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... Grammatisation was forged by the linguist Sylvian Auroux (1992) while delineating the technical process of description, formalisation and discretisation of human behaviours into representations, so they could be reproduced (Crogan & Kinsley, 2012;Petit, 2012;. The author uses the alphabet (alphabetisation) as the first example of what constitutes a process of grammatisation, which starts with the exteriorisation of human gestures, acts or knowledge. ...
... When referring to grammatisation, we are addressing an extension of the concept forged by Auroux (1994)-a process of description, formalisation, and discretization of human behaviors into representations, so that they can be reproduced (Crogan & Kinsley, 2012). This is what the French philosopher of technology, Bernard Stiegler (2006, called the process of digital grammatisation in which "all behavioural models can now be grammatised and integrated through a planetary-wide industry of the production, collection, exploitation, and distribution of digital traces" (Stiegler, 2012, p. 2). ...
Thesis
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Digital methods are taken here as a research practice crucially situated in the technological environment that it explores and exploits. Through software-oriented analysis, this research practice proposes to re-purpose online methods and data for social-medium research but not considered as a proper type of fieldwork because these methods are new and still in their process of description. These methods impose proximity with software and reflect an environment inhabited by technicity. Thus, this dissertation is concerned with a key element of the digital methods research approach: the computational (or technical) mediums as carriers of meaning (see Berry, 2011; Rieder, 2020). The central idea of this dissertation is to address the role of technical knowledge, practise and expertise (as problems and solutions) in the full range of digital methods, taking the technicity of the computational mediums and digital records as objects of study. By focusing on how the concept of technicity matters in digital research, I argue that not only do digital methods open an opportunity for further enquiry into this concept, but they also benefit from such enquiry, since the working material of this research practice are the media, its methods, mechanisms and data. In this way, the notion of technicity-of-the-mediums is used in two senses pointing on the one hand to the effort to become acquainted with the mediums (from a conceptual, technical and empirical perspective), on the other hand, to the object of technical imagination (the capacity of considering the features and practical qualities of technical mediums as ensemble and as a solution to methodological problems). From the standpoint of non-developer researchers and the perspective of software practice, the understanding of digital technologies starts from direct contact, comprehension and different uses of (research) software and the web environment. The journey of digital methods is only fulfilled by technical practice, experimentation and exploration. Two main arguments are put forward in this dissertation. The first states that we can only repurpose what we know well, which means that we need to become acquainted with the mediums from a conceptual-technical-practical perspective; whereas, the second argument states that the practice of digital methods is enhanced when researchers make room for, grow and establish a sensitivity to the technicity-of-the-mediums. The main contribution of this dissertation is to develop a series of conceptual and practical principles for digital research. Theoretically, this dissertation suggests a broader definition of medium in digital methods and introduces the notion of the technicity-of-the-mediums and three distinct but related aspects to consider – namely platform grammatisation, cultures of use and software affordances, as an attempt to defuse some of the difficulties related to the use of digital methods. Practically, it presents concrete methodological approaches providing new analytical perspectives for social media research and digital network studies, while suggesting a way of carrying out digital fieldwork which is substantiated by technical practices and imagination. (Thesis available here: https://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/127961)
... One reason is because many accounts in media studies combine cultural analysis and the philosophy of technology with normative claims. This includes reflections on the tyranny of digital media and computational thinking (Stiegler, 2019), the implications of the "neuro-image" in socio-political terms (Pisters, 2017), and the aforementioned critical assessment of the attention economy (Crogan and Kinsley, 2012). Three things are relevant here. ...
... I will not focus on what could be considered our meta-habits of (wittingly or unwittingly) choosing different media resources for engagement. Still, the latter has become a central focus in understanding media economies that compete for our attentional resources(Crogan and Kinsley, 2012).Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org ...
Article
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This paper argues that the still-emerging paradigm of situated cognition requires a more systematic perspective on media to capture the enculturation of the human mind. By virtue of being media, cultural artifacts present central experiential models of the world for our embodied minds to latch onto. The paper identifies references to external media within embodied, extended, enactive, and predictive approaches to cognition, which remain underdeveloped in terms of the profound impact that media have on our mind. To grasp this impact, I propose an enactive account of media that is based on expansive habits as media-structured, embodied ways of bringing forth meaning and new domains of values. We apply such habits, for instance, when seeing a picture or perceiving a movie. They become established through a process of reciprocal adaptation between media artifacts and organisms and define the range of viable actions within such a media ecology. Within an artifactual habit, we then become attuned to a specific media work (e.g., a TV series, a picture, a text, or even a city) that engages us. Both the plurality of habits and the dynamical adjustments within a habit require a more flexible neural architecture than is addressed by classical cognitive neuroscience. To detail how neural and media processes interlock, I will introduce the concept of neuromediality and discuss radical predictive processing accounts that could contribute to the externalization of the mind by treating media themselves as generative models of the world. After a short primer on general media theory, I discuss media examples in three domains: pictures and moving images; digital media; architecture and the built environment. This discussion demonstrates the need for a new cognitive media theory based on enactive artifactual habits—one that will help us gain perspective on the continuous re-mediation of our mind.
... Whereas until the late twentieth century information was a relatively scarce and therefore valuable commodity, today information is abundant, and the volume of information being produced is still expanding at a breakneck speed (Andrejevic 2013). As a result, what has become scarce and therefore valuable is human attention (Crogan and Kinsley 2012). Within this context, described as an attention economy (Beller 2006;Goldhaber 1997), there is not a deficit of information on ecological or social crises. ...
Book
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There is virtually nowhere on Earth today that remains untouched by plastic and ecosystems are evolving to adapt to this new context. While plastics have revolutionized our modern world, new and often unforeseen effects of plastic and its production are continually being discovered. Plastics are entangled in multiple ecological and social crises, from the plasticization of the oceans to the embeddedness of plastics in political hierarchies. The complexities surrounding the global plastic crisis require an interdisciplinary approach and the materialities of plastic demand new temporalities of thought and action. Plastic Legacies brings together scholars from the fields of marine biology, psychology, anthropology, environmental studies, Indigenous studies, and media studies to investigate and address the urgent socio-ecological challenges brought about by plastics. Contributors consider the unpredictable nature of plastics and weigh actionable solutions and mitigation processes against the ever-changing situation. Moving beyond policy changes, this volume offers a critique of neoliberal approaches to tackling the plastics crisis and explores how politics and communicative action are key to implementing social, cultural, and economic change.
... Despite such criticisms, however, this form of awe was utilized by many of the interviewees. Some acknowledged that, as the result of competitive pressures tied to the attention economy of consumerist society (see Crogan & Kinsley, 2012), where everything "is very flashy" (Int6), it becomes increasingly hard to get people to pay attention to science. As a result, attempting to create this form of awe has become the default mode for many in science communication: ...
Article
Awe is a valued emotion in science communication and assumes a variety of functions in relation to the cultural mandates of the various spaces where it is represented. Based on a reflexive thematic analysis of interviews with 22 science communication practitioners, we constructed seven themes referencing this emotion’s various sociocultural roles in this space. These included the functions of awe in entertainment, curiosity, admiration, revelation, and connection. Drawing from a constructionist view of emotions, we argue that these varieties of awe co-construct many of the differing, and sometimes conflicting, mandates that circulate in the culture of science communication.
... Reflecting on the idea of commodity from a cultural perspective, that is, as part of a social and political system of attributing values, Appadurai defines commodities as "as objects of economic value" (Appadurai, 1988, p. 3). Although this definition may refer to a financial or monetary approach of economy, it is discussed in terms of its social manifestations, that is, according to an expanded notion of economy (Crogan and Kinsley, 2012). ...
Thesis
Thesis available at: https://repositorio.ufpe.br/handle/123456789/44263. This thesis proposes the concept of spatial mediation as a configurational strategy for the exchange between people and things, which is particularly evident in exhibition spaces – whose main function is precisely to foster these exchanges. In contrast to other types of mediation, spatial mediation occurs not through educators or technological devices, but through the system that structures the interaction between displayed contents and its visitors. This concept is characterized by a double-faceted logic that concerns the very definition of exhibition spaces – settings for exchange that operate through the display of artifacts, for cultural and economic purposes. These two facets are made up of pairs of concepts that address the following issues: 1) discourse and narrative – which describe how things are arranged in space and how the messages embedded in this arrangement can be interpreted through spatial navigation; 2) commodity and capital – which represent the syntactic and semantic role of the building in defining a system of material and symbolic exchanges. These two facets are objectively represented by the short-term layout of the exhibitions and the long-term layout of the building that houses it. This phenomenon is investigated at the Bienal de São Paulo (BSP), an expression that designates both a building (designed by Oscar Niemeyer in 1954), and a set of exhibitions (with 34 editions, 31 of which held in the same pavilion). This long overlap between building and exhibitions provides robust evidence for the proposed discussion, which was obtained through exploratory diachronic studies (on 30 BSP, from 1957 to 2018) and through specific case studies (on 9 BSP). These studies allowed us to delimit: a) the territory in which spatial mediation takes place – a spatial system open enough to support a multiplicity of occupations, but closed enough to minimally structure the movement; b) how it works – by transforming a spatial system that is simultaneously complex and generic into a system that is highly specific. The first aspect required the development of three representation models – complex, generic, and specific, to describe the spatial systems of buildings and exhibitions based on different criteria, thus generating different levels of network descriptions. And the latter enabled the characterization of two types of spatial mediation, mediation as a means and mediation as an end, whose characteristics describe how the attributes and elements of the exhibition layout are situated in relation to those of the building layout, whether within its limits or beyond them – the former related to the notion of commodity and the latter to a process of commodification. This approach, which is essentially based on the distinction between perennial and ephemeral layouts, can provide new perspectives of morphological thinking for the design and study of uses and internal arrangements of other types of buildings and spaces.
... Hay jerarquías en usos, tiempos de pantalla, etiquetas raciales y contenido propalado. Estas son mediadas por la tecnología y los modos de producción audiovisual (Almeida, 2019;Beller, 2006Beller, , 2010Beller, , 2018Beller, , 2021Crogan y Kinsley, 2012;Steyerl, 2009;Tufekci, 2013). Por tanto, las escalas superiores acceden a mejores términos de representación y usos tecnológicos, y los menos favorecidos son conducidos a un menor acceso de tecnología y ventanas de representación. ...
Article
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"Organizado por tres editoras afrodescendientes de tres países diferentes —el Perú, Venezuela y Brasil—, [Sharún Gonzales Matute, Meyby Ugueto-Ponce, Camila Daniel] el número reúne nuestros esfuerzos en contra del racismo epistémico en nuestro continente, que sistemáticamente silencia las voces y conocimientos negros e indígenas. El entender el número temático como una herramienta antirracista más allá de una producción académica acompañó todo su proceso de elaboración"
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Since 2012, the citizen science project ‘Mückenatlas’ has been supplementing the German mosquito monitoring programme with over 28,000 submissions of physical insect samples. As the factors triggering people to catch mosquitoes for science are still unknown, we analysed the influence of mass media reports on mosquito submission numbers. Based on a theoretical framework of how mass media affect citizen responsiveness, we identified five possible influencing factors related to citizen science: (i) project awareness and knowledge, (ii) attention (economy), (iii) individual characteristics of citizen scientists and targeted communication, (iv) spatial differences and varying affectedness, and (v) media landscape. Hypotheses based on these influencing factors were quantitatively and qualitatively tested with two datasets: clipping data of mass media reports (online, television, radio and print) referring to or focussing on the ‘Mückenatlas’, and corresponding data of ‘Mückenatlas’ submissions between 2014 and 2017. In general, the number of media reports positively affected the number of mosquito submissions on a temporal and spatial scale, i.e. many media reports provoke many mosquito submissions. We found that an already heightened public and media awareness of mosquito-relevant topics combined with a direct call-to-action in a media report title led to a maximum participation. Differences on federal state level, however, suggest that factors additional to quantitative media coverage trigger participation in the ‘Mückenatlas’, in particular the mosquito affectedness of the resident population. Lastly, media types appear to differ in their effects on the number of submissions. Our results show under which circumstances the media presence of the ’Mückenatlas’ is most effective in activating people to submit mosquito samples, and thus provide advice for designing communication strategies for citizen science projects.
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In recent years, attention has become a matter of increasing public concern. New digital technologies have transformed human attention materially and discursively, reorganizing perceptual practices and inciting debates about them. The essays in this special issue emerged from a set of panels focused on attention at the 4S conference in New Orleans in 2019. They are all, in various ways, concerned with shifts among attention’s many meanings: between payment and care, instinct and agency, or vulnerability and power. Drawing on Science and Technology Studies (STS) sensibilities, these pieces examine how scientific and technical actors are invested in theorizing and capturing attention, while simultaneously engendering new forms of care, resistance, and critique. At a moment where the attention economy appears to be in transformative crisis, this collection maps a set of incipient directions that ask us to pay attention to not only attention itself but also to the many sociotechnical settings where experts and publics are shifting attention’s meaning and value.
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This paper critically investigates the ethical perspectives and practices of individuals and organizations who make persuasive technologies (“persuasive technologists”). An organization that claims to be at the forefront of ethical persuasion is behavioral software company Boundless Mind. Yet Boundless Mind sells ostensibly oxymoronic software products: an Application Programming Interface for third-party applications that optimizes the capture of end user attention, and an application for end users on how to make third-party applications less persuasive. Drawing upon Foucault’s interpretation of ethics as an “aesthetics of existence” and the related concept of “therapeutic authority,” I argue Boundless Mind justify the “poaching” and “protecting” of user attention based on a view of the human subject as fixable and their capability to instrumentalize user subjectivity to socially desirable ends. I walkthrough Boundless Mind’s technology-habit-breaking application Space and highlight a behavioral technique administered by Space called stimulus devaluation, which enables the user to develop a transformative relationship with their technology habits and persuasive applications. I conclude the paper by arguing that a persuasive technology ethics based on fixing the user obfuscates the power of persuasive technologists by limiting the scope of ethical inquiry to the activities of the user.
Book
Recent neuroscience, in replacing the old model of the brain as a single centralized source of control, has emphasized "plasticity," the quality by which our brains develop and change throughout the course of our lives. Our brains exist as historical products, developing in interaction with themselves and with their surroundings. Hence there is a thin line between the organization of the nervous system and the political and social organization that both conditions and is conditioned by human experience. Looking carefully at contemporary neuroscience, it is hard not to notice that the new way of talking about the brain mirrors the management discourse of the neo-liberal capitalist world in which we now live, with its talk of decentralization, networks, and flexibility. Consciously or unconsciously, science cannot but echo the world in which it takes place. In the neo-liberal world, "plasticity" can be equated with "flexibility"-a term that has become a buzzword in economics and management theory. The plastic brain would thus represent just another style of power, which, although less centralized, is still a means of control. In this book, Catherine Malabou develops a second, more radical meaning for plasticity. Not only does plasticity allow our brains to adapt to existing circumstances, it opens a margin of freedom to intervene, to change those very circumstances. Such an understanding opens up a newly transformative aspect of the neurosciences. In insisting on this proximity between the neurosciences and the social sciences, Malabou applies to the brain Marx's well-known phrase about history: people make their own brains, but they do not know it. This book is a summons to such knowledge.
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For centuries, medicine aimed to treat abnormalities. But today normality itself is open to medical modification. Equipped with a new molecular understanding of bodies and minds, and new techniques for manipulating basic life processes at the level of molecules, cells, and genes, medicine now seeks to manage human vital processes. The Politics of Life Itself offers a much-needed examination of recent developments in the life sciences and biomedicine that have led to the widespread politicization of medicine, human life, and biotechnology. Avoiding the hype of popular science and the pessimism of most social science, Nikolas Rose analyzes contemporary molecular biopolitics, examining developments in genomics, neuroscience, pharmacology, and psychopharmacology and the ways they have affected racial politics, crime control, and psychiatry. Rose analyzes the transformation of biomedicine from the practice of healing to the government of life; the new emphasis on treating disease susceptibilities rather than disease; the shift in our understanding of the patient; the emergence of new forms of medical activism; the rise of biocapital; and the mutations in biopower. He concludes that these developments have profound consequences for who we think we are, and who we want to be.
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DIVIn Two Bits, Christopher M. Kelty investigates the history and cultural significance of Free Software, revealing the people and practices that have transformed not only software but also music, film, science, and education. Free Software is a set of practices devoted to the collaborative creation of software source code that is made openly and freely available through an unconventional use of copyright law. Kelty explains how these specific practices have reoriented the relations of power around the creation, dissemination, and authorization of all kinds of knowledge. He also makes an important contribution to discussions of public spheres and social imaginaries by demonstrating how Free Software is a “recursive public”—a public organized around the ability to build, modify, and maintain the very infrastructure that gives it life in the first place.Drawing on ethnographic research that took him from an Internet healthcare start-up company in Boston to media labs in Berlin to young entrepreneurs in Bangalore, Kelty describes the technologies and the moral vision that bind together hackers, geeks, lawyers, and other Free Software advocates. In each case, he shows how their practices and way of life include not only the sharing of software source code but also ways of conceptualizing openness, writing copyright licenses, coordinating collaboration, and proselytizing. By exploring in detail how these practices came together as the Free Software movement from the 1970s to the 1990s, Kelty also considers how it is possible to understand the new movements emerging from Free Software: projects such as Creative Commons, a nonprofit organization that creates copyright licenses, and Connexions, a project to create an online scholarly textbook commons./div