Article

The Effectiveness of Personal Training on Changing Attitudes Towards Physical Activity

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Abstract

More and more people seeking the expertise of personal trainers in recent years. With very few previous efforts evaluating the effectiveness of the personal training experience in the scientific literature, this study utilized movement in the Stages of the Transtheoretical Model (STM) to determine the efficacy of personal training. One hundred twenty nine volunteer participants (clients) (age range: 20 � 65 years old) were assigned a university senior personal trainer for a10-week program. At an initial meeting, the clients were given a form to self-assess their stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption (STM) choosing one of five stages: Pre-contemplation (not intending to make changes), Contemplation (considering a change), Preparation (getting ready to make a change), Action (actively engaged in making a change but only for a short while) & Maintenance (sustaining the change over time). After the initial assessment, the clients and trainer then met once a week and had targeted discussions on problem solving techniques such as determining the Benefits of Physical Activity, Barriers/Obstacles to Exercise, Support System Recruitment, Goal Setting and Relapse Prevention in addition to providing specific suggestions for the client’s other exercise days during the week. At the end of the 10-week personal training program, the clients then reassessed their stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption.

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... Motivation in the form of encouragement was also notedpersonal trainers provided inspiration by exercising with them, and being a fit and healthy role model. Fischer and Bryant (2008) and McClaran (2003) examined the impact of personal trainers on movement through the stages of the transtheoretical model. McClaran (2003) found significant upward movement through the stages at program end. ...
... Fischer and Bryant (2008) and McClaran (2003) examined the impact of personal trainers on movement through the stages of the transtheoretical model. McClaran (2003) found significant upward movement through the stages at program end. Fischer and Bryant (2008) compared the effectiveness of a personal trainer on exercisers to matched participants not using personal training services. ...
... Fischer and Bryant (2008) compared the effectiveness of a personal trainer on exercisers to matched participants not using personal training services. Their results compliment those of McClaran (2003) control participants showed a significant regression in stage of change scores and a decrease in cognitive and behavioral processes of change, decisional balance, and scheduling selfefficacy. A greater number of participants classified as active maintainers or progressors were found in the personal trainer group compared to the control group. ...
... Currently, VR games do not take into account the combination of physical characteristics and game preferences of individual players. Without tailored workouts for individual players, their exercise outcomes are limited (McClaran, 2003). There is also the potential for overexertion, which poses significant health risks such as musculoskeletal injury (Haskell et al., 2007). ...
... This work is important because while some VR games are effective in providing exertion, they do not currently take into account information about the user, such as their tness level or goals and preferences, which can limit their exercise outcomes (McClaran, 2003). Just this information would be used by a tness advisor who would create a workout plan. ...
Thesis
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This thesis was inspired by the possibility that virtual reality (VR) games, which are designed primarily to be fun, could also provide exercise. It aimed to gain insights about this by exploring whether people can gain beneficial levels of exercise while playing VR games and how they might use VR games for exercise over several weeks. Furthermore, this work also focuses on how the level of physical activity that can be captured during gameplay and how a long-term user model can be created for individual players, as a foundation for supporting the user in gaining personal informatics insights about their exertion as well as being used for personalisation and external recommendation for VR games. The key contributions of this research are: • The first study of a diverse set of commercial VR games to gain insights about the level of actual and perceived exertion players have. • The first long-term study of VR games in a sedentary workplace to gain insights about the ways people utilise it and the levels of exertion they gain. • Based on reflections on the above studies, this thesis presents a framework and guidelines for designing physical activity VR games. • The systematic creation of a user model for representing a person’s long-term fitness and their VR gameplay, exertion and preferences. • A study of the ways that people can scrutinise their long-term personal informatics user model of exertion from VR game play and incidental walking. These contributions provide a foundation for future researchers and industry practitioners to design VR games that provide beneficial levels of exertion and allow people to gain insights into the relative contribution of the exercise from gameplay.
... It has been reported that personal trainers can be effective in emphasizing the importance of improving one's body image and engaging in a healthy level of physical activity; both of which can lead to the client´s expected bodily response and adaptation (Ratamess et al., 2008). Additionally, a personal trainer can exert great influence for instance, McClaran et al., (2003) demonstrated that the use of a personal trainer once per week improves adherence to and attitudes towards exercise. ...
... The current data show that among personal trainers, there is a tendency to place a great deal of emphasis on exercise and diet, leaving the use of anti-obesity drugs as a last resort. According to McClaran et al., (2003), this may facilitate the promotion of healthy lifestyles including physical activity and healthy nutrition. ...
Article
Physical activity, nutrition, and drug therapy are all important tools in this fight against premature illness and mortality in obesity population. Sometimes drug treatment for this epidemic is an often overlooked tool, although it may be an important option. The perception that personal trainers have about the effects of anti-obesity drugs may influence directly in the decision to use it in the obese population to lose weight. The objective of this article is to assess the perceptions of personal trainers regarding the use of obesity-fighting medications in addition to diet and exercise and compare with an American sample. A questionnaire based in a 7-point scale was administered to 31 experienced personal trainers in Spain who currently had obese clients (classified by OMS´values for BMI≥ 30 Kg/m 2). The results show 87% of the personal trainers who responded knew of at least one anti-obesity product, and only one third of them had customers undergoing drug treatment. The personal trainers perceived the importance of physical exercise as high (6.65), and they perceived the importance of drug treatment as comparatively low (3.13). They rated the importance of their own role in the battle against obesity as low (2.77), and believed that more education was required to better serve their obese clients (6.35). This data shows the need for greater training and education among personal trainers about weight loss strategies, anti-obesity medications, and physical exercise interventions. This situation needs to be addressed by private professional academies in their personal training courses.
... is means that current VR exergames do not o er a workout personalized for the user. is can limit their exercise outcomes [17]. Additionally, without tailored exercises, individuals risk overexertion, and signi cant health risks [11]. ...
... In our study, a er each game we asked the participants to take a break of at least 2 minutes, with a maximum of 10 minutes. During this time, participants lled out the Borg questionnaire [11,17] for perceived exertion, A3 in VRex. ey also answered the Presence questionnaire [29] as a measure of immersion, A2 in VRex. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) exergames have the potential to be a fun way to get exercise. People have different preferences and responses when it comes to both exercising an playing games, meaning that there are potential benefits from creating a user model for exergaming. This could support various forms of personalization, such as game recommenders, and personalization within a game. We define a VR exergame user model, VRex, that represents a user's exertion as well a their goals and preferences for exercise and for games We illustrate the use of VRex to represent 1 users who played 4 games, based on data about their actual and perceived exertion and their satisfaction with each game. This demonstrates the diversity of the user models, in terms of the user model's components. This is the first work to explore the design of user models for virtual reality exergames and has the potential to serve as a foundation for game personalization, recommenders and open model interfaces.
... Currently, VR games do not take into account the combination of physical characteristics and game preferences of individual players. Without tailored workouts for individual players, their exercise outcomes are limited (McClaran, 2003). There is also the potential for overexertion, which poses significant health risks such as musculoskeletal injury (Haskell et al., 2007). ...
... This work is important because while some VR games are effective in providing exertion, they do not currently take into account information about the user, such as their tness level or goals and preferences, which can limit their exercise outcomes (McClaran, 2003). Just this information would be used by a tness advisor who would create a workout plan. ...
Conference Paper
This thesis was inspired by the possibility that virtual reality (VR) games, which are designed primarily to be fun, could also provide exercise. It aimed to gain insights about this by exploring whether people can gain beneficial levels of exercise while playing VR games and how they might use VR games for exercise over several weeks. Furthermore, this work also focuses on how the level of physical activity that can be captured during gameplay and how a long-term user model can be created for individual players, as a foundation for supporting the user in gaining personal informatics insights about their exertion as well as being used for personalisation and external recommendation for VR games. The key contributions of this research are: • The first study of a diverse set of commercial VR games to gain insights about the level of actual and perceived exertion players have. • The first long-term study of VR games in a sedentary workplace to gain insights about the ways people utilise it and the levels of exertion they gain. • Based on reflections on the above studies, this thesis presents a framework and guidelines for designing physical activity VR games. • The systematic creation of a user model for representing a person’s long-term fitness and their VR gameplay, exertion and preferences. • A study of the ways that people can scrutinise their long-term personal informatics user model of exertion from VR game play and incidental walking. These contributions provide a foundation for future researchers and industry practitioners to design VR games that provide beneficial levels of exertion and allow people to gain insights into the relative contribution of the exercise from gameplay.
... O treinamento personalizado é um processo de aplicação e execução de testes e tarefas realizados de maneira sistemática e individualizados. Vários estudiosos e especialistas da área do fitness concordam quanto aos requisitos ideais para se atuar como PT (OLIVEIRA, 1999;BROOKS, 2000;MELHER, 2000;MONTEIRO, 2002;LUBISCO, 2005;ACSM, 2006) Pinheiro (2000) relata que tal programa deve ser permanente e com estímulos de motivação e determinação, promovendo o bem-estar físico e mental do aluno e sua utilização deve ser baseada em parâmetros morfológicos, biológicos e psicológicos, bem como no grau de condicionamento físico inicial e no objetivo do cliente. ...
... Uma das interpretações e/ou traduções para o termo fitness, é a palavra "aptidão". O ACSM (2000) define aptidão física como um conjunto de atributos que as pessoas possuem ou adquirem relacionados à capacidade de realizar uma atividade física. Acrescenta que a aptidão física, quase sempre é encarada como um constructo multifatorial que inclui vários componentes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo: O serviço de treinamento personalizado é utilizado por um grupo de pessoas que por diferentes objetivos e interesses buscam melhorias na saúde, performance dentre outros aspectos. Porém, o atendimento prestado pelo personal trainer (PT), através de um programa personalizado de atividade física (PPAF), pode apresentar limitações na sua execução quando não considera outras dimensões do Homem, além do aspecto biofísico. Para isso, o texto tem a preocupação em abordar concepções básicas referentes à prescrição de um PPAF e à natureza do Homem, tornando-se então possível apresentar uma filosofia de trabalho, que possa contribuir não só com a dimensão física como também a dimensão psicológica, moral e social que envolve a vida dos clientes que utilizam um PPAF. Tendo em vista que estes, ao procurarem os serviços de um PT, buscam também alternativas para suprir carências existenciais próprias e de diferentes naturezas. Palavras-chave: personal trainer; performance; treinamento personalizado; bem-estar; atividade física. The Personalized Training: the paradigmatic approach of the performance for the wellness Abstract: The service of personal training is used by a group of people that for different goals and interests in such a way looks for improvements in health, performance among other things. However, the attendance given by the personal trainer (PT), through a personalized program of physical activity (PPPA) may presents limitations in its implementation, if not consider other dimensions of the man, beyond the biophysical aspect. This review is concerned to address basic conceptions about the prescription of a PPPA and the nature of the Man, then become possible to present a philosophy of work that can contribute not only to the physical dimension but also the psychological dimension, moral and social life that involve client who use a PPPA. In order that the client through the services of a PT, also seek alternatives to supply shortages existential own and different natures.
... For his investigation, 129 clients joined a 10- week training program with a pre-evaluation and a post-evaluation of motivational willingness for exercise adoption with the assistance of a senior university personal trainer. The study confirms a positive relation between one-to-one personal training and the willingness for training (McClaran, 2001). Issues arouse when it comes to a personal trainer. ...
Conference Paper
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The trend of mobile activity monitoring using widely available technology is one of the most blooming concepts in the recent years. It supports many novel applications, such as fitness games or health monitoring. In these scenarios, activity recognition tries to distinguish between different types of activities. However, only little work has focused on qualitative recognition so far: How exactly is the activity carried out? In this paper, an approach for supervising activities, i.e. qualitative recognition, is proposed. The focus lied on push-ups as a proof of concept, for which sensor data of smartphones and smartwatches were collected. A user-dependent dataset with 4 participants and a user-independent dataset with 16 participants were created. The performance of Naive Bayes classifier was tested against normal, kernel and multivariate multinomial probability distributions. An accuracy of 90.5% was achieved on the user-dependent model, whereas the user-independent model scored with an accuracy of 80.3%.
... Many researchers have emphasized on exercise and RPA as a way to strengthen the immune system and to reduce the occurrence of non-communicable diseases (Warburton et al., 2006). With regards to maintain one 's health through RPA, it has been estimated that adults need to devote their time to moderate to severe physical activity for 150 minutes per week or 5 days a week for half an hour a day (McClaran, 2003;WHO, 2014). The World Health Organization (WHO) considers Physical Activity any kind of body movement by skeletal muscles involving energy expenditure like as walking, jogging , dancing, extra (WHO, Uploaded January 2015). ...
Article
p>Physical inactivity is a major health problem in developing countries. Regular Physical Activity (RPA) can reduce the risk of many diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity that are prevalent in middle and old ages specifically in women. The (RPA) status among middle-aged Iranian women is not well known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical activity status and related factors among middle-aged women in Hamadan, a city in western Iran. The participants of this cross-sectional study were comprised of 866 middle-aged women in Hamadan who were selected using a proportional stratified random sampling method in 2015. The participants completed a self-administered questionnaire containing demographic characteristics and an International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S).The data were analyzed with SPSS-16 software using Multi- nominal Logistic Regression. The results revealed that about 57% of the study population was inactive or not sufficiently active (light level). Additionally, the results showed that less than a quarter of the study participants (19.3%) exhibited a severe level of physical activity. The associations between RPA and age, education level and job were significant (P<0.05). The chi-square test revealed a significant difference in RPA with regards to residency locations (P<0.05). The demographic variables relationship with physical activity appears to be important and these findings can be a prelude to design of effective intervention strategies in promoting physical activity.</p
... Human-based training is popular and widely used today. This method produces results but at a cost [11]. Researchers stress on the importance and the usefulness of the Game-Based Training (GBT) and its impacts on employees [7]. ...
Conference Paper
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Extensive research has been carried out in using computer-based techniques to train and prepare workers for various industry positions. Most of this research focuses on how to best enable the workers to perform a type of task safely and efficiently. In fact, many of the accidents in manufacturing and construction environments are due to the lack of proper training needed for employees. In this study, we compare the impact of three types of training approaches on the planning and problem-solving abilities of a trainee while he/she performs the Towers of Hanoi (TOH) task. The three approaches are (a) traditional (with a human trainer), (b) gamification (game-based training simulation), and (c) computer-aided training. The aim of this study is to evaluate a worker’s level of functioning and problem-solving skills based on a specific training approach. Exact assessment of functional capacities is an important prerequisite to ensure effective and personalized training. The study uses workplace simulation to collect different types of performance data and assess the impact of these training approaches.
... 6 One-on-one personal training has also been found to be an effective way to increase the amount of physical activity of an individual by changing attitudes towards exercise. 7 Personal trainers typically either have a collegiate type degree and/or a certification. 5 Some certification programs are extremely rigorous and require course pre-requisites, while others just require paying a fee and taking an exam. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increasing emphasis on maintaining a healthy lifestyle has led many individuals to seek advice on exercise from personal trainers. There are few studies to date that evaluate personal trainer education, practice trends, and injuries they have seen while training clients. A survey was distributed to personal trainers using Survey Monkey® (Palo Alto, CA, USA) with 605 personal trainers accessing the survey. An exercise related bachelor’s degree was held by 64.2% of survey participants and a certification in personal training by 89.0%. The most common personal trainer certifications were from American College of Sports Medicine (59.2%) and National Strength and Conditioning Association (28.9%). Only 2.9% of all personal trainers surveyed had no exercise-related bachelor’s degree and no personal trainer certification. The most common injuries seen by personal trainers during sessions were lumbar muscle strain (10.7%), rotator cuff tear/tendonitis (8.9%), shin splints (8.1%), ankle sprain (7.5%), and cervical muscle strain (7.4%). There is variability in the practices between different personal trainers when analyzing differences in collegiate education, personal trainer certifications, and strength and conditioning certifications. The clinical implication of the differences in practices is unknown as to the impact on injuries or exercise prescription effectiveness.
... Studies have shown, for example, that the use of personal trainers is associated with improvements in strength during exercise interventions (Maloof, Zabik, & Dawson, 2001;Mazzetti et al., 2000), increased exercise intensity (Ratamess, Faigenbaum, Hoffman, & Kang, 2008), and better adherence to an exercise program overall (Jeffery, Wing, Thorson, & Burton, 1998). Moreover, research has also found that one-to-one personal training can be an effective approach to changing individuals' attitudes toward exercising, thereby potentially increasing their levels of physical activity (McClaran, 2003). In addition, a recent study found that the use of a personal trainer in a private health club setting led to significantly greater improvements in a variety of health-related measures (such as improvements in lean body mass) in comparison to fitness members who were responsible for directing their own training (Storer, Dolezal, Berenc, Timmins, & Cooper, 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Kinesiology researchers have long had an interest in physical activity, fitness, and health issues and in the professional education and work practices of teachers and coaches. The professional development needs and practices of “fitness professionals,” however, have not been a major concern for researchers in the field. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the evidence on fitness professionals, their role in physical activity for health agendas, and the professional education and training that is available to support them. The analysis indicates that there is a mismatch between the expectations placed upon fitness professionals and the training and professional education that is available to them. It is argued that pedagogy researchers in kinesiology could usefully turn their attentions to this occupational group.
... It is important to note that, subjects in the CG and PNG recieved the exercise notifications at the same frequency, so the differences in MET were not due to the subjects' awareness. Previous RCTs have shown that tailored training, or personal training, are superior to untailored trainging in promoting PA (35,36), potentially through changing the participants' attitudes in PA. In this case, the subjects in the PNG might feel more motivated when they read the tailored notifications, which led to promoted PA duration and intensity. ...
Article
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Background Overweight and obesity increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Personalized nutrition (PN) approaches may provide tailored nutritional advice/service by focusing on individual's unique characteristics to prevent against NCDs.Objective We aimed to compare the effect of PN intervention with the traditional “one size fits all” intervention on health status in overweight/obese Chinese adults.Methods In this 12-week randomized controlled trial, 400 adults with BMI ≥24 kg/m2 were randomized to control group (CG, n = 200) and PN group (PNG, n = 200). The CG received conventional health guidance according to the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese Residents and Chinese DRIs Handbook, whereas the PNG experienced PN intervention that was developed by using decision trees based on the subjects' anthropometric measurements, blood samples (phenotype), buccal cells (genotype), and dietary and physical activity (PA) assessments (baseline and updated).ResultsCompared with the conventional intervention, PN intervention significantly improved clinical outcomes of anthropometric (e.g., body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference) and blood biomarkers (e.g., blood lipids, uric acid, homocysteine). The improvement in clinical outcomes was achieved through behavior change in diet and PA. The subjects in the PNG had higher China dietary guidelines index values and PA levels. Personalized recommendations of “lose weight,” “increase fiber” and “take multivitamin/mineral supplements” were the major contributors to the decrease of BMI and improvement of lipid profile.Conclusion We provided the first evidence that PN intervention was more beneficial than conventional nutrition intervention to improve health status in overweight/obese Chinese adults. This study provides a model of framework for developing personalized advice in Chinese population.Chictr.org.cn (ChiCTR1900026226).
... Relacionando motivação a adesão, Balbinotti e Capazzoli (2008) sugerem que novas investigações devem ser realizadas, a fim de verificar a existência de diferenças estatísticas nos níveis de motivação à prática de atividade física, controlando as modalidades praticadas nos ambientes de academias e Klain (2010), propõem a realização de novos estudos a fim de verificar a existência de diferenças estatísticas nos níveis de motivação à prática de atividades físicas, controlando outras variáveis como, por exemplo, o tipo de modalidade tais como: programa de treinamento personalizado e programa de treinamento em academia convencional, pois pouco é conhecido acerca dos tipos específicos de programas que podem ter sucesso na promoção de mudanças de comportamento significativas a longo prazo (McClaran, 2003). Assim, busca-se poder melhor explicar os fenômenos relativos ao desenvolvimento humano. ...
Thesis
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This research addressed the motivation for physical activity in practitioners of academy and personal training and such, was divided into three studies. The sample was composed of 405 practitioners from academia (240 female, 165 male) aged between 18 and 81 years (M = 35, SD = 17) and 183 practitioners of personal training (142 female, 41 male) aged between 18 and 88 years (M = 43, SD = 16), Pelotas-RS, Brazil. Study 1 Aimed to analyze the reasons for physical activity and compare the motivational profile of practitioners taking into account gender, for this, we used the Portuguese version of the questionnaire Exercise Motivation Inventory. The main results revealed significant differences between the most prevalent reasons for physical activity, the type of activity (practitioners academy indicate reasons more related to pleasure, challenge, socialization, and practicing personal training more related with disease prevention) and by gender (female practitioners have more reasons related to health issues (physical and mental), and male fitness issues (competition and social recognition). Keywords: Reasons; Physical activity; Academy, Personal training; Motivation. Study 2 Aimed to verify the validity of the relationships hypothesized by the Theory of Goal Achievement in predicting adherence to physical activity. For evaluation of the motivational climate and achievement goals, appealed to the Portuguese versions of Goal Orientation in Exercise Measure and Perceived Motivational Climate in Exercise Questionnaire. The primary findings revealed that task orientation is higher in both genders and groups of practitioners. Moreover, all the variables underlying the theory of achievement goals positively correlate significantly, especially among the climate for mastery and task orientation and climate between performance and ego orientation. Finally, the hypothesized structural equation model shows that the climate for mastery and performance has a direct impact on task orientation and ego respectively, and these in their turn have a significant effect on the adhesion activity physics. Keywords: Goal achievement; Motivational climate; Motivation; Adherence. Study 3 Aimed to ascertain the validity of the relationships hypothesized by the Theory of selfdetermination in predicting adherence to physical activity. To the assessment support of autonomy, satisfaction of basic needs and the type of motivational regulation, appealed to the Portuguese versions of the questionnaires Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale and Behavioural regulation in exercise questionnaire 2. The main earnings revealed that the practitioners of personal training have more self-determined forms of regulation and more adherence to physical activity. It was tested a structural equation model which demonstrates that the support of autonomy promoted by the physical educator will promote the satisfaction of basic psychological needs, which will have a positive impact on the regulation of autonomy, which will ultimately have a positive impact on adherence to physical activity. Keywords: Motivational regulation; Support of autonomy; Basic psychological needs; Adherence; Academy, Personal training.
... There are various documented limitations in the traditional methods that might render training an unpleasant or inaccessible choice for a number of individuals. Although studies have shown that personal training has a significant effect on motivating the individuals to keep exercising [11], it comes at a considerable cost. Moreover, group training has been documented to cause anxiety and embarrassment to certain individuals due to their perceived lack of skills or exposure of body [5], [8] to other members of their group. ...
Article
Current training techniques, using human trainers or pre-recorded video and audio training routines have a number of limitations, both practical (e.g., expensive personal train-ing, limited feedback with video) and psychological (e.g., reluctance of trainees to perform in front of a group). In an effort to address these limitations, we propose, in our current work, a new approach that utilizes haptics as an additional form of feedback. We developed a prototype, using bending sensors and actuators that we fixed on clothing and which were worn by the users. A computer program used to record and control the prototype and an Arduino platform was re-sponsible for the communication between the computer and the sensors/actuators. We evaluated the performance of 10 participants in two types of exercises; static and dynamic. Our preliminary results as well as the reaction of partici-pants to the prototype are promising, indicating that the haptic feedback was helpful in performing the exercises and created a pleasurable experience while using the prototype. This work provides the basis for further investigation of this approach which the authors believe that can address effec-tively many of the limitations of training in the absence of human trainers.
... Los resultados sugieren también un alto tiempo de permanencia (TP) en este tipo de servicio, ya que el 88.6% de las mujeres han participado durante más de seis meses, y además la tasa de asistencia a las sesiones programadas (PA) señaló que el 98.6% asistieron a más del 71% de las sesiones programadas. Por tanto, parece que un servicio de entrenamiento personal es capaz de generar buenos TP y PA en mujeres, y que podrían ser mucho mayores que los obtenidos a través de la supervisión estándar o mínima, lo que estaría en consonancia conWing, Jeffery, Pronk, y Hellerstedt (1996) cuando señalan que el grupo de mujeres con sobrepeso asignado a un entrenador personal mostró mayor adhesión al programa de pérdida de peso que el grupo de control; con Jeffery, Wing, Thorson, y Burton (1998) al reportar que la combinación de estrategias de entrenamiento personal, junto con otros incentivos, condujo a una mayor adherencia a la práctica; y conMcClaran (2003) al indicar que el entrenamiento personal parece ser una manera eficaz de cambiar las actitudes sedentarias y mejorar la adherencia al ejercicio regular.En este sentido, la propia figura del entrenador personal parece ser relevante, Wise y col.(2004) apuntan a la necesidad de que estos profesionales se aseguren de que las mujeres clientes sean conscientes de su cualificación profesional, que proporcionen feedback específicos durante la ejecución del entrenamiento y que hagan hincapié en la capacidad de la Serrano-Gómez, V.; García-García, O.; Hernández-Mendo, A.;Morales-Sánchez, V. (2012). La gestión del servicio de entrenamiento personal ¿cuáles son los motivos y objetivos de las mujeres que lo contratan? ...
Article
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The aim is to determine the reasons, primary and secondary objectives of women who request the services of a personal trainer, and check the reliability and generalizability of the data structure. 70 women aged between 24 and 68 years participated. It was used an ad hoc questionnaire with open questions. After two years, it was taken the data of the time that the users had remained continuously linked to the personal training program, and also the percentage of attendance at scheduled training sessions. It was carried out an association analysis using the Chi-square, the contingency coefficient and the Spearman´s correlation (p <.001), a variance component analysis (p <.001) and a generalizability analysis. The results indicate that the most requested primary objective was the weight loss by reduction of the body fat percentage, the secondary objective was to improve muscle stiffness, and the primary reason was to get the results, however, these variables are associated with the user's age (p <.001). The data structure obtained with this sample shows excellent levels of reliability (e 2= 1.00) and generalizability (Φ = 1.00). In conclusion, the knowledge of the reasons and objectives of the users could be useful for the manager of sports centers, when manage the service to provide a quality service, with which to achieve the satisfaction and loyalty of the user.
... In the literature there is little coverage of the results of the work of a personal trainer. For example, some researchers [1,18,19] recommend training with a trainer to familiarize themselves with exercise equipment, some exercise techniques, the basics of sports nutrition, etc. Others [5,6,16] refer to the differentiation of the load for women by somatic type, but do not take into account the other individual characteristics of the clients of the fitness club. ...
... Those that work with a trainer can expect on average to lose one to two pounds a week and see noticeable results within the first three to six weeks (Arroyo, 2017). McClaran (2003) found that a personal trainer significantly increased clients' physical activity and 60% of study participants were successful. ...
Article
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It was determined that medication provided the most value reducing the prevalence of smoking, alcoholism, and obesity, while exercise provided the most value treating depression. Value was determined by dividing treatment cost with success rate. Medication provided the most value reducing the prevalence of alcoholism followed by Alcoholics Anonymous, outpatient drug free treatment, detoxing, residential treatment and inpatient treatment. Medication provided the most value reducing the prevalence of smoking followed by hypnotherapy, nicotine gum, nicotine patch, Chantix, nasal spray and nicotine inhaler. Acupuncture, lozenges, strips, sticks and laser therapy were not effective smoking cessation treatment options. Medication provided the most value in weight loss followed by liposuction, personal trainer and lap band. Exercise and meditation provided the most value reducing the prevalence of depression followed by medication, support groups and psychotherapy.
... Bu teori psikolojinin birçok alanına uyarlanmıtır. Sosyal yetkinlik beklentisi Spor Psikolojisinde sporun çok önemli bir yeri olan performansla ilikili olarak kendine güven gibi aratırma konularıyla da ele alınmıtır (Gill, 1986;Claran, 2003). ...
Article
The purpose of this research is to compare the social self-efficacy results, according to many variables, among the groups that consist of students between the ages of 9 to 13 who do individual sports, team sports or don't do any sports at all in Bursa. 143 students that go to sports schools of different sports clubs and 82 students that don't do any sports in the age group of 9-13 volunteered to this research. Number of students doing individual sports (athletics, badminton, table-tennis) are 72 and the number of students that do team sports (basketball, volleyball) are 71. Data collection was performed by using the personal information form designed by the researchers and Social Self-Efficacy Expectation Inventory for the age group of 9-13 designed by Bilgin (1997). The collected data were analyzed by the SPSS "13.0" statistical analysis software. In conclusion, in our study, the Social Self-Efficacy Expectation results of subjects that do team sports and don't do any sports were found to be significantly different and among the group that do team sports, the Social Self-Efficacy Expectation results of the females were found to be higher than the results of the males. Also as a strong negative relationship was determined between age and Social Self-Efficacy Expectation results of the subjects that don't do sports, a strong positive relationship was determined between the training age and Social Self-Efficacy Expectation SUMMARY
... 266 prompt recall and experience to bias their answers, rather than the described scenario. McClaran (27) describes the stages of motivational readiness for exercise as being which could be considered as potential questioning in future research. A further limitation might be that the modified questionnaire has not been validated with personal trainers and prospective fitness clients. ...
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Previous research has considered the perceptions of athletes towards gender of coach and strength and conditioning coach. However, to date there appears little research considering the perceptions of clients towards gender of personal trainer. The purpose of this study was to investigate male and females perceptions of same-or opposite-gender personal trainers. Four hundred and two (male = 201, female = 201) undergraduate University student participants completed an adapted version of the Attitudes of Athletes toward Male versus Female Coaches Questionnaire (AAMFC-Q; 23). A 2 x 2 multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) revealed that neither males nor females showed any preference for gender of hypothetical personal trainer (p > 0.05) although both males and females reported that a personal trainer of the opposite gender might make it harder to concentrate (p < 0.05). Previous research has reported a preference for male coaches/strength and conditioning coaches from both male and female athletes. However, this study suggests that there is no such gender bias towards personal trainers in this population.
... As these trends continue, so does the need for professional fitness instructors. Fitness instructors, a combined term for personal trainers and group fitness instructors, provide much needed expertise and motivation for those looking to make healthy physical activity habits (Markula & Chikinda, 2016;McClaran, 2003). According to the National Bureau of Labor Statistics, over 30,000 fitness instructor jobs will be created over the next 5-10 years, an increase of roughly 10% (2016). ...
Article
Purpose: Burnout is associated with poor health. Researchers have investigated various coping strategies, including the beneficial effects of exercise, on burnout. However, exercise as part of occupational demands may lead to burnout in fitness instructors. There is a lack of understanding regarding burnout and associated coping strategies among fitness instructors. Design: Fitness instructors (n = 297) were recruited from national fitness conferences to complete an online survey including job characteristics, burnout, and coping strategies. Regression analysis examined associations between burnout, coping strategies, and job characteristics. Three group interviews (n = 12) were conducted to further examine these associations. Findings: Personal burnout and problem-focused engagement coping strategies were most prevalent. Engagement coping was associated with lower burnout; disengagement was associated with higher burnout according to regression models. Three themes emerged from group interviews: a misunderstanding of what the profession entails, importance of co-worker support, and a feeling of giving more than receiving in their job. Practical Implications: Fitness managers and certification providers would do well to add these coping strategies to their education plans to help equip future instructors with the tools to reduce burnout. Research Contribution: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on burnout and coping strategies within fitness instructors.
... Nevertheless, an important component for the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving HRQoL, is the provision of supervised training [14,15]. In fact, supervised training can provide social support [19] and motivation for health improvements [20]. However, given that people with mobility disability consider lack of financial resources as a barrier for physical activity [9], supervised training might be an unsustainable option for them. ...
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Background Young adults with mobility disability report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than their able-bodied peers. This study aims to examine potential differences between the effects of mobile app versus supervised training and the association of cardiorespiratory fitness change with HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability. Methods This is a secondary analysis of a parallel randomized controlled trial of a mobile app (n = 55) and a supervised health program (n = 55) that was provided for 12 weeks to 110 adults (18–45 years) with self-perceived mobility disability. Recruitment took place at rehabilitation centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated from the results of a submaximal cycle ergometer test and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Follow up was at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1-year and all examinations were performed by blinded investigators. Between group differences of changes in HRQoL at follow up were estimated in intention-to-treat analysis using linear regression models. Crude and adjusted mixed-effects models estimated the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL. Stratified analysis by intervention group was also performed. Results In total, 40/55 from the mobile app group and 49/55 from the supervised training group were included in the intention to treat analysis. No significant differences were observed between the effects of the two interventions on HRQoL. In both crude and adjusted models, cardiorespiratory fitness change was associated with the general health (adjusted β = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.13) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.25) domains of SF-36. After stratification, the associations with general health (adjusted β = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.90) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.18, 2.57) were present only in the supervised group. Conclusion This study found positive associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability who received supervised training. The effects of mobile app versus supervised training on HRQoL remain unclear. Trial registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry ISRCTN22387524; Prospectively registered on February 4th, 2018.
... Nevertheless, an important component for the effectiveness of physical activity interventions in improving HRQoL, is the provision of supervised training [14,15]. In fact, supervised training can provide social support [19] and motivation for health improvements [20]. However, given that people with mobility disability consider lack of financial resources as a barrier for physical activity [9], supervised training might be an unsustainable option for them. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Young adults with mobility disability report lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) than their able-bodied peers. This study aims to examine potential differences between the effects of mobile app versus supervised training and the association of cardiorespiratory fitness change with HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a parallel randomized controlled trial of a mobile app (n = 55) and a supervised health program (n = 55) that was provided for 12 weeks to 110 adults (18-45 years) with self-perceived mobility disability. Recruitment took place at rehabilitation centers in Stockholm, Sweden. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated from the results of a submaximal cycle ergometer test and HRQoL was assessed with the SF-36 questionnaire. Follow up was at 6 weeks, 12 weeks, and 1-year and all examinations were performed by blinded investigators. Between group differences of changes in HRQoL at follow up were estimated in intention-to-treat analysis using linear regression models. Crude and adjusted mixed-effects models estimated the associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL. Stratified analysis by intervention group was also performed. Results: In total, 40/55 from the mobile app group and 49/55 from the supervised training group were included in the intention to treat analysis. No significant differences were observed between the effects of the two interventions on HRQoL. In both crude and adjusted models, cardiorespiratory fitness change was associated with the general health (adjusted β = 1.30, 95% CI: 0.48, 2.13) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.11, 2.25) domains of SF-36. After stratification, the associations with general health (adjusted β = 1.88, 95% CI: 0.87, 2.90) and emotional role functioning (adjusted β = 1.37, 95% CI: 0.18, 2.57) were present only in the supervised group. Conclusion: This study found positive associations between cardiorespiratory fitness change and HRQoL in young adults with mobility disability who received supervised training. The effects of mobile app versus supervised training on HRQoL remain unclear. Trial registration: International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN) registry ISRCTN22387524 ; Prospectively registered on February 4th, 2018.
... The presence of feedback intensifies the players' heart rate, thus also affects the effort they put in the exercises (Rampinini et al., 2007). McLaran (2003) suggests that the presence of a personal trainer changes sports habits and attitudes, increasing the amount of physical activity. The instructions the coaches provided in every activity were always positive, encouraging the players to put all their effort regardless of their mistakes. ...
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The aim of this study was to determine and learn the heart rate responses of basketball players in small-sided or modified games, in order to develop a more effective workout plan in the future. The study sample consisted of 19 basketball players from a National Championship Club, 12 of them in the U’14 category and the remaining 7 belonging to the U’16 category. Small-sided games were 3x3 and 4x4 with a duration of 4 minutes and an active break of 3 minutes. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found referring to the relations established between 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in vigorous exercise; in 3x3 without feedback and 3x3 with feedback in moderate exercise; in 3x3 and 3x3 with average heart rate; in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate and in 4x4 and 4x4 with average heart rate related to game categories.
... Other authors have also shown higher exercise frequency in clients of personal trainers, compared with those exercising individually (Rustaden et al., 2017, Jeffery et al., 1998. A personal trainer may positively influence their clients` exercise motivation and stimulate them to exercise more, due to implementation of behavior change techniques (McClaran, 2003). Having conversations about the client`s goals and emphasis process (such as completing three exercise sessions a week) instead of outcome goals (such as weight loss), may foster the clients` behaviour change over time (Brown, 2011). ...
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No prospective studies have investigated if repeated testing of physical performance and body composition are associated with exercise attendance or patterns in fitness club members. This study aimed to investigate if repeated physical testing was associated with exercise attendance and patterns in gym members and to report prospective data on use of the fitness club`s facilities and products. Untrained new members were recruited and divided into a test group (n = 125) and as controls (n = 125). All participants answered a survey including exercise involvement, at onset, and after 3, 6, and 12 months follow-up. The test group also measured body composition, maximal oxygen uptake, and maximal muscle strength (onset, and after 3 and 12 months). In total 73.6% answered all surveys, and in the test group, 44.8% completed all physical tests. Regular exercise attendance was defined as ≥2 ses-sions/week. Repeated testing showed no association with long-term regular exercise attendance (test group: 19.6%, controls: 19.8%; p = 0.638). At 3 months, a lower proportion in the test group reported engagement in resistance exercise (35.3% and 60.2%; p = 0.003) and had lower exercise frequency (2.0 and 2.6 days/week; p = 0.008) than controls. The test group had higher participation in group exercise classes (28.0% and 13.6%; p = 0.040). Exercise frequency decreased from onset to 12 months (from 2.6 to 2.2 days/week; p = 0.025) At 3, 6, and 12 months, 51.8%, 37.6%, and 37.4% reported regular exercise attendance, and 16.9% at all follow-ups. At all time-points, most common workout mode was individual resistance exercise (43.8% to 46.3%). Few attended group exercise classes (7.5% to 13.8%) or used a personal trainer (22.5% to 27.5%). Repeated physical testing did not improve exercise attendance, and we found no changes in members` use of the fitness club`s facilities and products. Only 16.9% reported regular exercise attendance throughout the first year of membership.
... The personalized nature of this kind of training may provide psychological reinforcement around motivation and goal attainment 18 and has been shown to positively change attitudes toward exercise and increase physical activity. 19 While PTs are professionally trained in health and fitness across a spectrum of physical conditions, their knowledge of rare diseases such as hemophilia would be minimal. ...
Article
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Introduction Many young men with hemophilia engage in physical activity and sport but face challenges to participation because of their hemophilia. Project GYM aimed to investigate the feasibility of a hemophilia-specific fitness program led by a personal trainer (PT) and its impact on gym activity, motivation, and adherence to exercise. Methods This was a nonblinded, randomized feasibility study, recruiting participants aged 18 to 25 years with hemophilia A or B (all severities, ± inhibitor) from three London hemophilia centers. All participants were given an activity tracker and free gym membership. Participants were randomized to a “gym only” or “gym and PT” arm. Participants completed questionnaires evaluating motivation to exercise, quality of life, physical activity levels, self-efficacy, and self-esteem at study start and study end. Results Of 142 eligible individuals, 19 agreed to participate. Participants were healthy, with mean body mass index and adiposity slightly lower than the UK average. They reported low bleed numbers and had good joint health (median Hemophilia Joint Health Score [HJHS], 0; range, 0-13). The gym and PT group had more gym attendance than the gym-only group. Seven participants increased their activity levels and nine stayed the same, with no statistical difference between groups. HJHS scores improved in 3 participants and were unchanged in 12. There was no bleeding associated with gym activity. Conclusion Project GYM has demonstrated the safety and feasibility of a tailored physical training program in young men with hemophilia. Increased gym attendance, with and without support from a PT, is associated with increased physical activity.
... Although the training program for bodybuilders must be systematized to avoid a plateau, maintain progressive overload, and manage the stress imposed on training sessions by avoiding overtraining and overreaching, it is known that many bodybuilders do not follow these recommendations (Alves et al., 2020). The support of a professional in the field contributes to supervising the quality of training and handling the many determining variables (series, repetitions, rest interval between sets and training sessions, choice of exercises, weekly frequency, load adjustment and others) for better results and lower risk of injury (; Pina et al., 2014;Gentil and Bottaro, 2010;ACSM, 2009;McClaran, 2003;Cyrino et al., 2002). ...
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Preparation in bodybuilding involves high-intensity workouts and drastic feeding strategies. Little is known about health risks. Athletes (n=510, 59.8% male) were evaluated about health aspects, anthropometry, and blood pressure (BP). Chronic diseases were reported by 6,6%, but 88.9% of them did not treat; 1.9% reported hypertension, with 15.7% having high BP; and 52.5% reported the use of prohibited drugs in the last 6 months. Body mass index was 26.2±2.5 for man and 22.3±2.2 Kg/m2 for woman. Men had lower monitoring than women by physical education professionals, nutritionists, and physicians (p<0.01). Athletes are exposed to health risks factors such as lack of knowledge about diseases, high use of prohibited substances and less monitoring by professionals among men.
... The results showed significant differences between the groups that are important for the physically active population that participate in the world of DC and can be used to help improving training activity: indeed, a one-to-one personal workout is an effective method for changing attitudes and thereby increasing the amount of physical activity [30]. ...
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The study aimed to explore the sensitivity and specificity of a new methodological approach related to the musical rhythm for discriminating a competitive Cuban dancer's (CDCs) level. Thirty CDCs (Age 23.87 ± 1.76 years, body mass 60.33 ± 9.45 kg, stature 1.68 ± 0.07 m) were divided into three groups: beginner (BEG, n = 10), intermediate (INT, n = 10), and advanced (ADV, n = 10) according to their training experience/level. Each dancer was assessed while dancing at three different musical rhythms: fast (118 BPM), medium (96 BPM), and slow (82 BPM). The assessed variables were average heart rate (HRM), peak (HRP), and dancing time (DCT). The ADV group succeeded at all three musical combinations (317, 302, 309 s for 82, 96, 118 BPM). The INT group correctly performed only the first two combinations (304, 304 s for 82, 96 BPM), while a significant time difference was shown at the fast musical rhythm (198 ± 6.64 s) compared to the medium (p < 0.001) and slow rhythms (p < 0.001) respectively. As the speed of the musical rhythms increased, the BEG group was not able to follow the rhythm: their results were 300 ± 1.25 s for the slow musical rhythm, 94.90 ± 12.80 s for the medium musical rhythm and 34.10 ± 5.17 s for the fast musical rhythm (p < 0.001). The HRM and HRP grew along with the increase in musical rhythm for all groups (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed a high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating the groups for each rhythm's condition. The BEG and INT groups showed an AUC = 0.864 (95% CI = 0.864-0.954); INT and ADV showed an AUC = 0.864 (95% CI = 0.864-0.952); BEG and ADV showed an AUC = 0.998 (95% CI = 0.993-1.000). The results of this study provided evidence to support the construct and ecological validity of the time of the musical rhythms related to competitive CDCs. Furthermore, the differences in the performances according to various musical rhythms, fast (118 BPM), medium (96 BPM), and slow (82 BPM), succeeded in discriminating a dancer's level. Coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should include the Cuban Dance Field Test (CDFT) in their test battery when dealing with talent detection, selection, and development.
... Previous research has revealed that one-to-one support can contribute to regular fitness center use [25]. In addition, help and instructions given by fitness trainers have been described positively by long-term members in a qualitative study and said to increase their understanding of using the fitness center as a means for physical activity [13]. ...
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Background Knowledge on the relationship between fitness center use and long-term members’ subsequent goal achievement is limited. Therefore, the aim was to investigate the prospective association between the use of fitness centers during 18 months and subsequent self-reported goal achievement among long-term members. Methods This was a registry- and survey-based longitudinal study of 2851 people who had been members at a Norwegian fitness center chain for more than two years. Fitness center use from December 2016 to June 2018 was obtained from registry data. Subsequent goal achievement was measured in a survey in June 2018, assessed by a 1–100 visual analogue scale, and a score between 0 and 50 was defined as low goal achievement. Results Visiting the fitness center frequently and regularly, and having frequent group activity bookings were associated with higher subsequent self-reported goal achievement. Participants with fewest visits (1–57 days) during 18 months were more likely to report low goal achievement than participants with most visits (118–543 days) (OR = 8.5; 95% CI 6.3–11.4). Fitness trainer bookings was not clearly associated with subsequent goal achievement. Conclusions Frequent and regular long-term fitness center use were associated with higher subsequent self-reported goal achievement.
... Los resultados sugieren también un alto tiempo de permanencia (TP) en este tipo de servicio, ya que el 88.6% de las mujeres han participado durante más de seis meses, y además la tasa de asistencia a las sesiones programadas (PA) señaló que el 98.6% asistieron a más del 71% de las sesiones programadas. Por tanto, parece que un servicio de entrenamiento personal es capaz de generar buenos TP y PA en mujeres, y que podrían ser mucho mayores que los obtenidos a través de la supervisión estándar o mínima, lo que estaría en consonancia conWing, Jeffery, Pronk, y Hellerstedt (1996) cuando señalan que el grupo de mujeres con sobrepeso asignado a un entrenador personal mostró mayor adhesión al programa de pérdida de peso que el grupo de control; con Jeffery, Wing, Thorson, y Burton (1998) al reportar que la combinación de estrategias de entrenamiento personal, junto con otros incentivos, condujo a una mayor adherencia a la práctica; y conMcClaran (2003) al indicar que el entrenamiento personal parece ser una manera eficaz de cambiar las actitudes sedentarias y mejorar la adherencia al ejercicio regular.En este sentido, la propia figura del entrenador personal parece ser relevante, Wise y col.(2004) apuntan a la necesidad de que estos profesionales se aseguren de que las mujeres clientes sean conscientes de su cualificación profesional, que proporcionen feedback específicos durante la ejecución del entrenamiento y que hagan hincapié en la capacidad de la Serrano-Gómez, V.; García-García, O.; Hernández-Mendo, A.;Morales-Sánchez, V. (2012). La gestión del servicio de entrenamiento personal ¿cuáles son los motivos y objetivos de las mujeres que lo contratan? ...
Article
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El objetivo es determinar los motivos, objetivos principales y secundarios de las mujeres que solicitan el servicio de un entrenador personal, y comprobar la fiabilidad y generalizabilidad de la estructura de datos. Participaron 70 mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 24 y los 68 años. Se utilizó un cuestionario ad hoc con preguntas abiertas. Al cabo de dos años se tomaron los datos del tiempo que las practicantes habían permanecido de forma continua vinculadas al programa de entrenamiento personal, y también el porcentaje de asistencia a las sesiones de entrenamiento programadas. Se realizo un análisis de asociación usando el Chi-cuadrado, el coeficiente de contingencia y la correlación de Spearman (p
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This study was conducted to compare different variables of social self-efficacy (SSE) as determinants for adolescents in selecting and taking part in team and individual sports. Four sporting codes were selected for study: table tennis, swimming, handball, and basketball. Participants were 100 adolescents who had played their chosen sport for an average of 5.4 years. Results showed that the difference in SSE between those playing table tennis and those playing handball was significant, as was the difference between those playing table tennis and those playing basketball, swimming and handball, swimming and basketball. No statistical difference was found in SSE between those playing table tennis and those involved in swimming, and handball and basketball. Likewise, there was no statistically significant difference between SSE scores according to gender for any of the sports. Nor was there any significant difference between the socioeconomic status (SES) of the participants according to the sport they played and the arithmetic average of their SSE scores. A negative correlation was noted (p > .05) between the sporting code and the SES of participants.
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Lack of physical activity has contributed to the nation's childhood obesity crisis, but the impact of physical activity on self-efficacy as a mediator of behavior change has not been examined. This systematic review (SR) describes the published evidence related to the impact of physical activity intervention programs on self-efficacy among youths. From January 2000 to June 2011, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) standards were used to identify publications from PubMed, PsychInfo, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochran Database of Systematic Reviews. The Cochrane Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome, Study Design (PICOS) approach guided this SR articles selection and evaluation process. Of the 102 publications screened, 10 original studies matched the SR inclusion criteria. The types of physical activity interventions and self-efficacy assessments for these 10 studies were diverse. Of the 10 included articles, 6 articles identified an improvement in post-self-efficacy assessments compared to baseline and 4 showed no effect. In conclusion, physical activity intervention programs may improve self-efficacy in youths. A standardized approach to classify and measure self-efficacy is required. Further research is needed to quantify the association of self-efficacy ratings after completing physical activity interventions with objective health improvements, such as weight loss.
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The increased need in promoting fitness activity and rapid growth of smart-phones has urged the development of mobile virtual fitness apps (MVFA). Yet, evaluation on these MVFA has been limited and, therefore, this study attempts to conduct preliminary evaluation on randomly sampled MVFA based on our proposed system workflow using theories of social support and persuasive technology, and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines for exercise professionals. Results indicated the sampled MVFA mainly covered the stages 2 and 3 of our proposed ACSM-based training workflow. In terms of social support and persuasiveness of MVFA, the average scores of these two aspects were relatively low, thus resulting in a generally low average quality of coverage scores. Therefore, MVFA cannot replace human fitness trainers, but serve as assistant to trainers and trainees. Explanations and implications to trainers, trainees and MVFA developers are presented.
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This study aimed to analyze the determinants (demographic indicators / health perception, socioeconomic and motivational) of adherence and dropout from personal training programs. The convenience sample was comprised for adults of both genders, coming from health clubs of the Pelotas-Brazil city, that offering personalized training programs, and include 100 practitioners and 42 dropouts. It was measured the variables gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, self-rated health, marital status, and socioeconomic status. To assess the motivation, we used the Inventory Motivation to Regular Physical Activity, having noticed that the majority of practitioners and dropouts of the personalized training were young women of high socioeconomic status. The dimensions considered most motivating to practice of personalized training were: "Stress Control", "Health", "Aesthetics" and "Pleasure". On the other hand, the most prevalent reasons for dropout were the "Lack of Time" and the "Lack of Motivation" for the practice.
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This study aimed to analyze the determinants (demographic indicators / health perception, socioeconomic and motivational) of adherence and dropout from personal training programs. The convenience sample was comprised for adults of both genders, coming from health clubs of the Pelotas-Brazil city, that offering personalized training programs, and include 100 practitioners and 42 dropouts. It was measured the variables gender, age, ethnicity, body mass index, smoking, self-rated health, marital status, and socioeconomic status. To assess the motivation, we used the Inventory Motivation to Regular Physical Activity, having noticed that the majority of practitioners and dropouts of the personalized training were young women of high socioeconomic status. The dimensions considered most motivating to practice of personalized training were: "Stress Control", "Health", "Aesthetics" and "Pleasure". On the other hand, the most prevalent reasons for dropout were the "Lack of Time" and the "Lack of Motivation" for the practice.
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Girls and women receive constant messages from their social (including fitness) environment that a thin physique is very attractive. Given increasing public health concerns regarding low rates of physical activity and prevalence of unhealthy eating and exercising habits, research is needed to better understand the psychosocial factors which influence exercise participation or resistance to exercise. The aim of the study was to reveal how exercising women feel and behave in fitness clubs environment. The research has suggested that women are negatively impacted by the constant pressure of cultural messages that imply that the female body is a public domain for all evaluate and to “consume”. Many women were dissatisfied with body weight and chose leisure physical activity for the weight reduction and figure improvement reasons. The obligatory exercising is featured by the women in fitness clubs. A large part of participants exercise despite illness or injury for fear to miss training session. More than half of women dramatically worried about their figures and even feared of other people opinions about it. These emotional state and behavior can lead to unpleasant experiences during exercise in fitness environment and decrease the adherence rates. Understanding the factors which foster negative emotions and unhealthy behaviours of women exercising in fitness centres is important for health educators and exercise professionals.
Thesis
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The purpose of this study was to verify the determinants (demographic, behavioral, of health, socioeconomic, and motivational) of adherence, motivation and giving up training personalized program. The sample was formed by 142 subjects; one hundred (n=100) practitioners (mean age, M = 39, 65, SD = 14, 42) and forty two (n=42) giving up (mean age, M = 36,095, SD = 14, 27), from Pelotas/RS, Brazil. Was created a questionnaire to assess the variables, sex, age, kin color, body mass index, smoking, self health perception and marital status was created. To assess the economic level, was used the ABEP (Associação Brasileira de Empresas de Pesquisas). To assess the motivation was used The Inventory of Motivation to Regular Practice of Physical Activity (IMPRAF-126), created by Balbinotti, (2004). The answers are given according to a 5 points Likert scale. A high score indicates a high level of motivation to a regular practice of physical activity in each one of the dimensions or in the completed scale. The statistics procedures used were Chi-Square Test (X²) and the Fischer exact test and the significant level adopted was p<0,05. The main results showed were that practitioners and giving up of training personalized are mostly women, of A and B economic levels and younger and the dimensions considered as motivators to practice of physical activities in personalized programs were stress control, health, aesthetics and pleasure and the reasons to give up are because they don’t have time and motivation. New studies should be conduced with a large sample of the practitioners, to create model of orientation and of education to the regular practice of physical activity which are suitable to the profile and the motivational factors of the studied groups.
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This article compares the post-activity perceptions of both the volunteer clients and student service providers in a community-based service learning project. Students served as either personal trainers or nutrition coaches for recruited clients during the final month of their respective classes. The clients were asked to rank different factors based on their relative impact on their motivation to adhere to their programs. The students were asked to rank the same factors based on how they thought their clients were impacted. Mann-Whitney U tests were run to determine if there were statistically significant differences (0.05 level) in the perceptions of students and clients regarding the relative impact of the factors. While the tests revealed no significant differences between the rankings of nutrition coaches and clients, personal trainers and clients differed significantly in the way they ranked certain factors. Implications for undergraduate professional preparation and/or certification of fitness professionals are discussed.
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Despite the known benefits of physical activity, there is a worldwide trend towards less total daily physical activity, and as a consequence, physical inactivity has become a leading risk factor for chronic health disorders. The health and fitness sector is expanding very fast, although its overall impact is only addressing the needs of about 11% of the European population. Exercise professionals should play a more proactive role model supporting thousands of inactive potential clients. Providing solid evidence-based information about the benefits of active living could act as a valuable driver for positive behavioral change. The education and professional development of exercise professionals are missing a solid training in basic research and evaluation skills. These new skills, integrated into the formal training and practice of exercise professionals, will allow the whole Physical Activity sector, and specially the health and fitness industry, to develop new knowledge, transform current professional practice, inform public policy and expand the innovation capacity of our field.
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Objective. Recently, there has been a growing turnout of many to work as personal trainers because of many psychological and social benefits as well as increased income. In Egypt, the field of physical fitness is witnessing a remarkable development in recent times and has increased the turnout of many on the personal training profession. The aim of the research is to identify the characteristics of the trainers in Egypt and the reasons for their desire to practice personal training and whether they have a license to work and what are the scientific qualifications and certificates obtained by these trainers. Methods.The researcher designed an electronic form using Google Form was send to 220 and filled with 133 personal trainers 65.41% males and 34.59% females and the largest proportion of trainers 55.64% aged 20 to 25 years. Results. Results shows that 57.14% of the research sample working without license and 9.77% of the trainers do not have any certificates, while 49.62% have local certificates and 40.60% have international certificates, 36.84% of the personal trainers were graduates of faculties of Sports Education, helping people to achieve their goals is the most motivating reason for coaches to work in that profession. Conclusion. One of the most important conclusions is the need to establish a supervisory system in Egypt for personal trainers to ensure that they have the necessary qualifications to work.
Article
Objectives Using Theory of Planned Behavior, the objective of this study was to determine how attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control related to intent to strength training by college-aged women. Participants: Participants were college-aged females (N = 162) from a mid-sized private university in the Midwestern United States who were divided into three groups: non-exercisers, cardiovascular-only exercisers, and strength or strength and cardiovascular exercisers. Methods: Participants completed a questionnaire assessing attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavior control in relation to strength training behavior. MANOVA was utilized to examine the differences between groups. Results: The MANOVA was significant at p < .01. Post hoc analysis indicated strength training participation was significantly higher for non-exercisers and cardiovascular-only exercisers for the attitude and perceived behavior control constructs (p<.05) but not for subjective norm. Conclusions: Perceived behavior control and direct attitude factors may be strong contributors to college-aged women's participation in strength training.
Article
Background: This study examined the effect of a personal trainer's sex on self-efficacy and fitness in woman clients. Methods: Women (n: 28; mean ± SD; age, 41.6 ± 15.0 yrs.; height, 153.49 ± 28.11cm; BMI, 25.9 ± 6.4 kg•m-2) completed a perceptual scale of self-efficacy (BARSE) and fitness tests before and after a training program. Trainers (men and women) met one-on-one with the volunteers on a biweekly basis for 8 weeks. Univariate analyses of change scores and repeated measures analysis of variance with Fisher's LSD pairwise comparisons tested changes in dependent variables by trainer sex. Results: Significant increases were seen in (mean ± SE; change for men trainers; change for woman trainers): self-efficacy (7.3 ± 3.4; 7.3 ± 2.7%); leg press strength (18.2 ± 3.7; 16.4 ± 3.3 kg); seated row (6.1 ± 1.5; 5.3 ± 1.3 kg); muscular endurance in 60° flexion hold (20.5 ± 5.8; 24.8 ± 5.0 sec) and wall-sit (19.9 ± 6.4; 33.5 ± 5.8 sec); but not flexibility (V-sit, 7.11 ± 5.51; 4.23 ± 4.50 cm). Chest press strength significantly increased for women trainers only (2.7 ± 2.2; 5.3 ± 1.8 kg). Despite this, there were no significant differences for any variable in the change from pre-to-post based on the sex of the trainer. Conclusions: Both men and woman-led training was effective for increasing markers of self-efficacy and fitness in woman clients.
Article
s The main objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the self-reported depressive symptoms and physical activity (PA) levels among participants who performed self- nonexercising (NE), guided exercise (SGE), remotely supervised exercise (RSE), and face-to-face supervised exercise (FFE) during social distancing. Three hundred and forty-four individuals (≥18 years and 67% women) answered a self-reported online survey that included questions related to the physical exercise practice (e.g., supervised and remote) during social distancing and questions about perceptions of depressive symptoms (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale–Self Rated [MADRS-S] scores) and metabolic equivalent task minutes per week (METs min•wk⁻¹) of moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA, and total PA scores (International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form) before and during social distancing. The RSE group (n=45) showed higher METs of vigorous-intensity PA than the SGE (n=146) and NE (n=109) groups. The RSE and FFE (n=44) groups showed higher METs of the total PA scores than the SGE and NE groups. The NE group showed higher MADRS-S scores than the other groups. Lower MADRS-S scores depend on the exercise practice and higher METs of vigorous-intensity PA depend on the supervised exercise practice. Thus, telehealth interventions can be implemented during the pandemic to enhance vigorous PA.
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Az elmúlt évtizedben egyre több ember látogatja a fitnesztermeket és a wellnessközpontokat. A látogatók száma nemcsak számszerűen nő, hanem az életkor tekintetében is jóval szélesebb tartományt fog át, mint korábban. Míg a kétezres évek előtt elsősorban a lakosság fiatalabb és viszonylag szűk spektruma vette igénybe ezeket a sportolási lehetőségeket, mára a gyerekfitnesztől kezdve a funkcionális edzésen, aerobik- és aquafitnesz órákon és jógán keresztül a szenior tréningig lényegében a teljes népesség megtalálhatja a számára legmegfelelőbb mozgás- és kikapcsolódási formát az ilyen helyeken. Ezekben a sportközpontokban egyéni és csoportos mozgásformákkal egyaránt találkozunk, valamint a teljesen egyénre szabott edzések megtervezőjével, a személyi edzővel. A kézenfekvő megoldást keresők, és a leghatékonyabb edzések iránt érdeklődők elsősorban személyi edzőket vesznek igénybe, hogy szakszerű és biztonságos keretek között sportoljanak. A nemzetközi szakirodalom áttekintése alapján kijelenthetjük, hogy az elsődlegesen vizsgált szempontok: a személyi edző munkájának hatékonysága, a kliens egészségének megőrzése, a szakirányú képesítést adó intézmények – és így a végzettségek – sokfélesége, a szakmai szabályozás hiánya, az edző interperszonális kompetenciái, a nők felülreprezentáltsága és a túlsúlyos kliensekkel szembeni diszkrimináció. Célunk, hogy a fenti szempontok mentén ismertessük e dinamikusan fejlődő szakterület eddig elért prominens kutatási eredményeit. Mindezek a hazai témaspecifikus kutatások alapjául is szolgálhatnak, amelyek a hétköznapi emberek, a dolgozó lakosság egészségi mutatóit, fittségét, közérzetét kívánják előmozdítani.
Article
Commercial fitness gyms often consider themselves as professional healthcare organizations and strive for co-operations with stakeholders of the healthcare system. For gym managers the decision to include exercise programmes into their portfolio of services is of vital importance. This article analyses whether the implementation of health-oriented exercise programmes in commercial fitness gyms, particularly against the background of the existing corporate culture, is feasible. First, the most important characteristics of a corporate culture are described from a theoretical perspective. Subsequently, the results of an empirical analysis are presented. They indicate that the integration of specific exercise programme services can be classified as economically reasonable. Fitness gyms have shed their idealistic identity and changed into market-oriented enterprises.
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The transtheoretical model posits that health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Ten processes of change have been identified for producing progress along with decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptations. Basic research has generated a rule of thumb for at-risk populations: 40% in precontemplation, 40% in contemplation, and 20% in preparation. Across 12 health behaviors, consistent patterns have been found between the pros and cons of changing and the stages of change. Applied research has demonstrated dramatic improvements in recruitment, retention, and progress using stage-matched interventions and proactive recruitment procedures. The most promising outcomes to data have been found with computer-based individualized and interactive interventions. The most promising enhancement to the computer-based programs are personalized counselors. One of the most striking results to date for stage-matched programs is the similarity between participants reactively recruited who reached us for help and those proactively recruited who we reached out to help. If results with stage-matched interventions continue to be replicated, health promotion programs will be able to produce unprecedented impacts on entire at-risk populations.
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This study examined the effectiveness of stages of change-based counselling for exercise delivered by nurses in four primary care centres. Two-hundred and ninety-four subjects enrolled, recruited from patients attending 30-min health checks. The average age of participants was 42.4 years (SD = 15.1) and 77% were female. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing stage of exercise adoption, self-efficacy and exercise levels. Each centre was assigned to either one of three experimental conditions or to a control condition. Participants were counselled accordingly, receiving either stage-oriented exercise materials with counselling (stage plus counselling), stage-oriented materials without counselling (stage no counselling), non-staged materials with counselling (counselling only) or the current level of advice (control). Sixty-one percent (n = 180) returned follow-up questionnaires. When baseline differences in self-efficacy, age and gender were controlled for, there was no significant group or interaction effect for stage. There was a significant time effect (F = 3.55, P = 0.031). Post hoc analyses showed that significant differences were between baseline and 2 (t = -3.02, P = 0.003) and 6 months (t = -2.67, P = 0.009). No changes in self-efficacy and exercise levels were observed. Stage-based interventions were not superior to the other interventions. All single-contact interventions, while having no impact on exercise behaviour and self-efficacy, did enhance motivation to change.
Article
Objective: To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages by issuing a public health recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed for health promotion and disease prevention. Participants: A planning committee of five scientists was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine to organize a workshop. This committee selected 15 other workshop discussants on the basis of their research expertise in issues related to the health implications of physical activity. Several relevant professional or scientific organizations and federal agencies also were represented. Evidence: The panel of experts reviewed the pertinent physiological, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence, including primary research articles and recent review articles. Consensus process: Major issues related to physical activity and health were outlined, and selected members of the expert panel drafted sections of the paper from this outline. A draft manuscript was prepared by the planning committee and circulated to the full panel in advance of the 2-day workshop. During the workshop, each section of the manuscript was reviewed by the expert panel. Primary attention was given to achieving group consensus concerning the recommended types and amounts of physical activity. A concise "public health message" was developed to express the recommendations of the panel. During the ensuing months, the consensus statement was further reviewed and revised and was formally endorsed by both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Conclusion: Every US adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the week.
Article
The stages of change model has shown promise in advancing knowledge about smoking behavior change and other negative addictive behaviors. The model was applied to the study of exercise, a healthy rather than unhealthy behavior. A stages of exercise behavior questionnaire was administered to a sample of 235 employees. Next, the ability of a second questionnaire measuring physical activity behavior to differentiate employees according to stage of exercise was tested. Results revealed that 51% of employees were participating in no physical activity (Precontemplation, Contemplatation) and 49% were participating in occasional or regular physical activity (Preparation, Action, Maintenance). Scores on physical activity behavior items significantly differentiated employees among the stages. This model developed on smoking and other behaviors can be generalized to exercise behavior. Understanding the stages of exercise behavior could yield important information for enhancing rates of participation in physical activity.
Article
Exercise is important for long-term weight loss, but few studies have examined ways to improve exercise adherence in overweight subjects participating in a behavioral weight loss program. This paper presents two studies, one conducted at the University of Pittsburgh and one at the University of Minnesota, that sought to improve exercise adherence by exerting more direct control over the environmental antecedents and consequences controlling exercise. Study 1 investigated the use of a personal trainer who called participants regularly and met them at their home or office at scheduled times for a walk. Study 2 investigated the effect of a lottery incentive for exercise adherence. In both studies, the effect of these manipulations was examined in the context of a 24-week standard behavioral weight control program with three supervised exercise sessions per week. Neither intervention achieved statistically significant improvements in exercise adherence compared to control conditions, perhaps due in part to the limited statistical power of the studies. Future studies should focus on better understanding the barriers to exercise and designing behavioral interventions that address these barriers.
Article
This study examines the usefulness of using the stages and processes of change model to explore exercise adoption and maintenance over time. Data for this study were collected as part of the baseline and follow-up survey of participants in a worksite health promotion project. Three hundred fourteen employees completed exercise questionnaires. The average age was 41 years, mean body mass index was 26, average years of education were 13, and 66% were women. The study was conducted in two worksites, a retail outlet and a manufacturing company. Previously validated questionnaires to determine stages and processes of exercise adoption were administered at baseline and 6-month follow-up, along with questions about demographic variables. Four patterns of stage change emerged: subjects who became more active (adopters, 26%), those who became less active (relapsers, 15%), and those who did not change over time (stable sedentary, 32%; stable active, 27%). Adopters displayed increases in use of the processes of change, whereas relapsers displayed decreases in process use. Stable profiles were associated with no change in process use. These findings have important implications for research on exercise adoption and maintenance. Interventions tailored specifically to subjects' stage of readiness to be active and using specific processes to help in the change process are warranted at this time.
Article
Previous research examining the transtheoretical model of behavior change within the exercise domain has been limited by use of self-report measures exclusively and inconsistent practices with regard to stage of exercise assessment. The present study was designed to partially circumvent these limitations and extend the current literature by determining the degree of association among stage of exercise and body mass index, cardiorespiratory fitness, exercise behavior, relapse, barriers, and self-efficacy, after controlling for several potential confounders. A descriptive, cross-sectional study. Two hundred thirty-five adults (M age = 34.7 years) volunteered to participate. Participants were classified by stage of exercise and compared on two behavioral, two biometrical, and three psychological variables while statistically controlling for social desirability and demographic differences. Significant between-stage differences were found for the overall set of dependent variables (p < .0001) and for each dependent variable separately (p < .01). The proportion of variance accounted for by the dependent variables ranged from .06 to .53. This study offers objective support for the stage-of-change model within the exercise domain. By acknowledging and accurately assessing stage of exercise, researchers and clinicians may be able to improve physical activity promotion efforts.
Article
This study examined differences in decisional balance and self-efficacy scores across the five stages of change and across four health behaviors (exercise, protection from sun exposure, smoking, and dietary fat consumption), and explored the relationship between the frequency of subjects at each stage across four health behaviors. Data for this study were collected as part of a health behavior survey of employees. The study was conducted in a municipal government worksite in Arizona. A total of 393 employees completed the survey. The sample was predominantly white (84.9%) and male (64.4%), with an average age of 42.2 years and a median annual household income of between $40,000 and $59,999. Previously validated questions to measure stages of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were administered, along with questions about demographic variables. Significant differences were found for decisional balance and self-efficacy scores across the five stages of change, but they were not significantly different between the four health behaviors. A minority of subjects (18.6%) were in the same stage of change for all four health behaviors. This study provides preliminary evidence that there is considerable stage specificity across multiple health behaviors. Because employees at each stage of change possess differences in terms of their pros, cons, and self-efficacy, wellness programs need to focus on stage-specific interventions.
Article
This study compares the efficacy of a self-help intervention tailored to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption with a standard self-help exercise promotion intervention. Interventions were delivered at baseline and 1 month; assessments were collected at baseline and 3 months. Eleven worksites participating in the Working Healthy Research Trial. Participants (n = 1559) were a subsample of employees at participating worksites, individually randomized to one of two treatment conditions. Printed self-help exercise promotion materials either (1) matched to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption (motivationally tailored), or (2) standard materials (standard). Measures of stage of motivational readiness for exercise and items from the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Among intervention completers (n = 903), chi-square analyses showed that, compared to the standard intervention, those receiving the motivationally tailored intervention were significantly more likely to show increases (37% vs. 27%) and less likely to show either no change (52% vs. 58%) or regression (11% vs. 15%) in stage of motivational readiness. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that changes in stage of motivational readiness were significantly associated with changes in self-reported time spent in exercise. This is the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of a brief motivationally tailored intervention compared to a standard self-help intervention for exercise adoption. These findings appear to support treatment approaches that tailor interventions to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption.
Article
The purpose of this study was to compare changes in maximal strength, power, and muscular endurance after 12 wk of periodized heavy-resistance training directly supervised by a personal trainer (SUP) versus unsupervised training (UNSUP). Twenty moderately trained men aged 24.6 +/- 1.0 yr (mean +/- SE) were randomly assigned to either the SUP group (N = 10) or the UNSUP group (N = 8). Both groups performed identical linear periodized resistance training programs consisting of preparatory (10-12 repetitions maximum (RM)), hypertrophy (8 to 10-RM), strength (5 to 8-RM), and peaking phases (3 to 6-RM) using free-weight and variable-resistance machine exercises. Subjects were tested for maximal squat and bench press strength (1-RM), squat jump power output, bench press muscular endurance, and body composition at week 0 and after 12 wk of training. Mean training loads (kg per set) per week were significantly (P < 0.05) greater in the SUP group than the UNSUP group at weeks 7 through 11 for the squat, and weeks 3 and 7 through 12 for the bench press exercises. The rates of increase (slope) of squat and bench press kg per set were significantly greater in the SUP group. Maximal squat and bench press strength were significantly greater at week 12 in the SUP group. Squat and bench press 1-RM, and mean and peak power output increased significantly after training in both groups. Relative local muscular endurance (80% of 1-RM) was not compromised in either group despite significantly greater loads utilized in bench press muscular endurance testing after training. Body mass, fat mass, and fat-free mass increased significantly after training in the SUP group. Directly supervised, heavy-resistance training in moderately trained men resulted in a greater rate of training load increase and magnitude which resulted in greater maximal strength gains compared with unsupervised training.
Article
Sixty-four male and female sedentary employees were randomly assigned to an intervention group or control group to determine the effects of behavioral skill training on adoption and maintenance of exercise. Both received a 9-month membership at a local fitness facility. The control group received a 12-week semistructured course, which included a facility orientation and three meetings with a personal trainer. The intervention group received a 12-week behavioral skills course and were encouraged to participate in a 12-week semistructured exercise course followed by a 3-month problem-solving support intervention. Both groups improved their daily energy expenditure, the amount of moderate and vigorous activity they performed, and their strength and flexibility. The study sample was too small to show substantial differences between the intervention and control group. Changes in mediator variables were mixed.
Article
In 1996, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention launched a 50-day exercise campaign called the "Director's Physical Activity Challenge" to stimulate its employees to exercise. Of the 5822 eligible employees, 3740 (64%) joined, but pre- and post-data was available on only 1192 (20.5%) people. Of this group, 86% of those in contemplation and 64% of those in preparation, and 34% of those in action advanced to a higher stage.
  • R R Pate
  • M Pratt
  • S N Blair
  • W L Haskell
  • C A Macera
  • C B Uchner
  • D Ettinger
  • W Health
  • G W King
  • A C Kriska
  • A Leon
  • A S Marcus
  • B H Morris
  • J Paffenbarger
  • R S Patrick
  • K Pollock
  • M L Rippe
  • J M Sallis
  • J Wilmore
Pate, R.R., Pratt, M., Blair, S.N. Haskell, W.L., Macera, C.A., B ouchard, C., B uchner, D., Ettinger, W., Health, G.W., King, A.C., Kriska, A., Leon, A.S., Marcus, B.H., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R.S., Patrick, K., Pollock, M.L., Rippe, J.M., Sallis, J. and Wilmore, J.H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: a recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and the American College of Sports Medicine. JAMA 273, 402-407.