Article

Thiamine Deficiency Induces Anorexia by Inhibiting Hypothalamic AMPK

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Abstract

Obesity and eating disorders are prevailing health concerns worldwide. It is important to understand the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can cause a number of disorders in humans, such as Beriberi and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. We demonstrated here that TD caused anorexia in C57BL/6 mice. After feeding a TD diet for 16 days, the mice displayed a significant decrease in food intake and an increase in resting energy expenditure (REE), which resulted in a severe weight loss. At the 22(nd) day, the food intake was reduced by 69% and 74% for male and female mice, respectively in TD group. The REE increased by 9 folds in TD group. The loss of body weight (17-24%) was similar between male and female animals and mainly resulted from the reduction of fat mass (49% decrease). Re-supplementation of thiamine (benfotiamine) restored animal's appetite, leading to a total recovery of body weight. The hypothalamic AMPK is a critical regulator of food intake. TD inhibited the phosphorylation of AMPK in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus without affecting its expression. TD-induced inhibition of AMPK phosphorylation was reversed once thiamine was re-supplemented. In contrast, TD increased AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle and upregulated the uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 in brown adipose tissues which was consistent with increased basal energy expenditure. Re-administration of thiamine stabilized AMPK phosphorylation in the skeletal muscle as well as energy expenditure. Taken together, TD may induce anorexia by inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK activity. With a simultaneous increase in energy expenditure, TD caused an overall body weight loss. The results suggest that the status of thiamine levels in the body may affect food intake and body weight.

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... In an animal study, it was shown that higher amounts of thiamin intake raised mice obesity, increasing food consumption. 22 Likewise, the positive association between thiamin intake and weight gain was shown in a case report study. 23 The association of thiamin intake on weight gain could be attributable to a biochemical food-intake regulator, called AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). ...
... In this regard, animal studies showed that higher levels of thiamin intake up-regulated AMPK production, leading to further weight gain. 22 Under normal physiological conditions, weight disorders could be also affected by energy expenditures. 22,24 Energy expenditure is mainly regulated by mitochondrial membrane protein-called uncoupling protein (UCP1) or thermogenin, existed in brown adipose tissue. ...
... 22 Under normal physiological conditions, weight disorders could be also affected by energy expenditures. 22,24 Energy expenditure is mainly regulated by mitochondrial membrane protein-called uncoupling protein (UCP1) or thermogenin, existed in brown adipose tissue. 24 Animal studies showed that higher levels of thiamin intake not only reduce expression of UCP1 but also results in fewer amounts of energy expenditure and further weight gain. ...
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Background: Weight disorders are highly prevalent at the global level. Vitamin B groups are clearly involved in intracellular mechanisms, energy equation, and weight gain. The present study aims to evaluate the association of dietary vitamin B intake and obesity in a large pediatric population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among children and adolescents, aged 6-18years, living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces of Iran. The BMI-for-age classifications were as follow: percentile <0.1, (emaciated), 0.1 ≤percentile <2.35 (thin), 2.35 ≤percentile≤84.1 (normal), 84.1 <percentile ≤97.7 (overweight), 97.1 <percentile (obese). A valid 168-item semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was used to assess the usual dietary intake including vitamin B. Results: Out of 5606 children and adolescents participated (mean age: 11.62, SD: 3.32),46.8% were girls. The intake of thiamin, pyridoxine, niacin and pantothenic acid increased the likelihood of obesity, compared with the normal-weight group. Odds ratios (ORs) (95% CI) of obesity for vitamin B1, B3, B5, and B6 were 1.32 (1.14-1.53), 1.01 (1.00-1.02), 1.04 (1.00-1.08),and 1.20 (1.04-1.38), respectively. Riboflavin, cyanocobalamin, biotin and folic acid did not have any significant association with weight disorders (B2: OR=1.09, 95% CI =0.99-1.20); B12:OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.98-1.03; B8: OR=1.00, 95% CI=0.99-1.00 B9: OR=1.00, 95% CI=1.00-1.00). Conclusion: The current study showed a significant correlation between consumption of vitamin B group and increased risk of excess weight.
... Hernandez-Vazquez et al. also provided evidence showing that the basal level of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in thiamin-restricted liver was increased [12]. It notes in the other study that the activation was also observed in thiaminrestricted skeletal muscle at rest [14]. Given that glycogen has an allosteric inhibitory effect on AMPK [15], this result could be considered as supporting evidence for the expected reduction in glycogen content in thiamin-restricted muscle at rest. ...
... As we expected, exercise amplified the AMPK phosphorylation levels in an exercise intensity-dependent manner. However, in contrast to previous studies [12,14], its phosphorylation level at rest was not increased by thiamin restriction (Figure 7). Additionally, theAMPK phosphorylation levels in response to both exercise models were identical between the CON and the TD groups (Figure 7). ...
... In a previous study by Hernandez-Vazquez et al. [12], the authors also found that liver AMPK was activated in thiamin-restricted rats with a reduction of food intake, which potentially was the result of a release from a negative allosteric regulation of AMPK by lowering the glycogen content [15]. In skeletal muscle, a previous study by Liu et al. demonstrated that the AMPK activation level was increased in skeletal muscle of mice fed with thiamin-deficient diet for 4 weeks with anorexic symptom [14]. This result is incompatible with our present result showing that AMPK activation levels in skeletal muscle were identical between the CON and the TD groups when food intake was not different between groups. ...
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This study aimed to investigate the direct influence of a decrease in the cellular thiamin level, before the onset of anorexia (one of the symptoms of thiamin deficiency) on glycogen metabolism and the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation levels in skeletal muscle at rest and in response to exercise. Male Wistar rats were classified as the control diet (CON) group or the thiamin-deficient diet (TD) group and consumed the assigned diets for 1 week. Skeletal muscles were taken from the rats at rest, those that underwent low-intensity swimming (LIS), or high-intensity intermittent swimming (HIS) conducted immediately before dissection. There were no significant differences in food intake, locomotive activity, or body weight between groups, but thiamin pyrophosphate in the skeletal muscles of the TD group was significantly lower than that of the CON group. Muscle glycogen and lactate levels in the blood and muscle were equivalent between groups at rest and in response to exercise. The mitochondrial content was equal between groups, and AMPK in the skeletal muscles of TD rats was normally activated by LIS and HIS. In conclusion, with a lowered cellular thiamin level, the exercise-associated glycogen metabolism and AMPK activation level in skeletal muscle were normally regulated.
... In human, the loss of appetite is often the presenting symptom of TD and should be regarded as a protective phenomenon, since continued intake of a high-carbohydrate diet could aggravate the deficiency. Liu et al. (2014) showed in mice that thiamine deficiencyinduced anorexia. Our results confirmed the previous findings that thiamine plays an important role in regulation of food/feed consumption and body weight programming (Ba, 2012). ...
... Our results confirmed the previous findings that thiamine plays an important role in regulation of food/feed consumption and body weight programming (Ba, 2012). In the experiments performed on laboratory animals, significant drop of diet consumption and growth of animals fed a TD diet was also observed previously (Klooster et al., 2009;Liu et al., 2014). Thiamine re-supplementation of TD animals restored their appetite which resulted in body weight recovery after seven days (Liu et al., 2014). ...
... In the experiments performed on laboratory animals, significant drop of diet consumption and growth of animals fed a TD diet was also observed previously (Klooster et al., 2009;Liu et al., 2014). Thiamine re-supplementation of TD animals restored their appetite which resulted in body weight recovery after seven days (Liu et al., 2014). However, the other authors stated that thiamine deficiency during perinatal period significantly reduced birth weight of rats comparing with perfed controls and this growth retardation persisted in adulthood (Ba, 2012;Balaji et al., 2015;Ozdemir et al., 2018). ...
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Thiamine is recognized as a cofactor for many enzymes involved in intermediary metabolism responsible for energy production. Animal model of thiamine deficiency (TD) included direct evaluation of glucose uptake by estimation of 3H‐deoxyglucose transport across red blood cells membranes and β‐oxidation of fatty acids in isolated leucocytes. Feeding of animals with the thiamine‐deficient diet (0.018 mg/kg diet) for 30 days resulted in disturbances in energy production. The thiamine intake was limited not only by vitamin B1 deficiency in the diet, but also by time‐dependent drop of feed consumption by rats fed this diet. At the end of experiment, diet consumption in this group of rats was 52% lower than in the control group. This was accompanied by low glucose uptake by erythrocytes of rats suffering vitamin B1 deficiency for longer time. At the end of experimental period, glucose uptake was over 2 times lower in TD erythrocytes than in control RBC. Such drop of energy production was not compensated by delivery of energy from fatty acid degradation. In leucocytes from TD rats, the β‐oxidation was also suppressed. Observed significant decrease of serum insulin from 2.25 ± 0.25 ng/ml (day 0) to 1.94 ± 0.17 ng/ml (day 30) might have significant impact on observed energy production disorders. The results from this study indicate that the thiamine deficiency significantly reduces feed intake and causes modest abnormalities in glucose and fatty acid utilization.
... There is also evidence indicating that administration of thiamine-deficient diets can reduce food intake and increase resting energy expenditure in experimental animals [17]. Despite these preliminary findings, there has been, however, no published study examining the impact of thiamine on energy metabolism in humans. ...
... However, our findings are partially in line with an experimental study indicating that administration of a thiamine -deficient diet for 25 days increased REE (by approximately 10 folds) in an animal model. Subsequent thiamine re-supplementation then rapidly attenuated REE to the control level [17]. ...
... In the present study, decreases in the REE of participants in the supplement arm were not associated with significant changes in their body weight or waist circumference. An experimental study showed that the reduced REE resulted from thiamine re-supplementation in thiamine deficient mice was accompanied by stimulation of hypothalamic AMPK activity and increased appetite and food intake, causing an overall body weight gain [17]. However, the findings of human studies investigating the effect of thiamine on the body weight have been controversial: in a clinical trial conducted by Wilkinson et al. [33] thiamine supplementation (10 mg/d) for 3 months resulted in a considerable decrease in the weight of older participants with persistent subclinical thiamine deficiency confirmed on two occasions, but not in those with just an isolated low thiamine concentration. ...
Article
Background Despite the crucial role of thiamine in glucose and energy metabolism pathways, there has been no published study examining the impact of thiamine on energy metabolism in humans.Objective To assess the effects of thiamine supplementation on resting energy expenditure (REE) in individuals with hyperglycemia.Methods Twelve hyperglycemic patients completed this double-blind, randomized trial, where all participants received both thiamine (300 mg/day) and matched placebo for 6 weeks in a cross-over manner. REE was assessed by indirect calorimetry. Anthropometric measurements, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose, and glucose-induced thermogenesis were also assessed at the beginning and on the completion of each six-week phase.ResultsParticipants consuming thiamine supplements experienced a significant decrease in the REE assessed at week six compared to the baseline [mean (SE): 1478.93 (73.62) vs.1526.40 (73.46) kcal/d, p = 0.02], and the placebo arm (p = 0.002). These results did not change significantly after adjusting for the participants’ body weight and physical activity as potential confounders. Six-week intervention had no significant effect on the participants’ body weight or waist circumference, in either supplement or placebo arms (all p values>0.05). However, correlation analysis highlighted significant positive relationships between the changes in REE, and those in fasting (rs = 0.497, p = 0.019) and 2-h plasma glucose (rs = 0.498, p = 0.018) during the six-week intervention period.Conclusion Supplementation with high-dose thiamine may attenuate REE in patients with impaired glucose regulation. Our findings suggest that the impact of thiamine on REE may in part be explained by improved glycemic control.Trial registrationAustralian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611000051943. https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?ACTRN=12611000051943
... This is why daily thiamine replacement after gastric surgery with a good-quality oral multivitamin supplement has been advocated by national bariatric and gastrointestinal surgical societies and is recommended in multiple nutritional guidelines. 12,27,[99][100][101][102][103][104][105] Thiamine requirements increase with surgery, aging, sepsis, fever, anorexia, physical exertion, and broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment. 12,34,74 Worsening of subclinical thiamine deficiency can also occur with aging. ...
... This reduces food intake by up to 75%, increases resting energy expenditure by 9-fold, and reduces body weight by 17% to 24% in murine models. 100 Thiamine supplementation with oral benfotiamine rapidly restores lean body mass, but with slower return of fat mass. 100 The initial apathy, weight loss, and anorexia of thiamine deficiency may contribute to a fulminant presentation of beriberi. ...
... 100 Thiamine supplementation with oral benfotiamine rapidly restores lean body mass, but with slower return of fat mass. 100 The initial apathy, weight loss, and anorexia of thiamine deficiency may contribute to a fulminant presentation of beriberi. 47 ...
Article
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Beriberi is a nutritional complication of gastric surgery, caused by deficiency of vitamin B1, or thiamine. Thiamine deficiency leads to impaired glucose metabolism, decreased delivery of oxygen by red blood cells, cardiac dysfunction, failure of neurotransmission, and neuronal death. This review describes the history and pathophysiology of beriberi as well as the relationship between beriberi and nutritional deficiencies after gastric surgery. A literature review of the history and pathophysiology of beriberi and the risk factors for thiamine deficiency, particularly after gastric resection or bariatric surgery, was performed. Recommendations for nutritional follow-up post gastric surgery are based on current national guidelines. Patients may have subclinical thiamine deficiency after upper gastrointestinal surgery, and thus beriberi may be precipitated by acute illness such as sepsis or poor dietary intake. This may occur very soon or many years after gastrectomy or bariatric surgery, even in apparently well-nourished patients. Prompt recognition and administration of supplemental thiamine can decrease morbidity and mortality in patients with beriberi. Dietary education post surgery and long-term follow-up to determine nutritional status, including vitamin and mineral assessment, is recommended for patients who undergo gastric surgery.
... A recent study showed that vitamin B 1 deficiency induces anorexia by inhibiting the phosphorylation of AMP kinase (AMPK) in the hypothalamus. 28 Hypothalamic AMPK is regarded as a mediator of food intake. 28 Therefore, the following mechanism might be considered: reduced ATP concentration → reduced AMPK activity → negative feedback control of food intake. ...
... 28 Hypothalamic AMPK is regarded as a mediator of food intake. 28 Therefore, the following mechanism might be considered: reduced ATP concentration → reduced AMPK activity → negative feedback control of food intake. ...
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We investigated the effects of vitamin B1 deficiency on the meiosis maturation of oocytes. Female Crl:CD1 (ICR) mice were fed a 20% casein diet (control group) or a vitamin B1–free diet (test group). The vitamin B1 concentration in ovary was approximately 30% lower in the test group than in the control group. Oocyte meiosis was not affected by vitamin B1 deficiency when the deficiency was not accompanied by body weight loss. On the contrary, frequency of abnormal oocyte was increased by vitamin B1 deficiency when deficiency was accompanied by body weight loss (referred to as severe vitamin B1 deficiency; frequency of abnormal oocyte, 13.8% vs 43.7%, P = .0071). The frequency of abnormal oocytes was decreased by refeeding of a vitamin B1–containing diet (13.9% vs 22.9%, P = .503). These results suggest that severe vitamin B1 deficiency inhibited meiotic maturation of oocytes but did not damage immature oocytes.
... To our knowledge, others consistently showed that low blood hemoglobin level was associated with AD cognitive impairment (12,18). Anemia is commonly present as thiamine deficiency (27). Gene mutations related to thiamine metabolism are often found in patients with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (27). ...
... Anemia is commonly present as thiamine deficiency (27). Gene mutations related to thiamine metabolism are often found in patients with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (27). A large population study showed that a micronutrientfortified rice diet thiamine and other nutrients significantly improved hemoglobin levels, anemia prevalence, and cognitive performance among schoolchildren in India (28). ...
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Background Malnutrition, metabolism stress, inflammation, peripheral organs dysfunction, and B vitamins deficiency significantly contribute to the progression and mortality of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear which blood biochemical indicators are most closely related to cognitive decline and B vitamins deficiency (thiamine, folate, vitamin B12) in patients with AD. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 206 AD patients recruited from six hospitals in China. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP), the bioactive form of thiamine, was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography fluoroscopy (HPLC) at a single center. Levels of biochemical indicators (except TDP) were measured by regular and standard laboratory tests in each hospital. Pearson's rank correlation analysis was used to assess relationships between B vitamins and biochemical indicators. T -test was used to compare the difference between ApoE ε4 and non-ApoE ε4 groups. Differences were considered statistically significant as P < 0.05. Results Among the biochemical results, in AD population, malnutrition indicators (erythrocyte, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and total protein) were most significantly associated with cognitive function, as was free triiodothyronine (FT3) levels which had been observed in previous study. Malnutrition and FT3 levels depend on age but not apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. Meanwhile, Among the B vitamins, TDP was the most significantly associated with malnutrition indicators and FT3. Conclusion Our results indicated that TDP reduction could be a modifiable risk factor for malnutrition and FT3 that contributed to cognitive decline in AD patients. Correcting thiamine metabolism could serve as an optional therapy target for AD treatment.
... The first manifestations observed in the study were the decrease in weight gain and feed consumption in thiaminedeficient mice. These manifestations are characteristic and expected, being demonstrated in several models of deficiency induction [64,65,82,83]. Studies have shown that TD induces anorexia, centrally modulating the AMPK pathway in the hypothalamus, as well as increasing resting energy expenditure and generalized loss of body weight [82]. ...
... These manifestations are characteristic and expected, being demonstrated in several models of deficiency induction [64,65,82,83]. Studies have shown that TD induces anorexia, centrally modulating the AMPK pathway in the hypothalamus, as well as increasing resting energy expenditure and generalized loss of body weight [82]. Additionally, the reduction in food intake by thiamine deficient animals may also be caused by changes in the neuroendocrine circuits [83]. ...
Article
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Thiamine deficiency (TD) produces severe neurodegenerative lesions. Studies have suggested that primary neurodegenerative events are associated with both oxidative stress and inflammation. Very little is known about the downstream effects on intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal death. The primary aim of this work was to evaluate the modulation of p38MAPK and the expression of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Behavioral, metabolic, and morphological parameters were assessed. Mice were separated into six groups: control (Cont), TD with pyrithiamine (Ptd), TD with pyrithiamine and Trolox (Ptd + Tr), TD with pyrithiamine and dimethyl sulfoxide (Ptd + Dmso), Trolox (Tr) and DMSO (Dmso) control groups and treated for 9 days. Control groups received standard feed (AIN-93M), while TD groups received thiamine deficient feed (AIN-93DT). All the groups were subjected to behavioral tests, and CNS samples were collected for cell viability, histopathology and western blot analyses. The Ptd group showed a reduction in weight gain and feed intake, as well as a reduction in locomotor, grooming, and motor coordination activities. Also, Ptd group showed a robust increase in p38MAPK phosphorylation and mild HO-1 expression in the cerebral cortex and thalamus. The Ptd group showed a decreased cell viability, hemorrhage, spongiosis, and astrocytic swelling in the thalamus. Groups treated with Trolox and DMSO displayed diminished p38MAPK phosphorylation in both the structures, as well as attenuated thalamic lesions and behavioral activities. These data suggest that p38MAPK and HO-1 are involved in the TD-induced neurodegeneration in vivo, possibly modulated by oxidative stress and neuroinflammation.
... For the first 10 days of the protocol, food intake remained relatively constant. However, on days 11-13, feeding by thiaminedeficient mice was strongly reduced, as observed in previous studies [30], visible as a reduction in the slope of the cumulative feeding curve (Fig. 1b). To control for this effect, we used a matched feeding program whereby food intake of control animals was limited to that consumed by thiaminedeficient animals. ...
... Control animals were restricted to the same level of food intake but did not develop postural signs. During the deficiency treatment, thiaminedeficient animals exhibited reduced feeding as previously reported [30]. To reduce this confounding factor and to study effects specifically related to thiamine deficiency and not general nutritional status, we restricted feeding of controls to that of the thiamine-deficient group. ...
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Thiamine deficiency is associated with cerebellar dysfunction; however, the consequences of thiamine deficiency on the electrophysiological properties of cerebellar Purkinje cells are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated these parameters in brain slices containing cerebellar vermis. Adult mice were maintained for 12–13 days on a thiamine-free diet coupled with daily injections of pyrithiamine, an inhibitor of thiamine phosphorylation. Morphological analysis revealed a 20% reduction in Purkinje cell and nuclear volume in thiamine-deficient animals compared to feeding-matched controls, with no reduction in cell count. Under whole-cell current clamp, thiamine-deficient Purkinje cells required significantly less current injection to fire an action potential. This reduction in rheobase was not due to a change in voltage threshold. Rather, thiamine-deficient neurons presented significantly higher input resistance specifically in the voltage range just below threshold, which increases their sensitivity to current at these critical membrane potentials. In addition, thiamine deficiency caused a significant decrease in the amplitude of the action potential afterhyperpolarization, broadened the action potential, and decreased the current threshold for depolarization block. When thiamine-deficient animals were allowed to recover for 1 week on a normal diet, rheobase, threshold, action potential half-width, and depolarization block threshold were no longer different from controls. We conclude that thiamine deficiency causes significant but reversible changes to the electrophysiology properties of Purkinje cells prior to pathological morphological alterations or cell loss. Thus, the data obtained in the present study indicate that increased excitability of Purkinje cells may represent a leading indicator of cerebellar dysfunction caused by lack of thiamine.
... This mechanism is common to several orexigenic signals, such as hypoglycaemia, ghrelin, glucocorticoids, adiponectin, and cannabinoids [117,[119][120][121][122][123][124][125] . Some anorexigenic signals, such as leptin, insulin, GLP-1, ciliary neurotrophic factor, thiamine deficiency, and melanocortin receptor agonists, also exert their effects inhibiting hypothalamic AMPK [117,118,120,[126][127][128][129][130][131][132] ( Fig. 1 ). In keeping with these data, activation of AMPK signalling can increase NPY and AgRP in the ARC, and also MCH in LHA, while its inhibition within the hypothalamus produces a downregulation of NPY and AgRP in the ARC [118] . ...
... Interestingly, leptin action is also mediated by the AMPK inhibition that occurs in the ARC, VMH, and PVH, where, as a result of that action, the concentration of palmitoyl-CoA is increased [118,128,133] . In this regard, the role of AMPK in the PVH has been investigated thoroughly, demonstrating that, besides leptin, AMPK is modulated in similarity to other nuclei by hypoglycaemia and thiamine [132,134] but not by ciliary neurotrophic factor [127] , demonstrating anatomical specificity. Finally, it has also been proposed that AMPK in vasopressin neurons of the PVH may be involved in adiponectin effects on osmoregulation [135] . ...
Article
Hypothalamic lipid metabolism plays a major role in the physiological regulation of energy balance. Modulation of several enzymatic activities that control lipid biosynthesis, such as fatty acid synthase (FAS) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), impacts both feeding and energy expenditure. However, lipids can also cause pathological alterations in the hypothalamus. Lipotoxicity is promoted by excess lipids in tissues non suitable for their storage. A large amount of evidence has demonstrated that lipotoxicity is a pathophysiological mechanism leading to metabolic diseases, such as insulin resistance, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis and steatohepatitis. Current data have reported that, similar to what is observed in peripheral tissues, complex lipids, such as ceramides and sphingolipids, act as lipotoxic species at hypothalamic level to impact metabolism. Here, we will review what it is currently known about hypothalamic lipid metabolism and the modulation of energy homeostasis.
... Simultaneously, in the case of growing organisms, the influence of alcohol consumption on growth hormone level may be especially important and may be decreased by ethanol consumption, with a resultant reduction in bodily growth (reviewed in [61]. In addition, its known that TD reduces food consumption and body weight in rodents [18,63], which is in accordance with our results. Regarding to this, it has been proposed that thiamine, as well as alcohol, could play a main role regulating the increase in energy expenditure [63]. ...
... In addition, its known that TD reduces food consumption and body weight in rodents [18,63], which is in accordance with our results. Regarding to this, it has been proposed that thiamine, as well as alcohol, could play a main role regulating the increase in energy expenditure [63]. ...
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Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated to impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, isolate or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. A rat model was used by forced consumption of 20% (w/v) alcohol for 9 months (CA), TD hit (TD diet + pyrithiamine 0.25 mg/kg, i.p. daily injections the last 12 days of experimentation; TDD), and both combined treatments (CA+TDD). Motor and cognitive performance and cortical damage were examined. CA caused hyperlocomotion as a possible sensitization of ethanol-induced excitatory effects and recognition memory deficits. In addition, CA+TDD animals showed a disinhibited-like behavior, which appears to be dependent on TDD. Also, combined treatment led to more pronounced alterations in nitrosative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell damage markers. Correlations between injury signals and disinhibition suggest that CA+TDD disrupts behaviors dependent on the frontal cortex. Our study sheds light on the potential disease-specific mechanisms, reinforcing the need for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches along with preventive treatments for the nutritional deficiency in WKS.
... Simultaneously, in the case of growing organisms, the influence of alcohol consumption on the growth hormone level may be especially important and may be decreased by ethanol consumption, with a resultant reduction in bodily growth (reviewed in [57]). In addition, its known that TD reduces food consumption and body weight in rodents [18,59], which is in accordance with our results. Regarding this, it has been proposed that thiamine, as well as alcohol, could play a main role in regulating the increase in energy expenditure [59]. ...
... In addition, its known that TD reduces food consumption and body weight in rodents [18,59], which is in accordance with our results. Regarding this, it has been proposed that thiamine, as well as alcohol, could play a main role in regulating the increase in energy expenditure [59]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is induced by thiamine deficiency (TD) and mainly related to alcohol consumption. Frontal cortex dysfunction has been associated with impulsivity and disinhibition in WKS patients. The pathophysiology involves oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and inflammatory responses leading to neuronal death, but the relative contributions of each factor (alcohol and TD, either isolated or in interaction) to these phenomena are still poorly understood. A rat model was used by forced consumption of 20% (w/v) alcohol for 9 months (CA), TD hit (TD diet + pyrithiamine 0.25 mg/kg, i.p. daily injections the last 12 days of experimentation (TDD)), and both combined treatments (CA+TDD). Motor and cognitive performance and cortical damage were examined. CA caused hyperlocomotion as a possible sensitization of ethanol-induced excitatory effects and recognition memory deficits. In addition, CA+TDD animals showed a disinhibited-like behavior which appeared to be dependent on TDD. Additionally, combined treatment led to more pronounced alterations in nitrosative stress, lipid peroxidation, apoptosis and cell damage markers. Correlations between injury signals and disinhibition suggest that CA+TDD disrupts behaviors dependent on the frontal cortex. Our study sheds light on the potential disease-specific mechanisms, reinforcing the need for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches along with preventive treatments for the nutritional deficiency in WKS.
... Manipulation of dietary thiamine may have additional effects, for example, in the central nervous system. Notably, Liu and colleagues determined that reduced levels of thiamine in the systemic circulation in mice resulted in neurological effects in the hypothalamus, with anorexia and resultant reduction in peripheral adiposity [42]. ...
... In addition to the metabolic changes that were observed in Oct1 -/mice, the knockout mice were found to survive substantially longer on TDs. This may have been due to the higher systemic levels of thiamine (Fig 3B), which would spare essential organs such as the brain and heart from thiamine deficiency, as well as to the increased adiposity in the knockout mice ( Fig 2C), which could protect the mice from the starvation that ensues from thiamine deficiency [42,75,76]. Nevertheless, the results have implications for human ancestors who harbored reduced-function genetic polymorphisms of OCT1. ...
Article
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A constellation of metabolic disorders, including obesity, dysregulated lipids, and elevations in blood glucose levels, has been associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Analysis of data from recently published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated that reduced-function polymorphisms in the organic cation transporter, OCT1 (SLC22A1), are significantly associated with higher total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus, yet the mechanism linking OCT1 to these metabolic traits remains puzzling. Here, we show that OCT1, widely characterized as a drug transporter, plays a key role in modulating hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism, potentially by mediating thiamine (vitamin B1) uptake and hence its levels in the liver. Deletion of Oct1 in mice resulted in reduced activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes, including pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), which disrupted the hepatic glucose–fatty acid cycle and shifted the source of energy production from glucose to fatty acids, leading to a reduction in glucose utilization, increased gluconeogenesis, and altered lipid metabolism. In turn, these effects resulted in increased total body adiposity and systemic levels of glucose and lipids. Importantly, wild-type mice on thiamine deficient diets (TDs) exhibited impaired glucose metabolism that phenocopied Oct1 deficient mice. Collectively, our study reveals a critical role of hepatic thiamine deficiency through OCT1 deficiency in promoting the metabolic inflexibility that leads to the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic disease.
... Our group ( Pires et al., 2005;Resende et al., 2012;Bueno et al., 2015) and other authors (Beauchesne et al., 2009;Liu et al., 2014;Vedder et al., 2015;Vedder and Savage, 2017) have shown evidence of dif- ferent neurochemical changes and their association with TD effects on cognitive aspects as well as neurobiological changes in thalamic and hippocampus protein expression. ...
Article
Thiamine deficiency (TD) has been used as an experimental model in rodents to study the molecular mechanisms of neurodegeneration and its association with behavioral changes. The aims of the present study were to investigate the spatial cognitive performance of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) in adult male rats and disclose the thalamic proteome alterations caused by a severe TD episode. After the onset of the neurological signs, such as seizure and/or loss of righting reflex, the TD treatment was interrupted. Following 15 days of recovery, all rats were submitted to the spatial cognitive tasks in the Morris Water Maze (MWM). The results show that the PTD rats exhibited deficits during the learning process, which was reverted by repeated training. However, despite the spatial cognitive recovery, some protein changes were not reversible. The proteomic analysis, using label-free quantification, revealed deregulation of 183 thalamic proteins. Using bioinformatic tools, these proteins were categorized according to Gene Ontology functional annotation and metabolic pathways. We show that a severe TD affects proteins involved in different biological processes, such as, oxidative stress, neurotransmitter synthesis and synaptic vesicle cycle. These could explain the outcome in neurotransmitter release changes caused by TD, previously observed by our group and by other authors. These findings disclose the role of key proteins and metabolic pathways probably involved in the neurodegeneration process induced by TD. These proteins represent relevant molecular targets for future studies focusing also on the molecular basis of selective vulnerability of some brain areas to TD insult.
... Despite the development of anorexia in TD animals, through the modulation of signalling pathways associated with central regulation of food intake (LIU et al., 2014) and by neuroendocrine circuits changes (BÂ, 2012), we believe that in our study the reduction of ingestion (and, in this case, weight gain) at TD groups treated for 20 days may have been caused by the reduction in water intake, below the volume considered normal for the species (ANDRADE; PINTO; OLIVEIRA, 2002). However, the results pertaining to the animals treated for 80 days positively indicated TD induction in the mice. ...
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Thiamine is an essential cofactor for several cellular functions. Your deficiency results in important neurological disorders, with mechanisms and lesions not fully understood. The purpose of this work was to evaluate a thiamine deficiency through the model of oral administration of amprolium in mice. The animals, treated for 20 or 80 days, received amprolium in drinking water at doses of 10, 20, and 30 mg/mL (deficient groups A, B, and C, respectively). Deficient groups A and B showed reduction in body weight gain and performance changes in the open field (decreased distance and rearing, and increased grooming) and rotarod (reduced latency to fall) behavioural tests, when treated for 80 days. However, no histological changes were observed in the central nervous system. Moreover, group B animals exposed to amprolium developed proteinuria, with moderate tubular nephrosis, at 80 days. At the highest dose (group C) there was no interest to drink water. The data suggest that the use of oral amprolium in mice may be an interesting and viable model, when using adequate exposure times and doses. The amprolium induces thiamine deficiency progressively and moderately, which may be potentially useful for disturbed pathogenesis studies.
... It has now been established that TD is the primary cause of WKS. Clinically, WKS is usually associated with chronic alcoholism which depletes thiamine in the human body, but it can also be caused by malnourishment [43,44]. ...
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Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems. In the brain, TD causes a cascade of events including mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which are commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), and Huntington’s disease (HD). Thiamine metabolites may serve as promising biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, and thiamine supplementations exhibit therapeutic potential for patients of some neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental TD has been used to model aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TD-induced neurodegeneration are not clear. Recent research evidence indicates that TD causes oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy in the brain, which are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy in TD-mediated neurodegeneration. We propose that it is the interplay of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy that contributes to TD-mediated neurodegeneration.
... For example, α-lipoic acid 75 , fatty acids 76,77 , citrate 78 , lactate 79 and amino acids 80 all elicit anorexigenic responses that are associated with AMPK inhibition, acetyl-CoA carboxylase activation and increased malonyl-CoA concentration, which acts as an anorectic signal in hypothalamic neurons 81,82 . Vitamin B 1 deficiency also induces anorexia by inhibiting AMPK in the ARC 83 . Although these data link peripheral metabolic signals with the effects of hypothalamic AMPK on feeding, the kinase's primary function at this level is the integration of hormonal inputs. ...
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has a major role in the modulation of energy balance. AMPK is activated in conditions of low energy, increasing energy production and reducing energy consumption. The AMPK pathway is a canonical route regulating energy homeostasis by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with neuronal networks. Current evidence has implicated AMPK in the hypothalamus and hindbrain with feeding, brown adipose tissue thermogenesis and browning of white adipose tissue, through modulation of the sympathetic nervous system, as well as glucose homeostasis. Interestingly, several potential antiobesity and/or antidiabetic agents, some of which are currently in clinical use such as metformin and liraglutide, exert some of their actions by acting on AMPK. Furthermore, the orexigenic and weight-gain effects of commonly used antipsychotic drugs are also mediated by hypothalamic AMPK. Overall, this evidence suggests that hypothalamic AMPK signalling is an interesting target for drug development, but is this approach feasible? In this Review we discuss the current understanding of hypothalamic AMPK and its role in the central regulation of energy balance and metabolism.
... The lack of feed intake in this group may have indirectly affected other markers of metabolism and health status. Furthermore, the thiamine deficiency that resulted from the nutrient loss caused by the heating of resistant protein feed may also have negatively influenced the health status and feed intake of the pigs in the resistant protein diet group (68). Further investigation of the key findings from this work is required to gain an understanding of the health impacts of a diet high in resistant protein and the mechanisms by which they occur. ...
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High-heat processed foods contain proteins that are partially resistant to enzymatic digestion and pass through to the colon. The fermentation of resistant proteins by gut microbes produces products that may contribute to chronic disease risk. This pilot study examined the effects of a resistant protein diet on growth, fecal microbiome, protein fermentation metabolites, and the biomarkers of health status in pigs as a model of human digestion and metabolism. Weanling pigs were fed with standard or resistant protein diets for 4 weeks. The resistant protein, approximately half as digestible as the standard protein, was designed to enter the colon for microbial fermentation. Fecal and blood samples were collected to assess the microbiome and circulating metabolites and biomarkers. The resistant protein diet group consumed less feed and grew to ~50% of the body mass of the standard diet group. The diets had unique effects on the fecal microbiome, as demonstrated by clustering in the principal coordinate analysis. There were 121 taxa that were significantly different between groups (adjusted- p < 0.05). Compared with control, plasma tri-methylamine-N-oxide, homocysteine, neopterin, and tyrosine were increased and plasma acetic acid was lowered following the resistant protein diet (all p < 0.05). Compared with control, estimated glomerular filtration rate ( p < 0.01) and liver function marker aspartate aminotransferase ( p < 0.05) were also lower following the resistant protein diet. A resistant protein diet shifted the composition of the fecal microbiome. The microbial fermentation of resistant protein affected the levels of circulating metabolites and the biomarkers of health status toward a profile indicative of increased inflammation and the risk of chronic kidney disease.
... These effects are interesting because studies show that TD induces anorexia, increases the resting energy expenditure, and results in a generalized loss of body weight. 47,48 Hyporexia is reversed within 3 days of restoration of thiamine in the diet, 48,49 suggesting that thiamine has a crucial physiological role in the programming of body weight homeostasis, increment, and setpoint regulation. 48 When we combined TD treatments with Trolox or DMSO, we did not observe any changes to the reduc- Many studies indicate that, in rodents, TD-induced CNS lesions are primarily found in the thalamic nuclei. ...
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Background Thiamine deficiency (TD) models have been developed, mainly using the thiamine analog pyrithiamine. Other analogs have not been used in rodents. We aimed to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of intraperitoneal (ip) amprolium‐induced TD in mice. We also evaluated the associated pathogenesis using antioxidant and anti‐inflammatory compounds (Trolox, dimethyl sulfoxide). Methods Male mice were separated into two groups, one receiving a standard diet (control animals), and the other a TD diet (deficient groups) for 20 days. Control mice were further subdivided into three groups receiving daily ip injections of saline (NaCl 0.9%; Cont group), Tolox (Tr group) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO; Dmso group). The three TD groups received amprolium (Amp group), amprolium and Trolox (Amp+Tr group), or amprolium and DMSO (Amp+Dmso group). The animals were subjected to behavioral tests and then euthanized. The brain and viscera were analyzed. Results Amprolium exposure induced weight loss with hyporexia, reduced the behavioral parameters (locomotion, exploratory activity, and motor coordination), and induced changes in the brain (lower cortical cell viability) and liver (steatosis). Trolox co‐treatment partially improved these conditions, but to a lesser extent than DMSO. Conclusions Amprolium‐induced TD may be an interesting model, allowing the deficiency to develop more slowly and to a lesser extent. Amprolium exposure also seems to involve oxidative stress and inflammation, suggested as the main mechanisms of cell dysfunction in TD.
... Altered energy utilization (as implicated by 2-deoxyglucose studies) (e.g., Eckardt et al., 1992) can lead to cellular degeneration (Duan et al., 2014;Di Domenico et al., 2017) and consequently volume shrinkage. Further, in a model of thiamine deficiency, which affects energy expenditure (Liu et al., 2014b), we found similar brain regions affected, notably the thalamus and colliculi (Zahr et al., 2014a). While our previous work demonstrates that binge EtOH exposure does not quantifiably modify peripheral thiamine levels (Zahr et al., 2010a), it is nonetheless possible that subclinical nutritional deficiencies in response to binge EtOH treatment can affect the energetic balance of the brain. ...
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Individuals aged 12–20 years drink 11% of all alcohol consumed in the United States with more than 90% consumed in the form of binge drinking. Early onset alcohol use is a strong predictor of future alcohol dependence. The study of the effects of excessive alcohol use on the human brain is hampered by limited information regarding the quantity and frequency of exposure to alcohol. Animal models can control for age at alcohol exposure onset and enable isolation of neural substrates of exposure to different patterns and quantities of ethanol (EtOH). As with humans, a frequently used binge exposure model is thought to produce dependence and affect predominantly corticolimbic brain regions. in vivo neuroimaging enables animals models to be examined longitudinally, allowing for each animal to serve as its own control. Accordingly, we conducted 3 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sessions (baseline, binge, recovery) to track structure throughout the brains of wild type Wistar rats to test the hypothesis that binge EtOH exposure affects specific brain regions in addition to corticolimbic circuitry. Voxel-based comparisons of 13 EtOH- vs. 12 water- exposed animals identified significant thalamic shrinkage and lateral ventricular enlargement as occurring with EtOH exposure, but recovering with a week of abstinence. By contrast, pretectal nuclei and superior and inferior colliculi shrank in response to binge EtOH treatment but did not recover with abstinence. These results identify brainstem structures that have been relatively underreported but are relevant for localizing neurocircuitry relevant to the dynamic course of alcoholism.
... Since thiamine deficiency can lead to anorexia, supplementation could lead to appetite increased, with gain in weight following supplementation. Unfortunately, due to the brevity of the supplementation we did not observe the weight gain [17,18]. ...
... In contrast to rats, the studies using mouse models for TD are quite limited. The few available studies showed that TD diet-treated mice lost appetite and body weight [30][31][32]. The male mice of the Deutschland, Denken, and Yoken (ddY) stain exhibited increased immobility in the forced swimming test, a depressive behavior observed on the 20th day of treatment of the thiamine-deficient diet [31,33]. ...
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Thiamine deficiency (TD) has detrimental effects on brain health and neurobehavioral development, and it is associated with many aging-related neurological disorders. To facilitate TD-related neuropsychological studies, we generated a TD mouse model by feeding a thiamine-deficient diet for 30 days, followed by re-feeding the control diet for either one week or 16 weeks as recovery treatment. We then performed neurobehavioral tests in these two cohorts: cohort of one week post TD treatment (1 wk-PTDT) and 16 weeks post TD treatment (16 wks-PTDT). The TD mice showed no significant difference from control in any tests in the 1 wk-PTDT cohort at the age of 13–14 weeks. The tests for the 16 wks-PTDT cohort at the age of 28–29 weeks, however, demonstrated anxiety and reduced locomotion in TD animals in open field and elevated plus maze. In comparison, rotor rod and water maze revealed no differences between TD and control mice. The current findings of the differential effects of the same TD treatment on locomotion and anxiety at different ages may reflect the progressive and moderate change of TD-induced neurobehavioral effects. The study suggests that, even though the immediate neurobehavioral impact of TD is modest or negligible at a young age, the impact could develop and become severe during the aging process.
... Leucine contributed to the best PLSR model for edema; this amino acid is suggested as a stimulator of protein synthesis, with potential to reduce muscle loss in mice with adenocarcinoma after supplementation [59,60]. Notwithstanding, metabolites not related to the amino acid metabolism, such as B vitamin complex components, also have anabolic roles in skeletal muscle tissue [61]. The best regression models for grip strength and free locomotion were related to thiamine. ...
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There is no consensus for diagnosis or treatment of RA muscle loss. We aimed to investigate metabolites in arthritic mice urine as biomarkers of muscle loss. DBA1/J mice comprised collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) and control (CO) groups. Urine samples were collected at 0, 18, 35, 45, 55, and 65 days of disease and subjected to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Metabolites were identified using Chenomx and Birmingham Metabolite libraries. The statistical model used principal component analysis, partial least-squares discriminant analysis, and partial least-squares regression analysis. Linear regression and Fisher’s exact test via the MetaboAnalyst website were performed (VIP-score). Nearly 100 identified metabolites had CIA vs. CO and disease time-dependent differences (p < 0.05). Twenty-eight metabolites were muscle-associated: carnosine (VIPs 2.8 × 102) and succinyl acetone (VIPs 1.0 × 10) showed high importance in CIA vs. CO models at day 65; CIA pair analysis showed histidine (VIPs 1.2 × 102) days 55 vs. 65, histamine (VIPs 1.1 × 102) days 55 vs. 65, and L-methionine (VIPs 1.1 × 102) days 0 vs. 18. Carnosine was fatigue- (0.039) related, creatine was food intake- (−0.177) and body weight- (−0.039) related, and both metabolites were clinical score- (0.093; 0.050) and paw edema- (0.125; 0.026) related. Therefore, muscle metabolic alterations were detected in arthritic mice urine, enabling further validation in RA patient’s urine, targeting prognosis, diagnosis, and monitoring of RA-mediated muscle loss.
... Recent work has attempted to explain the weight loss observed in thiamine deficiency. C57Bl/6 mice fed a thiamine deficient diet for 16 days showed severe (17-24%) weight loss related to significant decreases in food intake and increases in resting energy expenditure; experiments suggested that thiamine deficiency may inhibit a critical regulator of food intake, hypothalamic adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) (Liu et al., 2014). Thiamine deficiency also resulted in changes to physiology and behavior including piloerection, splayed legs, gait problems, loss of trunk tone, and loss of righting reflex. ...
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Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency, associated with a variety of conditions, including chronic alcoholism and bariatric surgery for morbid obesity, can result in the neurological disorder Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE). Recent work building upon early observations in animal models of thiamine deficiency has demonstrated an inflammatory component to the neuropathology observed in thiamine deficiency. The present, multilevel study including in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) and postmortem quantification of chemokine and cytokine proteins sought to determine whether a combination of these in vivo neuroimaging tools could be used to characterize an in vivo MR signature for neuroinflammation. Thiamine deficiency for 12 days was used to model neuroinflammation; glucose loading in thiamine deficiency was used to accelerate neurodegeneration. Among 38 animals with regional brain tissue assayed postmortem for cytokine/chemokine protein levels, three groups of rats (controls + glucose, n = 6; pyrithiamine + saline, n = 5; pyrithiamine + glucose, n = 13) underwent MRI/MRS at baseline (time 1), after 12 days of treatment (time 2), and 3 h after challenge (glucose or saline, time 3). In the thalamus of glucose-challenged, thiamine deficient animals, correlations between in vivo measures of pathology (lower levels of N-acetyle aspartate and higher levels of lactate) and postmortem levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as chemokine ligand 2, CCL2) support a role for this chemokine in thiamine deficiency-related neurodegeneration, but do not provide a unique in vivo signature for neuroinflammation.
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Rationale: Wernicke encephalopathy (WE) is a syndrome characterized by an acute or subacute onset of ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and mental status changes. To our knowledge, hypothalamic syndrome is rare in WE. Patient concerns: A 73-year-old female patient with acute cerebral infarct, who showed initial symptoms of vomiting, nausea, ataxia, and subsequent anorexia, was treated with parenteral nutritional supplement for 20 days. Nevertheless, the patient still developed refractory hyponatremia despite the appropriate sodium supplement given for a week following parenteral nutritional supplement. In fact, after 14 days of parenteral nutritional supplement, the patient gradually showed hypotension and apathy. Hyponatremia, hypotension, anorexia and apathy were signs of hypothalamic syndrome. Diagnoses: Finally, the patient was diagnosed as WE by head magnetic resonance imaging, which showed symmetrical lesions in T2-weighted imaging images and FLAIR high signal intensity in the periaqueduct, hypothalamus, thalamus, mammiliary bodies, medulla oblongata, and vermis cerebelli. Interventions: The patient was given thiamine supplementation. Outcomes: The patient regained consciousness within 3 days. The sings of hyponatremia, hypotension, and apathy were relieved subsequently. Lessons: When patients develop unexplained hypothalamic syndrome, we should think of the possibility of WE. The concomitant presence of hyponatremia, hypotension, anorexia, and apathy in WE is rare. Therefore, this case is reported here for discussion.
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Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder whose etiology is a thiamine deficiency (TD), with alcoholism being the main underlying cause. Previous evidence suggests the presence of initial neuroinflammation and oxidative/nitrosative stress in the physiopathology, although the specific molecular mechanisms underlying TD-induced brain damage and behavioral disabilities are unknown. We explored the specific role of the innate immune receptor TLR4 in three murine models of WKS, based on the combination of a thiamine-deficient diet and pyrithiamine injections (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) over time. The Symptomatic Model (SM) allowed us to describe the complete neurological/neurobehavioral symptomatology over 16 days of TD. Animals showed an upregulation of the TLR4 signaling pathway both in the frontal cortex (FC) and cerebellum and clear motor impairments related with cerebellar dysfunction. However, in the Pre-Symptomatic Model (PSM), 12 days of TD induced the TLR4 pathway upregulation in the FC, which correlated with disinhibited-like behavior, but not in the cerebellum, and no motor impairments. In addition, we tested the effects of the biolipid oleoylethanolamide (OEA, 10 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, starting before any symptom of the pathology is manifested) through the Glucose-Precipitated Model (GPM), which was generated by glucose loading (5 g/kg, i.v., last day) in thiamine-deficient animals to accelerate damage. Pretreatment with OEA prevented the TLR4-induced signature in the FC, as well as an underlying incipient memory disability and disinhibited-like behavior. This study suggests a key role for TLR4 in TD-induced neuroinflammation in the FC and cerebellum, and it reveals different vulnerability of these brain regions in WKS over time. Pre-treatment with OEA counteracts TD-induced TLR4-associated neuroinflammation and may serve as co-adjuvant therapy to prevent WKS-induced neurobehavioral alterations.
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A 12-week experiment was conducted to evaluate the influences of thiamine on growth performance and intestinal mitochondrial biogenesis and function of M. amblycephala fed a high-carbohydrate (HC) diet. Fish (24.73 ± 0.45 g) were randomly assigned one of four diets; two carbohydrate levels (30 and 45%) and two thiamine levels (0 and 1.5 mg kg ⁻¹ ). HC diets significantly decreased DGC, GR MBW , FI MBW , intestinal activities of amylase, lipase, Na ⁺ , K ⁺ -ATPase, CK, complex I, III and IV, intestinal microvilli length, number of mitochondrial per field, ΔΨm, the P-AMPK/T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, TFAM, Opa-1, ND-1 and COX-1 and 2, while the opposite was true for ATP, AMP and ROS, and the transcriptions of Drp-1, Fis-1 and Mff. Dietary thiamine concentrations significantly increased DGC, GR MBW , intestinal activities of amylase, Na ⁺ , K ⁺ -ATPase, CK, complex I and IV, intestinal microvilli length, number of mitochondrial per field, ΔΨm, the P-AMPK/T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, Opa-1, ND-1, COX-1 and 2, SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Furthermore, a significant interaction between dietary carbohydrate and thiamine was observed in DGC, GR MBW , intestinal activities of amylase, CK, complex I and IV, ΔΨm, the AMP/ATP ratio, the P-AMPK/T-AMPK ratio, PGC-1β protein expression as well as the transcriptions of AMPKα1, AMPKα2, PGC-1β, Opa-1, COX-1 and 2, SGLT-1 and GLUT-2. Overall, thiamine supplementation improved growth performance, and intestinal mitochondrial biogenesis and function of M. amblycephala fed HC diets.
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Activation of mammalian target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1) by nutrients, insulin and leptin leads to appetite suppression (anorexia). Contrastingly, increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity by ghrelin promotes appetite (orexia). However, the interplay between these mechanisms remains poorly defined. The relationship between the anorexigenic hormones, insulin and leptin, and the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, on mTORC1 signalling was examined using S6 kinase phosphorylation as a marker for changes in mTORC1 activity in mouse hypothalamic GT1-7 cells. Additionally, the contribution of AMPK and mTORC1 signalling in relation to insulin-, leptin- and ghrelin-driven alterations to mouse hypothalamic agouti-related protein (AgRP) mRNA levels was examined. Insulin and leptin increase mTORC1 activity in a phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)- and protein kinase B (PKB)-dependent manner, compared to vehicle controls, whereas increasing AMPK activity inhibits mTORC1 activity and blocks the actions of the anorexigenic hormones. Ghrelin mediates an AMPK-dependent decrease in mTORC1 activity and increases hypothalamic AgRP mRNA levels, the latter effect being prevented by insulin in an mTORC1-dependent manner. In conclusion, mTORC1 acts as an integration node in hypothalamic neurons for hormone-derived PI3K and AMPK signalling and mediates at least part of the assimilated output of anorexigenic and orexigenic hormone actions in the hypothalamus.
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Animal models provide the opportunity for in-depth and experimental investigation into the anatomical and physiological underpinnings of human neurological disorders. Rodent models of thiamine deficiency have yielded significant insight into the structural, neurochemical and cognitive deficits associated with thiamine deficiency as well as proven useful toward greater understanding of memory function in the intact brain. In this review, we discuss the anatomical, neurochemical and behavioral changes that occur during the acute and chronic phases of thiamine deficiency and describe how rodent models of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome aid in developing a more detailed picture of brain structures involved in learning and memory.
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Thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the central nervous system (CNS). TD in animals has been used to model aging-associated neurodegeneration in the brain. The mechanisms of TD-induced neuron death are complex, and it is likely multiple mechanisms interplay and contribute to the action of TD. In this study, we demonstrated that TD significantly increased intracellular calcium concentrations [Ca2+]i in cultured cortical neurons. TD drastically potentiated AMPA-triggered calcium influx and inhibited pre-mRNA editing of GluR2, a Ca2+-permeable subtype of AMPA receptors. The Ca2+ permeability of GluR2 is regulated by RNA editing at the Q/R site. Edited GluR2 (R) subunits form Ca2+-impermeable channels, whereas unedited GluR2 (Q) channels are permeable to Ca2+ flow. TD inhibited Q/R editing of GluR2 and increased the ratio of unedited GluR2. The Q/R editing of GluR2 is mediated by adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2). TD selectively decreased ADAR2 expression and its self-editing ability without affecting ADAR1 in cultured neurons and in the brain tissue. Over-expression of ADAR2 reduced AMPA-mediated rise of [Ca2+]i and protected cortical neurons against TD-induced cytotoxicity, whereas down-regulation of ADAR2 increased AMPA-elicited Ca2+ influx and exacerbated TD-induced death of cortical neurons. Our findings suggest that TD-induced neuronal damage may be mediated by the modulation of ADAR2-dependent RNA Editing of GluR2.
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream component of a protein kinase cascade that acts as an intracellular energy sensor maintaining the energy balance within the cell. The finding that leptin and adiponectin activate AMPK to alter metabolic pathways in muscle and liver provides direct evidence for this role in peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is a key regulator of food intake and energy balance, coordinating body adiposity and nutritional state in response to peripheral hormones, such as leptin, peptide YY-(3-36), and ghrelin. To date the hormonal regulation of AMPK in the hypothalamus, or its potential role in the control of food intake, have not been reported. Here we demonstrate that counter-regulatory hormones involved in appetite control regulate AMPK activity and that pharmacological activation of AMPK in the hypothalamus increases food intake. In vivo administration of leptin, which leads to a reduction in food intake, decreases hypothalamic AMPK activity. By contrast, injection of ghrelin in vivo, which increases food intake, stimulates AMPK activity in the hypothalamus. Consistent with the effect of ghrelin, injection of 5-amino-4-imidazole carboxamide riboside, a pharmacological activator of AMPK, into either the third cerebral ventricle or directly into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus significantly increased food intake. These results suggest that AMPK is regulated in the hypothalamus by hormones which regulate food intake. Furthermore, direct pharmacological activation of AMPK in the hypothalamus is sufficient to increase food intake. These findings demonstrate that AMPK plays a role in the regulation of feeding and identify AMPK as a novel target for anti-obesity drugs.
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Wernicke's encephalopathy is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome resulting from thiamine deficiency, which is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. According to autopsy-based studies, the disorder is still greatly underdiagnosed in both adults and children. In this review, we provide an update on the factors and clinical settings that predispose to Wernicke's encephalopathy, and discuss the most recent insights into epidemiology, pathophysiology, genetics, diagnosis, and treatment. To facilitate the diagnosis, we classify the common and rare symptoms at presentation and the late-stage symptoms. We emphasise the optimum dose of parenteral thiamine required for prophylaxis and treatment of Wernicke's encephalopathy and prevention of Korsakoff's syndrome associated with alcohol misuse. A systematic approach helps to ensure that patients receive a prompt diagnosis and adequate treatment.
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Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes mild impairment of oxidative metabolism and region-selective neuronal loss in the brain, which may be mediated by neuronal oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and neuroinflammation. TD-induced brain damage is used to model neurodegenerative disorders, and the mechanism for the neuronal death is still unclear. We hypothesized that autophagy might be activated in the TD brain and play a protective role in TD induced neuronal death. Our results demonstrated that TD induced the accumulation of autophagosomes in neurons of the thalamus measured by transmission electron microscopy, and the upregulation of autophagic markers: LC3-II, Atg5 and Beclin1 as measured with western blotting. TD also increased the expression of autophagic markers and induced LC3 puncta in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. TD-induced expression of autophagic markers was reversed once thiamine was re-administered. Both inhibition of autophagy by wortmannin and Beclin1 siRNA potentiated TD-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells. In contrast, activation of autophagy by rapamycin alleviated cell death induced by TD. Intraperitoneal injection of rapamycin stimulated neuronal autophagy and attenuated TD-induced neuronal death and microglia activation in the submedial thalamus nucleus (SmTN). TD inhibited the phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase, suggesting mTOR/p70S6 kinase pathway was involved the TD-induced autophagy. These results suggest that autophagy is neuroprotective in response to TD-induced neuronal death in the central nervous system. This opens a potential therapeutic avenue for neurodegenerative diseases caused by mild impairment of oxidative metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH neurons.
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Reduced glucose metabolism is an invariant feature of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and an outstanding biomarker of disease progression. Glucose metabolism may be an attractive therapeutic target, whether the decline initiates AD pathophysiology or is a critical component of a cascade. The cause of cerebral regional glucose hypometabolism remains unclear. Thiamine-dependent processes are critical in glucose metabolism and are diminished in brains of AD patients at autopsy. Further, the reductions in thiamine-dependent processes are highly correlated to the decline in clinical dementia rating scales. In animal models, thiamine deficiency exacerbates plaque formation, promotes phosphorylation of tau and impairs memory. In contrast, treatment of mouse models of AD with the thiamine derivative benfotiamine diminishes plaques, decreases phosphorylation of tau and reverses memory deficits. Diabetes predisposes to AD, which suggests they may share some common mechanisms. Benfotiamine diminishes peripheral neuropathy in diabetic humans and animals. In diabetes, benfotiamine induces key thiamine-dependent enzymes of the pentose shunt to reduce accumulation of toxic metabolites including advanced glycation end products (AGE). Related mechanisms may lead to reversal of plaque formation by benfotiamine in animals. If so, the use of benfotiamine could provide a safe intervention to reverse biological and clinical processes of AD progression. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Mitochondrial function'.
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Hypothalamic 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) senses intracellular metabolic stress, i.e., an increase in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio, and integrates diverse hormonal and nutritional signals to restore energy balance. Recent evidence suggests that different nutrients can modulate AMPK activity in the hypothalamus, thereby controlling weight gain through a leptin-independent mechanism. Understanding the mechanisms by which nutrients control hypothalamic AMPK activity is crucial to the development of effective nutritional interventions for the treatment of food intake-related disorders, such as anorexia and obesity. This article highlights the current evidence for the intricate relationship between nutrients and hypothalamic AMPK activity.
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This review highlights recent advances in the hormonal control of hypothalamic AMPK activity and the impact on appetite and energy metabolism. AMPK is an intracellular energy sensor that switches off ATP-consuming pathways and switches on ATP-producing pathways such as glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. In this regard, it is well positioned to respond to dynamic changes in metabolic state and nutritional over- or under-supply. Within the hypothalamus, AMPK responds to peripheral hormones that convey metabolic information based on increased plasma concentrations. For example, negative energy balance increases plasma ghrelin concentrations, increases hypothalamic AMPK and drives food intake. Conversely, plasma leptin concentrations are secreted in proportion to adipose levels and leptin suppresses hypothalamic AMPK activity and restricts food intake. This review explains that hypothalamic AMPK mediates neuroendocrine feedback control of energy metabolism. A current working model suggests that endocrine feedback influences hypothalamic AMPK via a number of mechanisms designed to shift an organism from negative to neutral energy balance. These mechanisms include (1) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in NPY/AgRP in the arcuate nucleus (2) ghrelin stimulation of AMPK in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, (3) a novel ghrelin-stimulated AMPK-dependent presynaptic mechanism that sustains AgRP neuron firing via a local synaptic memory system, (4) adiponectin stimulation of hypothalamic AMPK and (5) hypothalamic AMPK control of energy expenditure by thyroid hormone or leptin. The number of diverse mechanisms ensures hypothalamic AMPK drives the shift from negative to neutral energy balance and underscores the fundamental importance of hypothalamic AMPK to maintain neutral energy balance.
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In this article, we review some fundamentals of indirect calorimetry in mice and rats, and open the discussion on several debated aspects of the configuration and tuning of indirect calorimeters. On the particularly contested issue of adjustment of energy expenditure values for body size and body composition, we discuss several of the most used methods and their results when tested on a previously published set of data. We conclude that neither body weight (BW), exponents of BW, nor lean body mass (LBM) are sufficient. The best method involves fitting both LBM and fat mass (FM) as independent variables; for low sample sizes, the model LBM + 0.2 FM can be very effective. We also question the common calorimetry design that consists of measuring respiratory exchanges under free-feeding conditions in several cages simultaneously. This imposes large intervals between measures, and generally limits data analysis to mean 24 h or day-night values of energy expenditure. These are then generally compared with energy intake. However, we consider that, among other limitations, the measurements of Vo(2), Vco(2), and food intake are not precise enough to allow calculation of energy balance in the small 2-5% range that can induce significant long-term alterations of energy balance. In contrast, we suggest that it is necessary to work under conditions in which temperature is set at thermoneutrality, food intake totally controlled, activity precisely measured, and data acquisition performed at very high frequency to give access to the part of the respiratory exchanges that are due to activity. In these conditions, it is possible to quantify basal energy expenditure, energy expenditure associated with muscular work, and response to feeding or to any other metabolic challenge. This reveals defects in the control of energy metabolism that cannot be observed from measurements of total energy expenditure in free feeding individuals.
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In this study, the effect of enzymatic hydrolysis using lipase and cutinase on poly(ethyleneterephthalate) (PET) fabrics was investigated in an attempt to improve the hydrophilicity of these fabrics. The hydrolytic activity of the enzymes was expressed for variations in pH levels, temperatures, enzyme concentrations, and treatment times. The effects of using a nonionic surfactant were examined by measuring moisture regain and surface wettability. Finally, the fabric characteristics that were affected by enzyme treatment were evaluated by tensile strength and scanning electron microscopy. The optimal treatment conditions for lipase were determined to be a pH of 4.2, a temperature of 50 °C, a lipase concentration of 100 %, and a treatment time of 90 min; those for cutinase were determined to be a pH of 9.0, a temperature of 50 °C, a cutinase concentration of 100 %, and a treatment time of 60 min. At optimal enzymatic treatment conditions, we got the significant results of increase on the moisture regain and the water contact angle (WCA) and water absorbency effectively decreased. Triton X-100 facilitated cutinase hydrolysis on PET fabrics; however, it was ineffective for lipase. With enzymatic treatment, the tensile strength did not decrease. KeywordsPET fabric-Lipase-Cutinase-Moisture regain-Surface wettability
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Leptin reduces body fat by decreasing food intake and increasing energy expenditure. Uncoupling protein (UCP) 1, a key molecule for brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis, was reported to contribute to the stimulatory effect of leptin on energy expenditure. To clarify whether UCP1 is also involved in the anorexigenic effect of leptin, in this study we examined the effect of leptin on food intake using wild-type (WT) and UCP1-deficient (UCP1-KO) mice. Repeated injection of leptin decreased food intake more markedly in WT mice than in UCP1-KO mice, while a single injection of leptin showed similar effects in the two groups of mice. As chronic leptin stimulation induces UCP1 expression in BAT and ectopically in white adipose tissue (WAT), we mimicked the UCP1 induction by repeated injection of CL316,243 (CL), a highly specific β3-adrenoceptor agonist, and measured food intake in response to a single injection of leptin. Two-week treatment with CL enhanced the anorexigenic effect of leptin in WT mice, but not in UCP1-KO mice. Three-day treatment with CL in WT mice also enhanced the anorexigenic effect of leptin and leptin-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, without any notable change in adiposity. These results indicate that UCP1 enhances leptin action at the hypothalamus level, suggesting UCP1 contributes to the control of energy balance not only through the regulation of energy expenditure but also through appetite control by modulating leptin action.
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The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is the downstream constituent of a kinase cascade that acts as a sensor of cellular energy levels. Current data unequivocally indicate that hypothalamic AMPK plays a key role in the control of the whole body energy balance, by integrating peripheral signals, such as hormones and metabolites, with central signals, such as neuropeptides, and eliciting allostatic changes in energy homeostasis. Although the molecular details of these interactions are not fully understood, recent evidence has suggested that the interaction between AMPK with hypothalamic lipid metabolism and other metabolic sensors, such as the uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), may play a main role in the hypothalamic control of feeding and energy expenditure. Here, we summarize the role of hypothalamic AMPK as whole body energy gauge. Understanding this key molecule and especially its functions at central level may provide new therapeutic targets for the treatment of metabolic alterations and obesity.
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Emerging evidence suggests that thiamine deficiency (TD), the cause of Wernicke's encephalopathy, produces alterations in brain function and structural damage that closely model a number of maladies in which neurodegeneration is a characteristic feature, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, along with alcoholic brain disease, stroke, and traumatic brain injury. Impaired oxidative metabolism in TD due to decreased activity of thiamine-dependent enzymes leads to a multifactorial cascade of events in the brain that include focal decreases in energy status, oxidative stress, lactic acidosis, blood-brain barrier disruption, astrocyte dysfunction, glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, amyloid deposition, decreased glucose utilization, immediate-early gene induction, and inflammation. This review describes our current understanding of the basis of these abnormal processes in TD, their interrelationships, and why this disorder can be useful for our understanding of how decreased cerebral energy metabolism can give rise to cell death in different neurodegenerative disease states.
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Chemokines are implicated in the neuroinflammation of several chronic neurodegenerative disorders. However, the precise role of chemokines in neurodegeneration is unknown. Thiamine deficiency (TD) causes abnormal oxidative metabolism in the brain as well as a well-defined microglia activation and neurodegeneration in the submedial thalamus nucleus (SmTN), which are common features of neurodegenerative diseases. We evaluated the role of chemokines in neurodegeneration and the underlying mechanism in a TD model. Among the chemokines examined, TD selectively induced neuronal expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the SmTN prior to microglia activation and neurodegeneration. The conditioned medium collected from TD-induced neurons caused microglia activation. With a neuron/microglia co-culture system, we showed that MCP-1-induced neurotoxicity required the presence of microglia, and exogenous MCP-1 was able to activate microglia and stimulated microglia to produce cytokines. A MCP-1 neutralizing antibody inhibited MCP-1-induced microglia activation and neuronal death in culture and in the thalamus. MCP-1 knockout mice were resistant to TD-induced neuronal death in SmTN. TD selectively induced the accumulation of reactive oxygen species in neurons, and antioxidants blocked TD-induced MCP-1 expression. Together, our results indicated an induction of neuronal MCP-1 during mild impairment of oxidative metabolism caused by microglia recruitment/activation, which exacerbated neurodegeneration.
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J. Neurochem. (2010) 112, 773–783. Trichloroethylene, a chlorinated solvent widely used as a degreasing agent, is a common environmental contaminant. Emerging evidence suggests that chronic exposure to trichloroethylene may contribute to the development of Parkinson’s disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons could be reproduced by systemic exposure of adult Fisher 344 rats to trichloroethylene. In our experiments, oral administration of trichloroethylene induced a significant loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the number of both cholinergic and GABAergic neurons were not decreased in the striatum. There was a robust decline in striatal levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid without a significant depletion of striatal dopamine. Rats treated with trichloroethylene showed defects in rotarod behavior test. We also found a significantly reduced mitochondrial complex I activity with elevated oxidative stress markers and activated microglia in the nigral area. In addition, we observed intracellular α-synuclein accumulation in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, with some in nigral neurons, but little in neurons of cerebral cortex. Overall, our animal model exhibits some important features of Parkinsonism, and further supports that trichloroethylene may be an environmental risk factors for Parkinson’s disease.
Article
Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) functions as a cellular fuel gauge that regulates metabolic pathways in nutrient metabolism. Recent studies have strongly implicated that AMPK in the hypothalamus regulates energy metabolism by integrating inputs from multiple hormones, peptides, neurotransmitters, and nutrients. Leptin is an adipocyte hormone that regulates food intake and energy expenditure in peripheral tissues. Leptin inhibits AMPK activity in the arcuate and paraventricular hypothalamus, and its inhibition is necessary for the anorexic effect of leptin. Alteration of hypothalamic AMPK activity is sufficient to change food intake and body weight. Furthermore, fasting/refeeding, glucose, and melanocortin receptor alter AMPK activity in the hypothalamus. Adiponectin has also been shown to increase food intake by activating AMPK in the arcuate hypothalamus. Recent data have shown that acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase/malonyl-coenzyme A/carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1/fatty acid oxidation and mammalian target of rapamycin signalings are putative downstream pathways for food intake regulation in response to hypothalamic AMPK. Thus, these results suggest that food intake and nutrient metabolism are coordinately regulated by the common signaling pathway of AMPK in the hypothalamus.
Article
Treatment of rats with the central thiamine antagonist, pyrithiamine, results in severe neurological symptoms such as loss of righting reflex. Measurement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of brain tissue from symptomatic pyrithiamine-treated (PT) rats revealed significant reductions in thalamus, cerebellum, and pons. GABA content of cerebral cortex, however, was unaltered. Activities of the thiamine-dependent enzyme alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha KGDH) were reduced in parallel with the GABA changes. On the other hand, activities of the GABA-synthetic enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) remained within normal limits, with the exception of a small but significant decrease in thalamus of symptomatic PT rats. Affinities and densities of high-affinity [3H]muscimol binding sites on crude cerebral membrane preparations from symptomatic PT rats were unchanged. Thiamine administration to symptomatic animals resulted in correction of abnormal righting reflexes and in normalization of decreased GABA levels and reduced alpha KGDH activities in cerebellum and pons. Thalamic GABA levels and alpha KGDH activities, on the other hand, remained significantly lower than normal. These results suggest that the reversible symptoms of pyrithiamine treatment may result from imparied GABA synthesis in cerebellum and pons of these animals. Similar mechanisms may play a role in the pathogenesis of the reversible symptoms of Wernicke's encephalopathy in man.
Article
Chronic thiamine deprivation in the rat leads to selective neuropathological damage to pontine structures. Onset of neurological symptoms of thiamine deprivation (ataxia, loss of righting reflex) was accompanied by selective decreases (of the order of 30%) in the activity of alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (alpha KGDH) in lateral vestibular nucleus and hypothalamus. Enzyme activities were decreased to a lesser extent in medulla oblongata, striatum and hippocampus and were unchanged in other brain structures. No changes in alpha KGDH occurred prior to the onset of neurological signs of thiamine deprivation. Administration of the central thiamine antagonist, pyrithiamine, results within 3 weeks in loss of righting reflex and convulsions and in more widespread neuropathological changes than those observed following thiamine deprivation. alpha KGDH activities were found to be substantially diminished in all brain regions studied following pyrithiamine treatment with most severe changes occurring in brain regions found to be vulnerable to pyrithiamine (lateral vestibular nucleus, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla-pons). In some cases, alpha KGDH changes preceded the appearance of neurological symptoms of pyrithiamine treatment. Such decreases in alpha KGDH may explain previous findings of region-selective changes in energy metabolism and of decreased synthesis of glucose-derived neurotransmitters (acetylcholine, GABA, glutamate) in pyrithiamine-treated rat brain. Thiamine administration to symptomatic pyrithiamine treated rats resulted in reversal of neurological signs of encephalopathy and in normalisation of defective alpha KGDH activity in all brain regions. These findings suggest that the reversible neurological symptoms associated with Wernicke's Encephalopathy in man likely result from region-selective impairment of alpha KGDH.
Article
The present study examined the cytopathological changes within diencephalon of a rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy and determined whether administration of thiamine at various intervals after onset of neurological signs can arrest or reverse the cytopathological process. Electron microscopic examination of the brains from animals sacrificed at four progressively severe stages of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) revealed neurocytopathological changes identical to those that have been described in glutamate-induced excitotoxic lesions. These degenerative changes occurred in gelatinosus (Ge) and anteroventral ventrolateral (AVVL) nuclei at an early symptomatic stage and in the ventroposterolateral (VPL), ventroposteromedial (VPM), and ventrolateral (VL) nuclei at slightly later stages of PTD. Light microscopic evaluation of separate groups of PTD rats administered thiamine at each of the same four neurologic stages and allowed to recover for 1 week demonstrated that thiamine treatment is more effective when administered at earlier stages. However, Ge, AVVL, and VPL nuclei sustain severe damage even when thiamine is administered prior to acute neurologic signs. Furthermore, pathologic changes in the mammillary and several midline intralaminar nuclei begin after thiamine administration and reinstitution of thiamine-replete diet to animals in more severe stages of thiamine deficiency. These and other recent findings suggest that excitotoxic and possibly apoptotic mechanisms may mediate neuronal degeneration in the PTD rat model of Wernicke's encephalopathy, and that multiple factors conducive to excitotoxicity may act in concert to produce this syndrome.
Article
The current study measured extracellular fluid (ECF) levels of excitatory amino acids before and during the onset of thiamine deficiency-induced pathologic lesions. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daily pyrithiamine (0.25 mg/kg i.p.) and a thiamine-deficient diet (PTD). Microdialysates were simultaneously collected from probes inserted acutely via guide cannulae into right paracentral and ventrolateral nuclei of thalamus and left hippocampus of PTD and pair-fed controls. Hourly samples were collected from unanesthetized and freely moving animals. Basal levels obtained at a prelesion stage (day 12 of PTD treatment) were unchanged from levels in pair-fed controls. In samples collected 4-5 h after onset of seizures (day 14 of PTD), the levels of glutamate were elevated an average 640% of basal levels in medial thalamus and 200% in hippocampus. Glutamine levels declined, taurine and glycine were elevated, and aspartate, GABA, and alanine were unchanged during this period. Within 7 h after seizure onset glutamine was undetectable in both areas, whereas glutamate had declined to approximately 200% in thalamus and 70% in hippocampus. No significant change in glutamate, aspartate, or other amino acids was observed in dialysates collected from probes located in undamaged dorsal-lateral regions of thalamus. Number of neurons within ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus was significantly greater in PTD animals in which the probe was dialyzed compared with nondialyzed, suggesting that removal of excitatory amino acids was protective. No significant pathologic damage was evident in hippocampus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Article
Brown adipose tissue, because of its capacity for uncoupled mitochondrial respiration, has been implicated as an important site of facultative energy expenditure. This has led to speculation that this tissue normally functions to prevent obesity. Attempts to ablate or denervate brown adipose tissue surgically have been uninformative because it exists in diffuse depots and has substantial capacity for regeneration and hypertrophy. Here we have used a transgenic toxigene approach to create two lines of transgenic mice with primary deficiency of brown adipose tissue. At 16 days, both lines have decreased brown fat and obesity. In one line, brown fat subsequently regenerates and obesity resolves. In the other line, the deficiency persists and obesity, with its morbid complications, advances. Obesity develops in the absence of hyperphagia, indicating that brown fat deficient mice have increased metabolic efficiency. As obesity progresses, transgenic animals develop hyperphagia. This study supports a critical role for brown adipose tissue in the nutritional homeostasis of mice.
Article
During 30 days of thiamine deficiency (TD) feeding, the rat antinociceptive effect (pain threshold) to noxious heat stimulation was significantly increased in proportion to the decrease substance P (SP) fluorescent intensity in the spinal cord. Only a single injection of thiamine HCl (0.5 mg/kg, s.c.) on the early treatment day during TD feeding effectively reversed the analgesic effect to the pair-fed control level. Whereas this reversal effect by thiamine treatment was not found if this treatment was done on the relatively late day. However, either treatment day, except muricide, complete disappearance of various animal behaviours induced by TD was found. These results indicate that, after certain degree of TD development, TD-induced behavioral effects might be reversible, but the afferent nerve fibers might be irreversibly damaged, probably by the similar mechanism as found for an excitotoxin(s) mediated injury in the certain brain region(s). The results also suggest a possibility that SP and an excitotoxin, glutamate, in the dorsal part of the spinal cord greatly contribute to the pain transmission induced by noxious heat stimulation.
Article
Experimental and clinical studies indicate that catecholamines play an important role in the neurobehavioural symptomatology of thiamine deficiency. Given the cerebral region-selective vulnerability and the behavioural impairment commonly encountered in thiamine deficiency, we undertook to investigate regional catecholamine metabolism in the brains of pyrithiamine-induced thiamine-deficient rats. Dopamine metabolism was unaffected in the striatum. In contrast, other regions also known to be involved in sensory processing and intellectual function (e.g., frontal cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus), but having a greater noradrenergic input, had increased levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and decreased levels of other dopaminergic metabolites including noradrenaline. In these regions levels of the vesicular amine transporter, defined by tetrabenazine-sensitive [3H]ketanserin binding, were also decreased. Our data suggest a region-selective vesicular dysfunction resulting in intraneuronal release, and subsequent degradation, of dopamine. These disruptions of dopamine and consequently noradrenaline metabolism may account for certain neurobehavioural deficits commonly encountered in thiamine deficiency.
Article
We have found that thiamine-deficient (TD) rats show significant impairment of avoidance learning on the 25th day after the start of TD diet, as measured by passive-avoidance task. Administration of physostigmine (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) from the 14th day after the start of TD diet improved the impairment of avoidance learning to the pair-fed (PF) control level by the 25th day. However, the recovery effect of physostigmine did not occur on the 25th day when the treatment was begun on the 21st day. To ascertain the correlation between the cholinergic neuronal function in rat brain and the avoidance learning impairment induced by TD, the immunohistochemical distribution of brain choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) was determined by fluorescence intensity using two-dimensional microphotometry. The intensity of the ChAT fluorescence started to decrease in the cortex and hippocampus on the 14th day and showed a marked decrease in the cortex, hippocampus and thalamus on the 25th day of TD feeding in comparison with PF controls. The intensity of the somatostatin (SST) fluorescence was unchanged on the 14th day of TD feeding, but on the 25th day, SST was significantly decreased in comparison with PF controls. Furthermore, physostigmine treatment from 14th day after the start of TD diet reversed SST fluorescence intensity to the control level by the 25th day. These results suggest that the impairment of avoidance learning induced by TD may involve not only cholinergic but also somatostatinergic systems.
Article
We produced thiamine-deficient (TD) mice by TD diet treatment. The growth curve of mice on TD feeding was sharply increased until on the 10th day and subsequently the body weight gradually decreased. The mortality rate in mice was about 67% on the 30th day after the start of TD feeding. We performed the forced swimming test on the 10th and 20th day after the start of TD feeding. The duration of immobility in the forced swimming test was increased on the 20th day of TD feeding. Locomotor activity and motor co-ordination between the pair-fed control group and TD group on the 20th day of TD feeding were not significantly changed. Only a single injection of thiamine HCI (50 mg/kg, s.c.) on the 10th day after the start of a TD diet shortened the increased duration of immobility in the forced swimming test on the 20th day after the start of TD feeding. Whereas these reversal effects of thiamine treatment on the 20th day were not found when the treatment was given on the 19th day after the start of a TD diet. On the 20th day after the start of TD feeding, the increased duration of immobility time induced by TD was shortened by chronic administration of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). These results suggested that behavioral changes in the forced swimming test might be involved in the degeneration of serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons.
Article
Age is a risk factor for the development of many neurological disorders, including alcohol-related neurological disorders. A rodent model of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), acute pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD), produces diencephalic damage and impairments of memory similar to what is seen in WKS patients. Advanced age increases the vulnerability to the cascade of acute and some chronic neurological events caused by PTD treatment. Interactions between PTD treatment and age at the time of treatment (3, 10, or 21 months), in addition to the effects of an increased recovery period, were examined relative to spatial memory impairment and neuropathology in Fischer 344 rats. Although acute neurological disturbances and medial thalamic brain lesions were more prevalent in middle-aged and senescent rats exposed to PTD treatment, relative to young rats, behavioral data did not support the view that PTD and aging have synergistic effects. In addition, both advanced age and PTD treatment result in a loss of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, though there was no interaction. Despite the fact that no convincing evidence was found for an effect of extended recovery time on neuropathology measures, young rats given an extensive recovery period displayed less working memory impairment. In summary, these data provide evidence for an increased susceptibility of the aged rat to the acute neurological consequences and diencephalic pathology associated with PTD treatment and indicated a similar vulnerability of the middle-aged rat. However, the synergistic interaction between aging and PTD treatment in thalamic tissue loss did not express behaviorally.
Article
The worldwide prevalence of obesity is increasing at an alarming rate, with major adverse consequences for human health. This "obesity epidemic" is paralleled by a rapid and substantive increase in our understanding of molecular pathways and physiologic systems underlying the regulation of energy balance. While efforts to address the environmental factors that are responsible for the recent "epidemic" must continue, new molecular and physiologic insights into this system offer exciting possibilities for future development of successful therapies.
Article
We have recently reported that thiamine deficient (TD) mice show an impairment of learning and memory on the 20th day after start of TD feeding. Interestingly, it has been reported that the kampo medicine, "kami-untan-to" (KUT) may be useful as a potential therapeutic agent in diseases associated with cholinergic deficit such as Alzheimer's disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of KUT on the impairment of memory-related behavior concomitant with psychoneuronal symptoms after TD feeding in mice. Oral administration of KUT had no effect on the food intake, body weight or locomotor activity in TD mice, but the mortality rate in the KUT-treated TD group was significantly lower compared with that in the non-treated TD group. Daily administration of KUT from the 1st day of TD feeding protected against the impairment of memory-related behavior induced by TD. The intensity of the choline acetyltransferase fluorescence decreased in the field of CA1 and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus in TD mice compared with pair-fed mice as the control group, and KUT treatment inhibited this decrease. These results suggest that the effect of KUT on the impairment of memory-related behavior induced by TD feeding may be closely related to the activation of cholinergic neurons in the hippocampus.
Article
Obesity is rapidly increasing and is of great public health concern worldwide. Although there have been remarkable developments in obesity research over the past 10 years, the molecular mechanism of obesity is still not completely understood. Body weight results from the balance between food intake and energy expenditure. Recent studies have found that hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase plays a key role in regulating these processes. Leptin, insulin, glucose and alpha-lipoic acid have been shown to reduce food intake by lowering hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity, whereas ghrelin and glucose depletion increase food intake by increasing hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase activity. In addition, this enzyme plays a role in the central regulation of energy expenditure. These findings indicate that hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase is an important signal molecule, which integrates nutritional and hormonal signals and modulates feeding behavior and energy expenditure.
Article
Variable neuropathology in cases of diencephalic amnesia has led to uncertainty in identifying key thalamic nuclei and their potential role in learning and memory. Based on the principal neural connections of the medial thalamus, the current study tested the hypothesis that different aggregates of thalamic nuclei contribute to separate memory systems. Lesions of the anterior thalamic aggregate (AT), which comprises the anterodorsal, anteromedial and anteroventral nuclei produced substantial deficits in both working and reference spatial memory in a radial arm maze task in rats, supporting the view that the AT is an integral part of a hippocampal memory system. Lesions to the lateral thalamic aggregate (LT), which comprises the intralaminar nuclei (centrolateral, paracentral and rostral central medial nuclei) and lateral mediodorsal thalamic nuclei (lateral and paralamellar nuclei) produced a mild working memory impairment only, while lesions to the posteromedial thalamic aggregate (MT), which comprises the central and medial mediodorsal thalamic nuclei and the intermediodorsal nucleus had no effect on radial arm maze performance. In contrast, only MT lesions impaired learning associated with memory for reward value, consistent with the idea that the MT contributes to an amygdala memory system. Compared with chance discrimination, the control and AT groups, but not MT or LT groups, showed evidence for temporal order memory for two recently presented objects; all groups showed intact object recognition for novel vs. familiar objects. These new dissociations show that different medial thalamic aggregates participate in multiple memory systems and reinforce the idea that memory deficits in diencephalic amnesics may vary as a function of the relative involvement of different thalamic regions.
Article
The brain is a potential target for drugs and environmental toxins. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is one of several critical biotransformation enzymes in xenobiotic metabolism and detoxification. In the present study, we report that the expression of mEH is significantly elevated in the hippocampus and associated cortex, but not in the cerebellum, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. A large proportion of the mEH-positive cells are located around beta-amyloid plaques. The mEH-positive-staining cells are astrocytes and pyramidal neurons. Western blotting analysis confirmed increased expression of mEH in AD hippocampal tissues. In primary hippocampal glial culture, beta-amyloid aggregation stimulated mEH expression in the astrocytes, which displayed a patchy distribution. An environmental neurotoxic agent, trimethyl-tin, also activated mEH expression in rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The present study demonstrates a significant increase in mEH expression in the AD hippocampus, a region showing abundant neuropathology in AD. The expression of mEH could also be elevated by exposure to exogenous beta-amyloid in vitro and environmental toxins in vivo. Our studies suggest that mEH may play a role in pathogenesis of neurodegeneration in response to environmental stress.
Article
The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), functions as a cellular fuel gauge that regulates metabolic pathways in glucose and fatty acid metabolism and protein synthesis. Recent data strongly implicate the AMPK-acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)-malonyl CoA pathway in the hypothalamus in the regulation of food intake, body weight and hepatic glucose production. Furthermore, data indicate that AMPK is a mediator of the effects of adipocyte-derived and gut-derived hormones and peptides on fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in peripheral tissues. Studies are now elucidating the potential role of kinases upstream of AMPK in these metabolic effects. In addition, recently, several novel downstream effectors of AMPK have been identified. The AMPK pathway in the hypothalamus and peripheral tissues coordinately integrates inputs from multiple hormones, peptides and nutrients to maintain energy homeostasis.
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative movement disorder. Epidemiological studies have suggested most cases of PD are linked to environmental risk factors. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is a conserved enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of a large number of epoxide intermediates such as drugs and epoxides of environmental toxins. We hypothesize that changes in mEH are involved in the pathogenesis of PD by modulating the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to environmental stress. Herein we reported that acute treatment with the neurotoxin MPTP (1-methyl-4-phemyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine) markedly increased the mEH immunoreactivity in the nigrostriatal system of C57BL/6 mice. Next, mEH knockout (KO) mice were used, and we found that tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cell loss was significantly lower in the substantia nigra of mEH KO mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice after MPTP treatment. The mean dopamine turnover ratios were significantly increased in MPTP-treated mEH KO mice compared with WT. In addition, TH is the rate-limiting enzyme for dopamine biosynthesis, and its activity is mainly regulated by TH phosphorylation at Ser-31 (pSer31) and Ser-40 (pSer40). Double immunofluorescence showed that both pSer31 and pSer40 are completely colocalized in total TH-positive cells. However, immunoblotting confirmed that there was a significantly higher level of pSer31 in mEH-KO mice when compared with WT mice after MPTP, and no marked differences among TH and its phosphorylation levels occurred after saline injection. These data suggested that mEH deficiency facilitates TH phosphorylation in the nigrostriatal dopamine system, which may be associated with an increased resistance of dopaminergic neurons to environmental toxins.
Martins L, implications for the pathogenesis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. 656
  • Blanco Martinez De Morentin
  • P Gonzalez
  • Cr Saha
Blanco Martinez de Morentin P, Gonzalez CR, Saha AK, Martins L, implications for the pathogenesis of Wernicke's encephalopathy. 656 J Neurochem 51:1221–1226.
Age-related vulnerability to 733
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Pitkin SR, Savage LM (2004) Age-related vulnerability to 733