Article

Kitchen chemistry: A scoping review of the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions

Drug Testing and Analysis (Impact Factor: 2.51). 07/2014; 6(7-8). DOI: 10.1002/dta.1622

ABSTRACT

Misuse of pharmaceuticals is of increasing drug policy and public health concern. A scoping review was conducted on the diversionary use of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and home production of drug solutions. The research question was broad: What is known from the existing literature about the diversion of pharmaceuticals for non-medicinal use and for home production of drug solutions? The scoping process centred on the systematic selection, collection, and summarization of extant knowledge within this broad thematic remit. One hundred and thirty-four records were grouped into discrete thematic categories namely: non medicinal use and tampering with pharmaceuticals, oral misuse of codeine cough syrups, homemade drug solutions, and home-produced drug-related harms in the narrative review design. Forms of abuse of codeine cough syrup include mixtures with alcohol or soft drinks (‘Purple Drank’), with kratom leaves (‘Kratom cocktails’), or chemically altered to extract dextromorphan (‘Lemon Drop’). Production of homemade opiates (‘Cheornaya’, ‘Kolyosa’, Himiya’, ‘Braun’, ‘Krokodil’), methamphetamine (‘Vint’, ‘Pervitin’), methcathinone (‘Jeff’), and cathinone (‘Boltushka’) are described. Displacement patterns between the non-medical use of pharmaceuticals, commercial, and homemade drugs appear dependent on availability of opiates, prescribing practices, supervision of substitution drug dosing, availability of cheap ingredients, policing, and awareness of harms. Adverse health and social consequences relate to the use of unknown and contaminated (end) substances, injecting practices, redosing, medical complications, and death. The review highlights a public health imperative requiring a multidisciplinary approach to quantify potential impact and required integrated policy responses incorporating international regulation, enforcement, health surveillance and service delivery. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Available from: Marie-Claire van Hout, May 15, 2014
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    • "Strategies to improve pharmacist counseling and enhance customer engagement in health care advice, screening and brief intervention processes are warranted (Puspitasari, Aslani, & Krass, 2010). Building on codeine specific health care advice, screening and brief interventions, a further expansion in the role of community pharmacies to include harm reduction participation and provision of detoxification programmes for codeine dependents could be considered (Hughes, McElnay, Hughes, & McKenna, 1999; Van Hout et al., 2014). "
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