Article

Parking In Urban Areas: Application of Choice Modelling Within Traffic Microsimulation

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... The alternative to double-parking would be cruising for parking (Shoup, 2006), resulting in an increase of expenditures due to delays in deliveries, additional fuel consumption and driving stress (Marcucci et al., 2015). On the other hand, when drivers are fined for double-parking, this behavior also results in extra expenditures (Nourinejad et al., 2014;Morris et al., 1999;Conway et al., 2013). Even then, it can be considered as a rational response (Tipagornwong et al., 2015). ...
... Moreover, as there is no information about the criteria used in the creation of this system, it is very difficult to understand the reason for its design limitations and constraints. Consequently, it is important to focus on how to improve the parking system, particularly as carriers/drivers are willing to use it (Nourinejad et al., 2014;Debauche, 2008;Shimizu et al., 2007). In this process, enforcement plays an important role in the success of the parking system, by assuring the bays are solely used for loading/unloading activities by freight vehicles, hence allowing for better bay availability (Muñuzuri et al., 2006). ...
... Finally, there are other relevant contributions to this field that do not necessarily address the proposed dimensions of simulation or optimization. Nourinejad et al. (2014) have developed a parking choice and a parking simulation model to investigate the potential impact of truck parking policy in urban areas, such as reserved streets for freight parking. The authors also provide a comprehensive review of parking choice and parking simulation models. ...
Article
The role of urban freight vehicle trips in fulfilling the consumption needs of people in urban areas is often overshadowed by externality-causing parking practices (e.g., double-parking associated with traffic delays). Loading/unloading bays are generally viewed as an effective way to avoid freight vehicles double-parking, but are often misused by non-freight vehicles. We assess the potential of reducing freight vehicles double-parking mobility impacts by changing: (a) the spatial configuration (number, location, size) of loading/unloading bays and, (b) the non-freight vehicles parking rules compliance levels.
... Parking policies are considered to be one of the powerful measures to manage travel demand patterns and reallocation of trips in urban areas (Alho & e Silva, 2014;Chaniotakis &Pel, 2015 andNourinejad, Wenneman, Habib, &Roorda, 2014). Allen et al. (2000) identify the improvements in the availability of on-street parking facilities and better enforcement of parking regulations among good initiatives to foster easy and efficient performance of urban distribution activities. ...
... Parking policies are considered to be one of the powerful measures to manage travel demand patterns and reallocation of trips in urban areas (Alho & e Silva, 2014;Chaniotakis &Pel, 2015 andNourinejad, Wenneman, Habib, &Roorda, 2014). Allen et al. (2000) identify the improvements in the availability of on-street parking facilities and better enforcement of parking regulations among good initiatives to foster easy and efficient performance of urban distribution activities. ...
... These models work on the strong assumption that the driver has full information about all the alternatives available. The few studies that have attempted to develop freight-parking models include Muñuzuri, Racero, and Larrañeta (2002) and Nourinejad et al. (2014). Muñuzuri et al. (2002) developed the parking-search model for freight vehicles. ...
Article
The paper provides insight into a comparison of the parking practices and problems of freight-vehicle drivers in Gothenburg, Sweden, and Delhi, India. The purpose of this study is to understand how parking problems are related to relevant characteristics of the study zones, e.g., geographical location, transport mode used for last-mile deliveries, and type of industry sectors attracting freight traffic. The study also examines the possible impacts of imbalance between parking demand and supply. The methodology involves the estimation of freight-parking demand using establishment-based surveys and cordon counts; parking practices and problems are captured through freight-vehicle drivers' semi-structured interviews, and parking space supply is obtained from a parking inventory. Based on the analyses and findings from the study, the authors propose a set of recommendations to enhance parking management for freight vehicles in each area.
... Roadways in dense cities or old inner-city areas are not designed to handle large traffic volumes and the on-street parking generated. Appropriate curb allocation is essential to reduce congestion and improve environmental conditions (Nourinejad et al. 2013). The main challenge is that the demand for curb space exceeds capacity because cars, buses, and freight vehicles all need access to the curb. ...
... Increasing the capacity of parking and loading areas is an obvious and low-cost way to reduce congestion and improve traffic. This was the chief finding of Nourinejad et al. (2013) in a traffic simulation study that assessed the impacts of alternative freight parking strategies. The New York City Department of Transportation (New York City DOT) increased the parking allocation for commercial vehicles and installed parking meters (New York City Department of Transportation 2012b; New York City 2012c). ...
Chapter
The chapter analyses characteristics and unique features of the freight system, data requirements of different modeling techniques, and the roles of various data collection procedures. The analyses produce a set of findings of relevance to the design of comprehensive freight data collection frameworks for mid-size and large urban areas. Building on these findings, the chapter identifies a modular data collection framework that would enable transportation agencies to mix and match data collection efforts depending on their needs and constraints.
... Regarding CMV parking behavior and choice, the literature is sparse. The existing studies primarily focused on understanding the factors contributing to CMV parking choice outside the U.S. by utilizing standard multinomial logit (MNL) modeling frameworks with stated preference and revealed preference survey data with no linkages to existing crash data (Axhausen and Polak, 1991;Nourinejad et al., 2014;Teknomo and Hokao, 1997;Van Der Goot, 1982). Furthermore, the MNL model used in those previous studies had three primary limitations that, if not addressed, could lead to inconsistent (i.e., incorrect) estimates of the effects of variables on CMV operator parking behavior and choice; these were random taste variations, unrestricted substitution, and correlation in unobserved factors (referred to as unobserved heterogeneity) (Hensher et al., 2015;Mannering et al., 2016). ...
... As seen from the literature, there is a need to better understand truck parking issues from a driver's point of view. This is also evidenced by peer-reviewed research, as studies focusing on truck parking have been limited in number and have focused primarily on demand (Chatterjee and Wegmann, 2000;Gaber et al., 2005;Abdelgawad et al., 2011;Nourinejad et al., 2014;Bayraktar et al., 2015;Haque et al., 2016;Rosenfield et al., 2016). Therefore, this study focused on determining which factors directly lead to drivers encountering parking issues, as well as the effects of current parking-related issues and potential improvements on truck parking from a driver's perspective. ...
... Roadways in dense cities or old inner-city areas are not designed to handle large traffic volumes and the on-street parking generated. Appropriate curb allocation is essential to reduce congestion and improve environmental conditions (Nourinejad et al. 2013). The main challenge is that the demand for curb space exceeds capacity because cars, buses, and freight vehicles all need access to the curb. ...
... Increasing the capacity of parking and loading areas is an obvious and low-cost way to reduce congestion and improve traffic. This was the chief finding of Nourinejad et al. (2013) in a traffic simulation study that assessed the impacts of alternative freight parking strategies. The New York City Department of Transportation (New York City DOT) increased the parking allocation for commercial vehicles and installed parking meters (New York City Department of Transportation 2012b; New York City 2012c). ...
Book
Full-text available
NCFRP Report 33: Improving Freight System Performance in Metropolitan Areas: A Planning Guide provides a regional public planning guide that identifies potential strategies and practical solutions for public and private stakeholders to improve freight movement system performance in diverse metropolitan areas. The Guide is intended to serve as a comprehensive reference for all portions of a metropolitan area, from the urban core to more suburban and exurban areas (urban fringe). The Guide includes an Initiative Selector tool to aid in the selection of possible alternatives for various problems, and Freight Trip Generation (FTG) software that planners can use to identify main locations where freight is an issue based on freight trips produced and attracted. Links to access the Initiative Selector and FTG software appear in this report.
... Enforcement policies can influence the parking behavior of CVs. A large fine can deter CVs from parking illegally whereas a small fine may be considered by carriers as "the cost of doing business" (Nourinejad et al., 2014). Similarly, a high level of enforcement increases the probability of receiving a citation thus discouraging illegal CV parking. ...
... Association (Nourinejad et al., 2014). These locations are depicted by black squares in Fig. 2 Table 1 presents the percentage of the 17 company types that performed the deliveries. ...
Article
Commercial vehicles are of particular interest in parking enforcement because of their heavy presence in central business districts and their recurrent behavior of illegal parking. To deter illegal commercial vehicle parking, enforcement policies are defined by the citation fine and level of enforcement. This paper investigates how rational carriers react to a policy under steady state equilibrium conditions. To model the equilibrium, the paper uses the theory of bilateral searching and meeting where enforcement units meet illegally parked commercial vehicles at a rate which depends on the size of the two agents (illegally parked commercial vehicles and enforcement units). In assessing policy effectiveness, two objectives are defined which are profit maximization and social cost minimization. With the two objectives, the paper presents three market regimes and studies the equilibrium of each market. The proposed model covers several gaps in the parking literature by introducing illegal parking behavior elasticity with respect to parking dwell time, level of enforcement, citation fine, and citation probability. The model is applied on a case study of the City of Toronto and the results show that the citation probability increases with dwell time and the level of enforcement. Increasing either the citation fine or level of enforcement will hinder illegal parking but the obtained profit remains approximately constant. Sensitivity analysis on the meeting rate elasticity shows that profits are low when both elasticities are either high or low.
... While on-and off-street parking policies, alternative pricing models and smart parking technology can play a substantial role in reducing urban congestion, cities have been slow to adapt. Existing research has addressed the parking problem from two perspectives: (a) analysis of the relationships between parking supply, demand, and the incidence of illegal commercial vehicle parking (Wenneman et al. 2014); and (b) development of a traffic simulation tool that incorporates driver decisions of parking space choice, and simulates the effects of parking search patterns on traffic congestion (Nourinejad et al. 2014). ...
... While on-and off-street parking policies, alternative pricing models and smart parking technology can play a substantial role in reducing urban congestion, cities have been slow to adapt. Existing research has addressed the parking problem from two perspectives: (a) analysis of the relationships between parking supply, demand, and the incidence of illegal commercial vehicle parking (Wenneman et al. 2014); and (b) development of a traffic simulation tool that incorporates driver decisions of parking space choice, and simulates the effects of parking search patterns on traffic congestion (Nourinejad et al. 2014). ...
Conference Paper
Existing technologies for transportation planning, urban design, and decision-making have not kept pace with rapid urbanization. Visualization and analysis tools can help by combining qualitative, quantitative, and historical urban data – helping experts understand the system of systems of the modern city. Incorporating insights from experts in several relevant fields, we have derived a performance specification for visualization tools supporting general transportation planning problems . We examine two existing technologies against the specification – Betaville and StoryFacets – and recommend adapting them as first-generation urban system analysis/planning support tools. We also suggest guidelines for the next generation of tools for transportation planning.
... As seen from the literature, there is a need to better understand truck parking issues from a driver's point of view. This is also seen in peer-reviewed research, in which studies that focus on truck parking are quite sparse and focus primarily on demand ( Chatterjee and Wegmann, 2000;Gaber et al., 2005;Abdelgawad et al., 2011;Nourinejad et al., 2014;Bayraktar et al., 2015;Haque et al., 2016;Rosenfield et al., 2016). As such, this study focuses on what factors directly lead to drivers encountering parking issues, as well as the effect of current parking related issues and potential improvements on truck parking from a driver's persepctive. ...
... As seen from the literature, there is a need to better understand truck parking issues from a driver's point of view. This is also seen in peer-reviewed research, in which studies that focus on truck parking are quite sparse and focus primarily on demand ( Chatterjee and Wegmann, 2000;Gaber et al., 2005;Abdelgawad et al., 2011;Nourinejad et al., 2014;Bayraktar et al., 2015;Haque et al., 2016;Rosenfield et al., 2016). As such, this study focuses on what factors directly lead to drivers 1 It is important to note that the factors identified in this work are based on driver perceptions (i.e., not factors directly leading to troubles finding safe and adequate parking). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper focuses on the availability of parking for freight vehicles, with a specific focus on being able to find safe and adequate parking (i.e., a designated parking location for large trucks) along a primary freight corridor in Oregon. This is achieved through the use of a truck driver survey regarding their experiences related to the availability of safe and adequate parking. The survey is geographically focused on drivers and freight activity throughout the Pacific Northwest, as to better infer on truck parking along the study corridor. The data and information collected are then utilized to estimate a binary outcome (logit) model to evaluate how different factors, obtained from the driver survey, impact the likelihood of finding safe and adequate parking from the perspective of the driver. Of 134 indicator variables, 11 factors are found to be statistically significant and provide insights into what impacts or affects the probability that a driver will encounter problems finding safe and adequate parking. Results show that drivers of less-than-truckload (LTL) shipments, weekend shipments, and older drivers have significantly fewer challenges finding safe and adequate parking. Findings from the current study can be used to better guide efforts in Oregon, and across the country, in regard to safe and adequate truck parking.
... The bottleneck created by this decision, in turn, generates additional congestion and pollution. Unsurprisingly, researchers have found that increasing the amount of parking available for FSA reduces congestion [4]. ...
... As cited by the authorities, "more than half of the curbside spaces in the downtown core are reserved for commercial loading activities [41]". A more recent classification of specific parking related solutions were discussed in [4,42]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Purpose This paper assesses the parking needs of freight and service related commercial activities and identifies the role of demand management in mitigating these needs. Methods To provide a context for the analyses, the authors selected two small commercial areas of about the same number of commercial establishments—one in Troy, NY, and the other in New York City—and applied freight and service trip generation models to estimate the total freight and service traffic generated at these sites. Then, using different assumptions of the amount of time these vehicles spend at a parking location, the authors estimated the number of parking spaces required by time of day under different assumptions of demand management. Results The results show that parking needs are proportional to the average parking durations. Essentially, the longer the duration the higher the parking needs. In terms of impacts on demand management, the results show that the 100% Off-Hour Deliveries (OHD) program is expected to be the most impactful as it reduces the parking needs by 70–80% during peak hours. In second place, Staggered Deliveries reduces parking needs by about 60% during the peak hours. The third place is occupied by the 30% OHD Scenario and the Receiver-Led Consolidation programs, which are virtually tied, offering about 10–25% reduction. Conclusions The initial analysis revealed the importance of parking duration as it was shown to be proportional to parking needs; the longer the duration the higher the need for parking. The delivery simulation further bolstered this finding by showing that the optimal case occurs (i.e. minimizing parking duration) the closer the parking location is to the establishment. The further away the vehicle is parked the longer the walking time to the establishment, hence increasing the time the vehicle occupies the parking spot. The strategies applied to the case studies showed that Transportation Demand Management (TDM) strategies are effective in decreasing the number of parking spots needed during peak periods.
... Unauthorized parking behavior is another growing issue that is caused by a scarcity of commercial parking spaces in many cities. Parking fines in Toronto have been increased 70 percent between 2006 and 2009, with an estimated $ 2.5 million CAD paid by FedEx, United Parcel Service, and Purolator in 2009 (Nourinejad et al., 2014). In 2018 in NYC, where parking spaces are extremely limited, FedEx and UPS incurred $ 14.9 million and $ 33.8 million respectively in parking fines (Baker, 2019). ...
... In some cities, commercial parking is restricted to a certain time of day. The New York City Department of Transportation (NYCDOT) is implementing delivery windows in the morning, as 65 percent of deliveries occur before 12:00 PM (Nourinejad et al., 2014). In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, loading zones along the Walnut Street retail corridor require businesses to receive deliveries before 10:00 AM (Zalewski et al., 2011). ...
Article
Dwell time is defined as the time that delivery workers spend performing out-of-vehicle activities while their vehicle is parked. Restricting vehicle dwell time is widely used to manage commercial vehicle parking behavior. However, there is insufficient data to help assess the effectiveness of these restrictions. This makes it difficult for policymakers to account for the complexity of commercial vehicle parking behavior. The current study aims to identify factors correlated with dwell time for commercial vehicles. This is accomplished by using generalized linear models with data collected from five buildings that are known to include commercial vehicle activities in the downtown area of Seattle, Washington, USA. Our models showed that dwell times for buildings with concierge services tended to be shorter. Deliveries of documents also tended to have shorter dwell times than oversized supplies deliveries. Passenger vehicle deliveries had shorter dwell times than deliveries made with vehicles with roll-up doors or swing doors (e.g., vans and trucks). When there were deliveries made to multiple locations within a building, the dwell times were significantly longer than dwell times made to one location in a building. The findings from the presented models demonstrate the potential for improving future parking policies for commercial vehicles by considering data collected from different building types, delivered goods, and vehicle types.
... A parking choice modeling simulation is presented in Nourinejad et al. [2014] for the study of truck parking policies, capturing various dimensions of the parking activity such as walking distance, congestion impact and parking search times. Two scenarios based on the Toronto area are presented to validate the model. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban distribution of parcels and goods usually requires vehicles to temporarily stop at roadside to allow for the driver to perform the last leg of the delivery by foot. The stops take place in designated areas, called loading/unloading (L/U) areas, composed of one or more parking spots. In this paper the introduction of a booking system for the management of the L/U areas in a city center is studied as a way to eliminate, or at least substantially reduce, double parking. A booking management system and the related routing problem are presented. In this system, distributors book in sequence according to their preferences and routing constraints, but subject to the bookings that have already been placed. The solution provided by the booking system is discussed and compared with the current use of the L/U areas, where the distributors do not consider the availability of a parking spot and resort to double parking if none is available.
... Other studies have adopted simulation-based approaches instead, typically by integrating commercial software traffic simulators into delivery operation models. Nourinejad et al. (2014), for example, combined an econometric parking choice model with microscopic simulation using Paramics to evaluate parking policies on a few-blocks scenario in Toronto. Aditjandra et al. (2016) also adopted a microsimulation approach (based on AIMSUN) to analyze in detail the environmental impact of a large freight traffic generator (although they did not consider curbside). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents a traffic simulation framework to reproduce urban freight movements, particularly concerning double-parked delivery operations. Since freight movements affect traffic and vice versa, we propose a hybrid framework that simulates traffic phenomena macroscopically and, at the same time, allows tracking delivery vehicles along their routes throughout the entire simulation. The traffic simulation framework is based on the Lighthill-Whitham-Richards macroscopic model as well as the theory of bottlenecks. The traffic component of the model can be coupled with a generic parking model. Since a novel faster version of the Lax-Hopf Formula is used in the traffic simulation, the proposed framework can perform efficient simulations. Because of this hybrid nature, the framework is suitable for simulations of large scenarios and for evaluations of City Logistic measures to tackle the last-mile problem. We show this in the second part of the study with two different measures: shifting delivery operations to off-peak hours, and prohibiting deliveries on critical streets. While the benefits deriving from the first strategy are evident, the effects of the second one are less clear because of the complexity of network interactions.
... (2) pricing strategies; (3) land use and space management; (4) parking enforcement (Nourinejad et al., 2014). ...
Article
This paper investigates transport providers’ preferences for alternative loading bays and pricing policies. It estimates the importance of loading bays, the probability of finding them free and offers strategically relevant information to policy makers. The results underline the relevance of both preference heterogeneity and non-linear attribute effects. Three classes of agents are detected with substantially different preferences also characterized by non-linear sensitivity to attribute level variations. The specific freight sector, frequency of accesses and number of employees are all relevant covariates explaining different preferences for alternative transport providers’ categories. The implications of the results obtained are illustrated by simulating alternative policy scenarios. In conclusion, the paper underlines the need for rigorous policy analysis if the correct policy outcomes are to be estimated with an adequate level of accuracy.
... ere are many studies on practical aspects of parking (see [33], for a thorough review) including parking pricing [4,34,35], cruising for parking [36,37], enforcement [38], parking competition [39,40], optimal parking control strategies [4,41], and parking for commercial vehicles [42][43][44][45]. e existing literature is not explicitly applicable to AV parking because AVs do not have the same parking pattern as CVs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parking is a cumbersome part of auto travel because travelers have to search for a spot and walk from that spot to their final destination. This conventional method of parking will change with the arrival of autonomous vehicles (AV). In the near future, users of AVs get dropped off at their final destination and the occupant-free AVs search for the nearest and most convenient parking spot. Hence, individuals no longer bear the discomfort of cruising for parking while sitting in their vehicle. This paper quantifies the impact of AVs on parking occupancy and traffic flow on a corridor that connects a home zone to a downtown zone. The model considers a heterogeneous group of AVs and conventional vehicles (CV) and captures their parking behavior as they try to minimize their generalized travel costs. Insights are obtained from applying the model to two case studies with uniform and linear parking supply along the corridor. We show that (i) CVs park closer to the downtown zone in order to minimize their walking distance, whereas AVs park farther away from the downtown zone to minimize their parking search time, (ii) AVs experience a lower search time than CVs, and (iii) higher AV penetration rates reduce travel costs for both AVs and CVs.
... And given specific requirements for freight deliveries, finding a parking spot close to the customer's location may require an even larger amount of time (or the lack of parking availability results in large levels of double or other illegal parking). As a result, it is important to implement parking and loading-unloading initiatives, which have been effective in reducing urban congestion and mitigating illegal parking and on-street unloading (Quak 2008;Nourinejad et al. 2013). Usually, these types of initiatives are easy to implement in the short term as they require low capital investments, and since they improve the efficiency of delivery operations, they enjoy great receptivity from carriers. ...
Article
This paper develops procedures to identify and quantify the role played by large urban freight traffic generators as contributors of truck traffic in metropolitan areas. Although ports, container terminals, and other industrial sites are usually associated with large generations of truck trips, they only represent a small proportion of the total trips produced and attracted in large metropolitan areas. This paper analyzes the importance of other facilities such as ordinary businesses or buildings that individually or collectively (clusters) generate a large proportion of truck traffic. The paper discusses the opportunities of these large traffic generators for city logistics initiatives. In addition, the paper introduces two effective and complementary procedures to identify these generators using freight trip generation models estimated by the authors.
... Holguín-Veras et al., 2011), there are generally no analytical downtown parking models that consider freight delivery activities. The few efforts that do exist are either traffic simulation-based (Nourinejad et al., 2014) or do not consider equilibrium interactions of truck deliveries and passenger parking (Tipagornwong and Figliozzi, 2015). As such, many of the recommendations or issues in urban freight and city logistics related to parking cannot be analytically addressed. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
This study presents an on-street parking model for downtowns in urban centers that incorporates the often-neglected parking demand of commercial vehicles. The behavior of truck deliveries is distinctly different from commuter parking: trucks do not cruise for parking spaces when parking is saturated, instead they are more likely to double-park near their destinations and occupy a travelling street lane. The study generalizes the downtown on-street parking model from Arnott and Inci (2006) to investigate the relationship between commercial and passenger vehicles’ parking behaviors, and provide tools for policy makers to optimize the trade-offs in parking space allocation, pricing, and network congestion. The social optimum can be obtained by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The model is applied to a case study of downtown Toronto. It is shown that developing an inclusive policy, one that captures the effect of all road users including commercial vehicles, leads to considerable efficiency gains.
... Another line of research uses simulation to model parking availability and the impacts on commercial vehicle parking behavior (Lopez et al. 2019, Nourinejad et al. 2014). Figliozzi and Tipagornwong (2017) combine queuing and logistical models to model parking availability but use continuous approximation models to estimate routing constraints. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Parking is a necessary component of traditional last-mile delivery practices, but finding parking can be difficult. Yet, the routing literature largely does not account for the need to find parking. In this paper, we address this challenge of finding parking through the Capacitated Delivery Problem with Parking (CDPP). Unlike other models in the literature, the CDPP accounts for the search time for parking in the objective and minimizes the completion time of the delivery tour. We provide tight bounds for the CDPP using a Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) solution that parks at each customer. We then demonstrate the circumstances under which this TSP solution is the optimal solution to the CDPP as well as counterexamples to show that the TSP is generally not optimal. We also identify model improvements that allow reasonably-sized instances of the CDPP to be solved exactly. We introduce a heuristic for the CDPP that quickly finds high quality solutions to large instances. Computational experiments show that parking matters in last-mile delivery optimization. The CDPP outperforms industry practice and models in the literature showing the greatest advantage when the search time for parking is high. This analysis provides immediate ways to improve routing in last-mile delivery.
... Truck parking policies may have various forms. Nourinejad et al. (2014) categorize urban truck policies into time restrictions, pricing policies, space management, and enforcement. In the context of the case study, truck parking policies also include the assignment of truck parking locations. ...
Article
Full-text available
We propose a workflow for trajectory data mining jointly using well-tested (as opposed to ad hoc) machine learning algorithms and unstructured local knowledge of experts and decision-makers, a common requirement in public agencies and consulting businesses. The key step of the workflow is to condense vehicle trajectory data into an analytics base table (ABT) using a set of features so that general-purpose data mining algorithms can be utilized. The case study extracts context-dependent features from high-frequency truck trajectory data from the State of Texas for analyzing patterns of truck parking in the Statewide highway system and for deriving implications for truck parking regulations and investment decisions. The results show that the approach is suitable for time-efficient implementation and provides valuable inputs for applications related to truck parking studies. This paper does not focus on the deeper understanding of the data in the case study; instead, it focuses on demonstrating how the proposed feature-oriented workflow eases the handling of high-volume trajectory data and improves the trackability of the decision process where data mining algorithms and human expertise interact significantly.
... Holguín-Veras et al., 2011), there are generally no analytical downtown parking models that consider freight delivery activities. The few efforts that do exist are either traffic simulation-based (Nourinejad et al., 2014) or do not consider equilibrium interactions of truck deliveries and passenger parking (Marcucci et al., 2015;Tipagornwong and Figliozzi, 2015). As such, many of the recommendations or issues in urban freight and city logistics related to parking cannot be analytically addressed. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we present an on-street parking model for downtowns in urban centers that incorporates the often-neglected parking demand of delivery trucks. The behavior of truck deliveries is distinctly different from commuter parking: trucks do not cruise for parking spaces, and demand for goods delivery is driven by customers and is practically inelastic to the delivery costs. We generalize the downtown on-street parking model from Arnott and Inci (2006) to study the relationship between passenger vehicles’ parking and truck delivery behaviors, and provide tools for policy makers to optimize the trade-offs in parking space allocation, pricing, and aggregate network congestion. The social optimum can be obtained by solving a nonlinear optimization problem. The parking model is able to replicate the commuter-only scenario as a special case. It is shown that ignoring truck delivery behavior can significantly overestimate travel speeds and cruising stock. We applied the model to a case study of downtown Toronto and found that compared to a baseline scenario representative of Toronto in 2015, increasing parking fees from CAD $4/hour to nearly CAD $7.85/hour and assigning 4.1% of parking spaces to truck deliveries would eliminate cruising and truck double-parking, resulting in a social surplus gain of over CAD $14,304/hr/mi2. In a first-best allocation scenario where total parking spaces can also change, we found that increasing total parking spaces by 18%, having 3.5% truck delivery allocation, and reducing parking fees to CAD $2.47/hr would eliminate cruising and double-parking while increasing social surplus by CAD $24,883/hr/mi2. These model findings are along the same level of effect as demonstrated in the literature.
... So far, strategies to alleviate the negative externalities of urban distribution have mostly focused on optimization of freight movement (e.g. Nourinejad, et al. 2014;Ouyang, 2007;Hensher & Figliozzi, 2007), different regulatory forms such as time and access restrictions (e.g. Arvidsson, 2013;Silas, et al. 2012;Maes & Vanelslander 2010;Holguin-veras, 2008;Browne, et al. 2005a), mode choice (e.g. ...
Article
Full-text available
Today, a large share of cost, congestion, and emission in cities is attributed to light goods vehicles like carrier vans distributing to the last mile. The aim of many policy agendas is to reach cleaner cities with less disturbance from the distribution vehicles. Several suggestions have been put forward and tested in research and practice, such as access restrictions, multimodal transport, and use of cleaner vehicles. In this paper, we develop a case for a more sustainable freight distribution within cities using an ex ante case study. The idea of the the mobile depot is built on the iteration between historical transitions within cities and contemporary developments in urban freight distribution, and then analyzed ex ante both quantitatively in calculations and qualitatively in two stakeholder workshops. The idea is integrated and multimodal, based on a mobile depot (e.g. a bus, truck, barge, or tram) that circles the city, while a team of people using ultra light vehicles, like bikes or segways, link to it and distribute the last mile. We found that such a system can be environmentally and socially better for the city context, while maintaining economic viability above a certain utilization rate of the mobile depot for the transport operators.
... However, to create more dedicated space for delivery by dedicating curbside space to delivery bays, these dedicated bays take away space for general on-street parking (Nourinejad et al. 2014). Such measures generally are not very popular with car drivers and others (such as public transport and taxis) that make use of scarce curbside resources. ...
Article
Full-text available
As freight deliveries in cities increase due to retail fragmentation and e-commerce, parking is becoming a more and more relevant part of transportation. In fact, many freight vehicles in cities spend more time parked than they are moving. Moreover, part of the public parking space is shared with passenger vehicles, especially cars. Both arrival processes and parking and delivery processes are stochastic in nature. In order to develop a framework for analysis, we propose a queueing model for an urban parking system consisting of delivery bays and general on-street parking spaces. Freight vehicles may park both in the dedicated bays and in general on-street parking, while passenger vehicles only make use of general on-street parking. Our model allows us to create parsimonious insights into the behavior of a delivery bay parking stretch as part of a limited length of curbside. We are able to find explicit expressions for the relevant performance measures, and formally prove a number of monotonicity results. We further conduct a series of numerical experiments to show more intricate properties that cannot be shown analytically. The model helps us shed light onto the effects of allocating scarce urban curb space to dedicated unloading bays at the expense of general on-street parking. In particular, we show that allocating more space to dedicated delivery bays can also make passenger cars better off.
... On the other hand, street and garage parking are the two most commonly considered alternatives when estimating the effect of prices together with other attributes (Kobus et al. 2013). Micro traffic simulation has also been incorporated into truck parking choice modeling to assess the potential effect of multiple parking policies (Nourinejad et al. 2014). Another recent study has modeled the relationship between parking facilities in one's home and mode choice behavior using a two-stage survey strategy and found that guaranteed parking at home heightened the possibility to drive to downtown areas (Weinberger 2012). ...
Article
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Studies on campus parking indicate more severe problems and a wider range of characteristics than commercial parking because of limited parking places, special conditions, specific policies and enclosed space on university campuses. Heterogeneous characteristics are usually ignored in analyses of campus parking behavior. In this paper, a mixed logit model is applied to analyze parking choice behavior on a campus using data collected from a stated-preference survey of Tongji University, Shanghai, China. The heterogeneity of individuals with various sociodemographic characteristics is evaluated by interaction terms and random parameters. Comparison between the proposed approach and the conditional logit model shows that the results of the mixed logit model are more interpretable because they are not limited by the independence from irrelevant alternatives assumption. Key factors that have considerable effects on campus parking choices are identified and analyzed. Important regularities are also concluded from elasticity analyses. Finally, the campus is divided into two areas according to the walking distance to a new parking lot, and the modeling results show that area-specific policies should be established because the two areas have quite distinct parking choice features.
... Nearly 50% of the carriers identify On-street parking policy as a priority to cope with urban logistics problems in the areas studied, which is consistent with other studies of cities around the world (Cherrett et al., 2012). This exposes the need to add parking spaces for loading/unloading operations, which are usually scarce in urban areas (Holguin-Veras et al., 2016;Jaller et al., 2013;Nourinejad et al., 2014). Off-street parking strategies seem to be the second preferred strategy for carriers, having garnered around 18% of their preferences. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to analyze the perceptions of key stakeholders to a set of policies designed to address urban logistics issues in two cities in Colombia. A ranking survey was conducted and analyzed unveiling levels of acceptance to the proposed policies for three types of stakeholders (Carriers, Receivers, and Citizens). Though some methodologies attempt to understand stakeholders’ perspectives towards urban freight policies, often only a certain type of stakeholder is considered; perceptions of Citizens are usually overlooked. The results suggest that stakeholders agree on the importance of having space to conduct freight operations in their urban areas. However, different stakeholders perceive policies differently and local context plays a key role, suggesting that decision-makers must consider these aspects before transferring initiatives from other urban settings. When space for freight operations cannot be provided, the results show that Carriers prefer a Receiver-led Consolidation program, Receivers consider an Urban Consolidation Center as the best alternative, and Citizens prefer Off-hour deliveries. While all of the preferred alternatives call for a more active role played by the other stakeholders, they also call for more sustainable practices and move away from traditional, restrictive policies. The results from this study serve as a tool for planners and decision-makers seeking input on the preferences of various stakeholders to, and the potential acceptability of, urban freight policies.
... Um estudo brasileiro (Bontempo et al., 2014) aponta que, com o aumento da quantidade de veıćulos, há aumento da quantidade de problemas urbanos como: congestionamentos, falta de lugares para estacionar (seja particular ou, principalmente, para carga e descarga), poluiçaõ sonora e do ar, acidentes de trânsito, aquecimento global, degradação da qualidade de vida, entre outros (Sanches Jr. et al., 2008). Portanto, percebe-se que o tempo de entrega, o espaço para entrega e a rapidez com que a movimentação entre o veıćulo e o estabelecimento é realizada são afetadas pelas restrições locais (Dablanc, 2009;Nourinejad et al., 2014). De acordo com a Resoluçaõ 014/03 da Prefeitura Municipal de Sorocaba (Sorocaba, 2003), o tráfego de veıćulos maiores que Veıćulos Urbano de Carga (VUCs) naõ é permitido na regiaõ central entre 7:00 e 19:00, com exceção de circulação exclusivamente para carga e descarga no perıódo entre 9:00 e 16:00. ...
Article
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O aumento na demanda por mercadorias tem impacto direto no sistema de distribui­ção de cargas nos centros urbanos, o que resulta em desafios logísticos para as empre­sas de transporte e para os varejistas durante o recebimento dessas mercadorias. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar quais são as maiores dificuldades no recebimento das mercadorias referentes às restrições locais e aos desafios logísticos, sob o ponto de vista dos varejistas e transportadores. Um levantamento de dados foi feito com os ato­res na região central da cidade de Sorocaba. Os dados foram analisados por meio de estatística descritiva, análise de correlação e análise fatorial com o objetivo de enten­der os principais fatores logísticos que interferem na entrega/recebimento das merca­dorias. Como resultado, percebe-se que a principal restrição é a falta de local disponí­vel para entrega/recebimento de mercadorias nos estabelecimentos e os principais de­safios logísticos são referentes à infraestrutura do local e entregas fora do horário co­mercial.
... More generally, [16] proposed a GIS-based approach for assessing parking pattern in urban areas, where dynamic supply and demand are considered. Microscopic simulation makes it possible to evaluate ex-ante a solution [18], [4], i.e. before the implementation. In this paper, we propose the searching time as an indicator to evaluate urban truck parking policies. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper proposes the use of the searching time to measure the accessibility of Freight Loading Zone (FLZ). Cruising for parking is the time for a delivery truck to visit a sequence of FLZ until the first vacant one is found. To our best knowledge, the capture of the truck searching time has not been studied for the line of research that we address in this paper. The methodology includes a parking choice model and an availability model. The impact of FLZ demand and supply on the searching time are quantified. The use of microscopic traffic models makes it possible to include traffic lights and particular vehicles demand into the simulations. Results show the mean searching time scale, related to the FLZ density and the occupancy rate. Moreover, a cost function is used to access the additional cost of the last mile by considering the searching time.
... Despite the fact that there is no universally agreed framework to identify the optimal spatial configuration and management system of FLZ, some papers proposed methodologies to establish their number, location, and usage [5,18]. Nourinejad et al. [19] evaluated the reserved streets for freight parking as a potential truck parking policy. In urban areas, freight parking infrastructure has a high demand and limited supply [5]. ...
Article
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This paper investigated economic truck parking behavior to implement comprehensive Freight Loading Zone (FLZ) policies. We assumed that the delivery trucks can only park on FLZ. The proposed contribution is to quantify the cruising for parking time of trucks. We used a microscopic traffic simulation based on a Manhattan network and the real network of Lyon (France). This paper explored the relationship between the searching time, the parking probabilities and the region’s parking density. Based on research results, an application to last mile cost function is proposed.
... Besides adding the parking space in Pasar Gede area, a good parking policy and management can also be enforced. Parking policy is considered as one of the strongest steps to manage travel demand pattern and travel reallocation in urban areas [24,25,26]. Other efforts that can be approach to identify improved availability of parking facilities and better implementation of parking regulations are by encouraging easy and efficient urban traffic performance. ...
Article
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The economic growth in the city of Surakarta could be seen in its trading activities. The existing condition of the current parking space is located on the side of the road or on street parking. This has an impact on traffic jams during peak hours. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the flexibility of parking space at Pasar Gede Trade Area. The method began with empirical data collection based on Category Based Analysis method in grouping the duration of use, area extent, and technical arrangement of parking space. The result of grouping was then analyzed in terms of temporary spatial flexibility. The results show that the use of parking space area temporarilly can be regarded as a space with the flexibility of Time Cycle and Time Management, whereas conceptually, it is due to the flexibility of Convertibility that occurs naturally from the consciousness of the users. The contribution of the theory which can be generated is the flexibility of space in the context of spatial constraints through the diversity of spatial planning techniques.
... Since the nature of the service business required punctuality, it was noted that commercial users were willing to detour up to 500 m for fast charging, which was 70% less than the distance for private users [23,24]. In summary, commercial vehicles are confronted with more uncertainties, such as the route selection [25], parking duration [24], parking times [26] and charging timing [22]. However, as an important participant in the public charging, the typical driving characteristics of ELCVs have not yet been fully considered, which promotes this study to make some contributions into this aspect. ...
Article
Whilst the widespread adoption of electric vans is necessary to improve urban air quality and reduce carbon emissions, it is also self-evident that adequate charging stations are a precondition. However, the investment case for basic charging stations without public subsidies is challenging. In the context of a London case study, four business models are compared, which integrate solar power generation and new/second-life battery storage system with the basic charging facilities. Considering the uncertainties of electricity tariff and solar generation, the optimal infrastructure investment and operational planning has been formulated as a two-stage stochastic optimization model. The results show that: (i) in the integrated business models, the return on investment and charger installations could be increased by up to 5.39% and 17.06% respectively, and the carbon intensity could be reduced by up to 8.13%; (ii) the nondiscriminatory grant annualized as 50 £ is not sufficient, and a differentiated government subsidy policy may be more conducive to achieving a positive return on investment, such as 50 £ for fast chargers and 100 £ for rapid chargers; (iii) in the integrated business models, fast chargers undertake more vehicle-to-grid electricity exchange with the pattern adoption rate increased by up to 52.38%, while rapid chargers mainly ensure the timely charging completion with the usage frequency increased by up to 2.82%.
... In [4] a more complex approach is proposed to understand how urban areas would respond to a new parking policy. For this purpose, the authors develop a freight transport traffic simulation. ...
Article
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The relevant role of freight lorry parking facilities as a tool to reduce nuisances and impact of economic activities in densely populated urban areas is widely recognised in the literature. Nevertheless, the literature currently lacks specific contributions addressing the use of a complex Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) approach for coping with an optimal location of freight lorry parking facilities in the urban context. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing a real-world case study motivated by the problem of intense freight vehicles traffic around the city of Bradford, Yorkshire (UK). Since it is necessary to include diverse analysis perspectives, reflecting the different classes of involved stakeholders, this study proposes adopting the Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach as a tool to support the selection and evaluation of alternatives for a freight lorry parking facility, followed by the design of software based on this approach. The proposed web Spatial Decision Support System provides a valuable tool to foster extended discussions with experts and facilitate the decision process in this class of location problems.
... Based on the analysis of the drivers' willingness to pay for a high level of security with the financial costs to achieve it, the authors conclude that such high security parking areas are unlikely to generate any profit. A more complex approach for understanding how urban areas would respond to a new parking policy was proposed by [33]. For this purpose, authors developed a freight transport traffic simulation model. ...
Article
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Increasing urbanization and economic activities has intensified the need for logistical processes in cities. This leads to higher levels of urban freight transport, which is associated with negative social and environmental impacts. Advances in urban logistics can help to alleviate these problems; the recent literature suggests that the creation of appropriate lorry park facilities can represent one of the possible solutions to the social and environmental issues connected to freight transport in urban areas. However, in order to be effective, such facilities need to be properly designed; studies which identify critical success factors for lorry park operations are currently lacking. As such, the purpose of this research is to identify the main criteria which lorry drivers consider when selecting a lorry park facility. In order to achieve these aims, a questionnaire survey was designed; responses from 99 lorry drivers operating in the United Kingdom were collected. Through descriptive statistics, followed by the usage of a conjoint analysis, the main results show that attributes related to food, price, and security are the most important to lorry drivers and are likely to determine the success of such initiatives. These results can provide information to policy and decision-makers related to the design of lorry park facilities in order to achieve the desired results in urban areas.
... Additionally, several works focus on the management of delivery vehicles and their assignment to L/UAs. McLeod and Cherrett (2011) model booking and control systems for L/UAs, while Nourinejad, Wenneman, Habib, and Roorda (2014) present an integrated parking behavior-simulation model and evaluate two parking policies for freight vehicles. Simoni and Claudel (2018) propose a simulation framework to investigate freight parking policies. ...
Article
This work explores the impact of resources provided for unloading operations and freight vehicle parking in an urban retail street. We present a novel discrete-event simulation approach to analyze how unloading infrastructure and available staff influence lead times as well as local and global emissions to air. Results show that emissions to air and lead times of freight delivery vehicles can be drastically reduced when appropriate infrastructure and resources are provided. Changing the type of unloading areas can reduce NOX emissions by up to 95%, while lead times can be reduced by 78% if staff helps with unloading. Some configurations are more suitable to lower emissions to air while others are more effective in reducing lead times. Consequently, decision makers can use this model to explore how adjustments in infrastructure and available resources impact emissions and delivery vehicle lead times. Furthermore, it can act as a basis tool to analyze policies and laws to facilitate sustainable retail street operations in the future.
... According to Marcucci et al. (5), the development of sustainable management policies for urban logistics should be based on site-specific data given the heterogeneity and complexity of urban freight systems. Current loading/unloading parking policies include time restrictions, duration, pricing, space management, and enforcement (6,7). However, as Marcucci et al. pointed out after an extensive review of the literature on freight parking policy, the quantification of commercial vehicle operations on the curb to inform policy decision making is nonexistent (5). ...
Article
Rapid urban growth puts pressure on local governments to rethink how they manage street curb parking. Competition for space among road users and lack of adequate infrastructure force delivery drivers either to search for vacant spaces or to park in unsuitable areas, which negatively impacts road capacity and causes inconvenience to other users of the road. The purpose of this paper is to advance research by providing data-based insight into what is actually happening at the curb. To achieve this objective, the research team developed and implemented a data collection method to quantify the usage of curb space in the densest urban area of Seattle, Center City. This study captures the parking behavior of commercial vehicles everywhere along the block face as well as the parking activities of all vehicles (including passenger vehicles) in commercial vehicle loading zones. Based on the empirical findings, important characteristics of Seattle’s urban freight parking operations are described, including a detailed classification of vehicle types, dwell time distribution, and choice of curb use for parking (e.g., authorized and unauthorized spaces). The relationship between land use and commercial vehicle parking operations at the curb is discussed. Seattle’s parking management initiatives will benefit from the insights into current behavior gained from this research.
... (23), (24), (25) and (26) (see below in Table 3). [20], [21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30], [31], [32], [33], [34] Discrete-Event , [41], [42], [43], [44], [45] Misc. [46], [47], [48], [49], [50], [51], [52], [53], [54], [55], [56], [57], [58], [59], [60], [61], [62], [63], [64], [65], [66], [67], [68], [69], [70], [71], [72], [73], [74], [75], [76], [77], [78], [79], [80], [81], [82], [83], [84] Note 1: Some logistics solutions have been adjusted to achieve a common nomenclature. ...
Chapter
Today, cities devise their own Sustainable Urban Logistics Plan (SULP) to improve the sustainability of their distribution system. Modern SULPs, following the development of technology, consider smart solutions e.g. pick-ups and deliveries by electric vehicles, bicycles or drones, city lockers, ITS systems for planning/routing, crowdsourcing services and other, which aim at mitigating the negative effects of the freight transport in the urban area. The effectiveness of these solutions, however, is not for sure, since their performance relies on particularities of cities’ urban freight transport system as well as the level of infrastructure, cooperation and policy adoption. To better understand and assess the impacts of a proposed solution in a city context, ex-ante evaluation through modeling is advised.
Article
Freight transport plays a very important role in economic activities. However, in some cases, the local transportation authority often disregards its existence, including in parking management issues. This research is aimed at developing an optimization model for off-street parking space management that considers freight cars and passenger cars as two different entities. Optimization aims at minimizing the joint function of the parking index of freight cars and the parking index of passenger cars. Weighting is given to both parking indexes to represent the interest level of parking operator to both types of vehicles. Parking space of both vehicles is at any time is arranged in a dynamic manner based on the inflow and outflow rate of vehicles at previous times. The parking index is limited by the maximum parking index desired by the management. The proposed model is applied to the parking activity in Jatinegara Trade Center (JTC), Jakarta, and shows that the model solution provides a better parking index than the actual parking index (without optimization).
Conference Paper
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In this paper we present the development of an integrated microscopic mobility simulator, SimMobility Short-Term (ST). “Integrated” as its models, inputs and outputs, simulated components and code-base are integrated within a multi-scale agent- and activity-based simulation platform capable of simulating different spatial-temporal resolutions and account for different levels of travelers’ decision making. “Microscopic” as both the demand – agents and its trips – and the supply –trip realization and movements on the network – are microscopic, i.e. modeled individually. Finally, “Mobility”, as it copes with the multimodal nature of urban networks and the need for the flexible simulation of innovative transportation services such as on-demand and smart mobility solutions. This paper follows previous publications that describe SimMobility’s overall framework and models. SimMobility is a multi-scale platform that considers land-use, transportation, and mobility-sensitive behavioral models. SimMobility ST aims at simulating the high-resolution movement of agents (traffic, transit, pedestrians and goods) and the operation of different mobility services and control and information systems. This paper presents SimMobility ST modelling framework and system architecture, reporting its successful calibration for Singapore and its use in several scenarios of innovative mobility applications. We also show how detailed performance measures from SimMobility ST can be integrated with a daily activity7 and mobility patterns simulator. Such integration is crucial to accurately model the impact of different technologies and service operations at the urban level, as the identity and preferences of simulated agents are maintained across temporal decision-scales ensuring the consistency and accuracy of simulated accessibility and performance measures of each scenario.
Article
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This study employed basic demand estimation, field observation, text analysis, and spatial analysis methods to examine the adequacy of the existing supply of commercial dedicated parking space in high-density areas of New York City to accommodate expected demand for direct-to-home deliveries. The study also examined the proximity of available commercial dedicated parking space to end delivery locations. The study estimated and mapped two performance metrics: (1) the share of on-street commercial dedicated parking demanded for expected U.S. Postal Service residential freight deliveries, and (2) the share of these package deliveries expected to occur within a reasonable walking distance of a commercial dedicated parking space. The study relies on a variety of open data sources and on limited field observations; owing to data limitations, and resulting assumptions for baseline analysis, sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Results suggest that there is currently both a spatial and temporal mismatch between the commercial dedicated parking supply and expected residential delivery demand, and that shifts toward express deliveries may exacerbate this mismatch. Future research needs are also discussed.
Chapter
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This chapter provides a review of simulation techniques applied to urban logistics with a focus on practical applications. Several techniques and tools have been proposed to simulate different systems in urban logistics. The chapter proposes a state‐of‐the‐art review of the existing simulation techniques in the field of urban logistics. It also proposes a synthesis of the opportunities for simulation in urban logistics. The chapter presents an analytical framework of the existing simulation techniques, their inherent choices and their advantages and drawbacks. This framework examines the choice of simulation techniques of the reviewed publications. The chapter explores a practical reference for urban logistics researchers and practitioners who wish to use simulation in order to study the behavior and performance of their systems. Finally, it draws the reader's attention to consider the use of hybrid simulation techniques.
Conference Paper
The flows of goods within cities have attracted the attention of researchers and practitioners in the field of logistics and supply chain as well as transport engineering. A main feature of this research field is the continuously change in the associated variables to the urban goods distribution (UGD) like the travel time, the customer orders, the traffic congestion among others, which has a direct impact to the stakeholders in city logistics (shippers, carriers, receivers, public administration, etc.). The microsimulation can be used to asses those changes and their impact in the optimization process of the UGD. In this paper, we make a review of some studies about the use of microsimulation as an optimization tool for the UGD and classify them according to its application and simulation paradigm. In the same way, we categorize these studies by the process that are modelling in order to generate a starting point for future research that until now has not been found in the literature
Conference Paper
This work provides a review of simulation techniques applied to urban logistics with a focus on practical applications. Several techniques and tools have been proposed to simulate different systems in urban logistics. In most cases, simulation choices depend on the objective of the simulation, the role of the decision maker and the type of problem. The paper offers a state of the art in which we analyse the existing simulation solutions for a given problem and/or a given stakeholder. As a result, it offers a practical reference for urban logistics researchers and practitioners who wish to use simulation in order to study the behaviour and performance of their systems. We propose an analytical framework allowing an easy overview of advantages and drawbacks of each technique, output criteria and examples.
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents the development of an integrated microscopic mobility simulator, SimMobility Short-Term (ST). The simulator is integrated because its models, inputs and outputs, simulated components, and code base are integrated within a multiscale agent- and activity-based simu- lation platform capable of simulating different spatiotemporal resolutions and accounting for different levels of travelers’ decision making. The simulator is microscopic because both the demand (agents and its trips) and the supply (trip realization and movements on the network) are microscopic (i.e., modeled individually). Finally, the simulator has mobility because it copes with the multimodal nature of urban networks and the need for the flexible simulation of innovative transportation ser - vices, such as on-demand and smart mobility solutions. This paper follows previous publications that describe SimMobility’s overall framework and models. SimMobility is an open-source, multiscale platform that considers land use, transportation, and mobility-sensitive behavioral models. SimMobility ST aims at simulating the high-resolution movement of agents (traffic, transit, pedestrians, and goods) and the operation of different mobility services and control and information systems. This paper presents the SimMobility ST modeling framework and system architecture and reports on its successful calibration for Singapore and its use in several scenarios of innovative mobility applications. The paper also shows how detailed performance measures from SimMobility ST can be integrated with a daily activity and mobility patterns simulator. Such integration is crucial to model accurately the effect of different technologies and service operations at the urban level, as the identity and preferences of simulated agents are maintained across temporal decision scales, ensuring the consistency and accuracy of simulated accessibility and performance measures of each scenario.
Thesis
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This doctoral thesis presents an urban goods distribution model that allows to include multiple dynamic variables in the pick-up and delivery processes, which emerge from the processes scenarios where these are performed. The dynamic variables considered are demand and time. The demand variables include new order arrives, orders cancellations, changes in order quantities and time windows, the time variables consider changes in travel and service time. The variables changes can impact the vehicles total tour time and the fulfillment of the time windows constraints. The proposed model uses the integration between microsimulation and multi-agent systems to represent the decentralized collaboration process for the information management and the coordination and integration process among the stakeholders to respond to the different changes in the analyzed variables and assess the impact of those changes on the final performance of the distribution process in terms of cost and service levels, additionally, it uses fuzzy inference on vehicles behaviors for the different changes in the operation on travel time, service time and time window variables, to decide the answer to those changes and achieve an equilibrium between the service level and the operation cost.
Thesis
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With the growth of urban population and the increase of the vehicle fleet, Brazilian cities face urban dysfunction problems like congestion, environmental pollution, car accidents among others and its consequences are felt by citizens. With the institution of the PNMU - Política Nacional de Mobilidade Urbana (National Urban Mobility Policy), Brazil has sought to direct the planning of solutions for the urban transportation of people and cargo in an integrated and sustainable way The literature shows a lack of national research focused on planning and local policies of urban freight and better understanding of the authorities on the freight transportation and supply chains, for decision-making on policy and planning Urban Freight Transport (UFT). The practices and concepts of City Logistics intend optimal solutions for goods handling issues in urban areas. In this context, the use of City Logistics (CL) practices in Brazilian cities was investigated. Therefore, the contents related to UFT and CL were analyzed in the PlanMobs – Planos de Mobilidade Urbana (Urban Mobility Plans) elaborated by these cities. Additionally was produced a data collection (survey research), with those responsible for the preparation/review of PlanMobs. This research identifies the resources used in the UFT planning, the CL practices adopted and the perceptions of the municipal authorities about the UFT and CL. The results showed that the LU is still neglected and appears not to be the focus of the authorities who have developed the PlanMob. The lack of local authorities’ specific skills, with the low use of planning resources makes it impossible to achieve the LU goals. Keywords: City Logistics. Urban Mobility Plan. Brazilian cities. Content analysis. Survey
Chapter
This chapter discusses the tools that a municipality can use to achieve the desired land use and built environment. The discussion narrowly focuses on the tools and their effects that are relevant to urban freight since some of those tools, such as nontraditional zoning and tax‐increment finance (TIF) districts, have been studied extensively by planning scholars for their broad and complex effects and implications. It is followed by a section on the research framework that elucidates the research hypothesis, and the data and analysis methods employed for this study. The chapter presents the interpretations and discussions of the results of the analysis. While zoning serves multiple purposes such as separating incompatible land uses, preserving consistent aesthetics and promoting public safety, it affects freight transportation mainly in two ways: regulating the use and intensity of land and defining the standards for built environment including parking and loading area requirements, and the provision of curb‐side loading zones.
Article
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The choice of freight vehicle type and shipment size are among the most important logistics decisions made by firms. An important aspect is the nature of the choice process i.e., whether the two choices are sequential or joint in nature. In this study, we investigate the factors that influence the two choices and develop sequential and nested logit models with both possible sequence or nesting structures i.e., vehicle type first or at upper level and shipment size second or at lower level and vice-versa. A commercial travel survey for the Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area is used to estimate the models. Characteristics of firms including industry type and employment, and characteristics of shipments including commodity type, destination location, and density value are tested. Shipment size is categorized into four categories and four vehicle types are considered. The results show that both sequences and nesting structures are possible. The nested logit model results show a potential correlation among unobserved components of utility for vehicle types (80%) and shipment sizes (38%) which should be considered. Model performance is assessed using rho-squared and BIC value. The results show that the sequential logit model with shipment size first and vehicle type second sequence has the best model fit. However, based on the strong correlation indicated by the nested logit model for vehicle type nested within shipment size choice (second best model), a model reflecting the joint nature of the choice process might be suitable.
Article
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Traditionally, the parking choice/option is considered to be an important factor in only in the mode choice component of a four-stage travel demand modelling system. However, travel demand modelling has been undergoing a paradigm shift from the traditional trip-based approach to an activity-based approach. The activity-based approach is intended to capture the influences of different policy variables at various stages of activity-travel decision making processes. Parking is a key policy variable that captures land use and transportation interactions in urban areas. It is important that the influences of parking choice on activity scheduling behaviour be identified fully. This paper investigates this issue using a sample data set collected in Montreal, Canada. Parking type choice and activity scheduling decision (start time choice) are modelled jointly in order to identify the effects of parking type choice on activity scheduling behaviour. Empirical investigation gives strong evidence that parking type choice influences activity scheduling process. The empirical findings of this investigation challenge the validity of the traditional conception which considers parking choice as exogenous variable only in the mode choice component of travel demand models.
Article
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Suppose curb parking is free but all the spaces are occupied, and off-street parking is expensive but immediately available. In this case, you can cruise to find a curb space being vacated by a departing motorist, or pay for off-street parking right away. This paper presents a model of how drivers choose whether to cruise or to pay, and it predicts several results: you are more likely to cruise if curb parking is cheap, off-street parking is expensive, fuel is cheap, you want to park for a long time, you are alone in the car, and you place a low value on saving time. The model also predicts that charging the market price for curb parking—at least equal to the price of adjacent off-street parking—will eliminate cruising. Because the government sets curb parking prices, planners and elected officials strongly influence drivers’ decisions to cruise. The failure to charge market rates for curb parking congests traffic, pollutes the air, wastes fuel, and causes accidents. Between 1927 and 2001, studies of cruising in congested downtowns have found that it took between 3.5 and 14 min to find a curb space, and that between 8 and 74 percent of the traffic was cruising for parking.
Article
This paper provides insight into the magnitude of the freight parking problem in large urban areas, and the effectiveness of alternative solution strategies. It does so by estimating the demand for parking using freight trip generation estimates, and the supply of parking on the basis of curb space. The paper discusses freight parking management demand strategies developed by governmental agencies and other organizations. In addition, the paper proposes an approximate methodology to quantify freight parking demand and on-street parking availability. Parking demand is expressed as a function of the freight trip generation of individual establishments, and parking availability is estimated to be a function of curb space dimensions and commercial vehicle characteristics. Empirical findings are provided using New York City as a case study. From the analyses and results, the paper provides a set of policy recommendations to help mitigate the issues identified.
Article
Freight transportation is a critical element of the transportation system and the economy of Los Angeles County, California. Freight transportation links the large consumer market, major manufacturing industry sector, and international trade network of Los Angeles to the rest of the United States and the world. As the agency responsible for transportation planning and programming in Los Angeles County, the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority needs comprehensive tools for understanding the demands of the freight transportation sector and the effects of transportation investment on this sector. A project was undertaken to design a comprehensive, innovative, multimodal modeling framework to support freight transportation decision making in Los Angeles County. The proposed modeling approach combines elements of two state-of-the-art freight modeling techniques: logistics chain modeling and tour-based truck modeling. The reasons for selecting this approach are described; background on the modeling techniques is provided; and integration of the two methods into a comprehensive modeling framework is discussed.
Challenges Facing Express Delivery Services in Canada's Urban Centres
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