Article

Are You Feeling What I’m Feeling? Emotional Similarity Buffers Stress

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Abstract

We examine the idea that it is beneficial for people in threatening situations to affiliate with others who are experiencing similar, relative to dissimilar, emotions. Pairs of participants waited together and then engaged in a laboratory stressor (i.e., giving a speech). We created an index of each pair's emotional similarity using participants' emotional states. We also measured how threatening participants perceived the speech task to be (i.e., whether they had high vs. low dispositional fear of public speaking). We hypothesized that perceiving greater threat in the situation would be associated with greater stress, but interacting with someone who is emotionally similar would buffer individuals from this heightened stress. Confirming our hypotheses, greater initial dyadic emotional similarity was associated with a reduced cortisol response and lower reported stress among participants who feared public speaking.

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... Thus, perceived emotional fit validates group members' perceptions and enhances certainty and control over the intergroup environment (Locke & Horowitz, 1990;Van Zomeren et al., 2004). Congruent with this line of thought, perceived emotional fit has been linked to higher physical (Consedine et al., 2014) and psychological well-being (De Leersnyder et al., 2015), as well as lower stress levels in the presence of stressors (Townsend et al., 2014). However, while management of the emotional effect of stressors is crucial to prevent burnout from activism , no literature has yet studied how emotional fit aids management of group-related stressors. ...
... The current study focuses on its influence on activist burnout, located on the intersection between the individual level and the group level as it refers to individual emotional exhaustion as well as an abated motivation for collective action . As the effects of perceived emotional fit have been demonstrated both on the individual level (i.e., coping with stress; Townsend et al., 2014) and the group level (i.e., promoting collective action; Van Zomeren et al., 2004), we propose that perceived emotional fit of disadvantaged group members with one's disadvantaged group may relate negatively to activist burnout. ...
... Previous work has suggested the importance of group unity and group-level emotions for collective action tendencies (Drury et al., 2005;Thomas et al., 2009). In line with research on individual coping with stress (Townsend et al., 2014) and research on sustainable activism (Thomas et al., 2009), we aimed to bridge these strands of literature and study the implications of perceived emotional fit for an individual process hampering the sustainability of collective action. Drawing on this literature and data from a three-wave longitudinal study with a Palestinian sample, we tested whether and which aspects of perceived emotional fit with other disadvantaged group members may buffer activist burnout. ...
Article
Psychological processes that hamper activism, such as activist burnout, threaten social change. We suggest that perceived emotional fit (i.e., perceiving to experience similar emotions as other disadvantaged group members) may buffer activist burnout by mitigating the deleterious effects of stressors that are associated with partaking in collective action. We investigated the relation between perceived emotional fit and activist burnout using three-wave longitudinal survey data of Palestinians in the context of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict. We hypothesized that both higher general tendencies to fit emotionally with the ingroup (general perceived emotional fit) and increases over time in perceived emotional fit (change perceived emotional fit) would relate negatively to activist burnout. Supporting our hypotheses, both aspects of emotional fit were associated with lower activist burnout, even when controlling for classical predictors of collective action. This research highlights perceived emotional fit as an additional dimension to the role of emotions for sustainable collective action.
... These qualities might be responsible for the increasing use of distinctive indices of similarity (Baird et al., Bleidorn, Kandler, Riemann, Angleitner, & Spinath, 2012;Furr, 2008;Klimstra et al., 2010;Rogers & Biesanz, 2015). However, many investigators continue to use similarity indices that do not remove the normative profile (Boer et al., 2011;Decuyper, De Bolle, & De Fruyt, 2012;Gonzaga et al., 2010;Terracciano, McCrae, & Costa, 2010;Townsend et al., 2013), and this seems due to a sense that distinctive indices eliminate something that is not an artifact. 4 In our example, the concern is that we are removing meaningful ways in which Hermione and Ron really are similar to one another. ...
... In addition, although we have illustrated that the conditions producing the NDC exist in personality inventories, researchers index similarity in terms of many other constructs-such as emotions (C. Anderson et al., 2003;Townsend et al., 2013), values (Boer et al., 2011), attitudes (Byrne, 1971), behaviors (Furr & Funder, 2004), and situations (Sherman, Nave, & Funder, 2010). It is less clear whether the NDC influences similarity indices of these constructs. ...
... Given a normative tendency to report communal, other-serving values (Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2006;Schwartz & Bardi, 2001), the correlates of "overall value similarity" should be confounded with such values. This confounding of similarity and desirability is likely for several other classes of constructs, such as emotions (Townsend et al., 2013), behavioral profiles (Furr, 2009;Shoda et al., 1994), situation characterizations (Sherman et al., 2010), parental styles (Deal, Halverson, & Wampler, 1999), and self-presentational personas (Leary & Allen, 2011). ...
Article
Research on similarity constructs (e.g., dyadic similarity, personality stability, judgment agreement and accuracy) frequently find them to be associated with positive outcomes. However, a methodological pitfall associated with common "overall similarity" indices, which we term the normative-desirability confound (NDC), will regularly result in similarity constructs apparently having more positive effects than they do in reality. In essence, when an individual is estimated to be similar to another person by common indices, this will strongly indicate that the individual has desirable characteristics. Consequently, the correlates of overall similarity indices can often be interpreted as indicating the beneficial effects of having desirable characteristics, without needing to attribute any additional salutary effect to similarity. We show that this confound is present in overall similarity estimates for a wide range of constructs (e.g., personality traits, attitudes, emotions, behaviors, values), how it can be accounted for, and discuss larger implications for our understanding of similarity constructs. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
... When facing emotional events, similar emotions between two persons may provide shared knowledge and feeling of closeness, enhance perspective taking and empathy, and facilitate communication and solution. For example, perceived emotional similarity with others reduced individuals' cortisol responses during a stressful task (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2013). Likewise, greater similarity in emotional reaction tendencies among intimate relationships may be associated with decreased stress and better long-term well-being (e.g., Gonzaga, Campos, & Bradbury, 2007;Markey & Markey, 2007). ...
... Merely knowing that someone is similar to the self increases positive affect and decreases stress (Tesser et al., 1998;Townsend et al., 2013). However, similar emotional reaction tendencies may also be beneficial when only one person experiences emotions as such similarity may help them to understand and empathize with each other. ...
... By definition, emotional reactions happen in response to events and we may expect to see greater emotional fluctuations when individuals encounter many stressors. Thus, similar emotional reaction tendencies of close others may help reduce conflicts and arguments (e.g., Seiffge-Krenke & Burk, 2013) and increase social support (e.g., Graham, Huang, Clark, & Helgeson, 2008;Townsend et al., 2013) to a greater extent when individuals experience many stressors compared to when individuals enjoy a peaceful life. Thus, stress exposure may potentially moderate the relationship between perceived selfother similarity and emotional well-being. ...
Article
Full-text available
Individuals’ reaction tendencies in emotional situations may influence their social rela- tionships. In two studies, we examined whether perceived similarity in emotional reaction tendencies between the self and a close other was associated with individuals’ emotional well-being. Participants rated how the self and a close other (mother in Study 1; a self- nominated close other in Study 2) would react in various situations. Individuals who perceived greater similarity between the self and the close other reported more positive affect, less negative affect, lower perceived stress, and higher life satisfaction than those who perceived less self–other similarity. Furthermore, stress exposure moderated the effects of self–other similarity on perceived stress. In summary, greater perceived similarity with one’s close others seems beneficial for social–emotional adaptation.
... As posited by the emotional similarity hypothesis (Schachter, 1959) and the emotional convergence hypothesis (Anderson, Keltner, Tiedens, & Leach, 2004), feeling similarly may benefit both the relationship and the individual. For example, partners belonging to more emotionally similar dyads report more relationship stability and satisfaction (e.g., Anderson, Keltner, & John, 2003;Gonzaga, Campos, & Bradbury, 2007), a motivation to cooperate makes people adjust their mood to each other (Huntsinger, Lun, Sinclair, & Clore, 2009), and being with emotionally similar strangers decreases individual stress levels prior to an upcoming challenge (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). However, the nature, correlates, and consequences of emotional similarity, defined here as reporting similar affective states, are still not well understood (see Schoebi & Randall, 2015;Sels, Ceulemans, & Kuppens, 2018). ...
... The original emotional similarity hypothesis postulated in 1959 described that people facing a threat prefer to be with someone else who is also confronted with the same challenge (Schachter, 1959). Indeed, interacting with a similarly stressed individual decreased stress levels in participants anticipating a public speech (Townsend et al., 2014). Feeling similarly is also thought to facilitate cooperation, as Anderson et al. (2004) postulate. ...
... Affect similarity contributing to couple functioning is in line with previous research on younger samples, namely, that (a) more emotionally similar dating couples have more satisfying and stable relationships (Anderson et al., 2003), (b) motivation to affiliate and cooperate successfully drives students to adjust their mood to that of a novel interaction partner (Huntsinger et al., 2009), and (c) interacting with a stranger similarly distressed by an upcoming presentation attenuates the stress response to that challenge in students afraid of speaking in public (Townsend et al., 2014). ...
Article
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We investigated whether similarity between partners in positive and negative affect is associated with the perception that one manages everyday life well together as a couple (dyadic mastery). To this end, we used data from 99 older couples (mean age = 75 years; mean length of relationship = 45 years) obtained 5 times a day over 7 consecutive days as participants went about their everyday lives. Analyses using actor-partner interdependence models revealed that higher (average and momentary) similarity in negative affect between partners, but not positive affect between partners, was associated with higher levels of dyadic mastery among both men and women. Our results point to the significance of emotional similarity between partners for smooth relationship functioning.
... According to this line of work, if people realized that other individuals experience similar emotional reactions, they would not only find their emotional reaction to be socially validated (Anderson and Keltner, 2004), but they could also expect to receive more effective social support from someone who understands how they feel (Verhofstadt et al., 2008). Some studies have offered evidence of emotional similarity reducing individual stress in a shared threatening situation (i.e., public speech; Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). From these results, Townsend et al. (2014) argued that sharing emotional reactions with others might enhance certainty or predictability over the situation, which ultimately explains the decrease in levels of stress. ...
... Some studies have offered evidence of emotional similarity reducing individual stress in a shared threatening situation (i.e., public speech; Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). From these results, Townsend et al. (2014) argued that sharing emotional reactions with others might enhance certainty or predictability over the situation, which ultimately explains the decrease in levels of stress. Similarly, we argue that shared SA might be useful to decrease the discomforting experience of attitudinal conflict. ...
Preprint
Literature on attitude similarity suggests that sharing similar attitudes enhances interpersonal liking, but it remains unanswered whether this effect also holds for ambivalent attitudes. In the present research, we shed light on the role attitudinal ambivalence plays in interpersonal liking. Specifically, we examine whether people express ambivalence strategically to generate a positive or negative social image, and whether this is dependent on the attitudinal ambivalence of their perceiver. We test two alternative hypotheses. In line with the attitude-similarity effect, people should express ambivalence towards ambivalent others to enhance interpersonal liking, as sharing ambivalence might socially validate the latter’s experience of attitudinal conflict. On the other hand, people might express more univalence, as ambivalence may drive ambivalent others towards the resolution of their attitudinal conflict and univalent stances could help to achieve that goal. In two studies (N = 449, 149), people expressed similar attitudes to those of their perceivers, even when the latter experienced attitudinal conflict (Study 1 and 2). Moreover, they composed an essay, the message of which validated their perceiver’s attitudinal conflict (Study 2). In line with these results, we further observe that the more people experienced their ambivalence as conflicting, the more they liked others who similarly experienced attitudinal conflict (Study 1). These findings suggest that the expression of ambivalence can have important interpersonal functions, as it might lead to an enhanced social image when interacting with those coping with attitudinal conflict.
... On the one hand, studies have suggested a causal link from better emotional fit to better well-being. For instance, the emotional fit of romantic partners or roommates predicts satisfaction with the relationship 6 months later (Anderson et al., 2003;Gonzaga et al., 2007) and the emotional fit of anxious interaction partners buffers against stress during a following laboratory speech task (Townsend et al., 2013). On the other hand, the cultural norm hypothesis on depression proposes that depressive symptoms reduce people's attention to cultural norms of emotional reactivity, thereby suggesting a causal link from well-being (i.c., depression) to emotional fit (i.c., misfit) with cultural norms (Chentsova-Dutton et al., 2007. ...
... Finally, we did not investigate the precise mechanism through which EFC is associated with psychological well-being. Future research may focus on possible mediators of this link, such as (a) the conscious distress of not fitting in, which partially mediated the effects of cultural (mis)fit on depression in the studies by Dressler and colleagues (e.g., Balieiro et al., 2011; see also Townsend et al., 2013), (b) perceived shared reality, which socially validates 'the way people are' and, as such, boost their sense of epistemic competence and feelings of psychological well-being, as speculated by Fulmer et al. (2010;Hardin and Higgins, 1996), and (c) the social consequences of experiencing the 'right' emotions (e.g., Keltner and Haidt, 2001;Szczureck et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The current research tested the idea that it is the cultural fit of emotions, rather than certain emotions per se, that predicts psychological well-being. We reasoned that emotional fit in the domains of life that afford the realization of central cultural mandates would be particularly important to psychological well-being. We tested this hypothesis with samples from three cultural contexts that are known to differ with respect to their main cultural mandates: a European American (N = 30), a Korean (N = 80), and a Belgian sample (N = 266). Cultural fit was measured by comparing an individual’s patterns of emotions to the average cultural pattern for the same type of situation on the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire (De Leersnyder et al., 2011). Consistent with our hypothesis, we found evidence for “universality without uniformity”: in each sample, psychological well-being was associated with emotional fit in the domain that was key to the cultural mandate. However, cultures varied with regard to the particular domain involved. Psychological well-being was predicted by emotional fit (a) in autonomy-promoting situations at work in the U.S., (b) in relatedness-promoting situations at home in Korea, and (c) in both autonomy-promoting and relatedness-promoting situations in Belgium. These findings show that the experience of culturally appropriate patterns of emotions contributes to psychological well-being. One interpretation is that experiencing appropriate emotions is itself a realization of the cultural mandates.
... According to this line of work, if people realized that other individuals experience similar emotional reactions, they would not only find their emotional reaction to be socially validated (Anderson and Keltner, 2004), but they could also expect to receive more effective social support from someone who understands how they feel (Verhofstadt et al., 2008). Some studies have offered evidence of emotional similarity reducing individual stress in a shared threatening situation (i.e., public speech; Townsend et al., 2014). From these results, Townsend et al. (2014) argued that sharing emotional reactions with others might enhance certainty or predictability over the situation, which ultimately explains the decrease in levels of stress. ...
... Some studies have offered evidence of emotional similarity reducing individual stress in a shared threatening situation (i.e., public speech; Townsend et al., 2014). From these results, Townsend et al. (2014) argued that sharing emotional reactions with others might enhance certainty or predictability over the situation, which ultimately explains the decrease in levels of stress. Similarly, we argue that shared SA might be useful to decrease the discomforting experience of attitudinal conflict. ...
Article
Full-text available
Literature on attitude similarity suggests that sharing similar attitudes enhances interpersonal liking, but it remains unanswered whether this effect also holds for ambivalent attitudes. In the present research, we shed light on the role attitudinal ambivalence plays in interpersonal liking. Specifically, we examine whether people express ambivalence strategically to generate a positive or negative social image, and whether this is dependent on the attitudinal ambivalence of their perceiver. We test two alternative hypotheses. In line with the attitude-similarity effect, people should express ambivalence towards ambivalent others to enhance interpersonal liking, as sharing ambivalence might socially validate the latter’s experience of attitudinal conflict. On the other hand, people might express more univalence, as ambivalence may drive ambivalent others towards the resolution of their attitudinal conflict and univalent stances could help to achieve that goal. In two studies (N = 449, 149), people expressed similar attitudes to those of their perceivers, even when the latter experienced attitudinal conflict (Study 1 and 2). Moreover, they composed an essay, the message of which validated their perceiver’s attitudinal conflict (Study 2). In line with these results, we further observe that the more people experienced their ambivalence as conflicting, the more they liked others who similarly experienced attitudinal conflict (Study 1). These findings suggest that the expression of ambivalence can have important interpersonal functions, as it might lead to an enhanced social image when interacting with those coping with attitudinal conflict.
... Highly self-efficacious students may be attractive as helpers and advice givers but may also make others feel uncertain. In challenging situations, students may feel more comfortable interacting with someone with similar feelings or beliefs (Townsend et al. 2014). We explore how academic achievement and self-efficacy affect choices in academic support and advice relationships in an FLC. ...
Article
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A common assumption about Freshmen Learning Communities (FLCs) is that academic relationships contribute to students’ success. This study investigates how students in learning communities connect with fellow students for friendship and academic support. Longitudinal social network data across the first year, collected from 95 Dutch students in eight FLCs, measure both social and academic relational choices within and beyond the FLCs. Using stochastic actor-based models, the study tests two competing hypotheses. The alignment hypothesis states that students connect with their similar-achieving friends for both academic and social support, leading to an alignment of both types of networks over time. In contrast, the duality hypothesis states dissimilarity between academic support networks and friendship networks: students should connect with better-achieving fellow students for academic support and to more similar peers for friendship. The data support the alignment hypothesis but not the duality hypothesis; in addition, they show evidence of achievement segregation in FLCs: the higher the students’ achievement level, the more they connect with other students for both academic support and friendship, relating in particular to peers with a similarly high achievement level. The results suggest that lower-achieving students are excluded from the support provided by higher-achieving students and instead ask similar lower achievers for support. They thus cannot benefit optimally from the academic integration FLC offer. The article concludes with recommendations of how to support students in an FLC so that they can reach optimal achievement potential.
... Schachter (1959) a étendu cette hypothèse de similitude/ affiliation au domaine de l'émotion pour prédire que les individus qui font face à des menaces rencontrent le désir accru de s'affilier à d'autres, et particulièrement à ceux qui sont similairement menacés, car ils apportent à la fois un meilleur indicateur pour évaluer l'intensité, la nature, ou la pertinence de son état émotionnel et un soutien émotionnel qui sont deux éléments en mesure de réduire le stress. Cette « hypothèse de similitude émotionnelle » (Schachter, 1959, p. 25, notre traduction) a été depuis validée puisque le fait d'éprouver des émotions semblables à autrui permet de préciser ses propres ressentis émotionnels et évaluations de la situation (Frijda & Mesquita, 1994), apporte de la clarté cognitive face à la menace (Kulik, Mahler, & Earnest, 1994) et restaure le sentiment de certitude et de prévisibilité qui conduit à des niveaux de stress plus faibles (Dickerson & Kemeny, 2004 ;Townsend, Heejung, & Mesquita 2013). Par conséquent, la similitude émotionnelle et la clarté cognitive dans les situations menaçantes sont associées à davantage d'affiliation (Cottrell & Epley, 1977 ;Darley & Aronson, 1966 ;Firestone, Kaplan, & Russell, 1973 ;Gump & Kulik, 1997 ;Schachter, 1959, Expérience 2 ;Van Kleef, et al., 2008). ...
Article
L’engagement corporel inhérent aux activités physiques, sportives et artistiques (APSA) implique des menaces physiques et symboliques que les pratiquants doivent réguler. Ces régulations émotionnelles modifient leurs attitudes interpersonnelles et intergroupes et, par là même, leurs comportements vis-à-vis des autres individus et groupes pendant la pratique mais aussi ailleurs et plus tard. Au regard de l’enjeu que représentent ces attitudes pour les différents terrains sportifs ( e.g. , cohésion, entraide, agressivité, coping en compétition, inclusion sociale et citoyenneté en éducation physique et sportive et en activités physiques adaptées), nous proposons une revue des modèles théoriques en psychologie sociale qui identifient les processus d’influence des menaces sur les attitudes interpersonnelles et intergroupes. Nous distinguons trois types de menace présentes dans la pratique des APSA, soit les menaces interpersonnelles, intergroupes et du contexte, et situons la portée des modèles associés à ces menaces pour les terrains des APSA. Malgré la pertinence de ces modèles pour comprendre la construction des attitudes interpersonnelles et intergroupes au cours des APSA, leur utilisation apparaît marginale en sciences du sport. Notre revue ouvre donc sur des perspectives d’intervention innovantes et des propositions d’articulation des modèles présentés avec ceux majoritairement utilisés en sciences du sport.
... This effect has been demonstrated in sport by Tamminen et al. (2016), who reported that emotions may reinforce social identity by communicating information about group norms and values. In that sense, Townsend et al. (2014) stated that emotional similarity may help to strengthen a social identity while other authors (e.g., Smith and Mackie, 2015;Mackie and Smith, 2018) suggest that identitybased emotions may help to improve the quality of social interactions among the ingroup members. As a consequence, one should acknowledge that, while identity processes influence the experience of identity-based emotions, the contrary is true, too. ...
Article
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Recently, novel lines of research have developed to study the influence of identity processes in sport-related behaviours. Yet, whereas emotions in sport are the result of a complex psychosocial process, little attention has been paid to examining the mechanisms that underlie how group membership influences athletes’ emotional experiences. The present narrative review aims at complementing the comprehensive review produced by Rees et al. (2015) on social identity in sport by reporting specific work on identity-based emotions in sport. To that end, we firstly overview the different terminology currently used in the field of emotions in groups to clarify the distinct nature of emotions that result from an individual’s social identity. Secondly, we discuss key concepts of social identity to better understand the mechanisms underlying identity-based emotions. Thirdly, we address existing knowledge on identity-based emotions in sport. We close the present narrative review by suggesting future research perspectives based on existing meta-theories of social identity. Evidence from the social psychology literature is discussed alongside existing works from the sport literature to propose a crucial theoretical approach to better understand emotions in sport.
... So rather than serving as a successful model, asking someone for support who expresses high self-confidence in his or her ability to master challenges could evoke threats and perceptions of incompetence in helpand support-seekers, and ultimately leading to avoidance (Nadler, 2015). In the latter case, students may prefer to approach someone with similar self-efficacy beliefs or feelings (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). ...
Article
Combining complete social networks and structural equation modeling, we investigate how two learning-related cognitions, academic self-efficacy and growth mindsets, relate to integration in support networks of 580 university students in 30 seminar groups. We assessed integration as popularity in academic support networks (being an academic helper and collaborator) and in social support networks (being a friend and resource for sharing personal difficulties). Perceived integration in both networks was measured with self-reports, whereas actual integration in both networks was measured with sociometric peer-reports. Structural equation modeling showed that students who were initially more integrated in academic support networks became more integrated in social support networks over time, but not vice versa. Students with higher academic self-efficacy perceived themselves to be an academic resource for others, which in turn enhanced peer-reported academic integration. Academic self-efficacy was related to growth mindsets and growth mindsets were related to actual integration in academic support networks.
... This is driven by the fact that people prefer to interact with others that resemble their emotional and personality profiles (de Graaf & Allouch, 2014;Weiss & Evers, 2011). For example, understanding emotional similarity among people can help predict feelings of closeness (Townsend et al., 2014). Such an understanding is essential in the study of human behavior. ...
Article
Differences in individuals’ psychological and cognitive characteristics have been always found to play a significant role in influencing our behavior and preferences. While a number of studies have identified the impact of these characteristics on individuals’ visual design preferences, understanding how emotional intelligence (EI) would influence this process is yet to be explored. This study investigated the link between individuals’ EI dimensions (eg, emotionality, self-control, sociability, and well-being) and their eye movement behavior in an attempt to build a prediction model for visual design preferences. A total of 136 participants took part in this study. The feature selection and prediction of EI and eye movement data were performed using the genetic search method in conjunction with the bagging method. The results showed that participants high in self-control and emotionality exhibited different eye movement behaviors when performing five visual selection tasks. The prediction results (93.87% accuracy) revealed that specific eye parameters can predict the link between certain EI dimensions and preferences for visual design. This study adds new insights into human–computer interaction, EI, and rational choice theories. The findings also encourage researchers and designers to consider EI in the development of intelligent and adaptive systems.
... To that end, informal peer group interactions serve as good interpersonal forums for fostering communication, social support, and normative influence (Hirsch, 1981). Informal social exchanges between those with shared issues help mitigate stress-induced issues (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). Further, social peer group relationships can garner substantive changes because the group dynamic affords a stable environment, enshrined in shared group norms and a shared support network (Hirsch, 1981), that can enhance the group's combined social resilience (Cacioppo, Hawkley, Norman, & Berntson, 2011). ...
Article
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Social identity theory suggests that the degree to which people identity with an organizational group can have multiple beneficial outcomes. This research focuses on how membership in and engagement with a Veterans Service Organization (VSO) relate to veterans’ social isolation and perceptions that military service was beneficial to society, ultimately leading to improved veterans’ health. Data from an online survey of 444 military veterans show that physical attendance and the degree to which veterans identify identification with the VSO play different roles in improving veterans’ lives. Not only is VSO attendance linked to reduced social isolation but social isolation is further reduced when members both attend and feel strong social identification with the VSO. The degree to which veterans identify with the VSO is also directly linked to greater perceptions of benefit-finding from military service, even for those who do not physically partake in the VSO’s activities. Lesser isolation and greater benefit-finding are related to lower levels of posttraumatic stress symptomology. The results suggest that VSOs may be integrated into new approaches to assist veterans’ transition from military into civilian life.
... Cultural fit refers to the extent to which people's own ways of feeling, thinking, and behaving are congruent with the psychological tendencies that are valued, promoted, and rewarded by their cultural context. Across a range of domains and contexts, people who display greater cultural fit report more well-being (De Leersnyder, Kim, & Mesquita, 2015;De Leersnyder, Mesquita, Kim, Eom, & Choi, 2014;Dressler, Balieiro, Santos, & Ernesto, in press;Kitayama, Karasawa, Curhan, Ryff, & Markus, 2010;Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). For example, Americans reporting greater personal control, thus fulfilling the American cultural mandate of independence, experienced greater well-being and health. ...
Article
‘Psychological acculturation’ refers to the intra-individual change process resulting from sustained contact with a new culture, and has traditionally been researched by cross-cultural psychologists. As acculturation research has faced numerous critiques in recent years, this manuscript considers how insights from cultural psychology could help advance this field. Specifically, the three main features of the dominant acculturation conceptual framework (“what changes during acculturation”, “how people acculturate”, and “how well people adapt to acculturation”) are reviewed and questioned in light of research findings and recent theoretical perspectives from cultural psychology. The approach to acculturation research articulated here views cultural engagement as plural, dynamic, tacit, and centered around the acquisition and flexible use of cultural schemas. By being attuned to their cultural environment, people typically and implicitly respond in culturally appropriate ways. This experience of “cultural fluency” is disrupted when people move to a new cultural environment. Acculturation consists of the creation and flexible use of new cultural schemas (development of multicultural mind) and of changes in people’s self-positioning with respect to their different cultural traditions (development of multicultural self). In doing so, they re-establish “cultural fluency” in their new cultural environment, which also influences long-term adaptation by promoting cultural fit between people and their cultural environment.
... Perceived similarity can also indicate that one is not lonely (Bell, 1993). Moreover, Townsend, Kim, and Mesquita (2014) showed that emotional similarity is linked to lower levels of stress in threatening contexts. Thus, perceiving that another person has similar emotions has a comforting effect on people, especially when they are under stress. ...
Article
The present research focused on bereaved parents’ perceived grief similarity, and aimed to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal effects of the perceptions that the partner has less, equal, or more grief intensity than oneself on relationship satisfaction. Participants of our longitudinal study were 229 heterosexual bereaved Dutch couples who completed questionnaires 6, 13, and 20 months after the loss of their child. Average age of participants was 40.7 (SD = 9.5). Across 3 study waves, participants’ perceived grief similarity and relationship satisfaction were assessed. To control for their effects, own grief level, child’s gender, expectedness of loss, parent’s age, parent’s gender, and time were also included in the analyses. Consistent with the hypotheses, cross-sectional results revealed that bereaved parents who perceived dissimilar levels of grief (less or more grief) had lower relationship satisfaction than bereaved parents who perceived similar levels of grief. This effect remained significant controlling for the effects of possible confounding variables and actual similarity in grief between partners. We also found that perceived grief similarity at the first study wave was related to the highest level of relationship satisfaction at the second study wave. Moreover, results showed that perceived grief similarity was associated with a higher level in partner’s relationship satisfaction. Results are discussed considering the comparison and similarity in grief across bereaved partners after child loss.
... However, much of the similar research has Q3 not focused on the construct of stress, although perceiving the job and the work environment similarly seem to be equally rewarding both for subordinates and supervisors [16]. Indeed, the research of Townsend et al [17] showed that sharing a stressful situation with a person with a similar emotional profile, buffers individuals from experiencing high stress levels. ...
Article
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Background: Stressed workers suffer from severe health problems which appear to have increased. Poor leadership is especially considered a source of stress. Indeed, supervisors might perceive their subordinates to be similar to them as far as stress is concerned and this might more widespread in organizations than previously thought. Methods: The present research investigates the relationships between leaders' health, in terms of work-related stress, mental health, and workplace bullying and their evaluation of subordinates' stress. Five regression models were formulated to test our hypothesis. This is a cross-sectional study among 261 Italian leaders, using supervisor self-assessment and leaders' assessments of their subordinates. Results: Leaders' health was related to their evaluation of staff stress. Job demand, lack of job control, and lack of support by colleagues and supervisors evaluated in their subordinates were particularly associated with the leaders' own health. Conclusion: Implications for developing healthy leaders are finally discussed.
... On the one hand, many studies have shown that emotional fit benefits relationship outcomes. For instance, emotional fit in dyadic relationships predicts satisfaction with the relationship (Locke and Horowitz, 1990;Anderson et al., 2003;Gonzaga et al., 2007;Verhofstadt et al., 2008;Townsend et al., 2014). Similarly, emotional fit with one's culture is positively associated with relational well-being (De Leersnyder et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Three studies investigated the association between members’ group identification and the emotional fit with their group. In the first study, a cross-sectional study in a large organization, we replicated earlier research by showing that group identification and emotional fit are positively associated, using a broader range of emotions and using profile correlations to measure group members’ emotional fit. In addition, in two longitudinal studies, where groups of students were followed at several time points during their collaboration on a project, we tested the directionality of the relationship between group identification and emotional fit. The results showed a bidirectional, positive link between group identification and emotional fit, such that group identification and emotional fit either mutually reinforce or mutually dampen each other over time. We discuss how these findings increase insights in group functioning and how they may be used to change group processes for better or worse.
... Importantly, these norms are not stable, as experiences within the group shape individual members' perceptions of the norms that are present within the group. In other words, individual group members are thought to infer norms from the emotions of the other group members in the same situation (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014;Wrightsman, 1960). Second, group norms may develop or change after critical events have taken place (Feldman, 1984). ...
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Emotions of task group members tend to be congruent, yet the processes that lead to this congruence are not well understood. In this study, we longitudinally followed the convergence of anger and gratitude in 68 task groups, and investigated the role of emotion norms in achieving this convergence. Over time, individual members’ emotions influenced the group’s emotions, and, conversely, the group’s emotions influenced individual members’ emotions. Moreover, over time the coherence between the emotions of different group members became stronger. This supports the idea that the emotions within groups converge. In addition, we found evidence for the dynamic interplay between norms and experience. Norms guided experience, and experience became normative, both at the individual and group levels. In addition, group norms on a particular emotion predicted individuals’ experience of that emotion over time, and conversely, individual members’ norms about an emotion predicted the group’s experience of that emotion.
... Soft negative affect-hurt or fear-is considered "relationship oriented" affect because it reflects vulnerability and concern for one's relationship (Dimidjian et al., 2002;Leary & Springer, 2001;Sanford, 2007). Over time, it could be suggested that the expression of positive and soft NA could help stabilize Partner B's feelings of distress, as feeling similar emotions may buffer this experience (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014) and foster interpersonal connections (Gonzaga, Campos, & Bradbury, 2007). As such, positive and soft NA can be considered prosocial (Buck, 1999;Sanford, 2007) or affiliation oriented affect types, because their expression may have beneficial effects on individual and relational well-being. ...
Article
Symptoms of psychological distress are associated with the experience of heightened negative affect, and the inability to successfully regulate one's emotions. Romantic partners can, however, influence and regulate each other's emotional experiences, especially during times of distress. Using daily diary measures taken 4 times per day over a 10-day period, we examined whether susceptibility to partner affect was associated with levels and trajectories of psychological distress over 12 months. Results from both partners of 103 committed relationships (206 individuals) found that men and women showed decreased levels of distress over the year when they were more susceptible to their partner's positive affect, but the degree of susceptibility varied with respect to negative affect. Examining susceptibility to partner affect may be a valuable complementary approach to studying relational contributions to the social regulation of emotions, especially in understanding the progression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
... At a most basic level, emotions and their display provide others with an indication of an actor's current affective state and about his or her interaction intentions (Keltner and Haidt 1999). Empirical evidence also suggests that dyadic actors' emotional similarity confers members with important psychological benefits (Townsend, Kim, and Mesquita 2014) and serves to enhance the functioning and thus outcomes of interpersonal relationships (Gonzaga, Campos, and Bradbury 2007). As it relates to this latter benefit of emotional similarity, Anderson, Keltner, and John (2003) suggest the following three factors explain why such similarity aids relationship functioning: (1) it helps dyads effectively respond to opportunities and threats in the environment because it allows them to seamlessly coordinate their actions, (2) it provides dyadic actors with a better understanding of their partner's motives and intentions as it improves the accuracy of interpersonal perception processes, and (3) it validates the emotions that dyadic actors experience in response to events that occur within the relationship because the sharing of emotions with others serves to legitimize emotions. ...
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The literature establishes that customer and frontline employee (FLE) emotions converge during their encounters as a result of a transient, contagion-based process in which emotions flow from one actor to another. Recent evidence suggests, however, that this transient process does not produce emotional convergence among frontline dyads engaged in ongoing exchange, a surprising finding, given the wealth of evidence in support of the idea that customers and FLEs engaged in relational exchange strongly influence one another. In light of this evidence, we argue here that customers and FLEs engaged in ongoing exchange experience similar emotions not as a result of the transient transfer of emotions, but because they develop the tendency to undergo a similar emotional response to relationship events, a phenomenon we call the shared frontline experience. Informed by the social psychology literature, we support this idea by advancing a conceptual model that highlights the role of relationship closeness, personality similarity, and dyadic attachment style in producing the shared frontline experience. The proposed model also suggests that firms stand to benefit from the shared frontline experience of customers and FLEs if they provide the dyad with autonomy, a decision not without risk. Future research directions suggested by this perspective are discussed.
... Yet, once again, something other than motivation may have affected the results. Research indicates that perceived similarity lowers stress [33]. This is especially important for an older adult who, relative to a young undergraduate, has little experience of coming into a university lab and being tested through tasks designed to examine social-cognition. ...
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Recently, some authors have suggested that age-related impairments in social-cognitive abilities-emotion recognition (ER) and theory of mind (ToM)-may be explained in terms of reduced motivation and effort mobilization in older adults. We examined performance on ER and ToM tasks, as well as corresponding control tasks, experimentally manipulating self-involvement. Sixty-one older adults and 57 young adults were randomly assigned to either a High or Low self-involvement condition. In the first condition, self-involvement was raised by telling participants were told that good task performance was associated with a number of positive, personally relevant social outcomes. Motivation was measured with both subjective (self-report questionnaire) and objective (systolic blood pressure reactivity-SBP-R) indices. Results showed that the self-involvement manipulation did not increase self-reported motivation, SBP-R, or task performance. Further correlation analyses focusing on individual differences in motivation did not reveal any association with performance, in either young or older adults. Notably, we found age-related decline in both ER and ToM, despite older adults having higher motivation than young adults. Overall, the present results were not consistent with previous claims that motivation affects older adults' social-cognitive performance, opening the route to potential alternative explanations.
... In one, participants experiencing a threatening situation jointly with a randomly-paired stranger who felt similar (vs. dissimilar) emotions were found to have reduced cortisol responses and lower reported stress (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). In another, Anderson, Keltner, and John (2003, Study 2) demonstrated that college roomates become more emotionally similar to each other over time, and that such similarity was tied to closer frienships. ...
Article
Shared experience – i.e. commonality in inner states such as feelings, beliefs, or concerns – plays an important role in establishing and maintaining close relationships. Emotional Similarity (ES) can be thought of as one type of shared experience, but the exact role it plays in our responses to specific contexts (objects, events, circumstances) is not well understood. We sought to examine the day-level context-dependent roles of romantic partners’ ES. We hypothesised that relational events (i.e. conflict and sexual activity) occurring on days with high ES would be more consequential. Two samples (N = 44, N = 80) of committed couples completed daily diaries for three and five weeks, respectively. Each evening, partners reported their currently-felt moods, relationship quality, and the occurrence of conflict and/or sex in the preceding 24 h. ES was operationalised as the profile similarity between the partners’ moods on each day. Generally, ES moderated the associations between conflict or sex and relational outcomes: on days marked by greater ES, conflict and sex had stronger negative/positive outcomes, respectively. These findings highlight the importance of considering ES on a momentary basis and suggest that it may function as an amplifier of charged relational events.
... Research says that sharing feelings in a threatening situation with someone in the same emotional state holds someone back from experiencing severe stress levels. 14 For the third question, they feel fear, sadness, and anxiety when they heard the news about COVID-19. Expressions of fear, sadness, anxiety when hearing the information of COVID-19 is a natural expression for students. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic can lead to students' mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, and stress. The government's policy for study from home exacerbates mental health problems. This study aimed to determine the source of student stress during the study from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. The study design used qualitative research. The sampling technique uses consecutive sampling. This research involved 36 students from the faculty of psychology and the faculty of medicine in Bandung city who underwent study from home (SFH). Data were collected by interviewing participants in May 2020. This study's results are the dominant thing that participants feel during the study from home is boredom, relaxed, and complicated; the things they missed during learning at home were friends, playing, and chatting; and they feel fear, sadness, and anxiety when heard the news about COVID-19. This study concludes that the source of student stress was being far from friends, limited communication and face-to-face contact with friends and lecturers, and did not get direct attention from friends or lecturers. SUMBER STRES MAHASISWA SELAMA MASA PANDEMIK COVID-19: PENELITIAN KUALITATIFPandemik COVID-19 dapat mengakibatkan masalah kesehatan mental untuk mahasiswa seperti kecemasan, depresi, dan stress. Kebijakan pemerintah untuk melakukan pendidikan jarak jauh (PJJ) telah memperburuk masalah kesehatan mental. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan sumber stres mahasiswa selama menjalani PJJ di masa pandemik COVID-19. Desain penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif. Metode pengambilan sampel adalah consecutive sampling dengan melibatkan 36 mahasiswa dari fakultas psikologi dan fakultas kedokteran di Kota Bandung yang menjalani PJJ. Data diambil dengan melakukan wawancara kepada partisipan pada bulan Mei 2020. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah perasaan dominan yang dirasakan partisipan selama PJJ adalah bosan, santai dan tidak praktis; hal yang dirindukan selama masa kuliah di rumah adalah teman, bermain dan mengobrol; dan hal yang terlintas ketika mendengar berita tentang COVID-19 adalah takut, sedih dan cemas. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah sumber stres mahasiswa adalah merasa jauh dengan teman, komunikasi dan kontak tatap muka dengan teman dan dosen yang terbatas serta tidak mendapatkan perhatian langsung dari teman dan dosen.
... Understanding had two subthemes, which were hearing peers' lived experiences of work-related mental injury (5) and sharing of lived experiences with peers (n=3). Hearing the experiences of peers and being able to share experiences with them serves to provide hope, 75 76 alleviate stress and uncertainty, 77 destigmatise mental injury, 78 reduce fear and feelings of isolation 79 and is an important step in encouraging disclosure and help seeking. 80 None of the workers without previous or current associations reported the sharing of lived experience as an advantage. ...
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Objectives Reluctance to seek help is a leading contributor to escalating mental injury rates in Australian workplaces. We explored the benefit of using community organisations to deliver mental health literacy programmes to overcome workplace barriers to help-seeking behaviours. Design This study used a qualitative application of the theory of planned behaviour to examine underlying beliefs that may influence worker’s intentions to participate in mental health literacy programmes delivered by community organisations and manager support for them. Setting This study took place within three large white-collar organisations in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants Eighteen workers and 11 managers (n=29) were interviewed to explore perspectives of the benefits of such an approach. Results Community organisations have six attributes that make them suitable as an alternative mental health literacy programme provider including empathy, safety, relatability, trustworthiness, social support and inclusivity. Behavioural beliefs included accessibility, understanding and objectivity. The lack of suitability and legitimacy due to poor governance and leadership was disadvantages. Normative beliefs were that family and friends would most likely approve, while line managers and colleagues were viewed as most likely to disapprove. Control beliefs indicated that endorsements from relevant bodies were facilitators of participation. Distance/time constraints and the lack of skills, training and lived experiences of coordinators/facilitators were seen as barriers. Conclusions Identifying workers’ beliefs and perceptions of community organisations has significant implication for the development of effective community-based strategies to improve worker mental health literacy and help seeking. Organisations with formal governance structures, allied with government, peak bodies and work-related mental health organisations would be most suitable. Approaches should focus on lived experience and be delivered by qualified facilitators. Promoting supervisor and colleague support could improve participation. Models to guide cross-sector collaborations to equip community organisations to deliver work-related mental health literacy programmes need to be explored.
... The experience and encouragement from others provide members with emotional support. Consistent with some social psychological research, Manuscript submitted to ACM streamers going through similar experiences bring strength and comfort to the viewers and bring some certainty to an uncertain learning path [9][15] [24][29] [45]. Therefore, the members' stress can be relived, and they can have confidence and courage to persist in the long-term study. ...
Preprint
It has become a trend to use study with me (SWM) Livestream to create a personalized study ambiance. However, we still have little understanding of the activities of SWM livestream and the streamer's motivation to produce SWM livestream. This paper provides an overview of the activities and how streamers regulate these activities of SWM livestream on a Chinese popular User Generated Content(UGC) website, Bilibili. We observed the number and popularity of the SWM livestreams and analyzed 800 livestreams to understand the streamers' study goals. We analyzed 20 SWM livestreams in detail and interviewed 12 streamers and 10 viewers to understand the activities and the streamer's motivation. We found that streamers produced SWM livestream to seek supervision, find like-minded study partners and help and company others. Streamers don't interact or instruct with the viewers directly but use chat-bot and autonomous interaction to alleviated the interaction burden. Unique sessions like checking-in and study progress reporting promote the viewers' social presence, promoting SOC, and enhancing their engagement. Strict rules and punishment are widely used to concentrate the members on study and contribute to positive atmosphere. We also found that SWM livestream often disappears when the examination is done and the streamer faces doubts on motivation and appearance. These findings suggest that SRL community can provide cognitive and socioemotional support for lonely learners to stick to a long-term study. The activities and streamer's practice inspired how streamers can focus on contemplative efforts while controlling the interaction.
... In addition, amusement yielded the highest similarity among participants, compared to sadness or to the neutral state. Emotion similarity (i.e., in the subjective experience) among individuals is known to be associated with many interpersonal advantages, such as greater satisfaction, empathy, cooperation, and reduced stress (Locke and Horowitz 1990;Barsade 2002;Townsend et al. 2014). Our results suggest that similarity in emotion, and thus its positive social effects, are more likely to be achieved during states of amusement and among women. ...
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The conceptualization of emotional states as patterns of interactions between large-scale brain networks has recently gained support. Yet, few studies have directly examined the brain's network structure during emotional experiences. Here, we investigated the brain's functional network organization during experiences of sadness, amusement, and neutral states elicited by movies, in addition to a resting-state. We tested the effects of the experienced emotion on individual variability in the brain's functional connectome. Next, for each state, we defined a modular organization of the brain and quantified its segregation and integration. Our results show that emotional states increase the similarity between and within individuals in the brain's functional connectome. Second, in the brain's modular organization, sadness, relative to amusement, was associated with higher integration and increased connectivity of cognitive control networks: the salience and fronto-parietal networks. Modular metrics of brain segregation and integration were further associated with the reported emotional valence. Last, in both the functional connectome and emotional report, a higher similarity was found among women. Our results suggest that the experience of emotion is linked to a reconfiguration of whole-brain distributed, not emotion-specific, functional brain networks and that the topological structure carries information about the subjective emotional experience.
... A primary function of arousal is to signal the importance or significance of environmental stimuli and prepare the body for action. In social situations, joint experiences of arousal promote affiliation and collective sensemaking, both of which are essential for motivating collective action (Gump & Kulik, 1997;Schachter, 1959;Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2013). As Bartel and Saavedra (2000, p. 224) noted, ''high arousal group moods may be adaptive for work groups because they motivate collective action toward goal attainment.'' ...
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Non-sedentary work configurations, which encourage standing rather than sitting in the course of work, are becoming increas- ingly prevalent in organizations. In this article, we build and test theory about how non-sedentary arrangements influence inter- personal processes in groups performing knowledge work—tasks that require groups to combine information to develop creative ideas and solve problems. We propose that a non-sedentary workspace increases group arousal, while at the same time decreasing group idea territoriality, both of which result in better information elaboration and, indirectly, better group performance. The results of an experimental study of 54 groups engaged in a creative task provide support for this dual path- way model and underscore the important role of the physical space in which a group works as a contextual input to group processes and outcomes.
... Also, this study found that the most frequently stress relief approach among this group of students was "consulting with a reliable person." This finding supported the previous studies relating to stress, which described that an individual feel relieved from stress when having the specific interaction with a person who truly understands their feelings and problems [14,15]. It was remarkable to find that a few students chose alcohol used or drinking as the way to relieve their stress. ...
... Partners who share similar emotional responses are able to soothe and comfort each other in times of need and report greater stability (Gottman & Levenson, 2002). Malouff, Schutte, and Thorsteinsson (2014) found that when romantic partners shared similar perception, understanding, managing, and harnessing of emotions, higher relationship satisfaction was reported than those who did not, and similar emotional reactions between social partners have been found to buffer perceived stress (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). Other studies have found that partners with similar styles of humor report greater relationship fulfillment (Hall, 2013). ...
Article
Intercultural romantic relationships have increased worldwide. Yet, there is a lack of empirical knowledge about intercultural couples. The studies that do suggest that intercultural couples have higher rates of conflict and long‐term instability, but most studies have measured intercultural couples using categorical responses of race/ethnicity, which limits theoretical insight to the interpersonal characteristics that make up high‐quality intimate relationships. This review integrates findings from several research fields into a new model, called the culturally based romantic relationship (CBR²) model, to understand how similarities/differences in within‐person emotional processes and relationship norms relate to between‐person emotional functioning, and in turn relationship quality. Theoretical models of this nature are essential because they can impact therapy and counseling programs developed for diverse groups of people, but also advance research fields that are related to culture, emotions, and interpersonal relationships.
... Speaking as one aspect of productive language skills, the ability to change the form of thoughts or feelings into meaningful sounds of language (Paul& Smith, 1993). Speaking is the ability to say articulation sounds or words to express state and convey thoughts, ideas, and feelings (Townsend, Kim, & Mesquita, 2014). ...
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Purpose of the study: Every human being is required to be skilled at communicating, skilled at expressing thoughts, ideas, and feelings. This research aims to explain student’s ability in academic speaking based on the framework of item responses theory. Methodology: This research uses a mix method research approach; qualitative and quantitative approaches are used together to answer the formulated problems. A qualitative approach is used for digging up information about the needs to develop the speaking test. The try out subjects was 25 university student taking Bahasa Indonesia subject; while 125 students were used as the measurement subject. The data were students’ responses to the speaking test which was scored by two people (rater). The reliability of the instrument was estimated by the Generalizability theory. Rasch model analysis was used to estimate the item parameter; while the Maximum Likelihood was used to estimate the students’ ability. Main Findings: The value of 𝜎 ̂(𝑜) s influenced by the similarity to the average mean score observed in academic speaking. The value of 𝜎 ̂(𝑝) and 𝜎 ̂(𝑜) suggests that the distribution of variability in person and item is the same and high. A sufficiently large value of 𝜎 ̂(𝑝i) implies the fact that the value involves all residual sources for a variance. Balance alternatives, weigh consequently and decide rationally. Applications of this study: Based on the design proposed for the Indonesian Language Proficiency assessment, other generalizability design (G-Design) used is a cross design because each student (p) becomes the object of observation of two observers (r) who both assess four aspects of observation/indicator. It is used to determine the reliability (i.e., reproducibility) of measurements under specific conditions in academic speaking. Novelty/Originality of this study: Some rater qualifications that must be met include the process of gathering and using the appropriateness of background information before assessing. Measuring the ability of students in academic speaking by applying G theory and conducting an IRT analysis approach needs.
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Cambridge Core - Social Psychology - Interpersonal Emotion Dynamics in Close Relationships - edited by Ashley K. Randall
Chapter
This chapter examines the social dynamics of emotion in prison. Relational emotions are introduced in two primary ways: first, through the significance of sharing of emotions within groups (e.g. with other prisoners, officers, and family members). Reaching out to others in this manner functioned as a way of giving and receiving support and was a form of rebalancing that helped prisoners ward off emotional extremes. Second, the chapter goes on to analyse emotions that emerged in the social arena. In general terms, small associations and friendship groups exhibited displays of care, affection and sporadic moments of joy. However, outside of these close-knit groups there was typically a harder edge to social emotions, which were marked by anger, hostility, distain, aggression, and fear.
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This chapter considers the spatial differentiation of emotions in prison. This account develops previous work on the emotional geography of prison life (Crewe et al., 2014), arguing that prison spaces can be grouped into three categories: living spaces, hostile zones and free spaces. Throughout, the chapter attempts to explain the spatial dynamics and forces that facilitated the display of particular emotions in these spaces. For example, the ‘hostile zones’ described in both prisons (where anger and fear was common) appeared to have a number of shared physical and social features. To steer this discussion, the chapter combines and extends theoretical approaches to ‘liminality’.
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In this chapter the discussion turns from motivation towards the impacts of segregation on prisoners’ bodies. A salient feature of segregation units is disembodiment. The body can be viewed as a particularly important site of analysis in solitary confinement. Given the sedentary nature of the body, inherent material deprivations, and absence of social connection in these spaces, focusing on embodiment helps to increase understanding about how prisoners experience this form of isolation.
Article
Human resource (HR) managers play a critical role in supporting workers during organizational crisis recovery, but this support is hampered when employee energy is drained during difficult times. We develop relational theory and practical suggestions to address how employees can generate energy from interpersonal interactions in a post‐crisis context. Drawing from interviews, field observations, and archival data of interpersonal interactions in the surf and boardsport industry in the wake of the Global Financial Crisis, we investigated individual energetic contributions and the process which generated relational energy, defined as psychological resourcefulness generated from interpersonal interactions that enhances work capacity. Our analysis revealed that in the aftermath of a crisis, employees generated relational energy by engaging in processes of perspective taking and interpersonal adjustment while engaging in crisis‐recovery work. This was particularly true when their personal contributions to the interactions were negative or neutral in valence and of low intensity. This is in contrast to assumptions in the literature and industry cultural norms, but was essential to fueling interdependent work efforts during crisis recovery. These findings extend and refine theory on energy at work to help inform HR practice by developing understanding of how the energy generated from other people can be an important resource to help sustain crisis recovery, and how HR managers can support these processes.
Article
The most important issues in developing an emotion-aware dialog system include how to recognize users’ emotions and how machine responses can be generated accordingly. However, studies on emotional dialogs have primarily focused on whether the system can produce utterances with suitable emotions; consequently, the content relevance and quality of the system’s responses have been ignored. Different from previous studies, we present a deep learning framework to explore the influence of emotions in dialogs. Our framework includes two modules (C-LSTM for emotion recognition and biLSTM-C for response generation), and it integrates both emotional and rational information to produce emotionally and semantically correct responses. This structured design has several advantages: the modules of emotion recognition and response generation can be constructed by any effective methods, the personalized dialog can be achieved by adjusting the emotion-response coupling mechanism to adapt to users’ conversational styles, and the results can be transparent and interpretable to users. Following the presented approach, we first assess the performance of model training for emotion recognition and response generation. With the learned models, we configure a series of experiments to investigate the effect of using emotion as a driving force to generate machine responses in length by designing evaluation strategies from different perspectives. Experiments and results highlight the importance and influence of emotions in dialogs.
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The purpose of this study was to answer public concerns about the impact of pornographic content accessed via the internet on high school students. This study describes how children can access, the reasons for accessing it and the consequences of access. The method used is descriptive quantitative by exploring pornographic behavior. The data collection technique was carried out by distributing questionnaires and deepening them by interviewing several students. Data collection involved 718 high school students as respondents from four cities namely Bandung, Pekanbaru, Denpasar, and Yogyakarta. The results showed that students who had been exposed to pornography reached 96.1 percent and most of them looked through cellphones. The result of frequent viewing of pornographic content is feeling anxious, fantasizing frequently, decreased learning achievement, viewing addiction, porn addiction, aggressive or angry, dirty talk, wanting to have sex, and some even having free sex. students can be exposed to pornography from the age of 10, which they mostly see when they are in their own homes. This condition is due to the lack of parental supervision of internet use. They are physically close to parents, but the internet can browse indefinitely and separate communication between children and parents.
Article
Customers’ knowledge contributions are a vital source of business value. This study is one of the few attempts to study the influence of emotional and informational feedback on knowledge contribution. Through quantitative content analysis, we analyzed content data from 2324 users in a firm-hosted online community. We found that informational support (argument quality and source credibility) and emotional support (emotional approval and emotional asymmetry) significantly affect customers’ knowledge contributions. Moreover, we identified an inverted-U relationship between emotional asymmetry and knowledge contributions in initiated posts. This study has implications for both researchers and practitioners.
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We used two experience sampling studies to examine whether close romantic partners’ feelings of love and perceived partner responsiveness are better predicted by their actual emotional similarity or by their perceived emotional similarity. Study 1 revealed that the more partners were emotionally similar, the more they perceived their partner as responsive. This effect was mediated by perceived similarity, indicating that emotional similarity had to be detected in order to exert an effect. Further, when people overperceived their emotional similarities, they also reported more perceived partner responsiveness. Study 2 replicated these findings, by revealing similar effects for actual and perceived similarity on the love people reported to feel toward their partner. Implications for understanding the factors that predict feelings of love and responsiveness in close relationships are discussed.
Article
Social support is theorized to protect health against the negative effects of stress. However, findings are mixed regarding whether social support protects Black people’s psychological well-being against racism. The current mixed methods study examined racism-specific support (RSS)—social support in response to racism—in same- (Black/Black) and cross-race (Black/non-Black) friendships. We investigated whether 31 Black college students ( M age = 19.7, SD = 1.70; 74% women) had (1) racial preferences (same-vs. cross-race) for whom they sought RSS, and (2) whether perceptions of RSS’s helpfulness differed when provided by cross-race friends. Participants completed measures of emotional closeness to same- and cross-race friends and participated in focus group interviews discussing racism and RSS. Results found participants reported more emotional closeness to Black friends and non-Black friends of color relative to White friends. As predicted, 65% of participants preferred RSS from Black (vs. non-Black) friends. Participants’ qualitative responses ( n = 21–24) revealed Black (vs. non-Black) friends were perceived to better understand racism. These findings suggest RSS from Black friends, specifically, might benefit Black college students’ psychological well-being.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the two effects (flow effect and resonance effect) during a group complaint based on the emotional contagion theory. Design/methodology/approach This study uses an experimental research design in which participants’ negative emotions dynamically change driven by group emotional interactions when they are experiencing a group complaint. Findings Flow effect and resonance effect can occur during the process of group emotional contagion. Specifically, when group customers’ negative emotional similarity is low in a group complaint, group emotional contagion leads to flow effect (i.e. negative emotions flow from customers with higher levels of negative emotions to those with lower levels of negative emotions). By contrast, when group customers’ negative emotional similarity is high in a group complaint, group emotional contagion leads to resonance effect (i.e. group customers’ negative emotions increase significantly). Originality/value Most of the previous research studies the process of emotional contagion from one with higher levels of emotional displays to the other with lower levels of emotional displays, which is named as the “flow effect” of emotional contagion. However, when two individuals with the same levels of negative emotional displays interact with each other, the flow effect of emotional contagion is very likely not to occur. It is interesting to find that both individuals’ negative emotions increase significantly during the process of emotional contagion. The authors propose the “resonance effect” of emotional contagion to explain this phenomenon.
Article
Although correlational studies indicate that team attributes are related to athletes' precompetitive psychological states, it is unknown how team members experience these relationships. The present study's purpose was to investigate athletes' perceptions of precompetitive team influence. Consequently, we worked from a constructivist realist position and used qualitative methods (interviews with competitive team-sport athletes). An inductive content analysis revealed that athletes perceived established and novel team characteristics and processes to influence their precompetitive psychological states. Athletes perceived these influences as both adaptive and maladaptive, and it appeared that they were qualified by contextual factors as well as intuitive regulatory attempts.
Article
Peerbeziehungen im Klassenzimmer sind seit langem Gegenstand wissenschaftlicher Untersuchungen. Es liegen umfangreiche Nachweise dafür vor, dass sie Lernen sowohl günstig als auch ungünstig beeinflussen können. In diesem Beitrag systematisieren wir diese Einflüsse, indem wir (1) eine Differenzierung zwischen affektiven und kognitiv-instrumentellen Peerbeziehungen vornehmen. Weiterhin stellen wir zentrale Mechanismen dar, (2) über die sich diese Einflüsse entfalten und (3) die die Selbstselektion von Schülerinnen und Schülern in (mal-)adaptive Peerbeziehungen erklären können. Schließlich arbeiten wir (4) die besondere Rolle von Lehrenden als Gestaltende von Peerbeziehungen heraus und leiten (5) Maßnahmen ab, über die affektive und kognitiv-instrumentelle Beziehungsstrukturen im Klassenzimmer positiv beeinflusst werden können. Abschließend stellen wir die Bedeutung dar, die die systematische Untersuchung von Peerbeziehungen für die Entwicklung von auf Peerinteraktionen zielende Interventionen im Kontext aktueller Herausforderungen im Bildungssystem (Schereneffekte, Inklusion, soziale Integration geflüchteter Kinder und Jugendlicher) haben kann.
Chapter
Due to competitive constraints, service firms aim to create positive experiences for customers. Scholars demonstrate that focal customers are influenced by other, unfamiliar customers present at the time of service creation (e.g. Brack & Benkenstein 2012; 2014; Martin 1996). Taking other customers’ influence into account serves as background of the customer-to-customer (C2C) interaction field of research (Miao 2014; Verhoef et al. 2009). Especially for credence goods like hospital services interactions determine service experience (Miranda et al. 2012).
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This study compared dysphoric and nondysphoric male and female undergraduates as they conversed with dysphoric or nondysphoric undergraduatesofthe same sex. Subjects rated their satisfaction with the conversation after each turn. The results showed that people in homogeneous dyads (i~., both partners were dysphoric or both partners were nondysphoric) were more satisfied with the interaction, and their satisfaction increased as the conversation proceeded. People in mixed dyads were less satisfied, perceived each other as colder, and spoke about increasingly negative topics. Thus, in accord with other research showing that similarity leads to liking, the crucial determinant of interactional satisfaction was neither the mood of the subject nor the mood of the partner, but their similarity in mood. Dysphoria is a state of mild depression that most people experience from time to time. Dysphoria and interpersonal interactions may have a reciprocal effect on each other, and both may be important for an individual's sense of well-being (Coates & Winston, 1983; Horowitz & Vitkus, 1986); it is therefore important to understand how dysphoria and interpersonal interactions affect each other. This article examines how the level of dysphoria of two interacting individuals influences their satisfaction with the interaction and their evaluations of one another. Previous research relating negative moods to interpersonal relations has focused on more severe depressions. Typically, in these studies subjects were exposed to persons who were or were not exhibiting signs of depression, and various reactions to the target person were assessed. These studies have indicated that people find interactions with depressed people to be aversive. This result has been observed in a variety of experimental contexts. In some studies, subjects conversed with outpatients over a telephone (Coyne, 1976a) or listened to audiotapes of inpatients (Boswell & Murray, 1981); in other studies, subjects watched videotapes of a dissimulator (Amstutz & Kaplan, 1987; Gurtman, 1987) or interacted with a dissimulator (Hammen & Peters, 1978; Howes & Hokanson, 1979; Marks & Hammen, 1982; Stephens, Hokanson, & Welker, 1987); in still others, subjects read transcripts describing hypothetical persons (Goflib & Beatty, 1985; Hammen & Peters, 1977; Winer, Bonnet, Blaney, & Murray, 1981).
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(from the chapter) discuss the ways in which the sociocultural environment can be expected to influence the emotional processes, the roles and functions of these processes in social interaction, and the influences of the sociocultural environment upon those roles and functions / discuss the modes of influence on emotions of the immediate context of social interaction in which emotions arise and of the values, norms, and cognitive customs prevalent in a given culture / briefly outline the conception of emotions that guides our analysis
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Group emotional contagion, the transfer of moods among people in a group, and its influence on work group dynamics was examined in a laboratory study of managerial decision making using multiple, convergent measures of mood, individual attitudes, behavior, and group-level dynamics. Using a 2 times 2 experimental design, with a trained confederate enacting mood conditions, the predicted effect of emotional contagion was found among group members, using both outside coders' ratings of participants' mood and participants' self-reported mood. No hypothesized differences in contagion effects due to the degree of pleasantness of the mood expressed and the energy level with which it was conveyed were found. There was a significant influence of emotional contagion on individual-level attitudes and group processes. As predicted, the positive emotional contagion group members experienced improved cooperation, decreased conflict, and increased perceived task performance. Theoretical implications and practical ramifications of emotional contagion in groups and organizations are discussed.
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In this chapter the authors discuss stress hormones, emphasizing their modulation by emotionally salient stimuli, including mental and social stressors. The authors then describe stress hormones' biological characteristics and the neural basis of their responsiveness to psychological stimulation. The authors then consider the relationship between stress hormones metabolic and circadian variations and psychologically induced changes. The authors discuss research designs to achieve maximum sensitivity to psychogenic variations. Finally, the authors comment on practical issues in the collection, handling, and storage of biological specimens for the quantification of stress hormone changes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The independence of positive and negative affect has been heralded as a major and counterintuitive finding in the psychology of mood and emotion. Still, other findings support the older view that positive and negative fall at opposite ends of a single bipolar continuum. Independence versus bipolarity can be reconciled by considering (a) the activation dimension of affect, (b) random and systematic measurement error, and (c) how items are selected to achieve an appropriate test of bipolarity. In 3 studies of self-reported current affect, random and systematic error were controlled through multiformat measurement and confirmatory factor analysis. Valence was found to be independent of activation, positive affect the bipolar opposite of negative affect, and deactivation the bipolar opposite of activation. The dimensions underlying D. Watson, L. A. Clark, and A. Tellegen's (1988) Positive and Negative Affect schedule were accounted for by the valence and activation dimensions.
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It is well established that a lack of social support constitutes a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality, comparable to risk factors such as smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure. Although it has been hypothesized that social support may benefit health by reducing physiological reactivity to stressors, the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear. Moreover, to date, no studies have investigated the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate experiences of social support into the health outcomes that follow. To investigate these processes, thirty participants completed three tasks in which daily social support, neurocognitive reactivity to a social stressor, and neuroendocrine responses to a social stressor were assessed. Individuals who interacted regularly with supportive individuals across a 10-day period showed diminished cortisol reactivity to a social stressor. Moreover, greater social support and diminished cortisol responses were associated with diminished activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and Brodmann's area (BA) 8, regions previously associated with the distress of social separation. Lastly, individual differences in dACC and BA 8 reactivity mediated the relationship between high daily social support and low cortisol reactivity, such that supported individuals showed reduced neurocognitive reactivity to social stressors, which in turn was associated with reduced neuroendocrine stress responses. This study is the first to investigate the neural underpinnings of the social support-health relationship and provides evidence that social support may ultimately benefit health by diminishing neural and physiological reactivity to social stressors.
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The emotional experiences of people who live together tend to be similar; this is true not only for dyads and groups but also for cultures. It raises the question of whether immigrants' emotions become more similar to host culture patterns of emotional experience; do emotions acculturate? Two studies, on Korean immigrants in the United States (Study 1) and on Turkish immigrants in Belgium (Study 2), measured emotional experiences of immigrants and host group members with the Emotional Patterns Questionnaire. To obtain a measure of the immigrants' emotional similarity to the host group, their individual emotional patterns were correlated to the average pattern of the host group. Immigrants' exposure to and engagement in the host culture, but not their acculturation attitudes, predicted emotional acculturation.
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The authors examined women's neuroendocrine stress responses associated with sexism. They predicted that, when being evaluated by a man, women who chronically perceive more sexism would experience more stress unless the situation contained overt cues that sexism would not occur. The authors measured stress as the end product of the primary stress system linked to social evaluative threat-the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal cortical axis. In Study 1, female participants were rejected by a male confederate in favor of another male for sexist reasons or in favor of another female for merit-based reasons. In Study 2, female participants interacted with a male confederate who they learned held sexist attitudes or whose attitudes were unknown. Participants with higher chronic perceptions of sexism had higher cortisol, unless the situation contained cues that sexism was not possible. These results illustrate the powerful interactive effects of chronic perceptions of sexism and situational cues on women's stress reactivity.
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The present research used validated cardiovascular measures to examine threat reactions among members of stigmatized groups when interacting with members of nonstigmatized groups who were, or were not, prejudiced against their group. The authors hypothesized that people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system would moderate their experience of threat during intergroup interactions. The authors predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the status system is fair, interacting with a prejudiced partner, compared with interacting with an unprejudiced partner, would disconfirm their worldview and result in greater threat. In contrast, the authors predicted that for members of stigmatized groups who believe the system is unfair, interacting with a prejudiced partner, compared with interacting with an unprejudiced partner, would confirm their worldview and result in less threat. The authors examined these predictions among Latinas interacting with a White female confederate (Study 1) and White females interacting with a White male confederate (Study 2). As predicted, people's beliefs about the fairness of the status system moderated their experiences of threat during intergroup interactions, indicated both by cardiovascular responses and nonverbal behavior. The specific pattern of the moderation differed across the 2 studies.
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This study attempted to determine whether people who live with each other for a long period of time grow physically similar in their facial features. Photographs of couples when they were first married and 25 years later were judged for physical similarity and for the likelihood that they were married. The results showed that there is indeed an increase in apparent similarity after 25 years of cohabitation. Moreover, increase in resemblance was associated with greater reported marital happiness. Among the explanations of this phenomenon that were examined, one based on a theory of emotional efference emerged as promising. This theory proposes that emotional processes produce vascular changes that are, in part, regulated by facial musculature. The facial muscles are said to act as ligatures on veins and arteries, and they thereby are able to divert blood from, or direct blood to, the brain. An implication of the vascular theory of emotional efference is that habitual use of facial musculature may permanently affect the physical features of the face. The implication holds further that two people who live with each other for a longer period of time, by virtue of repeated empathic mimicry, would grow physically similar in their facial features. Kin resemblance, therefore, may not be simply a matter of common genes but also a matter of prolonged social contact. A. L. Dear A. L.: As far as physical appearance is concerned, likes seem to attract. Some experts feel that this resemblance may partly be explained by the fact that couples who've lived together for some time usually eat the same diet and share the same habits. The Joyce Brothers Column April 1985
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This study compared dysphoric and nondysphoric male and female undergraduates as they conversed with dysphoric or nondysphoric undergraduates of the same sex. Subjects rated their satisfaction with the conversation after each turn. The results showed that people in homogeneous dyads (i.e., both partners were dysphoric or both partners were nondysphoric) were more satisfied with the interaction, and their satisfaction increased as the conversation proceeded. People in mixed dyads were less satisfied, perceived each other as colder, and spoke about increasingly negative topics. Thus, in accord with other research showing that similarity leads to liking, the crucial determinant of interactional satisfaction was neither the mood of the subject nor the mood of the partner, but their similarity in mood.
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The present study contrasted physiological response patterns occurring when subjects coped passively and actively with aversive stimuli. In one condition, 29 healthy young men were exposed to unpredictable noise (115BA) and shock (3.5 mA) with no means of control, and in the other they attempted to avoid the noise and shock with rapid keypresses. Both tasks were characterized by maximal uncertainty as to locus of presentation, chance of occurrence, and type of stimulus to occur next in sequence. Dependent variables included: reports of moods, reaction times, muscle tension, plasma concentrations of free fatty acids, cortisol and catecholamines, heart rate, blood pressures, systolic time intervals, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, and an index of myocardial contractility. Both experimental conditions produced significant neuroendocrine, lipid, and cardiovascular changes from baseline. The active avoidance procedure produced further increases in cardiac function which were related to control efforts as indexed by muscle tension and task performance. The results point toward the effects of effort in the face of uncertainty in determining the patterns of response to aversive stimulation.
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This paper describes a protocol for induction of moderate psychological stress in a laboratory setting and evaluates its effects on physiological responses. The 'Trier Social Stress Test' (TSST) mainly consists of an anticipation period (10 min) and a test period (10 min) in which the subjects have to deliver a free speech and perform mental arithmetic in front of an audience. In six independent studies this protocol has been found to induce considerable changes in the concentration of ACTH, cortisol (serum and saliva), GH, prolactin as well as significant increases in heart rate. As for salivary cortisol levels, the TSST reliably led to 2- to 4-fold elevations above baseline with similar peak cortisol concentrations. Studies are summarized in which TSST-induced cortisol increases elucidated some of the multiple variables contributing to the interindividual variation in adrenocortical stress responses. The results suggest that gender, genetics and nicotine consumption can influence the individual's stress responsiveness to psychological stress while personality traits showed no correlation with cortisol responses to TSST stimulation. From these data we conclude that the TSST can serve as a tool for psychobiological research.
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This study extends stress and affiliation research by examining the effects of preoperative roommate assignments on the affiliation patterns, preoperative anxiety, and postoperative recovery of 84 male coronary-bypass patients. Patients were assigned preoperatively to a room alone or to a semiprivate room with a roommate who was either cardiac or noncardiac and either preoperative or postoperative. Patients assigned to a roommate who was postoperative rather than preoperative were less anxious, were more ambulatory postoperatively, and had shorter postoperative stays. Independently, patients were more ambulatory postoperatively and were discharged sooner if assigned to a roommate who was cardiac rather than noncardiac. No-roommate patients generally had the slowest recoveries. Affiliations reflecting cognitive clarity concerns, emotional comparison, and emotional support were examined. Theoretical implications for research involving social comparison and affiliation under threat are considered.
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Over 60 years ago, Selye1 recognized the paradox that the physiologic systems activated by stress can not only protect and restore but also damage the body. What links these seemingly contradictory roles? How does stress influence the pathogenesis of disease, and what accounts for the variation in vulnerability to stress-related diseases among people with similar life experiences? How can stress-induced damage be quantified? These and many other questions still challenge investigators. This article reviews the long-term effect of the physiologic response to stress, which I refer to as allostatic load.2 Allostasis — the ability to achieve stability through change3 — . . .
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The human stress response has been characterized, both physiologically and behaviorally, as "fight-or-flight." Although fight-or-flight may characterize the primary physiological responses to stress for both males and females, we propose that, behaviorally, females' responses are more marked by a pattern of "tend-and-befriend." Tending involves nurturant activities designed to protect the self and offspring that promote safety and reduce distress; befriending is the creation and maintenance of social networks that may aid in this process. The biobehavioral mechanism that underlies the tend-and-befriend pattern appears to draw on the attachment-caregiving system, and neuroendocrine evidence from animal and human studies suggests that oxytocin, in conjunction with female reproductive hormones and endogenous opioid peptide mechanisms, may be at its core. This previously unexplored stress regulatory system has manifold implications for the study of stress.
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Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of teammates' happy moods and the players' own moods and subjective performances; the associations were independent of hassles and favorable standing in the match. Mood linkage was greater when players were happier and engaged in collective activity. An intraperson analysis of data from these teams and 2 other teams showed that mood linkage was also greater for players who were older, more committed to the team, and more susceptible to emotional contagion. The results support and extend previous findings concerning mood linkage.
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There is disagreement in the literature about the exact nature of the phenomenon of empathy. There are emotional, cognitive, and conditioning views, applying in varying degrees across species. An adequate description of the ultimate and proximate mechanism can integrate these views. Proximately, the perception of an object's state activates the subject's corresponding representations, which in turn activate somatic and autonomic responses. This mechanism supports basic behaviors (e.g., alarm, social facilitation, vicariousness of emotions, mother-infant responsiveness, and the modeling of competitors and predators) that are crucial for the reproductive success of animals living in groups. The Perception-Action Model (PAM), together with an understanding of how representations change with experience, can explain the major empirical effects in the literature (similarity, familiarity, past experience, explicit teaching, and salience). It can also predict a variety of empathy disorders. The interaction between the PAM and prefrontal functioning can also explain different levels of empathy across species and age groups. This view can advance our evolutionary understanding of empathy beyond inclusive fitness and reciprocal altruism and can explain different levels of empathy across individuals, species, stages of development, and situations.
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This meta-analysis reviews 208 laboratory studies of acute psychological stressors and tests a theoretical model delineating conditions capable of eliciting cortisol responses. Psychological stressors increased cortisol levels; however, effects varied widely across tasks. Consistent with the theoretical model, motivated performance tasks elicited cortisol responses if they were uncontrollable or characterized by social-evaluative threat (task performance could be negatively judged by others), when methodological factors and other stressor characteristics were controlled for. Tasks containing both uncontrollable and social-evaluative elements were associated with the largest cortisol and adrenocorticotropin hormone changes and the longest times to recovery. These findings are consistent with the animal literature on the physiological effects of uncontrollable social threat and contradict the belief that cortisol is responsive to all types of stressors.
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Caffeine elevates cortisol secretion, and caffeine is often consumed in conjunction with exercise or mental stress. The interactions of caffeine and stress on cortisol secretion have not been explored adequately in women. We measured cortisol levels at eight times on days when healthy men and women consumed caffeine (250 mg x 3) and underwent either mental stress or dynamic exercise protocols, followed by a midday meal, in a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design. Men and women had similar cortisol levels at the predrug baselines, but they responded differently to mental stress and exercise. The cortisol response to mental stress was smaller in women than in men (p=.003). Caffeine acted in concert with mental stress to further increase cortisol levels (p=.011), the effect was similar in men and women. Exercise alone did not increase cortisol, but caffeine taken before exercise elevated cortisol in both men and women (ps<.05). After a postexercise meal, the women had a larger cortisol response than the men, and this effect was greater after caffeine (p<.01). Cortisol release in response to stress and caffeine therefore appears to be a function of the type of stressor and the sex of the subject. However, repeated caffeine doses increased cortisol levels across the test day without regard to the sex of the subject or type of stressor employed (p<.00001). Caffeine may elevate cortisol by stimulating the central nervous system in men but may interact with peripheral metabolic mechanisms in women.
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The current work investigates how personality and interpersonal processes combine to predict change in relationship quality. Measures of personality and emotion similarity were collected during laboratory interactions from a cross-sectional sample of dating couples (Study 1) and a 1-year longitudinal study of newlywed married couples (Study 2). Results showed that emotion similarity mediated the association between personality similarity and relationship quality (Studies 1 and 2) and that emotion convergence mediated the association between personality convergence and relationship satisfaction (Study 2). These results indicate that similarity and convergence in personality may benefit relationships by promoting similarity and convergence in partners' shared emotional experiences. Findings also lend support to models that integrate partners' enduring traits and couples' adaptive processes as antecedents of relationship outcomes.
Article
Treadmill exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and evokes metabolic responses proportional to exercise intensity and duration. To determine whether glucocorticoid administration would alter humoral and metabolic regulation during exercise, we administered 4 mg dexamethasone (DEX) or placebo to 11 normal, moderately trained men (19-42 yr old) in a double blinded random fashion 4 h before high intensity intermittent treadmill running. Plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, arginine vasopressin (AVP), lactate, and glucose were measured before, during, and after exercise. A wide range of ACTH responses were seen in the DEX-treated group and arbitrarily defined as two subsets of individuals according to their responses to dexamethasone: DEX nonsuppressors and DEX suppressors. Exercise-induced increases in heart rate and circulating concentrations of cortisol, AVP, lactate, and glucose were all significantly greater (P < 0.05) in nonsuppressors (n = 4) compared to suppressors (n = 7) after both placebo and DEX administration. Interestingly, heart rate, AVP, and lactate responses were unaltered by DEX alone in both groups. In summary, this study demonstrates that normal individuals exhibit differential neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to exercise and pituitary/adrenal suppression after pretreatment with DEX. These findings reflect marked individual differences in the stress response to exercise that may derive from or lead to differential glucocorticoid negative feedback sensitivity in humans.
Article
Are the moods and subjective performances of professional sports players associated with the ongoing collective moods of their teammates? Players from 2 professional cricket teams used pocket computers to provide ratings of their moods and performances 3 times a day for 4 days during a competitive match between the teams. Pooled time-series analysis showed significant associations between the average of teammates' happy moods and the players' own moods and subjective performances; the associations were independent of hassles and favorable standing in the match. Mood linkage was greater when players were happier and engaged in collective activity. An intraperson analysis of data from these teams and 2 other teams showed that mood linkage was also greater for players who were older, more committed to the team, and more susceptible to emotional contagion. The results support and extend previous findings concerning mood linkage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Chapter
In this chapter we will be concerned primarily with the extent to which social comparison processes influence a person’s face-to-face affiliative behaviors and emotional reactions when faced with a novel, threatening situation. To provide some theoretical and historical background to these issues, we will begin by selectively reviewing some of the classic work relevant to affiliation choices made in the face of acute threat (see Cottrell & Epley, 1977; Wheeler, 1974, for more extensive reviews). In doing so, we will focus on several of the central concepts presented by Schachter (1959) in his seminal book that extended social comparison theory to the domain of affiliation and emotion. Of particular interest will be what we believe were erroneous conclusions regarding the part that desires for emotional comparison and cognitive clarity play in affiliation preferences under threat. Drawing heavily on our own work, we then will consider in some detail recent studies that have gone beyond traditional fear and affiliate- choice paradigms to examine the extent to which social comparison principles account for how people actually affiliate with each other in acute, threat situations. Finally, we will present a conceptual model of emotional contagion that considers, as an integral part, Schachter (1959) notion that social comparison processes also should influence the likelihood that people will “catch” the emotions of others.
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Emotions have ubiquitous effects in human affairs. Vivian Gornick, in Fierce Attachments,^ recounts a typ-ical exchange with her mother. Gor-nick always begins these encounters with high hopes. "Somehow," de-spite her best intentions, the conver-sations always spiral downward: Today is promising, tremendously prom-ising I go to meet my mother. I'm flying. Flying! I want to give her some of this shiningness bursting in me, siphon into her my immense happiness at being alive. Just because she is my oldest inti-mate and at this moment I love every-body, even her. "Oh, Ma! What a day I've had," I say. "Tell me," she says. "Do you have the rent this month?" "Ma, listen ..." I say. "That review you wrote for the Times," she says. "Ifs for sure they'll pay you?" "Ma, stop it. Let me tell you what I've been feeling," I say. "Why aren't you wearing something warmer?" she cries. "It's nearly winter." The space inside begins to shimmer. The walls collapse inward. I feel breath-less. Swallow slowly, I say to myself, slowly. To my mother I say, "You do know how to say the right thing at the right time. Ifs remarkable, this gift of yours. It quite takes my breath away." But she doesn't get it. She doesn't loiow I'm being ironic. Nor does she Elaine Hatfield is a Professor of Psychology and Richard L. Rapson is a Professor of History at the Uni-versity of Hawaii. John T. Ca-cioppo is a Professor of Psychology at the Ohio State University. Ad-dress correspondence to Elaine Hatfield, 2430 Campus Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822; BITNET: psych@uhunix; INTERNET: psych@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu. know she's wiping me out. She doesn't know I take her anxiety personally, feel annihilated by her depression. How can she know this? She doesn't even know I'm there. Were I to tell her that it's death to me, her not knowing I'm there, she would stare at me out of her eyes crowd-ing up with puzzled desolation, this young girl of seventy-seven, and she would cry angrily, "You don't under-stand! You have never understood!" (pp. 103-104)
Article
The idea that emotions regulate social interaction is increasingly popular. But exactly how do emotions do this? To address this question, I draw on research on the interpersonal effects of emotions on behavior in personal relationships, parent–child interactions, conflict, negotiation, and leadership, and propose a new framework that can account for existing findings and guide future research: the emotions as social information (EASI) model. I demonstrate that emotional expressions affect observers’ behavior by triggering inferential processes and/or affective reactions in them. The predictive strength of these two processes—which may inspire different behaviors—depends on the observer’s information processing and on social-relational factors. Examples of moderators that determine the relative predictive strength of inferences and affective reactions include power, need for cognitive closure, time pressure, display rules, and the appropriateness and target of the emotional expression, which are all discussed.
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The assessment of cortisol in saliva has proven a valid and reliable reflection of the respective unbound hormone in blood. To date, assessment of cortisol in saliva is a widely accepted and frequently employed method in psychoneuroendocrinology. Due to several advantages over blood cortisol analyses (e.g., stress-free sampling, laboratory independence, lower costs) saliva cortisol assessment can be the method of choice in basic research and clinical environments. The determination of cortisol in saliva can facilitate stress studies including newborns and infants and replace blood sampling for diagnostic endocrine tests like the dexamethasone suppression test. The present paper provides an up-to-date overview of recent methodological developments, novel applications as well as a discussion of possible future applications of salivary cortisol determination.
Article
A growing body of research has demonstrated the importance of intergroup contact in reducing fear, threat and anxiety in intergroup domains. Here we focus on the regulatory benefits of intergroup contact. We hypothesized that past intergroup contact would facilitate recovery from a stressful intergroup evaluation. White and Black participants completed a stressful evaluative task in the presence of two White or two Black interviewers while autonomic nervous system and hormonal responses were assessed. When examining how participants recovered after the stressful task, intergroup contact predicted faster physiological recovery for both autonomic and neuroendocrine reactivity. The importance of recovery from stress for physiological resilience in diverse contexts is discussed.
Article
Responses to individuals who suffer are a foundation of cooperative communities. On the basis of the approach/inhibition theory of power (Keltner, Gruenfeld, & Anderson, 2003), we hypothesized that elevated social power is associated with diminished reciprocal emotional responses to another person's suffering (feeling distress at another person's distress) and with diminished complementary emotion (e.g., compassion). In face-to-face conversations, participants disclosed experiences that had caused them suffering. As predicted, participants with a higher sense of power experienced less distress and less compassion and exhibited greater autonomic emotion regulation when confronted with another participant's suffering. Additional analyses revealed that these findings could not be attributed to power-related differences in baseline emotion or decoding accuracy, but were likely shaped by power-related differences in the motivation to affiliate. Implications for theorizing about power and the social functions of emotions are discussed.
Article
A review of the literature suggests that the presence of companions can reduce both the magnitude and frequency of reactions to aversive or stressful stimuli under either of 2 conditions: (a) the presence of a calm companion when the stimuli are presented; or (b) the presence of a companion that can interfere with the S's reactions to an aversive stimulus. Relatively little evidence exists to support the conclusion that the simple physical presence of others is sufficient in itself to reduce reactions to a disturbing situation. Discrepancies in the results of studies employing secondary or acquired sources of aversive motivation and those employing primary sources suggest that the presence of others may diminish fear or anxiety but not specific responses to a situation that is in itself painful. Studies of physiological reactions to aversive stimuli provide only mixed support for the notion that the presence of others diminishes these reactions. (74 ref)
Article
Aging and hypercortisolism may be associated with alterations of stress-induced hormone release. We therefore studied 20 normal controls of two different age groups (< 30 and > 60 yr of age) and 20 age-matched patients with major depression; baseline ACTH and cortisol secretion (between 1400 and 1700) as well as blood pressure and heart rate and their responses to a 45-min lasting signal detection task (1705-1750) were determined. No difference in basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system activity between young and older healthy controls was noted. The cognitive challenge resulted in an increase in stress-induced hormonal secretion that was greater in the older controls than in their young counterparts. Basal hypercortisolemia and, at baseline, heart rates were higher in depressed patients, regardless of age. Blood pressure was elevated in older healthy controls as well as depressed patients. With the exception of the young depressed patients, all groups responded with an increase of the cardiovascular parameters during stress.
Article
Treadmill exercise activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and evokes metabolic responses proportional to exercise intensity and duration. To determine whether glucocorticoid administration would alter humoral and metabolic regulation during exercise, we administered 4 mg dexamethasone (DEX) or placebo to 11 normal, moderately trained men (19-42 yr old) in a double blinded random fashion 4 h before high intensity intermittent treadmill running. Plasma levels of ACTH, cortisol, arginine vasopressin (AVP), lactate, and glucose were measured before, during, and after exercise. A wide range of ACTH responses were seen in the DEX-treated group and arbitrarily defined as two subsets of individuals according to their responses to dexamethasone: DEX nonsuppressors and DEX suppressors. Exercise-induced increases in heart rate and circulating concentrations of cortisol, AVP, lactate, and glucose were all significantly greater (P < 0.05) in nonsuppressors (n = 4) compared to suppressors (n = 7) after both placebo and DEX administration. Interestingly, heart rate, AVP, and lactate responses were unaltered by DEX alone in both groups. In summary, this study demonstrates that normal individuals exhibit differential neuroendocrine and metabolic responses to exercise and pituitary/adrenal suppression after pretreatment with DEX. These findings reflect marked individual differences in the stress response to exercise that may derive from or lead to differential glucocorticoid negative feedback sensitivity in humans.
Article
Female participants were exposed to high or low threat in the presence of another person believed to be facing either the same or a different situation. In Study 1, each dyad consisted of 2 actual participants, whereas in Study 2, each dyad consisted of 1 participant and 1 confederate, trained to convey either a calm or a nervous reaction to the situation. Affiliation patterns in both studies, defined in terms of the amount of time spent looking at the affiliate, were consistent with S. Schachter's (1959) "emotional similarity hypothesis"; threat increased affiliation and did so particularly with affiliates believed to be facing the same situation. The authors also found evidence of behavioral mimicry, in terms of facial expressions, and emotional contagion, in terms of self-reported anxiety. The behavioral mimicry and emotional contagion results are considered from both primitive emotional contagion and social comparison theory perspectives.
Article
The authors propose that people in relationships become emotionally similar over time--as this similarity would help coordinate the thoughts and behaviors of the relationship partners, increase their mutual understanding, and foster their social cohesion. Using laboratory procedures to induce and assess emotional response, the authors found that dating partners (Study 1) and college roommates (Studies 2 and 3) became more similar in their emotional responses over the course of a year. Further, relationship partners with less power made more of the change necessary for convergence to occur. Consistent with the proposed benefits of emotional similarity, relationships whose partners were more emotionally similar were more cohesive and less likely to dissolve. Discussion focuses on implications of emotional convergence and on potential mechanisms.
Article
Study protocols in endocrinological research and the neurosciences often employ repeated measurements over time to record changes in physiological or endocrinological variables. While it is desirable to acquire repeated measurements for finding individual and group differences with regard to response time and duration, the amount of data gathered often represents a problem for the statistical analysis. When trying to detect possible associations between repeated measures and other variables, the area under the curve (AUC) is routinely used to incorporate multiple time points. However, formulas for computation of the AUC are not standardized across laboratories, and existing differences are usually not presented when discussing results, thus causing possible variability, or incompatibility of findings between research groups. In this paper, two formulas for calculation of the area under the curve are presented, which are derived from the trapezoid formula. These formulas are termed 'Area under the curve with respect to increase' (AUCI) and 'Area under the curve with respect to ground' (AUCG). The different information that can be derived from repeated measurements with these two formulas is exemplified using artificial and real data from recent studies of the authors. It is shown that depending on which formula is used, different associations with other variables may emerge. Consequently, it is recommended to employ both formulas when analyzing data sets with repeated measures.
Article
The generally held notion that "misery loves company" was tested on college students. Ss were exposed to an anxiety-producing situation, i.e., a recording of an apparently nerve-wracking procedure going on in the "next room" to which they soon would be exposed. 3 experimental conditions were employed; after exposure to the anxiety producing stimulus S was: (a) left alone, (b) put with other Ss and allowed to talk, or (c) put with others but not allowed to talk. Effect of group on experience of anxiety was measured. Being with others was effective in reducing anxiety only in Ss who were first-born children, and there was an effect on S's experience of anxiety when allowed to communicate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Our Social Self Preservation Theory asserts that situations which threaten the "social self" (ie, one's social value or standing) elicit increased feelings of low social worth (eg, shame), decrements in social self-esteem, and increases in cortisol, a hormone released by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. To test our theoretical premise, cognitive, emotional, and physiological responses to the performance of laboratory stressor tasks were compared in participants who performed these tasks in the presence or absence of social-self threat. Pre- and poststressor emotion, self-esteem, heart rate, blood pressure, and salivary cortisol were compared in 81 participants randomly assigned to complete speech and mental arithmetic stress tasks with social evaluation present (n = 41) or absent (n = 40). As hypothesized, participants in the social evaluation condition exhibited greater increases in shame and greater decrements in social self-esteem. Other psychological states (eg, anxiety, performance self-esteem) did not show differential changes as a function of the social context. Salivary cortisol increased in social evaluation condition participants but did not increase in participants who performed the same tasks in the absence of social evaluation. Cortisol increases were greater in participants who experienced greater increases in shame and greater decreases in social self-esteem under social-self threat. Threat to the social self is an important elicitor of shame experience, decreases in social self-esteem and cortisol increases under demanding performance conditions. Cortisol changes may be specifically tied to the experience of emotions and cognitions reflecting low self-worth in this context.
Article
Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While the physiological mechanisms of HPA axis responses to stress as well as its short and long-term consequences have been extensively examined, less is known why someone elicits an acute neuroendocrine stress response, i.e. what are the psychological processes involved and how are they related to the acute neuroendocrine stress response. To examine this question, a questionnaire to assess anticipatory cognitive appraisal processes was developed and administered to 81 male healthy subjects in a standardized psychosocial stress situation (Trier social stress test). Cortisol stress responses were assessed with repeated measurement of salivary free cortisol. Hierarchical regression analyses show that anticipatory cognitive appraisal, in contrast to general personality factors and retrospective stress appraisal is an important determinant of the cortisol stress response, explaining up to 35% of the variance of the salivary cortisol response. The reported results emphasize the importance of psychological stress processing for the understanding of psychobiological stress responses. Since stress and its biological consequences have been shown to be associated with the onset and the maintenance of somatic illnesses and psychiatric disorders, psychological processes are prime targets for prevention and intervention.