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Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function

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Abstract

The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

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... While there are some studies which evaluate energy-boosting dietary supplements' consumption in other countries, little is known about their current use among students. Despite the fact that caffeine is an addictive substance and potentially fatal in higher doses, there has been no study conducted in Poland about the prevalence of consumption of the substances with its high concentration among university students [22]. ...
... In March 2003, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that: 'If there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine' [22]. One can expect that because of the lack of taurine in some energy boosting dietary supplements, they may potentially be more harmful than energy drinks. ...
Article
Introduction Recent studies have revealed an increase in the consumption of dietary supplements including frequency of use of caffeine, which is addictive and potentially harmful in higher doses. Energy drinks include high doses of caffeine and are particularly targeted at young people. Objective The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency of use of caffeine-containing energy products, associated factors and understanding the associated side- effects in university students. Material and methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted among students of the 5 largest Universities in Krakow. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 level. Results Around 35% of respondents reported the use of different supplements including high doses of caffeine. Frequency of caffeine-containing products consumption was significantly higher in female students compering to males. Also, those respondents who originated from big cities were more likely to use caffeine-containing products. The study revealed that these substances were also more popular among those participants who study economics. Most students use these substances in order to reduce feeling tired and the duration of sleep, others mainly to increase concentration prior to examinations. Almost one fourth of the group who used these substances admitted to having experienced some sideeffects in the past. They suffered mainly from insomnia, but also from excessive stimulation and muscle trembling. Almost half of the substances users did not know of any potential side-effects. Conclusions Attempts should be made to increase public awareness of the side-effects of these substances, particularly among the student population. These campaigns should be targeted especially at female students who come from bigger cities. This study is a step towards drawing attention to this issue.
... There are only a few case reports supporting beneficial effects in humans. 12 The intake of taurine by energy drinks (1 L energy drink contains on average 3180 mg/L) exceeds by far the mean daily intake from omnivore diets (58 mg). 2 Consequently, there is growing concern about possible adverse effects mediated by taurine due to excessive energy drink consumption. 2 Though, the exact pathomechanism by which energy drinks lead to ventricular tachyarrhythmias is not well understood. 2 Therefore, the purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of caffeine and taurine on arrhythmogenesis in a sensitive whole-heart model. ...
... This is in line with previous case reports, which describe antiarrhythmic properties of taurine. 12 However, this beneficial effect seems to be overridden at higher concentrations by distinct hazardous electrophysiologic effects. To be more precise, we observed an abbreviation of cardiac repolarization and effective refractory periods which may increase ventricular vulnerability by facilitating re-entry. ...
Article
Background: Several case reports have suggested an increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to energy drinks. Therefore, purpose of this study was to assess acute electrophysiologic effects of caffeine and taurine, two of the main ingredients of energy drinks, in an experimental whole-heart model. Methods and results: 25 rabbit hearts were excised, retrogradely perfused and assigned to two groups. Hearts were perfused with caffeine (2, 10, 50 µM) or taurine (2, 10, 50 µM) after generating baseline data. Eight monophasic action potentials and ECG recordings showed a significant abbreviation of action potential duration (APD90 ), QT interval and effective refractory periods (ERP) after caffeine treatment. With taurine, cardiac repolarization duration and ERP were significantly shortened. Ventricular vulnerability was assessed by a predefined pacing protocol. With caffeine, we observed a trend towards more ventricular arrhythmias in a dose-dependent manner. After treatment with taurine, significantly more episodes of ventricular arrhythmias occurred. Conclusion: In this experimental whole-heart study, treatment with caffeine and taurine provoked ventricular arrhythmias. Underlying mechanism was an abbreviation of cardiac repolarizations and effective refractory periods that may facilitate re-entry and thereby provokes arrhythmias. These findings help to understand the potentially hazardous and fatal outcomes after intoxication with energy drinks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... According to recent data which evaluated caffeinated beverage consumption through volume sales in countries around the world, it was found that the United States consumed the most EDs, sports drinks, and carbonated soda per capita than in any other country [2]. The consumption of these beverages in the United States is most prevalent in men, especially between the ages of [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32][33][34]. Additionally, about one-third of teens from the ages of 12-17 also consume these beverages regularly [3]. ...
... Hence, it improves the lipid profile [10]. It also increases vascular relaxation, although the exact mechanism is unclear, it could be due to its ability to decrease angiotensin II-mediated vasoconstriction, opening of potassium channels, reducing calcium mobilization, or increasing nitric oxide levels as an antioxidant [22]. ...
Article
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Energy drink (ED) consumption has become a growing public health issue over the past few decades. Despite claims of being safe and beneficial, EDs have been linked to particularly fatal outcomes associated with the cardiovascular system which include atrial and ventricular arrhythmias, myocardial infarctions, cardiomyopathies, and sudden cardiac death. Large quantities of caffeine, taurine, sugars, and B-vitamins may be contributing to these outcomes by increasing the heart rate, blood pressure (BP), and contractility of the heart in addition to prolonging the QTc. There is still a substantial amount of unknown information on EDs that warrants more research and a dire need for age regulations, transparency of ingredients, clear labeling of adverse effects, and most importantly, education of consumers. Keywords: energy drinks; caffeine; taurine; arrhythmia; red bull; monster energy
... Taurine is commonly known for its claimed effects as energizer and anti-fatigue compound and it is present in many energy soft drinks as well as in supplement cocktails for athletes. The toxicity of taurine in this context is considered relatively low with respect to other active ingredients; actually it may also be protective against cardiovascular action of caffeine [18]. Such a protection may again result from multiple taurine actions, i.e. an antihypertensive effect via vasodilatation (by reducing adrenergic and angiotensin II actions as well as calcium-induced vasospasm) along with a reduced risk of cardiac arrhythmias via modulation of ion channels and ionic homeostasis [18]. ...
... The toxicity of taurine in this context is considered relatively low with respect to other active ingredients; actually it may also be protective against cardiovascular action of caffeine [18]. Such a protection may again result from multiple taurine actions, i.e. an antihypertensive effect via vasodilatation (by reducing adrenergic and angiotensin II actions as well as calcium-induced vasospasm) along with a reduced risk of cardiac arrhythmias via modulation of ion channels and ionic homeostasis [18]. However a certain caution is important especially when taurine is used in children and/or in association with drugs, alchool or other food supplements [19][20][21][22][23]. Apart for its nutraceutical role, taurine may exert clear pharmacological actions by modulating signaling pathways and targets or via restoration of its altered tissue levels. ...
Article
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Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and pathways as well as its therapeutic potential to restore skeletal muscle function and performance in various pathological conditions. Evidences support the link between alteration of intracellular taurine level in skeletal muscle and different pathophysiological conditions, such as disuse-induced muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy and/or senescence, reinforcing the interest towards its exogenous supplementation. In addition, taurine treatment can be beneficial to reduce sarcolemmal hyper-excitability in myotonia-related syndromes. Although further studies are necessary to fill the gaps between animals and humans, the benefit of the amino acid appears to be due to its multiple actions on cellular functions while toxicity seems relatively low. Human clinical trials using taurine in various pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological disorders have been performed and may represent a guide-line for designing specific studies in patients of neuromuscular diseases.
... 15 It is recognized that taurine has antiarrhythmic properties, an effect attributed to the regulation of cation transport. 16 Intracellular taurine content regulates the inward rectifying K + current and myocardial action potential duration. 17 In addition, taurine inhibits fast Na + current, resulting in class I antiarrhythmic activity. ...
Article
Energy drinks (ED) are increasingly popular, especially among adolescents and young adults. They are marketed as enhancers of energy, alertness and physical performance. ED contain high doses of caffeine and other active ingredients. Their safety has come under question due to reports temporally linking ED consumption with serious cardiovascular events, including arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. In this article, we report two cases of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in young patients after consuming ED. We also review the ingredients of ED, the physiologic effects on the cardiovascular system and the available evidence suggesting arrhythmogenecity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... EDs are consumed for the purpose of providing additional energy, increasing cognitive and physical performance, prolonging alertness and improving mood 8 . Due to the positive inotropic effect, they should induce some benefit to the exercising individuals by improving skeletal muscle oxygenation and increasing aerobic metabolism and muscular performance 9 . Thus, EDs are widely used by athletes as ergogenic agents 10 . ...
Article
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Background/Aim. Energy drinks (EDs) are widely used by athletes as ergogenic agents and Red Bull? is one of the most consumed EDs among them. The aim of this study was to determine the acute and chronic effects of Red Bull? on cardiodynamics and parameters of oxidative stress in physically trained rats. Methods. Rats were subjected to a swimming practice (1h a day, 5 days a week, for 4 weeks). They were divided into 4 groups: rats that did not consume ED either before swimming or prior to sacrificing; rats that did not consume ED before swimming but did consume ED 30 min prior to sacrificing; rats that consumed ED 30 min before every swimming training but did not consume ED prior to sacrificing; rats that consumed ED 30 min before every swimming training and 30 min before sacrificing. After sacrificing, the hearts of the rats were isolated and perfused according to the Langendorff technique. The parameters of cardiac function were recorded, and also the levels of prooxidants were measured in the coronary effluent during coronary autoregulation. Results. Acute administration of the ED had a positive inotropic effect (manifested as a significantly higher level of the maximum and minimum rate of pressure development in the left ventricle), while chronic administration affected the isolated increase in systolic left ventricular pressure. The prooxidative effect of the ED was observed, which was more pronounced in chronic consumption. Conclusion. The main conclusion of our study is that chronic consumption of ED changes the cardiovascular response and redox status in acute consumption ED.
... We must consider the possibility of negative interactions between caffeine and one of these ingredients. Taurine is one of the most popular additives to caffeinated energy drinks, and their interactions were already investigated [79]. Although authors of this study suggested the possibility of taurine reducing caffeine's effects on the cardiovascular system, such interactions were not confirmed by exercise trials. ...
Article
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The problem addressed in this study is the appropriateness of using different pre-training supplementation strategies and their ability to improve training performance and psychological measures. The aim of the study is the evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-ingredient pre-workout supplement (MIPS) containing beta-alanine, L-citrulline malate, arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, L-taurine, L-tyrosine and caffeine compared to an exact dosage of anhydrous caffeine in bench press strength endurance, feeling scale (FS), felt arousal scale (FAS) and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE). A group of fifteen resistance-trained males, weighing 83.92 ± 8.95 kg and having an average of 5.6 ± 3.38 years of training experience, tested their bench press 10 repetition maximum (79.01 ± 12.13). In a cross-over manner, they participated in two sessions where they were blinded to the order of supplementation they were given: either a MIPS including caffeine or caffeine alone. They completed the bench press strength endurance test with pre- and post-training psychological assessments containing FS, FAS and sRPE. Bench press repetition volume was greater after anhydrous caffeine than MIPS supplementation with no difference in psychological measures. These results indicate that MIPS supplementation is less ergogenic and cost effective than caffeine alone.
... As shown by previous studies, taurine acts condescendingly on the myocardium, mainly protecting against apoptosis [23][24][25]. Schaffer et al. indicate that taurine can reduce the impact of caffeine on the cardiovascular system [26]. The combination of these two substances, however, increase the strength of myocardial contractility after Ed ingestion [27]. ...
Article
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Energy drinks (ED) are beverages containing caffeine, taurine, vitamins, herbal extracts, and sugar or sweeteners. They are marketed as capable of improving stamina, athletic performance and concentration, moreover, as serving as a source of energy. Still, there are very few papers describing the impact of ED on cell biology – including cell apoptosis within tissues. Therefore, in our study, we assessed the symptoms of rat cardiomyocytes apoptosis after 8 weeks consumption of ED. For the research, we used male Wistar rats divided into 2 groups (experimental and control). The experimental animals received ED at a dose average of 0.190 ml per g of body weight per day for a period of 8 weeks. The animals of the control group received just water and food without limitation. After 8 weeks, the rats were decapitated; hearts and other organs were collected. After embedding in paraffin blocks, 5μm thick tissue slides were prepared and stained according to standard hematoxylin and eosine (H&E) staining protocol. Additional slides were stained by immunohistochemistry with antibodies directed against either caspaze-3 or p53 protein. Our results showed that the expression of caspase 3 and p53 protein varied depending on the group of rats. The expression of caspase 3 observed in cardiomyocytes was much more intense in the experimental group compared to the control group. Furthermore, the immunoprecipitation of p53 protein was observed more frequently in the cardiomyocytes nuclei of the experimental group than in the control group. Obtained results suggest that chronic use of ED induces intracellular disorders and apoptosis in consumer cardiomyocytes.
... The preponderance of evidence suggests taurine is more likely an antiarrhythmic than a proarrhythmic. 26 A correlation between L-carnitine deficiency and short QT syndrome has been postulated. 27 However, L-carnitine supplementation is not suspected to result in an overcorrection or prolongation of the QT interval based on published literature. ...
Article
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Background Caffeine in doses <400 mg is typically not considered arrhythmogenic, but little is known about the additional ingredients in energy drinks. We evaluated the ECG and blood pressure (BP) effects of high‐volume energy drink consumption compared with caffeine alone. Methods and Results This was a randomized, double‐blind, controlled, crossover study in 18 young, healthy volunteers. Participants consumed either 946 mL (32 ounces) of energy drink or caffeinated control drink, both of which contained 320 mg of caffeine, separated by a 6‐day washout period. ECG, peripheral BP, and central BP measurements were obtained at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 24 hours post study drink consumption. The time‐matched, baseline‐adjusted changes were compared. The change in corrected QT interval from baseline in the energy drink arm was significantly higher than the caffeine arm at 2 hours (0.44±18.4 ms versus −10.4±14.8 ms, respectively; P=0.02). The QTc changes were not different at other time points. While both the energy drink and caffeine arms raised systolic BP in a similar fashion initially, the systolic BP was significantly higher at 6 hours when compared with the caffeine arm (4.72±4.67 mm Hg versus 0.83±6.09 mm Hg, respectively; P=0.01). Heart rate, diastolic BP, central systolic BP, and central diastolic BP showed no evidence of a difference between groups at any time point. Post energy drink, augmentation index was lower at 6 hours. Conclusions The corrected QT interval and systolic BP were significantly higher post high‐volume energy drink consumption when compared with caffeine alone. Larger clinical trials validating these findings and evaluation of noncaffeine ingredients within energy drinks are warranted. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02023723.
... The European Union's Scientific Committee on Food has published a report in March 2003 summarizing the investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level the conclusion is that Taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of Caffeine and can decrease Caffeine-mediated increase in systolic blood pressure [20,37]. ...
... Por otra parte, por el contenido elevado de azúcar que muchas bebidas energizantes contienen, es indispensable alertar a las personas sobre su consumo. Es pertinente diseñar e implementar proyectos en salud pública, enfocados a la promoción de la salud y la prevención de la enfermedad, en especial de tipo cardiovascular y metabólica (como la diabetes), en los entornos laborales militares, privilegiando la información y la educación a las comunidades trabajadoras, sobre los verdaderos efectos e impacto negativo sobre la salud, relacionados con el consumo de bebidas energizantes y azucaradas.Así mismo, es necesario abordar el tema en especial cuando se trata de poblaciones de trabajadores jóvenes, quienes consumen de manera frecuente energizantes, se ponen en contacto con publicidad que promueve la compra y el consumo de estas bebidas, pero donde la minoría ha recibido mensajes educativos que informen sobre los efectos negativos de tales sustancias en la salud(30).Adicionalmente es importante, en lo que compete a la población abordada en estos estudios, que, en cada base e institución militar, no solo se evalúe de forma aislada el rendimiento en las actividades diarias del personal, sino que se reconozcan y se observen, las particularidades de las medidas que se están implementando para lograr tales objetivos, identificar qué utiliza y que consume el personal para mantener el rendimiento laboral óptimo. También se deben evaluar las condiciones de salud, los hábitos, modos y estilos de vida de los trabajadores en estos ambientes laborales, pues de acuerdo a la literatura revisada, existe escasa información al respecto. ...
... Several authors proposed to athletes a diet supplement of 2-4 g of taurine to fight against sleep-inducing effect of intense eccentric contractions [148][149][150]. In opposition to previous authors, other scientists did not confirm any potential positive effects of ß-alanine in healthy athletes [151][152][153][154]. ...
Article
Muscle mass is the major deposit of protein molecules with dynamic turnover between net protein synthesis and degradation. In human subjects, invasive and non-invasive techniques have been applied to determine their skeletal muscle catabolism of amino acids at rest, during and after different forms of physical exercise and training. The aim of this review is to analyse the turnover flux and the relative oxidation rate of different types of muscle proteins after one bout of exercise as well as after resistance and endurance condition of training. Protein feeding in athletes appears to be a crucial nutrition necessity to promote the maintenance of muscle mass and its adaptation to the need imposed by the imposed technical requirements. In resting human individuals, the recommended protein daily allowance is about 0.8 g (dry weight) kg−1 body weight per 24 h knowing that humans are unable to accumulate protein stores in muscle tissues. Nevertheless, practical feeding recommendations related to regular exercise practice are proposed to athletes by different bodies in order to foster their skills and performance. This review will examine the results obtained under endurance and resistance type of exercise while consuming single or repeated doses of various ingestions of protein products (full meat, essential amino acids, specific amino acids and derivatives, vegetarian food). From the scientific literature, it appears that healthy athletes (and heavy workers) should have a common diet of 1.25 g kg−1 24 h to compensate the exercise training muscle protein degradation and their resynthesis within the following hours. A nitrogen-balance assay would be recommended to avoid any excessive intake of protein. Eventually, a daily equilibrated food intake would be of primer importance versus inadequate absorption of some specific by-products.
... Another active ingredient commonly found in energy drinks is taurine. Taurine (2-aminoethylsulfonate) is involved in several important physiological functions, including muscle contraction, osmoregulation, anti-inflammatory activity, neuromodulation, antioxidant activity and maintenance of normal mitochondrial function and ATP production (17,18). Also, energy drinks contain: ginseng, guarana, glucuronolactone, B vitamins, ginkgo, and various other herbal derivatives to their products (4,6,19,20). ...
Article
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There is little information about the effect of energy drink on elite adolescent female swimmers. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of energy drink to improve physical performance and some physiological factors in female swimmer players. 36 elite adolescent female swimmers (all participants in the national competition authority had earned or were invited to national team; 13.73±1 years, weight 45.67±3.70, height 149.5±7.30 cm and body mass of 20.39±1.5 kg/m2) Volunteered to participate in this study. A double-blind, placebo controlled and randomized experimental design was used in this investigation. In two sessions with an interval of 4 days of each other, 36 female swimmers ingested 6 mg/kg Big Bear energy drink or placebo. 15 min after consumption, they performed of tests as below: one repetition maximum and 60% of one repetition maximum in the chest press and leg press, explosive power test, anaerobic RAST test, 100 m swim Crawl at maximal speed, aerobic Queens College Step test. Also before, immediately after RAST test, 5 cc of blood from brachial vein to measure blood lactate was taken from subjects, and the results were recorded. Also, participants rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale (Borg 15 rank) filled out before and after the muscular endurance test. In comparison to the placebo drink, the ingestion of drink reduces the 100m crawl record (97.12±4.68 s vs 94.73±4.37 s, respectively; P=0.02). The ingestion of the energy drink did not affect other performance indicators. Also, blood lactate levels and RPE during the post exercise was unaffected by the energy drink ingestion. A energy drink with a dose equivalent to 6 mg/kg ineffective on performance indicators (muscle strength, muscular endurance, explosive power, aerobic power, anaerobic power), blood lactate levels and rating of perceived exertion in elite adolescent female swimmers.
... 33 Taurine is an endogenous molecule and supplementation is believed to be antiarrhythmic rather than pro-arrhythmic. 34,35 In animal models evaluating short QT syndrome, a taurine-magnesium coordination compound has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a dose-dependent manner. 36 Data on glucuronolactone and B-vitamins are limited but they are typically regarded as safe. ...
Article
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Background Energy drinks have been linked to an increase in emergency room visits and deaths. We aim to determine the impact of energy drinks on electrocardiographic and hemodynamic parameters in young healthy volunteers. Methods and Results A randomized, double‐masked, placebo‐controlled, crossover study was conducted in healthy volunteers. Participants consumed 32 oz of either energy drink A, energy drink B, or placebo within 60 minutes on 3 study days with a 6‐day washout period in between. The primary end point of QT c interval and secondary end points of QT interval, PR interval, QRS duration, heart rate, and brachial and central blood pressures were measured at baseline, and every 30 minutes for 240 minutes. A repeated‐measures 2‐way analysis of variance was performed with the main effects of intervention, time, and an interaction of intervention and time. Thirty‐four participants were included (age 22.1±3.0 years). The interaction term of intervention and time was statistically significant for Bazett's corrected QT interval, Fridericia's corrected QT interval, QT , PR , QRS duration, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, central systolic blood pressure, and central diastolic blood pressure (all P <0.001). The maximum change from baseline in Bazett's corrected QT interval for drinks A, B, and placebo were +17.9±13.9, +19.6±15.8, and +11.9±11.1 ms, respectively ( P =0.005 for ANOVA ) ( P =0.04 and <0.01, respectively compared with placebo). Peripheral and central systolic and diastolic blood pressure were statistically significantly different compared with placebo (all P <0.001). Conclusion Energy drinks significantly prolong the QT c interval and raise blood pressure. Clinical Trial Registration URL : http://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT 03196908.
... As taurine has been reported to act as a neutralizing agent for adverse effects associated with caffeine, another mechanism beyond hypertension is plausible. 7 Effect modification from another ingredient contained within these drinks or a synergistic mechanism from the unique combination of contained ingredients is also possible. As with all seemingly safe agents, excessive use either acutely or chronically may result in unanticipated, paradoxical outcomes. ...
Article
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Central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) is a rare neurologic entity of varied etiology characterized by the destruction of the myelin sheath in pontine structures. Initially described in chronic alcohol abuse and malnourished patients,¹ CPM has also been associated with the rapid correction of hyponatremia and alterations in blood glucose homeostasis.
... Although the present study was not designed to test this hypothesis, our findings showing very similar hemodynamic pathways being influenced by sfRB and W + caff, suggest it is unlikely that taurine was responsible for, or enhanced, the pressor effect of RB. On the contrary, taurine has been shown to decrease both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (Fujita et al. 1987), and, at a population level, dietary taurine is associated with decreased risk of CVD (Yamori et al. 2010); thus leading to the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food to summarize that, in relation to the cardiovascular effects of energy drinks, "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine" (Scientific Committee on Food; European Commission 2003) (for a recent review of evidence, see Schaffer et al. 2014). While a sugar-only test was not included in the present study, recent work in this laboratory (Grasser et al. 2014a) has shown no change in BP following ingestion of 60 g of sucrose (1.59 the sugar content contained within the volume of RB investigated here), thereby suggesting that the acute BP-elevating effect of RB is likely to be due to an interaction between sugar and caffeine on the hemodynamic system rather than sugar per se. ...
Article
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The energy drink Red Bull (RB) has recently been shown to elevate resting blood pressure (BP) and double product (reflecting increased myocardial load). However, the extent to which these effects can be explained by the drink's caffeine and sugar content remains to be determined. We compared the cardiovascular impact of RB to those of a comparable amount of caffeine, and its sugar-free version in eight young healthy men. Participants attended four experimental sessions on separate days according to a placebo-controlled randomized crossover study design. Beat-to-beat hemodynamic measurements were made continuously for 30 min at baseline and for 2 h following ingestion of 355 mL of either (1) RB + placebo; (2) sugar-free RB + placebo; (3) water + 120 mg caffeine, or (4) water + placebo. RB, sugar-free RB, and water + caffeine increased BP equally (3-4 mmHg) in comparison to water + placebo (P < 0.001). RB increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, double product, and cardiac contractility, but decreased total peripheral resistance (TPR) (all P < 0.01), with no such changes observed following the other interventions. Conversely, sugar-free RB and water + caffeine both increased TPR in comparison to the water + placebo control (P < 0.05). While the impact of RB on BP is the same as that of a comparable quantity of caffeine, the increase occurs through different hemodynamic pathways with RB's effects primarily on cardiac parameters, while caffeine elicits primarily vascular effects. Additionally, the auxiliary components of RB (taurine, glucuronolactone, and B-group vitamins) do not appear to influence these pathways. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
... La principale motivation recherchée dans la prise de ces boissons est la recherche de performance physique et intellectuelle [32]. La prise quotidienne de 6 g de taurine permettrait d'améliorer la force physique et l'endurance [33][34][35], sans que ces résultats n'aient été confirmés [2]. ...
Article
Energy drinks designate "any product in the form of a drink or concentrated liquid containing a mixture of ingredients having the property to raise the level of energy and liveliness". Their introduction has raised many reluctance and reserves after numerous cardiovascular and neurological injuries among regular consumers. This article attempts to synthesize the existing literature on energy drinks. The review focuses to show that excessive energy drinks consumption cause many complications. The literature review was conducted from 2001 to 2014, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following keywords alone or combined: energy drinks, caffeine, taurine, toxicity, dependence, complications. Occasional or moderate consumption of these cans seem to present little risk to healthy adults. However, their repeated consumption in proportions that far exceed the recommendations for recommended use by the manufacturers, combined with the use of alcohol or illicit drugs consumption increases the risk of occurrence of somatic and psychiatric complications, especially among underage, and subjects with cardiovascular and neurological history. Repeated consumption of energy drinks increases the risk of somatic and psychiatric complications. Further studies must be controlled to improve our understanding of other possible negative consequences on health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... Taurine is currently claimed to be a functional ingredient in several commercialized 'energy' drinks with approximately1000-2000 mg taurine per serving [26,27]. This is an intake that is several times higher than that of individuals on a standard omnivore diet [20,28]. Many manufacturers claim that taurine is ergogenic for many types of exercise; however, there is little scientific evidence to support this. ...
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To discuss the recent work examining the importance of taurine in skeletal muscle and outline the discrepancy that exists between research findings in rodent vs. human skeletal muscle. There is clear evidence that a normal taurine level is important for the normal functioning of skeletal muscle. Taurine is believed to be involved in many cellular functions, but in skeletal muscle its main roles are to facilitate Ca dependent excitation-contraction processes, contribute to the regulation of cellular volume, and aid in antioxidant defense from stress responses. Most research has studied the importance of taurine in rodent skeletal muscle by downregulating and upregulating the muscle taurine content and examining the effects on the functioning of skeletal muscle at rest and during the stress of contractions (exercise). One successful research approach is to supplement the diet with taurine, which leads to increases in muscle taurine content and contractile function in rodents. However, this approach does not work in human skeletal muscle as the processes involved in the transport of taurine into the muscle are resistant to large and prolonged increases in plasma taurine following oral taurine supplementation. At present, attempts to influence muscle function with taurine supplementation can only occur through interactions outside the muscle cell in humans. Future research should target the mechanisms responsible for the transport of taurine into human skeletal muscle and determine why the muscle defends the normal taurine content in the face of elevated plasma taurine levels, as opposed to the results in rodent muscle. This may lead to more fruitful usage of taurine as a skeletal muscle enhancing nutrient in athletic and clinical populations.
... The need for taurine is central to the nature of this disorder because the mutated mitochondrial tRNA leu (UUR) fails to modify uridine to 5taurinomethyluridine. Consequently, defective translation of mitochondrial encoded proteins ensues, eliciting ETC dysfunction and superoxide generation [50,51]. MELAS presents as a cluster of clinical symptoms that include neuropathy, myopathy, cardiomyopathy, endocrine modifications and retinopathy. ...
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In stroke and neurodegenerative disease, neuronal excitotoxicity, caused by increased extracellular glutamate levels, is known to result in calcium overload and mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial deficits may involve a deficiency in energy supply as well as generation of high levels of oxidants which are key contributors to neuronal cell death through necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. Excessive glutamate receptor stimulation also results in increased nitric oxide generation which can be detrimental to cells as nitric oxide interacts with superoxide to form the toxic molecule peroxynitrite. High level oxidant production elicits neuronal apoptosis through the actions of proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members resulting in mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. In addition to apoptotic responses to severe stress, accumulation of misfolded proteins and high levels of oxidants can elicit endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways which may also contribute to induction of apoptosis. Two categories of therapeutics are discussed that impact major pro-death events that include induction of oxidants, calcium overload, and ER stress. The first category of therapeutic agent includes the amino acid taurine which prevents calcium overload and is also capable of preventing ER stress by inhibiting specific ER stress pathways. The second category involves N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA receptor) partial antagonists illustrated by S-Methyl-N, N-diethyldithiocarbamate sulfoxide (DETC-MeSO), and memantine. DETC-MeSO is protective through preventing excitotoxicity and calcium overload and by blocking specific ER stress pathways. Another NMDA receptor partial antagonist is memantine which prevents excessive glutamate excitation but also remarkably allows maintenance of physiological neurotransmission. Targeting of these major sites of neuronal damage using pharmacological agents is discussed in terms of potential therapeutic approaches for neurological disorders.
... 28 Taurine has several important physiological activities, such as bile acid conjugation, antioxidant activity, antiinflammatory activity, maintenance of normal mitochondrial function, osmoregulation, neuromodulation, and ATP production. 29 Taurine was also originally described to inhibit lipid peroxidation. 30 At present, taurine has been demonstrated to inhibit the lipid accumulation in the liver. ...
Article
This paper was designed to study metabolomic characters of the high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperlipemia and the intervention effects of Mangiferin (MG). In this study, we aimed to investigate the intervention of MG on rats with hyperlipemia induced by HFD and explore the possible mechanisms of hyperlipemia. Urine metabolic profiles were analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadruple time-of-flight high-definition mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-HDMS) coupled with the principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) models, Heatmap and metabolism pathway analysis. PCA was applied to study the trajectory of urinary metabolic phenotype of hyperlipemia rat after administration of MG. VIP-plot of orthogonal PLS-DA was used for discovering potential biomarkers to clarify mechanism of MG. Biochemical analyses indicate MG can alleviate the hyperlipemia damage. Twenty significantly changed metabolites (potential biomarkers) were found to be reasonable in explaining the action mechanism of MG. The effectiveness of MG on hyperlipemia is proved using the established metabolomic method and the regulated metabolic pathways involve TCA cycle, taurine and hypotaurine metabolism, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, glycine and serine and threonine metabolism, glycerophospholipid metabolism, primary bile acid biosynthesis etc. The results indicated that MG has a favourable protective effect on HFD-induced hyperlipemia by adjust the metabolic disorders. It also suggests that the metabolomic technology is a powerful approach for elucidation of the action mechanisms of MG.
... It is reported that Red Bull ® energy drink (0.4 % of taurine) caused increased diastolic blood pressure, aerobic endurance and anaerobic performance (Oja and Saransaari 2007). Taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine in the drinks, e.g. while caffeine is capable of elevating blood pressure, taurine reduces blood pressure (Schaffer et al. 2014). ...
Article
Taurine, a sulphur - containing amino acid, has been termed a functional nutrient. Its synthetic form is a common ingredient in supplements and energy drinks. There is no information concerning taurine impact on bone microstructure after prolonged supplemental use. Also, differences in bone parameters of mice following taurine exposure are unknown. In this study, a detailed microstructure of compact and trabecular bone tissues of mice subchronically exposed to taurine was determined. Animals (n=12) were segregated into three groups: E1 group – mice received 20 mg/kg b.w. of taurine per day during 8 weeks; E2 group – mice were fed by taurine at a dose of 40 mg/kg b.w. for 8 weeks and a control (C) group. Decreased density of secondary osteons, increased sizes of primary osteon's vascular canals (P<0.05) were observed in taurine – treated animals. Cortical bone thickness, trabecular thickness were decreased (P<0.05) in E1 group, and relative volume of trabecular bone was lower (P<0.05) in E2 group as compared to C group. According to our results, prolonged taurine exposure at the doses used in this study can negatively affect both compact and trabecular bone tissues microstructure.
... Taurine is a free intracellular nitrogenous compound derived from methionine and cysteine, mainly found in abundance in seafood [6]. In addition, taurine is present in almost all mammalian tissues [7,8], and is used as a nutritional supplement due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory actions [9][10][11] and ability to improve muscle contraction [10]. Finally, taurine can increase the expression of genes related to energy metabolism regulation, specifically, the utilization of lipid substrates, stimulating the lipolysis process [12,13]. ...
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Based on the fact that taurine can increase lipid metabolism, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different doses of acute taurine supplementation on lipid oxidation levels in healthy young men after a single bout of fasting aerobic exercise. A double-blind, acute, and crossover study design was conducted. Seventeen men (age 24.8 ± 4.07y; BMI: 23.9 ± 2.57 kg/m²) participated in the present study. Different doses of taurine (TAU) (3 g or 6 g) or placebo were supplemented 90 minutes before a single bout of fasting aerobic exercise (on a treadmill at 60% of VO2 max). The subjects performed three trials, and each one was separated by seven days. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after the exercise protocol of each test to analyze plasma levels of glycerol and taurine. Lipid and carbohydrate oxidation were determined immediately after exercise for 15 minutes by indirect calorimetry. We observed that TAU supplementation (6 g) increased lipid oxidation (38%) and reduced the respiratory coefficient (4%) when compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). However, no differences in lipid oxidation were observed between the different doses of taurine (3 g and 6 g). For glycerol concentrations, there were no differences between trials. Six grams of TAU supplementation 90 minutes before a single bout of aerobic exercise in a fasted state was sufficient to increase the lipid oxidation post-exercise in healthy young men.
... Taurine is purported to have an inotropic effect (Huxtable and Bressler, 1974), and the combination of caffeine and taurine may further increase cardiac contractility (Baum and Weiss, 2001). However, another study suggested that the presence of taurine is more likely to reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine (Schaffer et al., 2014). Little is known about potential cardiovascular effects of other ingredients, and the composition of these beverages remains largely undetermined, which presents a challenge to identifying the potential cardiovascular effects of the ingredients. ...
Article
Consumption of energy drinks has been associated with adverse cardiovascular effects; however, little is known about the ingredients that may contribute to these effects. We therefore characterized the chemical profiles and in vitro effects of energy drinks and their ingredients on human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes, and identified the putative active ingredients using a multivariate prediction model. Energy drinks from 17 widely-available over-the-counter brands were evaluated in this study. The concentrations of six common molecular ingredients (caffeine, taurine, riboflavin, pantothenic acid, adenine, and L-methionine) were quantified by coupling liquid chromatography with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for the acquisition of LC-MS/MS spectra. In addition, untargeted analyses for each beverage were performed with a platform combining LC, ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry (LCIMS-MS) measurements. Approximately 300 features were observed per sample in the untargeted studies, and of these ~100 were identified. In vitro effects of energy drinks and some of their molecular ingredients were then tested in iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes. Data on the beat rate (positive and negative chronotropy), ion channel function (QT prolongation), and cytotoxicity were collected in a dilution series. We found that some of the energy drinks elicited adverse effects on the cardiomyocytes with the most common being an increase in the beat rate, while QT prolongation was also observed at the lowest concentrations. Finally, concentration addition modeling using quantitative data from the 6 common ingredients and multivariate prediction modeling was used to determine potential molecular ingredients responsible for the adverse effects on the cardiomyocytes. These analyses suggested theophylline, adenine, and azelate as possibly contributing to the in vitro effects of energy drinks on QT prolongation in cardiomyocytes.
... Por último, algunos estudios han objetivado un incremento en la contractilidad cardíaca (ino tropismo positivo) que no está claro si se relaciona con la cafeína o la taurina. Algún artículo [22] plan tea la posibilidad de que la combinación de cafeína con taurina reduce los problemas cardiovasculares de la primera. ...
... Por último, algunos estudios han objetivado un incremento en la contractilidad cardíaca (ino tropismo positivo) que no está claro si se relaciona con la cafeína o la taurina. Algún artículo [22] plan tea la posibilidad de que la combinación de cafeína con taurina reduce los problemas cardiovasculares de la primera. ...
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Introducción: En los últimos 20 años se ha producido un incremento del consumo de bebidas energéticas, con un alto contenido de cafeína, en especial en la población de adolescentes. Pocos estudios han investigado qué saben los estudiantes de medicina sobre este producto y sus posibles efectos secundarios. Sujetos y métodos: Estudio observacional y transversal. Se incluyeron todos los alumnos de primer y segundo curso de medicina en la Universidad Europea de Madrid en los cursos 2017-2018 y 2018-2019. Se elaboró una encuesta con 20 ítems: 7 preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos y de estilo de vida y 13 sobre conocimiento y hábitos de consumo de bebidas energéticas. Los alumnos cumplimentaron la encuesta de forma voluntaria, anónima y autoadministrada Se realizó una estadística descriptiva y para la comparación de variables cualitativas se utilizó la prueba de chi cuadrado o el test exacto de Fisher. Resultados: Respondieron a la encuesta 353 alumnos (80% de la muestra). De ellos, 115 (32,6%) señalaron que consumían al menos una lata al mes (consumidores). El 79% conocían algún componente: el 67,1%, que contenían taurina; el 51,9%, cafeína, y el 31,2%, azúcares. En cuanto a los efectos secundarios derivados del consumo, los más conocidos eran taquicardia/palpitaciones, insomnio, nerviosismo e irritabilidad e incremento de la diuresis. Conclusiones: Los alumnos de primer y segundo de medicina conocen mayoritariamente que las bebidas energéticas contienen taurina, pero solo la mitad, que contienen cafeína. Los efectos secundarios más conocidos son la sensación de palpitaciones/taquicardia y la dificultad para dormir.
... Administration of caffeine and taurine in combination altered measures of cardiovascular function (Bichler, Swenson & Harris, 2006) and elevated mental performance and mood (Seidl et al., 2000) over placebo in human participants. When these two components were studied alone and in combination, taurine counteracted the effects of caffeine on cardiovascular function (Schaffer et al., 2014), mitigated some of the effects of caffeine on cognitive measures (Giles et al., 2012), reduced caffeine-induced physiological alterations associated with cycling performance (Warnock et al., 2017), and attenuated the effects of caffeine on specific parameters of reaction time (Peacock, Martin & Carr, 2013) in human subjects. However, in vitro, taurine did not alter caffeine-induced effects in human cardiac muscle tissue (Chaban et al., 2017) or mouse skeletal muscle tissue (Tallis et al., 2014). ...
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The current study investigated the independent and combined effects of caffeine and taurine on anxiety-like behavior and neuroendocrine responses in adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio ). Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione), the world’s most commonly used psychoactive drug, acts as an adenosine receptor blocker and a mild central nervous system stimulant. However, excessive use of caffeine is associated with heightened anxiety levels. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a semi-essential amino acid synthesized within the human brain, has been hypothesized to play a role in regulating anxiolytic behavior. Caffeine and taurine are two common additives in energy drinks and are often found in high concentrations in these beverages. However, few studies have investigated the interaction of these two chemicals with regards to anxiety measures. A suitable vertebrate to examine anxiety-like behavior and physiological stress responses is the zebrafish, which has shown promise due to substantial physiological and genetic homology with humans. Anxiety-like behavior in zebrafish can be determined by analyzing habituation to novelty when fish are placed into a novel tank and scototaxis (light avoidance) behavior in the light-dark test. Stress-related neuroendocrine responses can be measured in zebrafish by analyzing whole-body cortisol levels. The goal of this study was to determine if exposure to caffeine, taurine, or a combination of the two compounds altered anxiety-like behavior and whole-body cortisol levels in zebrafish relative to control. Zebrafish were individually exposed to either caffeine (100 mg/L), taurine (400 mg/L), or both for 15 min. Zebrafish in the control group were handled in the same manner but were only exposed to system tank water. After treatment, fish were transferred to the novel tank test or the light-dark test. Behavior was tracked for the first 6 min in the novel tank and 15 min in the light-tark test. Fifteen min after introduction to the behavioral task, fish were euthanized for the analysis of whole-body cortisol levels. The results demonstrate that caffeine treatment decreased the amount of exploration in the top of the novel tank and increased scototaxis behavior in the light-dark test, which supports the established anxiogenic effect of acute exposure to caffeine. Taurine alone did not alter basal levels of anxiety-like behavioral responses nor ameliorated the anxiogenic effects of caffeine on behavior when the two compounds were administered concurrently. None of the drug treatments altered basal levels of whole-body cortisol. The current results of this study suggest that, at least at this dose and time of exposure, taurine does not mitigate the anxiety-producing effects of caffeine when administered in combination, such as with energy drink consumption.
... La fonction endothéliale est un baromètre de la santé vasculaire, et une fonction endothéliale anormale appelée généralement « dysfonction endothéliale » est associée à un environnement vasculaire pro-vasoconstriction et pro-thrombotique, à l'inflammation, et à la promotion de la croissance cellulaire 52 Le second ingrédient le plus commun des BÉ est la taurine. La prépondérance des preuves suggère que la taurine serait davantage un antiarythmique qu'un proarythmique 58 . Du côté de la pression artérielle, la taurine est considérée comme ayant un effet hypotenseur à doses plus élevées, mais certains ont suggéré que l'augmentation de la tension artérielle qu'ils ont observée pourrait être stimulée par la présence d'inositol ou de taurine 59 . ...
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Les boissons énergisantes et le sport 2 Recommandations de l'AQMSE 1. L'AQMSE ne recommande pas la prise de boisson énergisante avant, pendant ou immédiatement après la pratique d'activités sportives. 2. L'AQMSE recommande une mention sur les contenants de boissons énergisantes qui s'apparenterait à la mise en garde concernant l'alcool, tel que « Ne pas consommer lors de l'activité physique ». 3. L'AQMSE recommande fortement aux jeunes ayant un problème cardiaque connu ou ayant une histoire familiale de mort subite de ne pas consommer de boisson énergisante. 4. L'AQMSE recommande de diminuer à 80 mg la quantité de caféine totale maximale permise dans un contenant donné. 5. L'AQMSE recommande l'inscription de la quantité totale de caféine sur chaque contenant de produits énergisants identifiés comme produit de santé naturel (par exemple, sur les concentrés énergisants dits « energy shot »). 6. L'AQMSE recommande que les boissons énergisantes soient formellement identifiées et soient vendues séparément des boissons de réhydratation pour sportifs et des boissons gazeuses. 7. L'AQMSE recommande d'augmenter l'éducation et la sensibilisation auprès des jeunes et de leurs entourages (parents, enseignants, entraineurs, fédérations sportives) sur les boissons énergisantes et leurs risques potentiels, particulièrement dans le cadre de la pratique d'une activité physique. 8. L'AQMSE recommande d'interdire la vente de boisson énergisante chez les 16 ans et moins. 9. L'AQMSE dénonce l'utilisation des boissons énergisantes jumelées à l'alcool donnant une fausse sensation de sécurité, entre autres, pour la conduite automobile. 10. L'AQMSE recommande aux médecins et aux consommateurs de rapporter au Centre antipoison et à Santé Canada les cas d'effets secondaires pouvant être reliés aux boissons énergisantes. 11. L'AQMSE recommande à Santé Canada de rendre disponible un formulaire de déclaration dédié à ces boissons, facile d'accès, pour récolter directement les informations auprès des consommateurs et ainsi en faire une surveillance spécifique. Les boissons énergisantes et le sport 3 Quiconque désirant porter plainte ou poser une question au sujet des boissons énergisantes : Inspectorat de la Direction générale des produits de santé et des aliments https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-canada/organisation/contactez-nous/inspectorat-sante-canada.html Pour les professionnels de la santé qui veulent rapporter des effets secondaires néfastes des produits de santé naturels : Déclarer un effet indésirable ou un incident lié à un instrument médical https://www.canada.ca/fr/sante-canada/services/medicaments-produits-sante/medeffetcanada/declaration-ef-fets-indesirables.html Pour rapporter un effet secondaire suite à la consommation des boissons énergisantes :-Site web de la compagnie de la boisson consommée-Agence canadienne d'inspection des aliments
... It is a crucial component of tea quality and is significantly related to the bitterness of tea. Nevertheless, excessive intake of caffeine has been reported to have some side effects for human health, such as increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease, palpitations, and insomnia 100,101 . The documentation of the genes controlling caffeine biosynthesis is therefore essential for the future of breeding new varieties with a low caffeine content. ...
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Tea is among the world’s most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages and possesses enormous economic, health, and cultural values. It is produced from the cured leaves of tea plants, which are important evergreen crops globally cultivated in over 50 countries. Along with recent innovations and advances in biotechnologies, great progress in tea plant genomics and genetics has been achieved, which has facilitated our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of tea quality and the evolution of the tea plant genome. In this review, we briefly summarize the achievements of the past two decades, which primarily include diverse genome and transcriptome sequencing projects, gene discovery and regulation studies, investigation of the epigenetics and noncoding RNAs, origin and domestication, phylogenetics and germplasm utilization of tea plant as well as newly developed tools/platforms. We also present perspectives and possible challenges for future functional genomic studies that will contribute to the acceleration of breeding programs in tea plants.
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Throughout the last decade, the use of energy drinks has been increasingly looked upon with caution as potentially dangerous due to their perceived strong concentration of caffeine aside from other substances such as taurine, guarana, and L-carnitine that are largely unknown to the general public. In addition, a large number of energy drink intoxications have been reported all over the world including cases of seizures and arrhythmias. In this paper, we focus on the effect of energy drinks on the cardiovascular system and whether the current ongoing call for the products’ sales and regulation of their contents should continue.
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In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI. It was found that CBF was improved for both left and right brain at 30 min and 7 days post-injury by taurine. Reaction time was prolonged relative to the TBI-only group. Neuronal damage was prevented by 7 days taurine. Mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and II showed greater activity with the taurine group. The improvement by taurine of CBF may alleviate edema and elevation in intracranial pressure. Importantly taurine improved the hypercoagulable state.
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Taurine is a semi-essential, the most abundant free amino acid in the human body, with a six times higher concentration in platelets than any other amino acid. It is highly beneficial for the organism, has many therapeutic actions, and is currently approved for heart failure treatment in Japan. Taurine has been repeatedly reported to elicit an inhibitory action on platelet activation and aggregation, sustained by in vivo, ex vivo, and in vitro animal and human studies. Taurine showed effectiveness in several pathologies involving thrombotic diathesis, such as diabetes, traumatic brain injury, acute ischemic stroke, and others. As human prospective studies on thrombosis outcome are very difficult to carry out, there is an obvious need to validate existing findings, and bring new compelling data about the mechanisms underlying taurine and derivatives antiplatelet action and their antithrombotic potential. Chloramine derivatives of taurine proved a higher stability and pronounced selectivity for platelet receptors, raising the assumption that they could represent future potential antithrombotic agents. Considering that taurine and its analogues display permissible side effects, along with the need of finding new, alternative antithrombotic drugs with minimal side effects and long-term action, the potential clinical relevance of this fascinating nutrient and its derivatives requires further consideration.
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Consumption of pre-workout supplements (PWS) has increased substantially in recent years. However, dosages of ingredients vary between manufacturers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze ingredients from various products and to survey past and present (4 weeks) consumption behavior. Analysis of ingredients was performed in 30 products according to manufacturer's specifications. Subsequently, online questionnaire was used to assess reasons for taking, timing and dosing of PWS in 39 recreational athletes (4 females; 35 males; 25.15 ± 3.67 years). Most prevalent ingredients in PWS were caffeine, beta-alanine, L-citrulline, L-arginine, L-tyrosine, taurine and creatine. Average dosing per serving were 254mg caffeine (125-410 mg), 2513 mg beta-alanine (500-4000 mg), L-citrulline 3506 mg (500-8000 mg), L-arginine 2726 mg (500-8000 mg), L-tyrosine 1227 mg (150-3000 mg), taurine 1211 mg (90-2500 mg) and creatine 3031 mg (1000-5000 mg). Average values were in (63%) or below (36%) the recommended ergogenic dosage. Major motives for PWS use were improved concentration, increased blood flow and delayed onset of fatigue. Most subjects consumed PWS 1-3 times per month. In most cases consumption took place 15-30 min before training. Manufacturers' recommendations for consumption were generally followed. A large number of subjects (82%) reported minor side effects from PWS consumption (e. g. paresthesia, insomnia, headache). Based on current research only caffeine, L-citrulline, L-arginine and taurine show relevant direct performance-enhancing effects, while the benefit of beta-alanine, L-tyrosine and creatine in PWS seems highly questionable. Dosages of ingredients were safe, but often too low to increase performance.
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Lipid metabolism disorders such as hypertriglyceridemia and hypercholesterolemia are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis that are grave public health issues. Taurine, a sulfur-containing non-essential amino acid exerts a wide range of physiological effects that regulate lipid metabolic disorders. Although the effects of taurine on lipid-lowering have been reported in animals and humans, mechanisms elucidating the lipid-lowering action of taurine remain unclear. A series of molecular regulators associated with lipid metabolism have been identified in the past few decades. These include nuclear receptors, transcription factors, and enzymes that undergo important changes during taurine treatment. In this review, we focus on the role of taurine in lipid metabolism and discuss taurine-related interventions in combating lipid disorders.
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Background Aluminum phosphide (AlP) causes severe cardiotoxicity. Taurine has been chosen for the present study because of its positive known effects on cardiac injuries. Method To evaluate AlP-induced cardiotoxicity, the animals were divided into seven groups, including the control group, the taurine group (500 mg/kg), AlP with LD50 dose, AlP + taurine 20, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg group. To assess cardiac hemodynamic parameters, Wistar rats received taurine intraperitoneally 60 min after AlP gavage. Cardiac hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for 180 min. To study biochemical parameters, 24 h after AlP treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and heart tissues were collected. Result ECG, BP, and HR abnormalities of AlP poisoning were improved by taurine treatment. AlP induced biochemical alterations including complexes I and IV activities, the ADP/ATP ratio, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome C release, and oxidative stress biomarkers ameliorated by taurine. Moreover, taurine improved apoptosis, as well as lessened CK-MB and troponin I levels. Also, there were no significant changes between taurine 500 mg/kg and the control group in tests. Conclusion The present findings showed that taurine could be a possible candidate for AlP cardiotoxicity treatment via the effect on mitochondrial electron transfer chain and maintaining intracellular ATP balance.
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Liver fibrosis is a significant health problem that can cause serious illness and death. Unfortunately, a standard treatment for liver fibrosis has not been approved yet due to its complicated pathogenesis. The current study aimed at assessing the anti-fibrotic effect of taurine against thioacetamide induced liver fibrosis in rats through the modulation of toll like receptor 4/nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathway. Both concomitant and late taurine treatment (100 mg/kg, IP, daily) significantly reduced the rise in serum ALT and AST activities and significantly reversed the decrease in serum albumin and total protein. These results were confirmed by histopathological examinations and immunehistochemical inspection of α-SMA, caspase-3 and NF-κB. The antioxidant potential of taurine was verified by a marked increase of GSH content and a reduction of MDA level in liver tissue. The anti-fibrotic effects of taurine were evaluated by investigating the expression of TLR4, NF-κB. The protein levels of IL-6, LPS, MyD88, MD2, CD14, TGF-β1 and TNF-α were determined. Docking studies were carried out to understand how taurine interacts inside TLR4-MD2 complex and it showed good binding with the hydrophobic binding site of MD2. We concluded that the anti-fibrotic effect of taurine was attributable to the modulation of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling.
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This book focuses on how to induce clinical arrhythmias in the electrophysiology (EP) laboratory, a procedure that is indispensable for analyzing the underlying mechanisms, and identifying the most effective treatment of the arrhythmia. In the main part of the book, the authors share their own experiences with 13 different medications that can be injected or infused for arrhythmia induction – ranging from isoprenaline and atropine to ephedrine – all of which can be easily found in any cardiology department. Each chapter begins with a description of the drug’s chemical structure and mechanism of actions, then illustrates the infusion preparation, dosage and side effects and lastly analyzes its electrophysiological properties and highlights the most important clinical studies on it. For each drug the authors list – in dedicated tables – administration protocols from their own hospital. This book is of interest to postgraduate students, cardiology residents, cardiologists and pediatric cardiologists with special interest in arrhythmias, as well as to trainees, technicians and nurses involved in the EP lab.
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In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.
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Energy drinks have become a widely popular choice among consumers and are marketed as caffeinated beverages that enhance attention, athletic performance, and short-term cognition. These drinks, with their high-sugar mixtures and additives promising performance-enhancing capabilities packaged in a palatable formula, have seen tremendous growth in the dietary supplement industry, particularly aimed at the young adult population. A recent comprehensive assessment on the impact and growth of the energy drink industry in the United States since 2002 has demonstrated a 500% growth rate over 5 years with such beverages accounting for over half of the functional beverage market in America. However, shortly after their introduction into the market, reports of highly deleterious effects of these beverages on the cardiovascular system including sudden cardiac death swept the media in several high-profile cases, allegedly in connection with consumption of large amounts of energy drinks. This chapter intends to analyze the scientific basis of such claims, to analyze the various components of energy drinks and to determine the preponderance of evidence demonstrating the arrhythmogenic effects of energy drinks.
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During the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases, first cause of deaths in the world, diet has a vital role. While nutrition programs for the cardiovascular health generally focus on lipids and carbohydrates, effects of proteins are not well concerned. Thus this review is written in order to examine effect of proteins, amino acids, and the other amine consisting compounds on cardiovascular system. Because of that animal or plant derived proteins have different protein composition in different foods such as dairy products, egg, meat, chicken, fish, pulse and grains, their effects on blood pressure and regulation of lipid profile are unlike. In parallel amino acids made up proteins have different effect on cardiovascular system. From this point, sulfur containing amino acids, branched chain amino acids, aromatic amino acids, arginine, ornithine, citrulline, glycine, and glutamine may affect cardiovascular system in different metabolic pathways. In this context, one carbon metabolism, synthesis of hormone, stimulation of signaling pathways and effects of intermediate and final products that formed as a result of amino acids metabolism is determined. Despite the protein and amino acids, some other amine consisting compounds in diet include trimethylamine N-oxide, heterocyclic aromatic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and products of Maillard reaction. These amine consisting compounds generally increase the risk for cardiovascular diseases by stimulating oxidative stress, inflammation, and formation of atherosclerotic plaque.
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Chapter
Nowadays, functional foods are generally recognised by consumers as healthier and more beneficial than the traditionals. Numerous studies have proved the effectivity of these types of products in the treatment and prevention of some pathologies such as cardiovascular disease and hypertension. Hence, the food industry is continuously innovating and developing new items in this field. Within this framework, beverages are one of the functional food matrices that have the most acceptances. Functional beverages are ready-to-consume and therefore a simple and easy way to increase the consumption of healthy compounds. Regarding its formulation, fruits and vegetables are considered as ideal ingredients due to its richness in a broad variety of bioactive compounds. In this chapter, a complete revision of the state of the art of the functional beverages in all its varieties, from juice-based products to energy drinks, and the latest trends in their formulation is presented.
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Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ⩾2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (⩽10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population.
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We previously reported that taurine chloramine (TauCl), a product of activated neutrophils, inhibits the generation of macrophage inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and PGE2. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in the cytosol of neutrophils, is chlorinated to form TauCl by the halide-dependent myeloperoxidase (MPO) system. Under physiological conditions, TauCl reduces HOCl toxicity. In this study, we investigated the influence of TauCl on generation of oxygen free radicals, cytokines and eicosanoids by activated murine peritoneal neutrophils. We found that TauCl, but not taurine alone, inhibited the production of NO, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α, in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, the products of the respiratory burst, as measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (LCL), were reduced by both taurine and TauCl. However, taurine affected LCL at higher concentrations and to a lesser extent than TauCl. The results of these studies suggest that TauCl decreases production of tissue-damaging inflammatory mediators and may regulate the balance between protective, microbicidal and toxic effect of neutrophils.
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To describe the epidemiology and toxicity of caffeinated energy drink exposures in Australia. Retrospective observational study analysing data from calls regarding energy drink exposures recorded in the database of an Australian poisons information centre over 7 years to 2010. Type of exposure; co-ingestants; symptoms reported; and reported hospitalisations. Callers reported 297 exposures to energy drinks, which showed an increasing annual trend from 12 in 2004 to 65 in 2010. Median age for the 217 subjects with recreational exposure was 17 years (interquartile ratio [IQR], 15-21; range, 11-60) and 57% were male. One hundred recreational users co-ingested other substances, predominantly alcohol (50) or other caffeinated products (44). The number of energy drinks consumed in one session varied greatly (median, 5 units; IQR, 3-8; range, 1-80). Most subjects who reported recreational use reported experiencing symptoms (87%). The most common symptoms were palpitations, agitation, tremor and gastrointestinal upset. Twenty-one subjects had signs of serious cardiac or neurological toxicity, including hallucinations, seizures, arrhythmias or cardiac ischaemia. At least 128 subjects (57 with no co-ingestants) required hospitalisation. Reports of caffeine toxicity from energy drink consumption are increasing, particularly among adolescents, warranting review and regulation of the labelling and sale of these drinks. Educating adolescents and increasing the community's awareness of the hazards from energy drinks is of paramount importance.
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The effect of coffee and caffeine on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in hypertensive persons is uncertain. The objective was to summarize the evidence on the acute and longer-term effects of caffeine and coffee intake on BP and on the association between habitual coffee consumption and risk of CVD in hypertensive individuals. A systematic review and meta-analysis of publications identified in a PubMed and EMBASE search up to 30 April 2011 was undertaken. Data were extracted from controlled trials on the effect of caffeine or coffee intake on BP change and from cohort studies on the association between habitual coffee consumption and CVD. In 5 trials, the administration of 200-300 mg caffeine produced a mean increase of 8.1 mm Hg (95% CI: 5.7, 10.6 mm Hg) in systolic BP and of 5.7 mm Hg (95% CI: 4.1, 7.4 mm Hg) in diastolic BP. The increase in BP was observed in the first hour after caffeine intake and lasted ≥3 h. In 3 studies of the longer-term effect (2 wk) of coffee, no increase in BP was observed after coffee was compared with a caffeine-free diet or was compared with decaffeinated coffee. Last, 7 cohort studies found no evidence of an association between habitual coffee consumption and a higher risk of CVD. In hypertensive individuals, caffeine intake produces an acute increase in BP for ≥3 h. However, current evidence does not support an association between longer-term coffee consumption and increased BP or between habitual coffee consumption and an increased risk of CVD in hypertensive subjects.
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An important function of the β-amino acid, taurine, is the regulation of oxidative stress. However, taurine is neither a classical scavenger nor a regulator of the antioxidative defenses, leaving uncertain the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine. In the present study, the taurine antagonist and taurine transport inhibitor, β-alanine, was used to examine the mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine. Exposure of isolated cardiomyocytes to medium containing β-alanine for a period of 48 h led to a 45% decrease in taurine content and an increase in mitochondrial oxidative stress, as evidenced by enhanced superoxide generation, the inactivation of the oxidant sensitive enzyme, aconitase, and the oxidation of glutathione. Associated with the increase in oxidative stress was a decline in electron transport activity, with the activities of respiratory chain complexes I and III declining 50-65% and oxygen consumption falling 30%. A reduction in respiratory chain activity coupled with an increase in oxidative stress is commonly caused by the development of a bottleneck in electron transport that leads to the diversion of electrons from the respiratory chain to the acceptor oxygen forming in the process superoxide. Because β-alanine exposure significantly reduces the levels of respiratory chain complex subunits, ND5 and ND6, the bottleneck in electron transport appears to be caused by impaired synthesis of key subunits of the electron transport chain complexes. Co-administration of taurine with β-alanine largely prevents the mitochondrial effects of β-alanine, but treatment of the cells with 5 mM taurine in the absence of β-alanine has no effect on the mitochondria, likely because taurine treatment has little effect on cellular taurine levels. Thus, taurine serves as a regulator of mitochondrial protein synthesis, thereby enhancing electron transport chain activity and protecting the mitochondria against excessive superoxide generation.
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To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.
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Energy drinks and highly caffeinated drinks comprise some of the fastest growing products of the beverage industry, often targeting teenagers and young adults. Cardiac arrhythmias in children related to high caffeine consumption have not been well described in the literature. This case series describes the possible association between the consumption of highly caffeinated drinks and the subsequent development of atrial fibrillation in the adolescent population. We report the cases of two Caucasian adolescent boys of 14 and 16 years of age at the time of presentation, each without a significant cardiac history, who presented with palpitations or vague chest discomfort or both after a recent history of excessive caffeine consumption. Both were found to have atrial fibrillation on electrocardiogram; one patient required digoxin to restore a normal sinus rhythm, and the other self-converted after intravenous fluid administration. With the increasing popularity of energy drinks in the pediatric and adolescent population, physicians should be aware of the arrhythmogenic potential associated with highly caffeinated beverage consumption. It is important for pediatricians to understand the lack of regulation in the caffeine content and other ingredients of these high-energy beverages and their complications so that parents and children can be educated about the risk of cardiac arrhythmias with excessive energy drink consumption.
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Islet transplantation provides a promising cure for Type 1 diabetes; however it is limited by a shortage of pancreas donors. Bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer renewable cells for generating insulin-producing cells (IPCs). We used a four-stage differentiation protocol, containing neuronal differentiation and IPC-conversion stages, and combined with pellet suspension culture to induce IPC differentiation. Here, we report adding extracellular matrix proteins (ECM) such as fibronectin (FN) or laminin (LAM) enhances pancreatic differentiation with increases in insulin and Glut2 gene expressions, proinsulin and insulin protein levels, and insulin release in response to elevated glucose concentration. Adding FN or LAM induced activation of Akt and ERK. Blocking Akt or ERK by adding LY294002 (PI3K specific inhibitor), PD98059 (MEK specific inhibitor) or knocking down Akt or ERK failed to abrogate FN or LAM-induced enhancement of IPC differentiation. Only blocking both of Akt and ERK or knocking down Akt and ERK inhibited the enhancement of IPC differentiation by adding ECM. These data prove IPC differentiation by MSCs can be modulated by adding ECM, and these stimulatory effects were mediated through activation of Akt and ERK pathways.
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The effects of taurine on plasma and liver cholesterol, erythrocyte ouabain sensitive Na efflux and platelet aggregation were examined in Sprague Dawley rats fed control or 0.5% cholesterol with 0.2% cholate diet. Plasma and liver levels of total cholesterol were increased significantly (p<0.05) in rats fed cholesterol diet compared to the control, and taurine significantly decreased the elevated plasma level of cholesterol in rats fed cholesterol diet (p<0.05). HDL-cholesterol was decreased in groups fed the cholesterol diet regardless of taurine supplementation and the difference between groups with and without cholesterol was significant (p<0.01). Plasma triglyceride was decreased and liver triglyceride was increased both significantly (p<0.05) in rats fed cholesterol compared to the control. Plasma and liver triglyceride in rats fed taurine was decreased significantly compared to the control (p<0.05). Intracellular Na tended to be lower in rats fed cholesterol or taurine and higher in rats fed cholesterol plus taurine compared to the control. Na efflux through Na-K ATPase and the passive leak of Na was somewhat reduced in rats fed cholesterol or taurine and was augmented in rats fed cholesterol plus taurine compared to the control, which showed a similar trend to the intracellular Na. Taurine supplementation caused a suppression of Na efflux in groups fed control diet and restored the suppressed Na efflux in groups fed cholesterol. Platelet aggregation was significantly decreased in the group fed taurine compared to the control (p<0.05) and the group fed cholesterol plus taurine was also a little lower in aggregation than the group fed cholesterol. Microscopic examination showed that taurine prevented fatty liver in rats fed cholesterol diet. Taurine known for stimulating Na-K ATPase in some cell types rather decreased erythrocyte ouabain sensitive Na-K ATPase in the present study. Taurine had hypolipidemic and hypocholesterolemic effects and inhibited platelet aggregation which may be favorable for prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
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Caffeine is one of the most widely consumed pharmacologically active substances. Its acute effect on myocardial blood flow is widely unknown. Our aim was to assess the acute effect of caffeine in a dose corresponding to two cups of coffee on myocardial blood flow (MBF) in coronary artery disease (CAD). MBF was measured with (15)O-labelled H2O and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at rest and after supine bicycle exercise in controls (n = 15, mean age 58+/-13 years) and in CAD patients (n = 15, mean age 61+/-9 years). In the latter, regional MBF was assessed in segments subtended by stenotic and remote coronary arteries. All measurements were repeated fifty minutes after oral caffeine ingestion (200 mg). Myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) was calculated as ratio of MBF during bicycle stress divided by MBF at rest. Resting MBF was not affected by caffeine in both groups. Exercise-induced MBF response decreased significantly after caffeine in controls (2.26+/-0.56 vs. 2.02+/-0.56, P<0.005), remote (2.40+/-0.70 vs. 1.78+/-0.46, P<0.001) and in stenotic segments (1.90+/-0.41 vs. 1.38+/-0.30, P<0.001). Caffeine decreased MPR significantly by 14% in controls (P<0.05 vs. baseline). In CAD patients MPR decreased by 18% (P<0.05 vs. baseline) in remote and by 25% in stenotic segments (P<0.01 vs. baseline). We conclude that caffeine impairs exercise-induced hyperaemic MBF response in patients with CAD to a greater degree than age-matched controls.
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The longitudinal relationship between coffee use and hypertension is still controversial. Cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) is the main responsible enzyme for the metabolism of caffeine. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of coffee intake on the risk of developing hypertension needing antihypertensive treatment in individuals stratified by CYP1A2 genotype. We assessed prospectively 553 young White individuals screened for stage 1 hypertension. Coffee intake was ascertained from regularly administered questionnaires. Incident physician-diagnosed hypertension was the outcome measure. Genotyping of CYP1A2 SNP was performed by real time PCR. During a median follow-up of 8.2 years, 323 individuals developed hypertension. For carriers of the slow *1F allele (59%), hazard ratios of hypertension from multivariable Cox analysis were 1.00 in abstainers (reference), 1.72 (95%CI, 1.21-2.44) in moderate coffee drinkers (P = 0.03), and 3.00 (1.53-5.90) in heavy drinkers (P = 0.001). In contrast, hazard ratios for coffee drinkers with the rapid *1A/*1A genotype were 0.80 (0.52-1.23, P = 0.29) for moderate drinkers and 0.36 (0.14-0.89, P = 0.026) for heavy drinkers. In a two-way ANCOVA, a gene x coffee interactive effect was found on follow-up changes in systolic (P = 0.000) and diastolic (P = 0.007) blood pressure. Urinary epinephrine was higher in coffee drinkers than abstainers but only among individuals with slow *1F allele (P = 0.001). These data show that the risk of hypertension associated with coffee intake varies according to CYP1A2 genotype. Carriers of slow *1F allele are at increased risk and should thus abstain from coffee, whereas individuals with *1A/*1A genotype can safely drink coffee.
Article
Introduction: “Energy drinks” are very popular and are used frequently, especially by young adults. Most marketed energy drinks contain high levels of caffeine and taurine. Both caffeine and taurine have been shown to have direct effects on cardiac function and hemodynamic status. Hypothesis: We assessed the hypothesis that a commonly used energy drink alters blood pressure, heart rate and EKG parameters in healthy volunteers. Methods: Healthy volunteers (n = 15, 53% female, 25.9 ± 5.9 years, 69.8 ± 14.8 kg) abstained from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and throughout the study period. On study day 1 (D1), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and an EKG were measured at baseline. Participants then consumed 500 mL (2 cans) of an energy drink containing caffeine (80 mg) and taurine (1000 mg) and BP, HR and EKG measurements were repeated at 30 minutes, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after consumption. Participants then consumed 2 cans of energy drink daily for the next 5 days (D2–D6). On day 7 (D7) the procedures followed on D1 were repeated. Average baseline measurements on days 1 and 7 were compared to maximum values during that observation period. Results: On both D1 and D7, maximum mean systolic BP, HR and corrected QT-interval (QTc) occurred at 4 hours. Maximum diastolic BP occurred at 2 hours on D1 and D7. Baseline and maximum mean values are presented in Table 1 . Within 4 hours of energy drink consumption on D1 and D7 respectively, systolic BP increased by 7.9% (p = 0.006) and 9.6% (p < 0.001), HR increased by 7.8% (p = 0.009) and 11.0% (p < 0.001) and QTc increased by 4.5% (p = 0.368) and 5.5% (p = 0.052). Diastolic BP increased by 7.0% (p = 0.046) and 7.8% (p = 0.063) within 2 hours of energy drink consumption. Conclusions: In conclusion, although no significant EKG changes were observed, subjects’ HR increased 5–7 bpm and systolic BP increased 10mmHg after consuming an “energy drink”. This level of change is likely clinically significant in patients with cardiac disease or those who consume such drinks regularly. Table 1. Baseline and Maximum Values (mean ± SD)
Article
Taurine (T) was first noted as beneficial for stroke and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) prevention in genetic rat models, stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). The preventive mechanisms of T were ascribed to sympathetic modulation for reducing blood pressure (BP) and anti-inflammatory action. Recent epidemiological surveys revealed the involvement of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of stroke end also atherosclerosis for which T was proven to be effective experimentally. Arterio-lipidosis prone rats, a sub-strain of SHRSP selectively bred for higher reactive hypercholesterolemia, quickly develop not only arterial fat deposition but also fatty liver which could be attenuated by dietary T supplementation. CARDIAC (CVD and Alimentary Comparison) Study was a WHO-coordinated multi-center epidemiological survey on diets and CVD risks and mortalities in 61 populations. Twenty-four-hour urinary (24U) T was inversely related significantly with coronary heart disease mortality. Higher 24U-T excreters had significantly lower body mass index, systolic and diastolic BP, total cholesterol (T-Cho), and atherogenic index (AI: T-Cho/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) than lower T excreters. T effects on CVD risks were intensified in individuals whose 24U-T and -magnesium (M) excretions were higher. Furthermore, higher Na excreters with higher heart rate whose BP were significantly higher than those with lower heart rate were divided into two groups by the mean of 24U-T, high and low T excreters. Since the former showed significantly lower BP than the latter, T may beneficially affect salt-sensitive BP rise. Included among the typical 61 populations, were Guiyang, China or St. John's, Newfoundland, Canada, in which the means of both 24U-T and -M were high or low, respectively. The former and the latter had low and high CVD risks, respectively. Australian Aboriginals living at the coastal area in Victoria were supposed to eat T- and M-rich bush and sea foods and be free from CVD 200 years ago, but they presently have nearly the highest CVD risks indicating that T- and/or M-containing seafood, vegetables, fruits, nuts, milk, etc, similar to prehistoric hunters' and gatherers' food should be good for CVD prevention. The preventive effects of T, good for health and longevity, first noted experimentally, were also proven epidemiologically in humans.
Article
Sports and energy drinks are being marketed to children and adolescents for a wide variety of inappropriate uses. Sports drinks and energy drinks are significantly different products, and the terms should not be used interchangeably. The primary objectives of this clinical report are to define the ingredients of sports and energy drinks, categorize the similarities and differences between the products, and discuss misuses and abuses. Secondary objectives are to encourage screening during annual physical examinations for sports and energy drink use, to understand the reasons why youth consumption is widespread, and to improve education aimed at decreasing or eliminating the inappropriate use of these beverages by children and adolescents. Rigorous review and analysis of the literature reveal that caffeine and other stimulant substances contained in energy drinks have no place in the diet of children and adolescents. Furthermore, frequent or excessive intake of caloric sports drinks can substantially inc
Article
Taurine mediates a plethora of membrane-linked effects in excitable tissues. To account for these multiple actions, four hypotheses have been proposed. One theory is based on the observation that taurine diminishes the inflammatory response of several cytotoxic oxidants. It is proposed that a reduction in the extent of membrane oxidative injury contributes to these cytoprotective actions. The second theory maintains that alterations in protein phosphorylation may underlie certain effects of taurine, particularly its effect on calcium transport. The third hypothesis assumes that the interaction of taurine with the neutral phospholipids leads to altered membrane calcium binding and function. The final theory ties the actions of taurine to inhibition of phospholipid N-methylation and the resulting changes in membrane composition and structure. While each of these hypotheses has merit, none of them can fully explain the membrane actions of taurine. Further studies are required to ascertain the importance of each theory.
Article
To determine the effect of a taurine-enriched drink “Red Bull” on performance, 10 endurance-athletes performed three trials. After 60 min. cycling at approximately 70% VO2 max, the subjects pedalled to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. During each exercise, the subjects received 500 ml of a test-drink after 30 min. submaximal cycling: “Red Bull” without taurine, without glucuronolacton (U1), “Red Bull” without taurine, without glucuronolacton, without caffeine (U2) and “Red Bull” original drink containing taurine, glucuronolacton and caffeine (U3). The heart rate level was significantly lower in U3 (p = 0,0031) 15 min. after application. The plasma catecholamines increased slightly from begin of exercise to 15 min. after application of the drinks in all trials but remained on a significantly lower level in U3 (epinephrine (p = 0,0011) and norepinephrine (p = 0,0003). Endurance time was significantly longer with “Red Bull” original in U3 (p = 0,015). The results of this study show a positive effect of a taurine-containing drink on hormonal responses which leads to a higher performance.
Article
Adaptation of cells to hypertonicity often involves changes in gene expression. Since the concentration of salt in the interstitial fluid surrounding renal inner medullary cells varies with operation of the renal concentrating mechanism and generally is very high, the adaptive mechanisms of these cells are of special interest. Renal medullary cells compensate for hypertonicity by accumulating variable amounts of compatible organic osmolytes, including sorbitol, myo-inositol, glycine betaine, and taurine. In this review we consider how these solutes help relieve the stress of hypertonicity and the nature of transporters and enzymes responsible for their variable accumulation. We emphasize recent developments concerning the molecular basis for osmotic regulation of these genes, including identification and characterization of osmotic response elements. Although osmotic stresses are much smaller in other parts of the body than in the renal medulla, similar mechanisms operate throughout, yielding important physiological and pathophysiological consequences.
Article
Background and purpose: Few prospective studies have examined the impact of both green tea and coffee consumption on strokes. We investigated the association of the combination of those consumption with stroke incidence in a general population. Methods: We studied 82 369 Japanese (aged 45-74 years; without cardiovascular disease [CVD] or cancer in 1995 and 1998 for Cohort I and II, respectively) who received 13 years of mean follow-up through the end of 2007. Green tea and coffee consumption was assessed by self-administered food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Results: In the 1 066 718 person-years of follow-up, we documented the incidence of strokes (n=3425) and coronary heart disease (n=910). Compared with seldom drinking green tea, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.86 (0.78-0.95) and 0.80 (0.73-0.89) in green tea 2 to 3 and ≥ 4 cups/d, respectively. Higher green tea consumption was associated with inverse risks of CVD and strokes subtypes. Compared with seldom drinking coffee, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of all strokes were 0.89 (0.80-0.99), 0.80 (0.72-0.90), and 0.81 (0.72-0.91) for coffee 3 to 6 times/week and 1 and ≥ 2 times/day, respectively. Coffee consumption was associated with an inverse risk of CVD and cerebral infarction. Higher green tea or coffee consumption reduced the risks of CVD and stroke subtypes (especially in intracerebral hemorrhage, P for interaction between green tea and coffee=0.04). None of the significant association was observed in coronary heart disease. Conclusions: Higher green tea and coffee consumption were inversely associated with risk of CVD and stroke in general population.
Article
Taurine is an abundant β-amino acid that concentrates in the mitochondria, where it participates in the conjugation of tRNAs for leucine, lysine, glutamate and glutamine. The formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA strengthens the interaction of the anticodon with the codon, thereby promoting the decoding of several codons, including those for AAG, UUG, CAG and GAG. By preventing these series of events, taurine deficiency appears to diminish the formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine and causes inefficient decoding for the mitochondrial codons of leucine, lysine, glutamate and glutamine. The resulting reduction in the biosynthesis of mitochondria-encoded proteins deprives the respiratory chain of subunits required for the assembly of respiratory chain complexes. Hence, taurine deficiency is associated with a reduction in oxygen consumption, an elevation in glycolysis and lactate production and a decline in ATP production. A similar sequence of events takes place in mitochondrial diseases MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) and MERRF (myoclonic epilepsy and ragged-red fiber syndrome). In both diseases, mutations in their respective tRNAs interfere with the formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine in the wobble position. Hence, the taurine-deficient phenotype resembles the phenotypes of MELAS and MERRF.
Article
Background: Caffeine is added to dietary supplements to increase energy and suppress appetite. Many people take dietary supplements for weight loss. Patients may be unaware that supplements can contain caffeine, even if caffeine is not listed as an ingredient. Commonly used herbal dietary supplement ingredients, such as guarana, are natural sources of caffeine. Objective: To describe a case of possible caffeine-induced seizure in a patient taking an over-the-counter weight loss supplement. Case report: A previously healthy 38-year-old female experienced blurring of vision and a new onset grand mal seizure. The patient had a two-month history of taking the dietary supplement, Zantrex - 3™. Zantrex - 3™ is advertised as a weight loss supplement which may provide rapid weight loss and extreme energy in one "power packed pill." Conclusions/summary: After discontinuation of Zantrex - 3™, the patient experienced no further seizure activity. Outpatient follow up at 2 and 6 weeks was noncontributory with follow up MRI and EEG both within normal limits.
Article
Introduction: Prevention of arterial thrombotic diseases has high priority in developed countries. Taurine (2-aminomethylsulfonic acid), which is rich in sea foods, showed antithrombotic effect in animal models of thrombosis. The present study aimed to investigate such effect in healthy human volunteers. Methods and results: In 101 healthy Japanese people the overall thrombotic status was accessed from non-anticoagulated blood sample by the Global Thrombosis Test (GTT). There was no significant correlation between taurine concentration in urine samples and GTT-Occlusion Times (OT; mainly reactivity of platelets). In contrast, a significant inverse correlation was demonstrated between urine taurine concentrations and GTT-Lysis Times (LT; showing spontaneous thrombolytic activity). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that taurine enhances endogenous thrombolytic activity which could be a mechanism of the earlier observed cardioprotective and antithrombotic effect.
Article
All cells including neurons and glial cells are able to keep their volume within a very limited range. The volume regulatory mechanism involves changes in the concentration of osmolytes of which taurine appears to be of particular importance in brain cells. Swelling in brain cells may occur as a result of depolarization or small fluctuations in osmolarity. In isolated brain cells these conditions will always lead to a release of taurine, the time course of which is superimposable on that of the volume regulatory decrease which follows the initial cell swelling. The mechanism responsible for taurine release associated with swelling has not been fully elucidated but a large body of evidence seems to exclude participation of the taurme high affinity carrier. Using a number of inhibitors of anion exchangers it has been demonstrated that both volume regulation and taurine release in brain cells are inhibited by these drugs, implicating an anion channel in the process. It has be controversial issue as to whether or not taurine release is Ca++ dependent. Recent evidence appears to suggest that the release process is not associated with Ca++ or Ca++ channels. It is, however, quite possible that the swelling process may involve the Ca++ calmodulin system or other second messengers. Taurine also contributes to volume regulation after shrinkage of brain cells, in this case by increasing its intracellular concentration. This change is accomplished byan upregulation of the Na+/taurine cotransporter, together with reduced passive fluxes and increased endogenous synthesis.
Article
We investigated in conscious, freely moving rats whether the release of GABA, taurine and arginine in the hypothalamus is influenced by impulses originating from peripheral baroreceptors. The posterior hypothalamic nucleus was superfused with artificial cerebrospinal fluid through a push-push cannula and the release of amino acids was determined in the hypothalamic superfusate of control rats, as well as of rats after bilateral aortic denervation (AD). AD led to hypertension and increased the lability of arterial pressure. In sham-operated rats, intravenous infusion of phenylephrine increased blood pressure and the hypothalamic release of GABA and taurine. AD almost abolished the phenylephrine-induced release of the inhibitory amino acids. Similarly, the pressor response to hypervolaemia, elicited by blood injection, enhanced the release rates of GABA and taurine only in sham-operated rats. Baroreceptor unloading evoked either by intravenous infusion of nitroprusside, or by haemorrhage, decreased the release rates of GABA and taurine in sham-operated rats but not in AD rats. Electrical stimulation of the afferent aortic depressor nerve enhanced extracellular GABA and taurine in the posterior hypothalamic nucleus. The release rate of arginine was not influenced by alterations in baroreceptor activity either in sham-operated or in AD rats. The findings support the idea that, in the hypothalamus,GABA and taurine are involved in central blood pressure regulation. The release of these two amino acids seems to be driven tonically by baroreceptor impulses. Moreover, the findings indicate that the baroreceptors of the aortic arch play a crucial role in the mediation of changes in hypothalamic GABA and taurine outflow so as to counteract blood pressure fluctuations.
Article
This report summarises the case of a 19-year-old male, with a history of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, who presented to hospital with an acute chest pain. An electrocardiographic and biochemical diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction was made; however, subsequent coronary angiography and echocardiography were both normal. In the week preceding the admission, the patient had consumed large quantities of a popular energy drink and the authors believe this may have implicated the development of his coronary event. This is an association that has been suggested previously and this report briefly summarises the evidence supporting the connection.
Article
Taurine is a non-protein sulfur aminoacid widely distributed in mammalian tissues, with poorly understood functions. Taurine administration has a variety of hemodynamic effects, including improvement of cardiac function and suppression of sympathetic activity. Increased urinary volume and sodium excretion have been reported in taurine-fed hamsters. Since patients with ascitic liver cirrhosis have severe hemodynamic and renal abnormalities potentially sensitive to taurine feeding, we evaluated the effects of the i.v. infusion of taurine on urinary flow and sodium excretion and on the hormones involved in the control of hydrosaline homeostatis. Eight cirrhotic patients with tense ascites were given an i.v. bolus of taurine (16 μmoles in 40 ml of saline). The next day patients were given saline only, as a control. Diuresis, urinary sodium and plasma renin activity, aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide and arginin vasopressine were measured for the following 6 hrs. Plasma taurine increased ten fold after infusion, then decreased exponentially. No side effects were recorded. After taurine, but not after saline, there was a prompt and significant increase in both urinary volume and sodium excretion. Diuresis increased from 340±43 to 817±116 μl/min (p<0.01); urinary sodium from 13.8±3 to 26.3±4 μmoles/min (p<0.05). Both values returned to normal after 2–3 hrs. Taurine infusion caused a concomitant significant decrease in plasma renin activity (from 7.7±2.2 to 4.3±1.9 ng/ml/hr, p<0.05) and aldosterone (from 588±47 to 348±89 pg/ml, p<0.05), but no changes in atrial natriuretic peptide and arginin vasopressine. We conclude that i.v. taurine infusion in ascitic cirrhosis promotes a transient diuresis and natriuresis, apparently through the inhibition of the renin-aldosterone axis.
Article
The effects of dietary supplementation of taurine or glycine, the two amino acids involved in bile acid conjugation in the liver, on plasma and hepatic lipid concentrations were evaluated in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Three groups of male rats (140∼150g) were fed a cholesterol-free diet (CFD), a taurine-supplemented diet (TSD; CFD + 1.5% taurine) or a glycine-supplemented diet (GSD; CFD + 1.5% glycine) for 5 weeks. There was no significant difference in organ weights and cumulative body weight gain between groups at the end of the experimental period. Plasma triglyceride level was significantly lower in rats fed the TSD (53% decrease, P<0.001) compared to those fed the CFD. Both TSD and GSD significantly lowered the plasma levels of total cholesterol (40% decrease in TSD, p<0.001 and 27% decrease in GSD, p<0.001, respectively) and LDL-plus VLDL-cholesterol (50% decrease in TSD, p<0.05 and 39% decrease in GSD, p<0.01, respectively) compared to the values for CFD. Liver cholesterol concentration was not significantly influenced by the dietary supplementation of taurine or glycine. However, both TSD and GSD showed significantly lower hepatic triglyceride concentrations (43% and 53% decreases in TSD and GSD, p<0.001, respectively), and elevated hepatic free fatty acid levels (77% increases in both groups, p<0.001) compared to the values for CFD. These results suggest the possible roles of dietary taurine or glycine as hypocholesterolemic and/or hypotriglyceridemic agents.
1.Taurine has recently been known to protect against ischemia and heart failure. Taurine possesses plenty of actions on the ion channels and transports, but is very non-specific.2.Taurine may directly and indirectly help to regulate the [Ca]i level by modulating the activity of the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (also dependent on [Ca]i/[Ca]o), by regulation of Na+ channels, and secondly via Na-Ca exchange and Na+-taurine cotransport.3.Taurine can prevent the Ca2+ ([Ca]o or [Ca]i)-induced cardiac functions.4.Therefore, it seems possible that taurine could exert the potent cardioprotective actions even under the condition of low [Ca]i level as well as under the Ca2+ overload condition.5.The electrophysiological actions of taurine on cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and neurons from recent studies are summarized.
1.Effects of taurine on the fast Na+ current (INa) in isolated guinea pig ventricular cardiomyocytes were examined by using the whole-cell voltage-clamp method. Experiments were performed at room temperature (22°C).2.Test pulses were applied from −60 to +40 mV from a holding potential of −90 mV. Addition of taurine to the bath solution markedly inhibited the INa in a concentration-dependent manner; at −30 mV, by 39.0±4.1% (n=8, P<0.01) at 10 mM and by 56.1±4.7% (n=9, P<0.001) at 20 mM.3.Simultaneously, the time constant of inactivation phase for INa decreased to 0.95±0.4 ms (n=8, P<0.05) at 10 mM and to 1.02±0.3 ms (n=9, P<0.05) at 20 mM, from 1.29±0.3 ms in normal Tyrode solution.4.These results indicate that taurine inhibits the INa current, which would play an important role in the cell functions.