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Why Feasibility Matters More to Gift Receivers than to Givers: A Construal-Level Approach to Gift Giving

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This article looks at the trade-offs that gift givers and gift receivers make between desirability and feasibility using construal level theory as a framework. Focusing on the asymmetric distance from a gift that exists within giver-receiver dyads, the authors propose that, unlike receivers, givers construe gifts abstractly and therefore weight desirability attributes more than feasibility attributes. Support for this proposition emerges in studies examining giver and receiver mind-sets, as well as giver and receiver evaluations of gifts. Furthermore, givers do not choose gifts that maximize receiver happiness or other relationship goals even though givers believe they are doing so. Finally, the authors demonstrate that while givers are sensitive to their distance from the receiver, receivers are not sensitive to this distance.
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... p < 0.001]. As the control variable, gift likability was measured using a seven-point scale with three items (Baskin et al., 2014). No significant difference in gift likability between the two gift types was observed (p > 0.05). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to examine the differential effects of the type of gift (material vs experiential) offered on Snapchat and Instagram (Study 1) and how the impacts of gift type and message type (informational vs emotional) vary by the two different image-sharing social media platform in a business-to-consumer (B2C) gift-giving context (Study 2). Design/methodology/approach Study 1 used a two (social media: Snapchat vs Instagram) by two (gift type: material vs experiential) between-subject factorial design, whereas Study 2 used a two (social media: Snapchat vs Instagram) by two (gift type: material vs experiential) by two (message type: informational vs emotional) between-subject factorial design. A series of analyses of covariance was conducted to test the suggested hypotheses. Findings Study 1 demonstrated that the promotion of material gifts was more effective on Snapchat than on Instagram, while the promotion of experiential gifts was more effective on Instagram than on Snapchat. Study 2 showed that the impacts of gift type and message type varied by social media platform. The promotion of an experiential gift with an emotional ad appeal was found to be more effective on Instagram than on Snapchat, while the promotion of a material gift using an informational ad appeal was found to be more effective on Snapchat than on Instagram. Research limitations/implications This research used a college student sample for the experiments. However, to extend the generalizability of the results, it is recommended that future experiments be conducted with nonstudent samples. Also, the current research manipulated the two different social media conditions, Snapchat vs Instagram, by enforcing participants to use their social media and then provided experimental stimuli in a different screen from their social media account. If the stimuli were distributed through participants’ real social media account, the external validity of this research could be enhanced. Finally, future research should apply this framework to other countries with different social media platforms to confirm the generalizability of the study’s findings. Practical implications This research can thus contribute to the development of new guidelines for planning social media marketing in the business gift-giving context. By leveraging findings that the fit effect of gift types and advertising appeals differs based on social media platform, practitioners can create a more effective social media plan for their advertising campaigns. Given that copywriting and media plans are among the most important and difficult work in the business of advertising, this study’s findings would assist advertising practitioners in planning and executing the most effective advertising campaigns. Originality/value The findings of this study provide valuable insights for the development of effective brand promotion strategies for B2C gift-giving via social media.
... low-level) support may entail providing negative (vs. positive) feedback (Belding et al., 2015), giving idealistic (vs. practical) advice (Baskin et al., 2014;Danziger et al., 2012;Liberman & Trope, 1998), or tending to primary (vs. secondary) concerns (Fujita et al., 2008;Liviatan et al., 2008). ...
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From whom do people seek what type of support? Although people regularly seek support from close and distant others, little work has systematically investigated when and why people approach different people in their support network for different types of support. The present research introduces a novel distinction of social support and explores its relationship to the scope or range of support providers people would consider asking for support. Based on a recent extension of construal level theory (Trope et al., 2021), five experiments tested the bidirectional relation between levels of support and scope-the latter assessed by the social distance of potential support providers. Experiment 1 demonstrated that people can categorize supportive behaviors into low-level support (i.e., addressing the effect of a problem) and high-level support (i.e., addressing the cause of a problem). Experiments 2 and 4 showed that being prompted to seek low-level (vs. high-level) support-oriented people toward support providers who are socially proximal (vs. distal). In Experiment 3, thinking about interacting with a socially proximal (vs. distal) support provider led to a greater focus on receiving low-level (vs. high-level) support. Testing the implication of the link between levels of support and scope, Experiment 5 demonstrated that support recipients reported they would feel more gratitude when they imagined receiving low-level (vs. high-level) support from socially proximal (vs. distal) support providers. Broader implications for social support, interpersonal relationships, and construal level theory research are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... However, in previous work, the focus has been on documenting and explaining discrepancies between the types of gifts that givers prefer to give and that recipients prefer to receive (Baskin et al., 2014;Cavanaugh et al., 2015;Galak et al., 2016;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2022;Kupor et al., 2017;Liu, Dallas, et al., 2019;Liu & Baskin, 2021;Yang & Urminsky, 2018). For instance, givers tend to be more focused on what would make the recipient have the most positive emotional reaction at the moment of gift exchange, whereas recipients are more focused on what would be more satisfying to them overall beyond just the moment of gift exchange (Yang & Urminsky, 2018). ...
... However, in previous work, the focus has been on documenting and explaining discrepancies between the types of gifts that givers prefer to give and that recipients prefer to receive (Baskin et al., 2014;Cavanaugh et al., 2015;Galak et al., 2016;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2022;Kupor et al., 2017;Liu, Dallas, et al., 2019;Liu & Baskin, 2021;Yang & Urminsky, 2018). For instance, givers tend to be more focused on what would make the recipient have the most positive emotional reaction at the moment of gift exchange, whereas recipients are more focused on what would be more satisfying to them overall beyond just the moment of gift exchange (Yang & Urminsky, 2018). ...
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... dans de nombreuses situations le consommateur est susceptible de recevoir ou d'offrir un cadeau (ex. anniversaires, périodes de fêtes, St valentin, cadeau de mariage, cadeau de naissance, invitation à un repas, etc.). s'imaginer recevoir un cadeau de la part d'un ami (proximité sociale) ou s'imaginer offrir un cadeau à un ami (éloignement social).Baskin et al. (2014) suggèrent que les décisions qui concernent le soi sont prises sous une perspective de proximité psychologique plutôt que celles qui concernent les autres. Par ailleurs, l'action de recevoir un cadeau oriente le produit vers soi (perspective proche où le produit concerne la sphère intime), alors que l'action d'offrir oriente le produit v ...
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La distance psychologique est omniprésente dans l’esprit du consommateur et influence ses attitudes et son comportement envers les produits hédoniques. Cependant, des contradictions sont présentes dans la littérature quant à la direction (positive ou négative) des effets de la distance psychologique sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. En effet, certaines recherches avancent que l’augmentation de la distance psychologique influence positivement les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. Alors que d’autres suggèrent l’effet inverse, à savoir une influence négative de l’augmentation de la distance psychologique sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. L’objectif de cette recherche est de réconcilier ces contradictions en examinant sous quelles conditions la distance peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif. Sur la base d’un état de l’art de la littérature et d’une étude qualitative, nous proposons que le degré de proéminence du besoin de justification (non saillant vs saillant) du consommateur au moment où il évalue le produit hédonique modère ses effets et constitue une condition sous laquelle la distance psychologique peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif sur les réponses du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. Trois expérimentations ont été conduites pour le test de nos hypothèses. Les deux premières suggèrent qu’en condition de besoin de justification non saillant, l’augmentation de la distance psychologique a une influence négative sur les réponses attitudinales et comportementales du consommateur envers les produits hédoniques. La troisième expérimentation, quant à elle, propose qu’en condition de besoin de justification saillant, l’augmentation de la distance psychologique a un effet positif sur la réponse comportementale du consommateur envers le produit hédonique. Cette recherche contribue à la littérature sur le concept de distance psychologique en précisant sous quelles conditions (c.-à-d. besoin de justification saillant vs non saillant) la distance peut avoir un effet positif ou négatif sur les réponses des consommateurs envers les produits hédoniques.
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