Coyne et al., 2012). Hence, total immersion, focus, and time spent on the game brought by flow experiences may lead to problems in real life's responsibilities. ...
Article
Full-text available
Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA), the most popular video game genre, has increased in terms of the number of users online. This increase in popularity depicts the in-game immersion in MOBA games, which determines Flow experience. Despite its popularity, there is a dearth of research on the cause of immersion of MOBA games. This study hypothesized that players acquired automatic thoughts, actions, and sensations about the game even when not playing, identified as Game Transfer Phenomena (GTP), causing Flow. Forty-five (45) college students were recruited to play MOBA games for 20 h in one week, referred to as immersive gaming in this study. Flow state scale and GTP scale were administered twice before and after immersive gaming. Pretest and posttest comparisons showed no difference in the Flow and GTP. On the other hand, the cross-lagged analysis shows that GTP causes Flow among MOBA gamers. Players with a high level of GTP experience more intensive levels of Flow. The implications of the development of Flow are discussed in the study.
... Recent studies have linked dysfunctional family relations to excessive use of electronic technology, such as computer games (Bonnaire & Phan, 2017;Yan, Li, & Sui, 2014). Time spent playing such games was found to be associated with increased conflict between partners, which could lead to increased relational aggression (Coyne et al., 2012). Excessive electronic gaming was also found to be associated with an increase in the frequency of family conflicts and poor/troubled family relationships (Bonnaire & Phan, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Excessive smartphone use has been found to be associated with dysfunctional social and family relations. While most studies of this phenomenon have focused on adolescent and adult addiction, none has yet to focus on mothers with infants. This study examined the association of excessive smartphone use with mother–infant bonding, maternal mental health, and family functioning in Jordan. The predictive value of the study variables with respect to the level of smartphone use was evaluated. A descriptive correlational cross‐sectional survey design was used. A sample of 114 mothers with infants was interviewed in person and completed a web‐based questionnaire. Approximately 16% reported using smartphones 5 to 14 hours per day; 6.7% described themselves as smartphone addicts. The results suggest that excessive smartphone use may be linked to unhealthy family functioning. No associations were found between smartphone use and mother–infant bonding or maternal mental health. Raising awareness of this linkage and limiting smartphone use are recommended as precautionary measures. Although this study failed to find any association between smartphone use and mother–infant bonding, further studies using empirical methods might have better success.
... Wittek et al. (2015) found that younger individuals were more likely than any other age group to display pathological video gaming tendencies, but this group of "younger individuals" ranged from 16 to 30 years old. Likewise, researchers have shown that video game play is common in adult romantic relationships with couples between the ages of 20 and 35 (Ahlstrom, Lundberg, Zabriskie, Eggett, & Lindsay, 2012;Coyne et al., 2012). Indeed, the average age of first childbirth is 26 years (Stone, 2018), well within the age range of people the most likely to display pathological gaming tendencies and most men who have children had their first child before the age of 30 (Livingston, 2015). ...
Article
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For most people, playing video games is a normal recreational activity, with little disruption to gamers’ emotional, social, or physical health and well-being. However, for a small percentage of gamers, video gaming can become pathological (Fam, 2018). Substantial research has examined pathological gaming in teens and young adults (Cheng, Cheung, & Wang, 2018; Choo, Gentile, Sim, Khoo, & Liau, 2010), yet pathological gaming in adults (c.f. Holgren, 2017), especially in the context of parenthood, has been relatively ignored. The current study sought to address this limitation by studying associations between pathological gaming characteristics and parenting outcomes in a sample of men and women who have had a child in the last year. Fathers spent more time than mothers playing video games and displayed more pathological video gaming tendencies. Pathological gaming for mothers and fathers was related to increased depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between pathological gaming and decreased feelings of parental efficacy, perceived parental competence, increased parenting stress, and increased perceived impact of parenting. Pathological video game playing was also directly related to decreased feelings of parental efficacy for mothers and fathers. Implications of the results and directions for future research are discussed.
... In fact, Roberts and David (2016) concluded that technology interference (e.g., computers, TV, iPads, cell phones) caused conflict over technology use within romantic relationships: texting during a conversation with a romantic partner tacitly communicates that interacting with one's partner is less important than what is available on the cell phone, which consequently affects negatively the interaction between them. Supporting this view, Przybylski and Weinstein (2013) found that interruptions and distraction caused by cellphone use creates conflicts in romantic relationships, and Coyne et al. (2012) concluded that as men's videogame playing increased so too did relationship conflict over media. Although Chesley (2005) 10 years ago found that use of cell phones blurred work-home boundaries and increased negative mood while lowering family life satisfaction, this effect today appears even more disruptive as individuals have developed a fear of missing out (FoMO) events, experiences, and conversations happening across their extended social circles (Przybylski, Murayama, DeHaan, & Gladwell, 2013). ...
Article
Advancing a theoretical model to explain the negative effects of texting on romantic relationships, we suggest that constant texting leads partners to attend to their cell phones instead of communicating with their significant other (Pphubbing), reducing through two different processes the perceived quality of a romantic relationship. These processes are: (1) conflicts erupting between couples due to texting behavior; and (2) lack of intimacy, stemming from texting activities that displace focus on the romantic partner. To test the model we conducted a two-wave, representative panel survey, separated by one year. A cross-lagged analysis of the two-wave panel demonstrates that frequency of texting leads to lower levels of perceived quality in relationships. This relationship militates against the argument that individuals in unhappy relationships turn to the phone to avoid being together with the partner. Additionally, results support the proposed model suggesting that both mediators -lack of intimacy and conflicts- have negative effects on perceived relationship quality over time.
... Some research suggests that adults do reflect on this topic and consider their technology use through the lens of its potential impact on children and child behaviors [1,25]. Adults also consider the impact of their technology use on other family members, such as romantic partners negotiating technology use in the context of its impact on relationship quality [11,40]. We build on prior work by documenting the technology rule-types that are prevalent today, the alignment between parents' and chil-dren's perspectives on these rules, and the degree to which families extend these expectations to parents. ...
Conference Paper
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Parents and children both use technology actively and increasingly, but prior work shows that concerns about attention, family time, and family relationships abound. We conducted a survey with 249 parent-child pairs distributed across 40 U.S. states to understand the types of technology rules (also known as restrictive mediation) they have established in their family and how effective those rules are perceived to be. Our data robustly show that children (age 10-17) are more likely to follow rules that constrain technology activities (e.g., no Snapchat) than rules that constrain technology use in certain contexts (e.g., no phone at the dinner table). Children find context constraints harder to live up to, parents find them harder to enforce, and parents’ most common challenge when trying to enforce such rules is that children “can’t put it down.” This is consistent with the idea that banning certain technologies is currently easier than setting more nuanced boundaries. Parents and children agree that parents should also unplug when spending time with family, while children alone express frustration with the common parent practice of posting about children online. Together, our results suggest several mechanisms by which designers and families can improve parent-child relationships around technology use.
... In addition, based on the displacement hypothesis, when one puts more effort into a particular task (e.g., Facebook), it usually displaces needed efforts to engage in other tasks (e.g., relationship maintenance) (Coyne, et al., 2012;. Therefore, those more involved with using Facebook might have less time and energy to maintain their offline intimate relationship than those using Facebook less. ...
Book
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What are the effects of social media use? Why is digital communication so often easier than communicating face-to-face? To provide meaningful answers to these questions the book will explore the current debates in Cyberpsychology, drawing on the most up-to-date theories and research to explore the four main aspects of social media experience: communication, identity, presence and relationships. In doing so, it will consider the interplay of different areas of psychological research with current technological and security insight into how individuals create, manipulate and maintain their online identity and relationships. Distinguished by its examination of research from a scientifically objective position, the book offers an all-encompassing approach to social media psychology. Specifically, this book is one of the first to present scholarly theory and research to help explain and predict online behavior and its impact.
... Studies suggest that in marriages where one partner plays Downloaded by [75.35.88.9] at 06:50 25 March 2015 and the other does not, marital satisfaction levels are lower (Ahlstrom et al., 2012;Hertlein & Hawkins, 2012). For men, more time spent playing video games has been associated with increased physical and relational aggression (Coyne et al., 2012). Even among adolescents, using the internet to participate in online gaming was associated with decreased relationship quality (Blais et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Few studies have examined the impact of online video game addiction on addicts’ family members. The purpose of this study is to describe the lived experiences of the spouses of online video game addicts via qualitative, phenomenological methodology. Data were gathered via online, open-ended questions and suggested three categories that described participants’ experiences of being married to an online video game addict: Changes in My Husband, Changes in Me, and Changes in the Marital Relationship. Among these categories, seven themes and 12 subthemes emerged. The study concludes by discussing the essence of the phenomenon, as well as implications for therapy.
Preprint
The game has a prominent place in the psychology literature. However, there is a debate about the effects of violent video games on the development of aggressive behaviors. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate and shed light on the negative ramifications of violent video games in the embodiment of aggressive behaviors among those who play these games using a sample (N = 523) from the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. The results indicated that physical, verbal, anger, and hostility aggression levels were found to be statistically significant. The findings also backed up the idea of considering the duration of preoccupation with these games in aggressive behaviors, with different aspects in hours of playing. As a result, playing for more than nine hours increases the likelihood of engaging in physical, verbal, and hostile aggression more than playing for less than nine hours, and playing for more than nine hours differs in anger from playing for two hours. Finally, the current study came up with some recommendations and suggestions.
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The use of technology disrupts interpersonal communication and interaction and interferes with the communication process. One of the social areas where this is visible is communication between couples. For this reason, it is important to learn the positive or negative characteristics of the use of technological tools in the communication processes, relationship satisfaction and conflict situations of married couples with different age groups and different demographic characteristics, and the effects of technology use on their relationships. In this sense, to determine these effects, the research was carried out with the participation of 264 married people of different ages and demographic characteristics in the province of Istanbul. Technoference scale, relationship satisfaction scale, and romantic patrner conflict scale were used as data collection tools in the research. As a result of the analysis of the research data, it is observed that, in general, as people’s use of technology and the effect of technoference in the relationship increase, there is a decrease in people’s relationship satisfaction, and accordingly, indirect married couple conflicts in technology use also increase. In addition, married couples’ use of technology, relationship satisfaction, and attitudes towards conflict differ according to gender, age, education, and income level.
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Information and communication technology (ICT) facilitates communication within families but may also displace face-to-face communication and intimacy. The aims of this systematic review were to investigate what positive and negative relationship outcomes are associated with ICT use in families, and whether and how the outcomes differ depending on relationship type (romantic relationship, parent–child relationship, or sibling). Included in the review were research published in English between 2009 and 2019 studying the effects of ICT on family relationships with quantitative data. 70 peer-reviewed articles (73 studies) were retrieved and categorized based on four types of ICT variables: personal use, personal use in the presence of a family member (technoference), communication between family members, and co-use with family members. Personal use and technoference were mostly related to negative outcomes due to, for example, displaced attention and more frequent conflicts. Romantic partners were especially strongly negatively affected displaying stressors unique to romantic relationships, such as infidelity. By contrast, communication and co-use showed mostly positive effects across all relationship types. In particular, “rich” communication media resembling face-to-face interaction were strongly associated with positive outcomes. We conclude that ICT impacts family relations in different ways, depending on both the type of relationship and type of ICT use. Personal ICT use tends to weaken both parenting and romantic relationships in ways that can partly be mitigated by co-use and communication. Directions for future research include, assessing how often ICT is used in relationship-strengthening versus relationship-interfering ways, investigating causal pathways between ICT use and relationship quality, and focusing on understudied relationship types, such as siblings and grandparents.
Article
The relationships between video games and well-being have been the subject of empirical investigation for decades. However, this research has largely focused on younger samples, adverse outcomes, and limited measures of game engagement. The current study compared multiple game engagement measures (i.e., time spent playing, social context of play, content rating of favorite video game, and motivations for play) and their associations with psychosocial well-being (i.e., depressive symptoms, stress, loneliness, relationship satisfaction, and social support) in a community sample of 223 adult gamers. When examined separately, time spent playing, playing games for diversion, and more solo play were related to poorer individual well-being. When examining game engagement measures simultaneously, only diversion and fantasy motivations were related to poorer well-being, while more social play was related to lower loneliness. This suggests that gaming motivations and social context are more salient predictors of adult well-being than the often-examined measures of time spent playing or video game content. The results align with the Basic Psychological Needs theoretical approach to gaming, which states that adults play games to feel competent, autonomous, and socially related, and indicate that research and interventions may better serve adult gamers by focusing on motivations for play and social context.
Article
Technology use within relationships has been shown to produce potential rewards and costs that influence relationship development and/or sustainment; however, the negative influence of modern technology (i.e., smartphone, computer, tablet, and/or television) use in romantic relationships during quality time spent together (i.e., technoference) remains an understudied area. Even less is known about the effects of technoference on young adult couples' relationship satisfaction and sexual satisfaction. The current study utilized a descriptive correlational survey design with 158 young adult couples. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to test the dyadic associations between technoference and relationship and sexual satisfaction among the young adult couple sample. Results indicated statistically significant negative actor effects between technoference and relationship and sexual satisfaction and statistically significant negative partner effects between technoference and relationship satisfaction.
Article
We conducted a meta-analysis of 33 studies that examined the effects of media exposure on relationally aggressive behaviors and cognitions (a total of 66 effect sizes, N = (20,990). Across all types of aggressive content, there was a small positive effect (r = 0.15) on relational aggression. However, a comparison of effects sizes demonstrate that exposure to relational aggression had the strongest effect (r = 0.21), whereas exposure to non-specific media content had the weakest effect (r = 0.08). Exposure to physical aggression fell in the middle of the two content types (r = 0.15). Potential explanations for these effects as well as moderators that could influence the results are considered, and the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
With video game use widely accepted and practiced in a wide variety of households worldwide, it is important for researchers to understand links between video game use and romantic relational experiences. Although unexplored within gaming literature, previous research has indicated the importance of attitudes of acceptance or approval within the couple relationship with acceptance of a partner's specific behavior being linked to relational outcomes. Using dyadic data from 6,756 couples (n = 13,512) from 16 different countries, an actor-partner interdependence moderating model was employed to evaluate how acceptance of video game use moderated the link between video game use and dyadic adjustment, while controlling for mental health, relational characteristics, and other demographic variables. Results indicate that higher reports of individual video game use were linked with improved rates of partner dyadic adjustment. Furthermore, results indicated that partner-interaction effects for acceptance of video game use moderated the relationships between video game use and dyadic adjustment. This supports the importance of considering contextual factors when examining gaming use and its links with other constructs.
Chapter
A multiplicity of reasons account for the departure of couples from adult intimate relationships in the first decades of the twenty-first century. The chapter proposes that the intensification of certain ‘conditions of life’, some established in the final decades of the previous century, forms the social backdrop against which the changing nature of decisions to exit couple relationships takes place. These ‘conditions of life’ include: the ubiquitous use of the mobile telephone; access of individuals to the internet and other information and communications technologies; the necessary mobility of workers as they respond to the requirements of mobile capital within a global economy; the increasing participation of women in the workplace; an increasing number of international and intercultural couple relationships; an increasing acceptance of divorce in many cultures; poverty and inadequate income; and a changing set of power relations between the genders in both domestic and social domains. Against this background the chapter uses three vignettes of separating couples to illustrate how different ‘immediate’ reasons for the cessation of couple life—such as infidelity, domestic violence, addiction, falling out of love—become interposed with personality factors such as attachment styles to determine the processes through which individuals leave relationships. The vignettes also show how the relationship of separating couple members to a shared parenthood has implications for the level and duration of conflict accompanying their separation processes.
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Smartphone technology turned life easy but it also complicated many things in human lives. One of the biggest issues nowadays, which rose by smart-phones, is its overuse and it had been studied under the banner of addiction. A different kind of issue arose similar to smartphone addiction when people overuse their smartphones in social settings. This phenomenon has been termed as "Phubbing" when a person uses his smartphone and literally ignores the person beside him. This phenomenon is very new and researchers are trying hard to understand the phenomenon so they can predict the determinants of this phenomenon. The aim of this article is to understand the previous researches, which had been done in the area of smartphone addiction and try to understand the similarities and differences in both the phenomenon. This article tries to dig out the available literature to find out what actually Phubbing is and what can be its true determinants. In addition, it tried to understand various types of addictions, which can elevate the Phubbing behavior in different settings. In the light of definition and current understanding of Phubbing, it will try to understand how various types of addictions will help us to understand it in depth. This study analyzes previous researches done on addiction and researches related to Phubbing, and tries to understand the correlation of various addictive behaviors with Phubbing phenomenon.
Article
This study examined the quality of parent–child relationships as a function of both parenting style and online relational maintenance behaviors. Five hundred and four parents completed measures of relationship quality (parental support, relational depth, parent–child conflict), parenting style (authoritarian, permissive, authoritative), and online relational maintenance behaviors (planning behaviors, comforting messages, material sharing); paired adolescents also assessed the quality of their parent–child relationships. A structural equation analysis evaluated a model in which parenting style predicted online relational maintenance behaviors that, in turn, predicted the quality of parent–child relationships. Results indicated partial support for our hypotheses.
Chapter
Technology’s role in couple and family life is of acute importance in advancing the work of psychotherapists with couples and families. The Internet’s contribution to the development and maintenance of maladaptive relationship dynamics is now a predominate feature in our lives. In this chapter, I describe the impact of new media and technologies on individuals, couples, and families. I discuss how families organize around technology in ways that are adaptive and of assistance to them, as well as in ways that interfere with their development and functioning. Finally, I provide ways in which couples and families can use technology to their advantage, as members adapt roles, rules, and boundaries to evolving technology.
Article
We examined whether time together as a problem mediates the link between frequency of video game use and relational outcomes (relationship quality, relational aggression, physical aggression) among 431 married couples. We also examined the moderating effect of couple attachment behaviors on the association between time together as a problem and outcomes. There was no support for a direct or indirect relationship between gaming and outcomes; however, time together as a problem was consistently related to outcomes. Additionally, husband's and wife's attachment behaviors moderated the association between women's reports of time together as a problem and men's relational aggression. Clinical implications are discussed.
Article
Social media has changed the ways we create and consume information, as well as the ways we interact with others. In the current review, findings from the existing literature on family and social media are considered, hypotheses about the ways social media is influencing families now and will do so in the future are proposed, and suggestions for future research to move the field forward are posited. More specifically, the existing literature on family relationships and technology use, as well as the theoretical perspectives that have been used, are overviewed. This review includes literature that emerged from searches using Academic Search Premier, a multidisciplinary database, and PsycINFO, a database focused on behavioral and social science research. Life course theory and a network approach are presented as two complementary perspectives that begin to provide a lens for understanding the complexity of technology use in family systems.
Conference Paper
This dissertation investigates the limited affordances in which women are allowed to be included in games as players by identifying how -- even during moments of "inclusivity" -- games are often produced "for" women in a way that only accepts limited forms of engagement. It uses qualitative ethnographic research to construct a more nuanced and multifaceted picture of women in gaming. This thesis provides critiques and interventions into the toxic masculinity of gaming across online, offline, domestic, and public spaces. With its emphasis on rethinking diversity in gaming, this PhD seeks to contribute not only to games, women, media, and cultural studies but also provide an intervention into future models for best practices in the games industry to reconcile and prevent further acts of hostility towards women and minorities in gaming.
Article
Video games occupy a significant portion of leisure time for many university students. This study explores whether the aspects of perceived family environment (active-recreational orientation, achievement orientation, and family conflict) could predict the amount of time that university students play video games. A sample of 93 students from a regional campus of a university in the United States completed three subsections of the Family Environment Scale and answered questions pertaining to video game play. Results of the study find that active-recreational orientation is a significant predictor of video game play. Achievement orientation and family conflict were not found to be significant predictors. Discussion and limitations of the study are also undertaken.
Article
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A content and thematic analysis was conducted using forum messages from websites developed for wives of online gamers who play World of Warcraft. Blog posts from 50 women describing conflict in their marital relationship involving their husband's online game play were analyzed. Four overarching themes were identified and discussed in terms of the impact of online gaming on family functioning and relationships, emotional outcomes, and coping mechanisms. Results of ensuing issues arising from excessive gaming as perceived by the non-gaming spouse and ways in which they cope with these issues are shared.
Article
This study used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model and a national sample of married couples (N = 1368) to explore the relationship between entertainment media use and marital satisfaction, conflict, and perceived marital instability. Entertainment media-use included newer types of media (e.g., social networking websites) as well as traditional media (e.g., television). A number of negative relationships between media use and wives’ and husbands’ marital quality emerged. Husbands’ use of social networking websites, in particular, was associated with many of the marital quality variables. The effect sizes of media use were small, however. We also explored whether the relationship worked in reverse and whether media use differences between the spouses would relate to marital quality. When spouses reported different levels of using video games, they also reported lower levels of marital quality. The findings suggest that as media technology continues to change, it may relate to marital quality in new ways.
Article
The goal of this study was to develop an instrument to operationalize the impact of technology use on romantic relationship intimacy. The sample consisted of 241 undergraduate and graduate students who identified as being in a committed, monogamous intimate relationship. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted on an initial set of test items to reduce the number of items to those that explained the relationship between technology and romantic relationship intimacy. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the resulting instrument, Technology and Intimate Relationship Assessment, are described, along with implications for couple therapy and future research.
Chapter
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The current chapter examines what I term “technology interference” or “technoference,” which includes times when and ways that technological devices intrude, interrupt, and/or get in the way of couple or family communication and interactions in everyday life. I begin this discussion first by examining individual characteristics that predict individual use of mobile devices, as well as problematic use. I then move to an examination of characteristics of the devices themselves, those features that influence use. Then, I turn to how even normative use of technology might produce interruptions in family life, and what the current research tells us about how technology interference might influence personal and couple well-being. Overall, preliminary work suggests that technology interference is common in couple relationships and that greater interference is related to diminished personal and relational well-being.
Article
Technologies have rapidly become pervasive parts of people's lives and relationships. Within intimate couple relationships, partners may use technologies for many functions, including communicating, sharing affection, planning, and learning about one another. There is growing recognition that these functions can create both positive and negative outcomes for couples. The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth examination of the potential positive and negative impacts of technology for intimate couple relationships. Data from an electronic survey of 225 undergraduate and graduate university students were subject to content analysis procedures to identify themes in participants’ perspectives toward the impact of technology on their relationships—both beneficial and deleterious. The counseling and research implications of the identified themes are addressed.
Article
Abstract With the spread of Facebook among people in many countries, some companies have started using applicants' Facebook profiles as a criterion of personnel selection, in an effort to identify good workers among job applicants. However, how using Facebook is connected to individuals' relationships with coworkers and work attitudes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between using Facebook, relationships with coworkers, and some attitudes toward the current job. Undergraduate students at a state university in Utah were randomly chosen to participate in an online survey between April and May 2012. The results of a multivariate analysis, based on 516 currently employed respondents, revealed several findings. First, those more involved in using Facebook-often assumed as more people-oriented individuals-do not have better relationships with their coworkers than their counterparts. Second, those with more Facebook friends care less about their work performance than those with fewer Facebook friends. Third, those frequently update their Facebook profile like their current job less, and are more likely to think about changing their jobs, compared with those updating their Facebook profile less often. Although Facebook friendship usually begins with offline friendship, this research found that offline interaction with friends has a different impact on work attitudes than online interaction: Those spending more time with friends offline like their jobs more and are less likely to think about changing jobs. Implications are discussed.
Article
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This study explored the relationships between dependence on video games and television and relational maintenance strategy use. One hundred and sixty-three male and female undergraduate students completed self-report measures of media dependence and relational maintenance. Results indicate that higher levels of media dependence predicted lower use of all the maintenance strategies, with video game dependence being a stronger predictor than television dependence. The results are discussed in terms of the roles that exposure to antisocial content and media involvement play in explaining the relationship between media dependence and relational maintenance.
Article
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This article describes a revised Conflict Tactics Scales (the CTS2) to measure psychological and physical attacks on a partner in a marital, cohabiting, or dating relationship; and also use of negotiation. The CTS2 has (a) additional items to enhance content validity and reliability; (b) revised wording to increase clarity and specificity; (c) better differentiation between minor and severe levels of each scale; (d) new scales to measure sexual coercion and physical injury; and (e) a new format to simplify administration and reduce response sets. Reliability ranges from .79 to .95. There is preliminary evidence of construct validity.
Article
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Research on human aggression has progressed to a point at which a unifying framework is needed. Major domain-limited theories of aggression include cognitive neoassociation, social learning, social interaction, script, and excitation transfer theories. Using the general aggression model (GAM), this review posits cognition, affect, and arousal to mediate the effects of situational and personological variables on aggression. The review also organizes recent theories of the development and persistence of aggressive personality. Personality is conceptualized as a set of stable knowledge structures that individuals use to interpret events in their social world and to guide their behavior. In addition to organizing what is already known about human aggression, this review, using the GAM framework, also serves the heuristic function of suggesting what research is needed to fill in theoretical gaps and can be used to create and test interventions for reducing aggression.
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Violent video games are increasingly popular, raising concerns by parents, researchers, policy makers, and informed citizens about potential harmful effects. Chapter 1 describes the history of violent games and their explosive growth. Chapter 2 discusses research methodologies, how one establishes causality in science, and prior research on violent television, film, and video games. Chapter 3 presents the General Aggression Model, focusing on how media violence increases aggression and violence in both short and long-term contexts. Important scientific questions are answered by three new studies. Chapter 4 reports findings from a laboratory experiment: even children's games with cartoonish violence increased aggression in children and college students. Chapter 5 reports findings from a survey study of high school students: frequent violent game play leads to an angry and hostile personality and to frequent aggression and violence. Chapter 6 reports findings from the first longitudinal study video game effects: elementary school children who frequently played violent games early in the school year became more verbally and physically aggressive, and less helpful. Chapters 7 and 8 compare a host of risk factors for development of aggression, and find video game effects to be quite important. Chapter 9 describes the role of scientific findings in public policy, industry responses to scientific findings, and public policy options. Chapter 10 recommends that public policy debates acknowledge the harmful effects of violent video games on youth, and urges a more productive debate about whether and how modern societies should act.
Article
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The current longitudinal study explores the relationship between adolescent television use at time 1 and sexual experience and relationship status (i.e., committed/romantic versus casual) 1 year later. The sample (N = 824) comprised youth aged 14-18. Multinomial logistic regressions predicting group membership from television exposure variables were conducted controlling for socio-demographic characteristics and prior sexual behavior. Results indicate that sexually inexperienced youth watched more television overall than sexually experienced youth, but less adult, premium and music television on cable networks. Premium cable exposure predicted group membership among sexually active youth. Youth who watched more premium cable at time 1 were more likely to be in casual relationship at last intercourse than a committed one. A more complete understanding of media effects on adolescent sexual relationships can help guide policy development, media education/literacy efforts, and contribute to the design of interventions to reduce the negative consequences associated with adolescent sexual behavior.
Article
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The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants' communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy and for the design of technology.
Article
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As computer and Internet use become a staple of everyday life, the potential for overuse is introduced, which may lead to addiction. Research on Internet addiction has shown that users can become addicted to it. Addiction to the Internet shares some of the negative aspects of substance addiction and has been shown to lead to consequences such as failing school, family, and relationship problems.
Article
I sought to confirm that partners in close relationships "do gender" (West & Zimmerman, 1987) and exercise power (Komter, 1989) even in their ordinary everyday behavior and specifically in their selection of television programming via a remote control device (RCD). Individuals in 36 couples (86% heterosexual, 14% gay or lesbian) were interviewed. Men in heterosexual couples use and control the RCD more than women, and their partners find RCD use more frustrating than they do. Heterosexual women also are less able than men to get their partners to watch a desired show. The results confirm that couples create and strengthen stereotypical notions of gender through the exercise of power, even in the mundane, joint, leisure activity of watching television.
Article
This article reports the results of an examination of the daily conversational behaviors of 10 satisfied couples over a period of 1 week. Examination of the data revealed that couples’ conversations could productively be categorized into 13 categories (in order of frequency): self-report, observation, back-channel, other-report, TV talk, partner’s experiences, miscellaneous/uncodable, household task talk, humor, plans, narratives, positivity, and conflict. Additional analyses indicated that couples were more likely to engage in conflict, humor, household task talk, planning and observations on the weekend, whereas their weekdays were distinguished by a greater occurrence of other-report, self-report, partner’s experiences and narratives. Finally, examination of couples’ daily satisfaction indicates that Wednesdays and Saturdays were the least satisfying days, whereas Mondays were the most satisfying.
Article
A variety of online support groups exist for "gaming widows" who feel their spousal relationship has been displaced by time spent playing Massively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game(s) (MMORPGs). MMORPG research has been presented on youth and adults, however to date, there is no research on married gamers to support or refute the claims of discontented spouses. The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of the gaining behaviors of couples who play MMORPGs. The sample included 349 couples. Results indicated lower marital satisfaction related to couples' MMORPG gaming interactions such as quarrelling about gaming, not retiring to bed at the same time, and addictive gaining behavior. Positive effects of gaming together were also identified.
Article
Research has clearly shown that violent video games can increase aggression. It is less clear why they do. This study investigates the mediating effect of the hostile expectation bias (i.e., tendency to perceive hostile intent on the part of others) on the link between violent video game exposure and aggression. French college students (N = 136) played either a violent or nonviolent game for 20 minutes. Afterwards, they read ambiguous story stems about potential interpersonal conflicts, and listed what they thought the main characters would do or say, think, and feel as the story continued. Aggression was measured using a competitive computer game in which the winner could blast the loser with loud noise through headphones. As hypothesized, video game violence increased the hostile expectation bias, which, in turn, increased aggression. Effects were larger for men than women. Thus one reason why violent games increase aggression is because they increase hostile expectations.
Article
The purpose of this research was to understand in greater detail, using 2 samples (Study 1 N = 4,881 heterosexual couples; Study 2 N = 335 heterosexual couples who completed the Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire), how partner or self-enhancement patterns differentially influence relationship outcomes. A multivariate analysis of covariance was conducted comparing 4 outcome measures for different couple types in which individuals rated the partner higher, the same, or lower than they rated themselves on affability. Couples in which both individuals perceived themselves as more affable than the partner experienced poorer results on the relationship outcome measures, whereas couples in which both individuals perceived the partner's personality as more affable than their own experienced more positive relationship outcomes. Additional analyses with structural equation models demonstrated the consistent influence of enhancement measures on relationship outcomes for cross-sectional and longitudinal samples.
Article
This study hypothesized that subjects who strongly endorse unrealistic beliefs about intimate relationships would score higher on a measure of exposure to popular romantic media than subjects who do not. The relationship between exposure to media and satisfaction with one's current intimate relationship was also explored. Results for the 109 adult subjects support the hypothesis (r=.18, p<.05). There was also a trend for married women who were more exposed to the popular romantic media to be less satisfied with their current intimate relationships (r=− .26, p<.10). These results would seem to have significant psychological and social implications.
Article
The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Re- searchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in com- munity life and social relationships. This research exam- ined the social and psychological impact of the lnternet on 169 people in 73 households during their first i to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psycho- logical well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in partici- pants'communication with family members in the house- hold, declines in the size of their social circle, and in- creases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy, and for the design of technology.
Article
Male and female students and nonstudents were exposed to videotapes featuring common, nonviolent pornography or innocuous content. Exposure was in hourly sessions in six consecutive weeks. In the seventh week, subjects participated in an ostensibly unrelated study on societal institutions and personal gratifications. Marriage, cohabitational relationships, and related issues were judged on an especially created Value-of-Marriage questionnaire. The findings showed a consistent impact of pornography consumption. Exposure prompted, among other things, greater acceptance of pre- and extramarital sex and greater tolerance of nonexclusive sexual access to intimate partners. It enhanced the belief that male and female promiscuity are natural and that the repression of sexual inclinations poses a health risk. Exposure lowered the evaluation of marriage, making this institution appear less significant and less viable in the future. Exposure also reduced the desire to have children and promoted the acceptance of male dominance and female servitude. With few exceptions, these effects were uniform for male and female respondents as well as for students and nonstudents.
Article
In this study, we address the communication technologies individuals within romantic relationships are using to communicate with one another, the frequency of use, and the association between the use of these technologies and couple's positive and negative communication. Participants consisted of individuals involved in a serious, committed, heterosexual relationship. The Relationship Evaluation Questionnaire instrument was used to assess a variety of relationship variables. The majority of individuals within the study frequently used cell phones and text messaging to communicate with their partner, with “expressing affection” being the most common reason for contact. Younger individuals reported using all forms of media (except for e-mail) more frequently than older participants. Relationship satisfaction did not predict specific use of media but predicted several reasons for media use. Additional analyses revealed that text messaging had the strongest association with individuals' positive and negative communication within their relationships. Specifically, text messaging to express affection, broach potentially confrontational subjects, and to hurt partners were associated with individuals' view of positive and negative communication within their relationship. Implications of the results are discussed.
Article
In this study, we present the findings of an investigation of the effectiveness of 3 models of premarital education. The study compares the outcomes between a workbook-only self-directed program, a therapist-directed (unstructured) program, and an assessment-based (RELATE) relationship enhancement program. Results revealed significant differences in effectiveness between the 3 approaches at the 6-month follow-up. The assessment-based program had more influence than the therapist-directed and self-directed programs on problem areas and was better than the therapist-directed program at improving communication and relationship satisfaction. Participants indicated that the most helpful aspects of these programs were the opportunity to discuss previously undiscussed issues, improvements in communication, and the perspectives provided by the facilitator.
Article
The purpose of this article is to present the conceptual model underlying RELATE, a relationship evaluation instrument, and to describe how this instrument can be used by instructors, clinicians, and therapists. The RELATE model contains measures of the 4 primary contexts of a couple's experience: the individual, the family, the culture, and the couple. The model includes some of the primary variables in Gottman's marital cascade and has been evaluated for reliability and validity. Examples of how to use the instrument and model are illustrated for couples, educators, and clinicians.
Article
A longitudinal study was conducted to explore the relationship between television viewing and beliefs about expressing sexual desire in dating situations. In three consecutive years, a panel of early adolescents (N = 883) and a panel of middle adolescents (N = 651) rated the effectiveness of a sexual approach and a romantic approach. Latent growth curve analyses indicate that between the ages of 12 and 15 there is a growing belief in the effectiveness of the sexual approach, which was related to respondents’ maturity status but unrelated to television viewing, and a weakening belief in the effectiveness of the romantic strategy, a decline that appeared to be quickened by television viewing in the female sample and slowed down by television viewing in the male sample. Between the ages of 15 and 18 television viewing reinforces a respondent’s belief in the effectiveness of both the sexual and the romantic strategy.
Article
Two studies were done to investigate the influence of exposure to centerfold erotica on sexual attraction judgments. In Experiment 1, college students judged a photograph of a nude female after being exposed either to control stimuli (abstract art or other average nudes) or to photographs taken from popular erotic magazines. The target was judged as less sexually attractive after subjects had been exposed to popular erotica. Male and female subjects showed parallel patterns of attraction ratings. In Experiment 2, male and female subjects were exposed to opposite sex erotica. In the second study, there was an interaction of subject sex with stimulus condition upon sexual attraction ratings. Decremental effects of centerfold exposure were found only for male subjects exposed to female nudes. Males who found the Playboy-type centerfolds more pleasant rated themselves as less in love with their wives. Results are discussed in light of general gender differences in sexual behavior, and are related to the current controversy about pornography.
Article
— Video games are at the center of a debate over what is helpful or harmful to children and adolescents, and there is research to substantiate both sides. The existing research suggests that there are at least 5 dimensions on which video games can affect players: the amount of play, the content of play, the game context, the structure of the game, and the mechanics of game play. This article describes each of these 5 dimensions with support from the scientific literature, arguing that this approach can allow people to get beyond the typical “good–bad” dichotomous thinking to have a more nuanced understanding of video game effects and to provide testable hypotheses for future research.
Article
Many studies have shown that media violence has an effect on children's subsequent aggression. This study expands upon previous research in three directions: (1) by examining several subtypes of aggression (verbal, relational, and physical), (2) by measuring media violence exposure (MVE) across three types of media, and (3) by measuring MVE and aggressive/prosocial behaviors at two points in time during the school year. In this study, 430 3rd-5th grade children, their peers, and their teachers were surveyed. Children's consumption of media violence early in the school year predicted higher verbally aggressive behavior, higher relationally aggressive behavior, higher physically aggressive behavior, and less prosocial behavior later in the school year. Additionally, these effects were mediated by hostile attribution bias. The findings are interpreted within the theoretical framework of the General Aggression Model.
Article
Various studies have found that viewing physical or relational aggression in the media can impact subsequent engagement in aggressive behavior. However, this has rarely been examined in the context of relationships. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine the connection between viewing various types of aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression against a romantic partner. A total of 369 young adults completed a variety of questionnaires asking for their perpetration of various forms of relationship aggression. Participants' exposure to both physical and relational aggression in the media was also assessed. As a whole, we found a relationship between viewing aggression in the media and perpetration of aggression; however, this depended on the sex of the participant and the type of aggression measured. Specifically, exposure to physical violence in the media was related to engagement in physical aggression against their partner only for men. However, exposure to relational aggression in the media was related to romantic relational aggression for both men and women.
Article
Drawing from developmental theories of relational aggression, this article reports on a study designed to identify if spouses use relationally aggressive tactics when dealing with conflict in their marriage and the association of these behaviors with marital outcomes. Using a sample of 336 married couples (672 spouses), results revealed that the majority of couples reported that relationally aggressive behaviors, such as social sabotage and love withdrawal, were a part of their marital dynamics, at least to some degree. Gender comparisons of partner reports of their spouse's behavior revealed that wives were significantly more likely to be relationally aggressive than husbands. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that relational aggression is associated with lower levels of marital quality and greater marital instability for both husbands and wives. Implications are drawn for the use of relational aggression theory in the future study of couple conflict and marital aggression.
Article
Video games have become one of the favorite activities of American children. A growing body of research is linking violent video game play to aggressive cognitions, attitudes, and behaviors. The first goal of this study was to document the video games habits of adolescents and the level of parental monitoring of adolescent video game use. The second goal was to examine associations among violent video game exposure, hostility, arguments with teachers, school grades, and physical fights. In addition, path analyses were conducted to test mediational pathways from video game habits to outcomes. Six hundred and seven 8th- and 9th-grade students from four schools participated. Adolescents who expose themselves to greater amounts of video game violence were more hostile, reported getting into arguments with teachers more frequently, were more likely to be involved in physical fights, and performed more poorly in school. Mediational pathways were found such that hostility mediated the relationship between violent video game exposure and outcomes. Results are interpreted within and support the framework of the General Aggression Model.
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