Article

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease. A review of head and neck manifestations

Der Pathologe (Impact Factor: 0.39). 03/2014; 35(2):152-9. DOI: 10.1007/s00292-013-1848-0
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease (also known as hyper-IgG4 disease) is a recently defined emerging condition with highly heterogeneous clinicopathological features and variable disease manifestations. This disorder is characterized by unifocal or multifocal (multiorgan) involvement by tumefactive plasma cell-rich inflammatory infiltrates associated with prominent fibrosclerosis. This not uncommonly interferes with organ function resulting in diverse clinical symptoms. The autoimmune pancreatitis represents the prototype of this disease; however, to date almost all organs have been reported to be involved in this disorder. In the head and neck area several presentations of this disease may be encountered in salivary glands, lacrimal glands, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, soft tissue of the neck, ear and sinonasal tract. However, IgG4 positive plasma cells are occasionally prominent in non-specific chronic inflammatory conditions of the head and neck and the oral cavity unrelated to autoimmune diseases or systemic disorders, thus representing diagnostic pitfalls. The diagnosis of IgG4-related disease should be based on a combination of typical histological, clinical and serological findings.

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    • "Regarding histopathological diagnosis of lesions rich in IgG4-positive plasma cells, pathologists must be aware of the fact that the mere presence of these cells in the tissue does not automatically qualify as a manifestation of IgG-RD as many conditions completely unrelated to this disease may eventually show abundant IgG4-positive plasma cells and thus mimic IgG4-RD [34, 35]. In the head and neck region, they include rather different lesions such as radicular cyst, chronic nonspecific sinusitis, aspergillosis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), and sclerosing variant of mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary gland [13,363738. Regarding the remaining three cases (nos. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that oral plasma cell granuloma may represent a mucosal manifestation of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the oral cavity. The study sample comprised two males and four females, aged 54–79 years (median 62 years). The lesions were localized on gingival/alveolar mucosa (four cases), hard palate, and floor of the mouth, measuring 17–40 mm (median 31 mm). The duration of the lesions ranged from 3 months to several years. Information on IgG4 serum levels was available for two patients, and these were increased to 1.85 and 1.65 g/L, respectively. The follow-up period ranged 11–30 months (median 13 months). None of the lesions recurred, and none of the patients developed any manifestation of IgG4-RD. Microscopically, all cases presented as nodular lesions composed of numerous polyclonal plasma cells admixed with lymphocytes, histiocytes, mast cells, and eosinophils, set within collagenized stroma in variable proportions. Obliterative phlebitis was observed in two cases. The number of IgG4-positive plasma cells ranged between 51 and 142 per HPF (median 114), while the IgG4/IgG ratio values ranged between 0.16 and 0.72 (median 0.44) and were above 0.40 in three cases. Based on international criteria, two cases were diagnosed as definite and one as probable IgG4-RD. Oral plasma cell granuloma is a heterogenous group of lesions, and a subsetmay represent a mucosal manifestation of IgG4-RD in the oral cavity.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that oral plasma cell granuloma may represent a mucosal manifestation of immunoglobulin (Ig)G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) in the oral cavity. The study sample comprised two males and four females, aged 54-79 years (median 62 years). The lesions were localized on gingival/alveolar mucosa (four cases), hard palate, and floor of the mouth, measuring 17-40 mm (median 31 mm). The duration of the lesions ranged from 3 months to several years. Information on IgG4 serum levels was available for two patients, and these were increased to 1.85 and 1.65 g/L, respectively. The follow-up period ranged 11-30 months (median 13 months). None of the lesions recurred, and none of the patients developed any manifestation of IgG4-RD. Microscopically, all cases presented as nodular lesions composed of numerous polyclonal plasma cells admixed with lymphocytes, histiocytes, mast cells, and eosinophils, set within collagenized stroma in variable proportions. Obliterative phlebitis was observed in two cases. The number of IgG4-positive plasma cells ranged between 51 and 142 per HPF (median 114), while the IgG4/IgG ratio values ranged between 0.16 and 0.72 (median 0.44) and were above 0.40 in three cases. Based on international criteria, two cases were diagnosed as definite and one as probable IgG4-RD. Oral plasma cell granuloma is a heterogenous group of lesions, and a subset may represent a mucosal manifestation of IgG4-RD in the oral cavity.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: IgG4-associated autoimmune diseases are systemic diseases affecting multiple organs of the body. Autoimmune pancreatitis, with a prevalence of 2.2 per 100 000 people, is one such disease. Because these multi-organ diseases present in highly variable ways, they were long thought just to affect individual organ systems. This only underscores the importance of familiarity with these diseases for routine clinical practice. Methods: This review is based on pertinent articles retrieved by a selective search in PubMed, and on the published conclusions of international consensus conferences. Results: The current scientific understanding of this group of diseases is based largely on case reports and small case series; there have not been any randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to date. Any organ system can be affected, including (for example) the biliary pathways, salivary glands, kidneys, lymph nodes, thyroid gland, and blood vessels. Macroscopically, these diseases cause diffuse organ swelling and the formation of pseudotumorous masses. Histopathologically, they are characterized by a lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate with IgG4-positive plasma cells, which leads via an autoimmune mechanism to the typical histologic findings-storiform fibrosis ("storiform" = whorled, like a straw mat) and obliterative, i.e., vessel-occluding, phlebitis. A mixed Th1 and Th2 immune response seems to play an important role in pathogenesis, while the role of IgG4 antibodies, which are not pathogenic in themselves, is still unclear. Glucocorticoid treatment leads to remission in 98% of cases and is usually continued for 12 months as maintenance therapy. Most patients undergo remission even if untreated. Steroid-resistant disease can be treated with immune modulators. Conclusion: IgG4-associated autoimmune diseases are becoming more common, but adequate, systematically obtained data are now available only from certain Asian countries. Interdisciplinary collaboration is a prerequisite to proper diagnosis and treatment. Treatment algorithms and RCTs are needed to point the way to organ-specific treatment in the future.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2015 · Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
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