Article

Circumstances and Contributing Causes of Fall Deaths among Persons Aged 65 and Older: United States, 2010

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society (Impact Factor: 4.57). 03/2014; 62(3). DOI: 10.1111/jgs.12702

ABSTRACT

Objectives
To determine whether the increasing fall death rate among people aged 65 and older is due in part to temporal changes in recording the underlying cause of death. DesignAnalyses of multiple cause of death data using the online Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging ON-line Data for Epidemiologic Research system, which uses the National Center for Health Statistics' Multiple Cause of Death data set. SettingUnited States, 1999 to 2010. ParticipantsPeople aged 65 and older with a fall listed on their death record as the underlying or a contributing cause of death. MeasurementsCircumstances and contributing causes off all deaths—records listing International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, codes W00 to W19 as the underlying cause of death—and underlying causes for records with falls as a contributing cause were examined. Joinpoint regression analysis was used to assess trends in the proportion of fall and fall-associated deaths to total deaths for 1999 to 2010. ResultsIn 2010, there were 21,649 fall deaths and 5,402 fall-associated deaths among people aged 65 and older; 48.7% of fall deaths involved a head injury. Approximately half the fall death records included diseases of the circulatory system as contributing causes. From 1999 to 2010, there was a trend toward more-specific reporting of falls circumstances, although total deaths remained unchanged. The proportion of fall deaths to total deaths increased 114.3%, and that of fall-associated deaths to total deaths increased 43.1%. Conclusion
The reasons behind the increasing older adult fall death rate deserve further investigation. Possible contributing factors include changing trends in underlying chronic diseases and better reporting of falls as the underlying cause of death.

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    • "These elderly individuals obtain significant physical injuries from falling including broken bones, internal tissue damage and head trauma. Furthermore, these sustained injuries have been indicated as a leading cause of death among elderly individuals [4]. The risks associated with falling among the elderly population are further high-lighted in importance with the world's significantly increasing ageing population [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: There are a significant number of high fall risk individuals who are susceptible to falling and sustaining severe injuries. An automatic fall detection and diagnostic system is critical for ensuring a quick response with effective medical aid based on relative information provided by the fall detection system. This article presents and evaluates an accelerometer-based multiple classifier fall detection and diagnostic system implemented on a single wearable Shimmer device for remote health monitoring. Various classifiers have been utilised within literature, however there is very little current work in combining classifiers to improve fall detection and diagnostic performance within accelerometer-based devices. The presented fall detection system utilises multiple classifiers with differing properties to significantly improve fall detection and diagnostic performance over any single classifier and majority voting system. Additionally, the presented multiple classifier system utilises comparator functions to ensure fall event consistency, where inconsistent events are outsourced to a supervisor classification function and discrimination power is considered where events with high discrimination power are evaluated to further improve the system response. The system demonstrated significant performance advantages in comparison to other classification methods, where the proposed system obtained over 99% metrics for fall detection recall, precision, accuracy and F-value responses.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015
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    Preview · Article · Jul 2014 · The Canadian journal of neurological sciences. Le journal canadien des sciences neurologiques
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    ABSTRACT: Background We aimed to examine changes in the specificity of data recording and assess the impact on cause-specific injury mortality during 1999–2010. Methods A longitudinal study was designed to analyze injury mortality data of 1999-2010. Mortality rates for unspecified injury and for cause-specific injury were obtained using CDC’s Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System (WISQARS™). The proportion of unspecified injury was used to measure the specificity of injury data recording. We used the proportionate method to adjust data specificity and compared changes in cause-specific mortality before and after adjustment. Results Between 1999 and 2010, the age-adjusted mortality from unspecified injuries decreased from 3.4 to 2.5 per 100,000 persons for all ages. The proportion of unspecified unintentional injury decreased from 18.9% to 10.9% for the elderly ages 65+. The proportion of unspecified homicide significantly increased for all age groups except ages 25–44 years. After adjustment, increases in age-adjusted mortality rates from falls, poisoning and drowning were less (77 vs. 61%, 66 vs. 51%, and 9 vs. 0%) and decreases in injuries from motor vehicle crashes, suffocation, fire/burn, and natural/environmental disasters were greater (-30 vs. -37%, -17 vs. -24%, -23 vs. -24%, and -46 vs. -51%), respectively. The adjustment resulted in reversed changes in homicide by firearm (-1 vs. 5%) and cut/pierce (-5 vs. 2%), greater increases in homicide by suffocation (9 vs. 16%) for ages 45–64 years, and smaller decreases in all other age- and cause-specific homicide groups. Conclusions During 1999–2010, the specificity of data recording changed significantly for homicide rates and elderly unintentional injury mortality and the changes altered trends in cause-specific injury mortality.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · BMC Public Health
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