Article

Motivation and Beliefs about the Nature of Scientific Knowledge Within an Immersive Virtual Ecosystems Environment

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Abstract

FULL TEXT IN OPEN ACCESS SEE HERE: http://works.bepress.com/jasonchen/ We explored Grade 6 students’ (n = 202) self-efficacy, epistemic beliefs, and science interest over a 10-day virtual ecology curriculum. Pre- and post-surveys were administered, and analyses revealed that (1) students became more self-efficacious about inquiring scientifically after participating in the activity; (2) students on average evinced a shift toward more constructivist views about the role of authority in justifying scientific claims; (3) students who identified more strongly with being a science person evinced greater gains in self-efficacy, developed a less constructivist view about the role of authority in justifying claims, and became more interested in science overall; and (4) students who held an incremental theory of ability evinced greater gains in self-efficacy. We discuss the implications of these findings for science educators and instructional designers in the design and use of immersive virtual worlds for middle school science students.

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... Because our research is cross-sectional, we avoid the implication of the causal ordering based on the correlates between scientific epistemic beliefs, motivational constructs, achievement, and STEM career aspirations. Indeed the motivational constructs and outcome variables can be a precursor of epistemic beliefs, a consequence of epistemic beliefs, or reciprocally related to epistemic beliefs (e.g., Chen et al., 2014;Muis, 2007). Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that some covariates (e.g., gender, grade level, socioeconomic status, and science instruction) influence epistemic beliefs and that it is useful to determine how they relate to these beliefs and outcome variables. ...
... The impacts of these background variables on science motivation, achievement, and career aspirations have also been well-documented in previous research (e.g., Guo et al., 2019;Marsh et al., 2020;OECD, 2016b). Additionally, science instruction, such as inquiry-based instruction and teacher-directed instruction, has been found to influence students' epistemic beliefs, science motivation, and achievement-related outcomes (Areepattamannil et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2014;OECD, 2017). Hence, the omission of instructional practices would make the examination of the relations between epistemic beliefs, motivation, achievement, and career aspirations potentially misleading. ...
... Given that science instruction has been found to influence student science achievement, motivation, and career aspirations (Areepattamannil et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2014;OECD, 2017), we conducted a robustness check of our findings by further including two science instructional constructs (i.e., inquiry-based instruction and teacher-directed instruction) as covariates. The results showed that the relations between epistemic beliefs and desired outcomes stayed almost the same after further controlling for science instruction (Tables S8&S9): ...
Article
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The proliferation of information and divergent viewpoints in the 21st century requires an educated citizenry with the ability to critically evaluate information and make informed decisions. To meet this demand, adaptive epistemic understandings and beliefs about the nature of knowledge are needed, such as believing that scientific knowledge is evolving (development of knowledge) and needs to be justified through experimentation (justification of knowledge). Our study is the first to use nationally representative samples from 72 societies (PISA2015 database; N= 514,119 students) to examine how scientific epistemic beliefs about development and justification of knowledge in science are associated with students’ science motivation, achievement, and career aspirations in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, as well as the cross-national generalizability of these relations. Results showed that (a) students who had more adaptive beliefs about knowledge being changeable and stemming from experimentation were likely to have high science self-efficacy, utility value, and particularly high intrinsic value; (b) epistemic beliefs were more strongly linked to science achievement than were motivational constructs; (c) the positive relation between epistemic beliefs and STEM-related career aspirations was largely explained by motivation and achievement; (d) the pattern of results generalized well across societies. Our findings suggest that epistemic beliefs are substantially positively associated with adolescents’ science learning, implying that developing effective interventions that focus on development and justification of knowledge would be fruitful for promoting science educational outcomes.
... This study is novel because it integrates research on motivation which usually focuses on why students learn science with research on epistemic beliefs which pertains to students' perceptions of what science is. While these two bodies of research have been quite active (e.g., Chen et al., 2014;Lin and Tsai, 2017), there is little research attempt to study them together. There is theoretical value in exploring their synergies as science learning is likely to be multiply determined. ...
... This study also addresses methodological shortcomings of past research. Past studies on science learning and achievement have been hampered by their exclusive focus on one cultural context (Chen et al., 2014;Lin and Tsai, 2017;Wong et al., 2019;Kaderavek et al., 2020). Hence, the possible cross-cultural applicability of the results might be questioned. ...
... We examined the associations among intrinsic motivation, instrumental motivation, epistemic beliefs, and their interactions to predict science achievement in a large sample of 15-years old students across four societies. Given that studies about the interrelationships these factors are usually culturally specific (Chen et al., 2014;Lin and Tsai, 2017;Wong et al., 2019;Kaderavek et al., 2020), this study first established the construct validity of the factors measured for the four different societies. This effort allows us to discuss the findings with some confidence about cross-cultural applicability. ...
Article
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Research on self-determination theory emphasizes the importance of the internalization of motivation as a crucial factor for determining the quality of motivation. Hence, intrinsic motivation is deemed as an important predictor of learning. Research on epistemic beliefs, on the other hand, focuses on the nature of knowledge, and learning with more sophisticated epistemic beliefs associated with more adaptive outcomes. While learning and achievement are multiply determined, a more comprehensive theoretical model that takes into account both motivational quality and epistemic beliefs is needed. Hence, this study aims to examine the role of intrinsic and instrumental motivation alongside epistemic beliefs in predicting students’ achievement in science. Data were drawn from the PISA 2015 survey. We focused on four of the top-performing societies. Two were Eastern societies – Singapore and Hong Kong, and the other two were Western societies: Canada and Finland. We found both common and specific patterns among the four societies. Regarding the common patterns, we found that intrinsic motivation and epistemic beliefs had direct positive effects on science achievement. As for the regionally-specific findings, instrumental motivation positively predicted achievement only in Western societies (i.e., Finland and Canada), but not in Eastern societies (i.e., Singapore and Hong Kong). The interaction effect between motivation and epistemic beliefs also demonstrated different patterns across the four societies. Implications for the role of motivation and epistemic beliefs in optimizing student learning and achievement are discussed.
... Because our research is cross-sectional, we avoid the implication of the causal ordering based on the correlates between scientific epistemic beliefs, motivational constructs, achievement, and STEM career aspirations. Indeed the motivational constructs and outcome variables can be a precursor of epistemic beliefs, a consequence of epistemic beliefs, or reciprocally related to epistemic beliefs (e.g., Chen et al., 2014;Muis, 2007). Nevertheless, it is reasonable to assume that some covariates (e.g., gender, grade level, socioeconomic status [SES], and science instruction) influence epistemic beliefs and that it is useful to determine how they relate to these beliefs and outcome variables. ...
... The impacts of these background variables on science motivation, achievement, and career aspirations have also been well-documented in previous research (e.g., Guo et al., 2019;Marsh et al., 2020;OECD, 2016b). Additionally, science instruction, such as inquiry-based instruction and teacher-directed instruction, has been found to influence students' epistemic beliefs, science motivation, and achievement-related outcomes (Areepattamannil et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2014;OECD, 2017). Hence, the omission of instructional practices would make the examination of the relations between epistemic beliefs, motivation, achievement, and career aspirations potentially misleading. ...
... Given that science instruction has been found to influence student science achievement, motivation, and career aspirations (Areepattamannil et al., 2020;Chen et al., 2014;OECD, 2017), we conducted a robustness check of our findings by further including two science instructional constructs (i.e., inquiry-based instruction and teacher-directed instruction) as covariates. The results showed that the relations between epistemic beliefs and desired outcomes stayed almost the same after further controlling for science instruction (see Tables S8 and S9 in ...
Preprint
Proliferating information and viewpoints in the 21st century require an educated citizenry with the ability to understand scientific knowledge but also to comprehend “what is science” - nature of science (NOS). We present a global investigation of how NOS views are associated with science learning across 72 countries for 514,119 adolescents. Adolescents who view that knowledge is changeable and comes from experimentation are: more likely to show high science achievement, feel more self-efficacious, more intrinsically and extrinsically motivated to engage in science learning, and aspire more to pursue a STEM-related career. Critically, NOS views are more strongly linked to science achievement than motivation. Consistent patterns across countries suggest the important role of NOS views in science learning and have significant policy and practice implications globally.
... Despite these findings that technology-rich activities can often thwart meaningful learning and motivation, Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVE) that simulate the types of scientific reasoning that actual scientists enact can potentially support and bolster students' motivation in science (cf., Barab, Gresalfi, & Ingram-Goble, 2010;Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014;Ketelhut, 2007). We base this premise on theories of motivation that outline the necessary conditions that develop students' competence beliefs (i.e., "Can I succeed in this activity?") ...
... Students provided ratings on a six-point Likert scale, which indicated how confident they were in performing each of these tasks. Previous empirical research using confirmatory factor analysis has shown that this scale is reliable and valid (see Chen et al., 2014). Cronbach's alphas for this eight-item instrument were a ¼ 0.88(pre), a ¼ 0.93(post). ...
... Future research should investigate ways that can help less self-efficacious students to remain interested in rich science inquiry content. The work of Chen et al. (2014) showed that students who believed that their intellectual capacities in science could grow (Dweck & Leggett, 1988; incremental view of ability) and who identified strongly with scientists evinced gains in science interest, whereas their peers who believed that intellectual capacities are fixed at birth (fixed view of ability) and who did not identify with scientists showed no growth in science interest. Therefore, one possible pathway for further investigation could be to explore ways to help students identify more strongly with the work of scientists and to facilitate the belief that abilities and skills in science can be amplified through appropriate strategy use and effortful practice. ...
Article
FULL TEXT IN OPEN ACCESS SEE HERE: http://works.bepress.com/jasonchen/ Using latent growth models, we explored: (a) The effect of middle school students' (n = 189) pre-intervention science self-efficacy and science interest on their initial interest in an Ecosystems Multi-User Virtual Environment (EcoMUVE) and the rate of change in their interest in EcoMUVE; and (b) the mediating effect of students' initial interest in EcoMUVE and rate of change in interest on students' post-intervention science self-efficacy and interest in science. Results showed that: (1) students' pre-intervention self-efficacy for science had an effect both on students' triggered situational interest for EcoMUVE and on students' maintained situational interest for EcoMUVE; (2) both triggering and maintaining situational interest in EcoMUVE were important in developing students' science self-efficacy. In fact, maintained situational interest was the stronger predictor; and (3) maintained situational interest for EcoMUVE translated into individual interest for the science content. Results support and extend social cognitive theory as well as models of interest development.
... In the context of middle school science, researchers have found that science self-efficacy positively predicts academic achievement (Britner and Pajares 2001;Wang et al. 2007). A small number of studies have found that a type of science self-efficacy-scientific inquiry self-efficacy-is predictive of performance on computer game-like IVEs that require scientific inquiry (Chen et al. 2014;Clark et al. 2009;Ketelhut 2007;Nelson and Ketelhut 2008). For example, in the IVE River City in which players must solve the problem of why people of a late 1800s town are getting sick, scientific inquiry self-efficacy beliefs prior to playing the module predicted early inquiry behaviors (Ketelhut 2007) and adaptive use of an in-module guidance system (Nelson and Ketelhut 2008). ...
... Ketelhut (2007) investigated inquiry behaviors over time in an IVE (River City) and found no difference in students' self-efficacy beliefs before and after the experience. By contrast, Chen et al. (2014) observed increases in scientific inquiry self-efficacy among fifth graders after participating in a 10-day curriculum that involved an IVE about causal relations in a marine ecosystem. Similarly, Meluso et al. (2012) examined the science self-efficacy (as opposed to scientific inquiry self-efficacy) of fifth grade students before and after they participated in an IVE computer game about landforms and found that students' science self-efficacy increased after playing. ...
... Our results showed increased scientific inquiry self-efficacy only for those students with high module scores and decreases in scientific inquiry self-efficacy for those with low module scores, resulting in similar group mean scientific inquiry scores before and after the module. By contrast, prior studies have found group-level increases in scientific inquiry self-efficacy (Chen et al. 2014) or science self-efficacy (Meluso et al. 2012) after participating in IVE-based activities, regardless of an individual's level of performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
The primary aim of the study was to examine whether performance on a science assessment in an immersive virtual environment was associated with changes in scientific inquiry self-efficacy. A secondary aim of the study was to examine whether performance on the science assessment was equitable for students with different levels of computer game self-efficacy, including whether gender differences were observed. We examined 407 middle school students’ scientific inquiry self-efficacy and computer game self-efficacy before and after completing a computer game-like assessment about a science mystery. Results from path analyses indicated that prior scientific inquiry self-efficacy predicted achievement on end-of-module questions, which in turn predicted change in scientific inquiry self-efficacy. By contrast, computer game self-efficacy was neither predictive of nor predicted by performance on the science assessment. While boys had higher computer game self-efficacy compared to girls, multi-group analyses suggested only minor gender differences in how efficacy beliefs related to performance. Implications for assessments with virtual environments and future design and research are discussed.
... Moreover, they are also unable to explain why students' interest in science is pivotal to comprehend. This knowledge for the teacher has a direct corresponding effect and can improve student performances in learning science (Chen et al., 2014). A decline in science learning achievement occurs when teachers fail to comprehend what motivates students in learning science, especially during middle and secondary school education (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... This knowledge for the teacher has a direct corresponding effect and can improve student performances in learning science (Chen et al., 2014). A decline in science learning achievement occurs when teachers fail to comprehend what motivates students in learning science, especially during middle and secondary school education (Chen et al., 2014). Wang and Liou (2017) suggested that student motivation in learning can increase with specific attention. ...
... However, it was not until 2006 that "science self-efficacy" was given a relatively complete definition in literature: science self-efficacy is students' "belief in their ability to succeed in science tasks, courses, or activities"; science self-efficacy "influences their choices of science-related activities, the effort they spend on those activities, the perseverance they show when encountering difficulties, and the ultimate success they experience in science" (Britner & Pajares, 2006, p. 486). This definition and theory, as a good summary of prior research (Beghetto, 2007;Kupermintz, 2002;Lau & Roeser, 2002;Luzzo et al., 1999;Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000), has been broadly cited and further extended in the later literature (Chen & Usher, 2013;Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014;Hushman & Marley, 2015;Kiran & Sungur, 2012;Lofgran, Smith, & Whiting, 2015;Velayutham & Aldridge, 2013). One study developed a framework related to students' motivation and beliefs about science knowledge within virtual environments (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... This definition and theory, as a good summary of prior research (Beghetto, 2007;Kupermintz, 2002;Lau & Roeser, 2002;Luzzo et al., 1999;Pajares, Britner, & Valiante, 2000), has been broadly cited and further extended in the later literature (Chen & Usher, 2013;Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014;Hushman & Marley, 2015;Kiran & Sungur, 2012;Lofgran, Smith, & Whiting, 2015;Velayutham & Aldridge, 2013). One study developed a framework related to students' motivation and beliefs about science knowledge within virtual environments (Chen et al., 2014). In this framework, science self-efficacy, interest, and epistemic beliefs in science were the enhanced outcomes of students' science learning in VR environments; both students' science identity and incremental view of science ability positively affected the change of their learning outcomes. ...
Article
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Traditional science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education is sometimes criticized for lacking approaches to present real-world practices and phenomena beyond naked eyes. Head-mounted display virtual reality (HMD VR) provides opportunities to solve this issue. However, little is known about the impact of this approach on student’s self-efficacy in science. This study is to address this knowledge gap. Sixty-six 11th grade students were recruited to participate in an HMD VR learning activity. Half of these students filled in a science self-efficacy questionnaire before the VR learning activity, and the others filled in it after the activity. The study compared (1) students’ science self-efficacy between these two conditions and (2) students’ post-activity science self-efficacy among different science-class grading score groups. Results showed that the change of students’ science self-efficacy was not significant after the learning activity and the differences among most science-class grading score groups were small. After the results were analyzed, the capability of affording gestures and physical movement was recognized as an important factor that determined whether an HMD VR learning environment could significantly enhance students’ science self-efficacy; educators were suggested to not use science class scores to predict students’ potential and future achievements in science.
... The importance of having scientifically literate citizens who can make sense of the scientific issues that confront them cannot be overemphasised (Glynn, Taasoobshirazi, & Brickman, 2009). However, in the current educational climate in which such a high premium is put on students' performance on standardized assessments, teachers have little time to allow their students to explore science concepts in interesting ways, thereby contributing to students' perception of science as dull (Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014). Consequently, it becomes difficult to keep students motivated, especially during the middle school and high school years, when there is a noticeable general decline in motivation (Chen et al., 2014). ...
... However, in the current educational climate in which such a high premium is put on students' performance on standardized assessments, teachers have little time to allow their students to explore science concepts in interesting ways, thereby contributing to students' perception of science as dull (Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014). Consequently, it becomes difficult to keep students motivated, especially during the middle school and high school years, when there is a noticeable general decline in motivation (Chen et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
The aim of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a questionnaire adapted from Students’ Motivation Towards Science Learning questionnaire developed by Tuan and colleagues, to assess motivation to learn science among Namibian Grade 12 students (N = 755). The overall reliability of the scores on the 19-item questionnaire was 0.79. The reliability of the individual factors ranged from 0.66 to 0.77. The sample was split into two for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Exploratory factor analysis (N = 403) using principal components extraction with varimax rotation revealed an interpretable factor structure and the factor solution accounted for 56.1% of the total variance. The measurement model was validated by means of confirmatory factor analysis (N = 352) and the results showed that the model had adequate statistical fit for the data, with the following fit indices: χ²/d.f. = 1.54, RMSEA = 0.039, SRMR = 0.047, TLI = 0.94 and CFI = 0.95. Construct validity was confirmed through the assessment of convergent and discriminant validity and both were found tenable. These findings indicate that the adapted questionnaire has adequate construct validity and reliability. Moreover, the findings suggest that the adapted questionnaire is suitable for assessing Namibian Grade 12 science students’ motivation to learn science.
... The importance of scientifically literate citizens who are able to understand the scientific issues that confront them cannot be overemphasised [4]. However, in the current educational climate in which such a high premium is put on students' performance on standardized assessments, teachers have little time to allow their students to explore science concepts in interesting ways, thereby contributing to students' perception of science as dull [5]. Subsequently, there is a significant challenge to keep students motivated especially during the middle school and high school years, when there is noticeable general decline in motivation [5]. ...
... However, in the current educational climate in which such a high premium is put on students' performance on standardized assessments, teachers have little time to allow their students to explore science concepts in interesting ways, thereby contributing to students' perception of science as dull [5]. Subsequently, there is a significant challenge to keep students motivated especially during the middle school and high school years, when there is noticeable general decline in motivation [5]. Against the foregoing, the role of students' motivation to learn has increasingly been receiving attention [6], [7]. ...
... -development of the educational environment with the use of immersive learning tools [5,6,7,8,9,10,11]; -immersive learning tools in medicine [12,13,14,15,16]; -immersive learning tools in engineering and physics [17,18,19]; -immersive learning tools in arts and humanities [20,21,22]; -pedagogical innovations based on immersive learning [23,24,25] [ [23][24][25] -application of immersive technologies in university subdivisions, e.g. library [26,27]; -immersive technologies for scientific research [28,29]; -fulfillment of the third university mission and social activity to ensure the citizens wellbeing [30,31,32,33,34,35,36]; -education digitalization [37]; -state regulation and management of education quality [38,39]; -ensuring the quality of education in subject areas [40,41]; -quality of education and sustainable development goals [42]. ...
Article
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The article considers the problem of using immersive learning in the educational and scientific activities of the university. Literature survey revealed that there is a need for an integrated approach for introduction of immersive learning at the university. It involves the creation of a specialized laboratory of virtual and augmented reality with appropriate technical equipment, introduction of immersive learning methodology in university educational programs, development of software and hardware solutions for immersive learning, and research on the immersive learning effectiveness. We present the description of a specialized university department acting as a developer of software products for immersive learning. We show original developments in the field of immersive education for exact sciences and arts and humanities students. The article describes products that are designed to fulfill the third university mission: to ensure the citizens well-being. We propose "immersive institute" model which can be implemented both at the level of the university in general and at the level of its educational and scientific departments.
... Therefore, science interest is the precondition of intrinsic motivation to engage in science and choose a science-related career (Chen & Liu, 2020;Fonseca et al., 2014;Lent et al., 2010;Watt et al., 2006). Not surprisingly, most of the research on science interest development was conducted with children and adolescents, as students' repeated engagement with science is important for developing enduring interest in science and building science content knowledge (Bergin, 2016;Chen et al. 2014;Chen et al. 2016;Hidi & Renninger, 2006). Science interest plays an important role in elementary science teaching as well, as teacher motivation to do science with their students is positively correlated with their interest in science and general attitudes toward science (Senler, 2016). ...
Article
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Science teaching anxiety is negative emotion that inhibits a teacher's ability to start, proceed, or finish a science teaching task. Despite its detrimental effects on teachers' science teaching quality and practices, there is limited research on science teaching anxiety. To advance research in this area, there is a need for a psychometrically sound instrument assessing teachers' science teaching anxiety. This study presents the development and psychometric properties of the Science Teaching Anxiety Scale (STAS) in preservice elementary teachers (N = 191) using a Rasch analysis. In addition, it examines the relationships among science teaching anxiety, science interest, and science teaching efficacy (self‐efficacy and outcome expectancy). Results indicated that the STAS has promising validity and reliability for use in future research. Moreover, science teaching anxiety and science interest were significant predictors of teaching self‐efficacy in preservice elementary teachers. Implications for researchers, teacher educators, and individuals who work with new teachers are discussed.
... In the similar vein, Bråten and Ferguson (2014) showed that epistemic beliefs contribute to achievement over and above cognitive capacity and personality traits of students. Moreover, Chen et al. (2014) showed that students who are self-efficacious about learning science, approach a task by examining arguments from several sources to make a decision, thus indicating a moderating role of self-efficacy in how epistemic cognition is related to academic outcomes. The results of these studies therefore support the idea that epistemic cognition plays a major role in students' further engagement and development of scientific thinking and we consider it a facet of scientific thinking that should develop early in psychology students. ...
Research Proposal
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Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students' development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students' need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students' learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students' scientific thinking.
... One way to ascertain students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge and knowing is to assess their science epistemic beliefs. Advancing students' beliefs about the nature of scientific knowledge and knowing has featured prominently in recent research in science education (Conley, Pintrich, Vekiri, & Harrison, 2004;Tsai, Ho, Liang, & Lin, 2011;Chen, 2012;Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014). However, none of such studies appear to have been conducted in Namibia. ...
... One approach to the problem of low student motivation is to use technology-based resources to spark students' interest in learning (González 2010). However, the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of using it to ignite student interest in the academic content is sparse (Chao et al. 2016;Chen et al. 2014;Moos and Marroquin 2010). Our experiment with chatbots, voice based exercises and mobile phones, tries to contribute some evidence to this area. ...
Article
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The globally widespread instant messaging (IM) mobile applications such as WhatsApp or Telegram were not originally educational tools, but they have become platforms for peer to peer assessment (P2P). The IM applications offer “chatbots” or “virtual assistant bots” that help students by providing them a multitude of services in the form of text or voice dialogs. A new method for integrating P2P assessment using voice recordings with the help of a chatbot is proposed. By using this system we can effectively improve both the typical learning and the P2P evaluation process of a massive open on-line course (MOOC). After a 2-month experiment, with 77 students that recorded 737 voice answers with a Telegram based chatbot, we describe in detail how to use a chatbot and the way to design voice-based challenges to perform a new kind of assignment in a MOOC, with 90% of the learners encouraging us to use chatbots in future courses.
... One way to ascertain students' understanding of the nature of scientific knowledge and knowing is to assess their scientific epistemic beliefs. Advancing students' beliefs about the nature of scientific (BANOS) knowledge and knowing has featured prominently in recent research in science education (Chen, 2012;Chen et al., 2014;Conley et al., 2004;Tsai et al., 2011). However, no studies appear to have been conducted in Namibia. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to validate a new questionnaire for assessing students’ beliefs about nature of science. Existing instruments have limitations in terms of psychometric validity. A new questionnaire termed “beliefs about nature of science” (BANOS) was developed to address some of such limitations. The BANOS is based on dimensions of nature of science as a theoretical framework. The BANOS was administered to 860 Grade 12 students in Namibia, using the paper-and-pencil method. Data analysis employed reliability analysis, exploratory factor analysis (EFA), confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and parallel analysis. The reliability of the BANOS was good at a = .87. EFA revealed a final interpretable five-factor structure and the factor solution accounted for 67.73% of the total variance. However, parallel analysis revealed that only four factors had eigenvalues that were statistically significant and the resultant scree plot also supported the retention of four factors. CFA results showed that the measurement model had poor statistical fit for the data. These findings indicate that the eight-dimension framework could not be confirmed at EFA level. However, the BANOS had adequate construct validity and reliability. Results are discussed in terms of intricate similarities among the dimensions of nature of science.
... In education specifically, helping students maximize the potential of VR could be done partially through output adaptations to platforms such as YouTube which can host 360 degree versions of many VR videos where they can act as a canvas for individualized VR experiences tailored to the needs of different learners (Cotabish, 2017). This aspect of the viewer-driven experience in VR broadly (Chen et al., 2014) could potentially positively impact users with different learning styles, viewers with autism (Lahiri et al., 2015), participants with different physical abilities or other special needs (Tyler-Wood et al., 2015), and more. ...
Preprint
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NASA and other astrophysical data of the Cassiopeia A supernova remnant have been rendered into a three-dimensional virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) program, the first of its kind. This data-driven experience of a supernova remnant allows viewers to walk inside the leftovers from the explosion of a massive star, select the parts of the supernova remnant to engage with, and access descriptive texts on what the materials are. The basis of this program is a unique 3D model of the 340-year old remains of a stellar explosion, made by combining data from the NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope, and ground-based facilities. A collaboration between the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory and Brown University allowed the 3D astronomical data collected on Cassiopeia A to be featured in the VR/AR program, which is an innovation in digital technologies with public, education, and research-based impacts.
... One interesting feature of this approach is that many of the aspects of data construction that are often hidden or missing in simulation data -including methods of measurement, sampling, error and variability -were reintroduced to the simulation context. In one study, students participating in EcoMUVE became more self efficiacious with respect to inquiry and developed an orientation toward data and evidence over authority as criteria for scientific validity (Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014). ...
Technical Report
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What it means to work with data has changed significantly since the preparation and publication of America’s Lab Report (Singer, Hilton, & Schweingruber, 2006) in ways that are impacting students, educators, and the very practice of science. This change is expressing itself most obviously in the abundance of data that can be collected and accessed by students and teachers. There are also notable changes in the types of data (e.g., GPS data, network data, qualitative/verbal data) that are now readily available, and the purposes for which data are collected and analyzed. These shifts have both generated enthusiasm and raised a number of questions for K-12 science educators as new science standards are being adopted across the United States. The questions driving this paper are: In this age of data abundance, what is the state of research on data use to support middle and secondary students’ learning? And, how might science and engineering education and educational research for those grade levels adapt to the changes in data availability and use observed in the past 10 years?
... Tools like video-games, simulations, virtual and augmented reality, online social environments providing ubiquitous access to information and communication which are closer to the interests and habits of the new generation of students. These emerging technologies need to be taken in consideration by policymakers, researchers, developers, and educators when planning the future of STEM education [21]. Education can no longer be restricted to the formal environments but must be extended and include real-life contexts. ...
... In the similar vein, Bråten and Ferguson (2014) showed that epistemic beliefs contribute to achievement over and above cognitive capacity and personality traits of students. Moreover, Chen et al. (2014) showed that students who are self-efficacious about learning science, approach a task by examining arguments from several sources to make a decision, thus indicating a moderating role of self-efficacy in how epistemic cognition is related to academic outcomes. The results of these studies therefore support the idea that epistemic cognition plays a major role in students' further engagement and development of scientific thinking and we consider it a facet of scientific thinking that should develop early in psychology students. ...
Article
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Scientific thinking is a predicate for scientific inquiry, and thus important to develop early in psychology students as potential future researchers. The present research is aimed at fathoming the contributions of formal and informal learning experiences to psychology students’ development of scientific thinking during their 1st-year of study. We hypothesize that informal experiences are relevant beyond formal experiences. First-year psychology student cohorts from various European countries will be assessed at the beginning and again at the end of the second semester. Assessments of scientific thinking will include scientific reasoning skills, the understanding of basic statistics concepts, and epistemic cognition. Formal learning experiences will include engagement in academic activities which are guided by university authorities. Informal learning experiences will include non-compulsory, self-guided learning experiences. Formal and informal experiences will be assessed with a newly developed survey. As dispositional predictors, students’ need for cognition and self-efficacy in psychological science will be assessed. In a structural equation model, students’ learning experiences and personal dispositions will be examined as predictors of their development of scientific thinking. Commonalities and differences in predictive weights across universities will be tested. The project is aimed at contributing information for designing university environments to optimize the development of students’ scientific thinking.
... Beliefs of teachers, students, student teachers, parents, and other agents involved in the educational process have become a main focus of research in contemporary education (for some reviews, see Confrey 1990;Pajares 1992;Fang 1996;Wittrock 1996;Hofer and Pintrich 1997;Wideen, Mayer-Smith, and Moon 1998;Horwitz 1999;Genishi et al. 2001;Kane, Sandretto, and Heath 2002;Muis 2004;Marcos and Tillema 2006; for more recent studies, see e.g. Maggioni, VanSledright, and Alexander 2009;Hoskins, Lopatto, and Stevens 2011;Mägi et al. 2011;Morris 2011;Beghetto and Baxter 2012;Beswick 2012;Smith et al. 2012;Chen, Metcalf, and Tutwiler 2014). In the great majority of the studies, the instruments and procedures used to identify people's beliefs (Likert-type scales, questionnaires, belief inventories, surveys, interviews, focus groups, etc.) are based upon what people report they believe. ...
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The last few decades abound in studies concerned with what teachers, students, parents, and other participants in the educational process believe about a wide variety of issues. Most of these studies follow methodological procedures based on reports that people make about their own beliefs. We argue that this strategy is seriously flawed under certain conditions that often obtain and, therefore, we should revise what we know so far about people’s beliefs. We also suggest a more suitable alternative procedure.
... Sixth graders increased significantly in science self-efficacy after exposure to a problem-based multimedia program about the solar system (Liu et al. 2006). Experience of virtual worlds also significantly influenced middle school students' beliefs in their ability to do scientific inquiry (Bergey et al. 2015;Chen et al. 2014). ...
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The mixed methods randomized experimental study assessed a model of engagement and education that examined the contribution of SciGirls multimedia to fifth grade girls’ experience of citizen science. The treatment group (n = 49) experienced 2 hours of SciGirls videos and games at home followed by a 2.5 hour FrogWatch USA citizen science session. The control group (n = 49) experienced the citizen science session without prior exposure to SciGirls . Data from post surveys and interviews revealed that treatment girls, compared to control girls, demonstrated significantly greater interest in their FrogWatch USA session and significantly greater learning about the unique features of the practice of citizen science. Both treatment and control groups were moderately interested in finding out more about other citizen science projects and somewhat likely to look for another citizen science project to do in the future. Both groups displayed equal and high self-efficacy ratings with respect to their FrogWatch USA session and future citizen science projects. Within the treatment group, prior exposure to SciGirls multimedia produced a significantly stronger impact on minority girls than non-minority girls for interest and self-efficacy in citizen science. Treatment girls felt that SciGirls multimedia showed them the process and practice of citizen science, demonstrated the fun of citizen science, and presented peers with whom they could identify. Incorporating multimedia is recommended as an effective method for influencing girls’ citizen science interest, self-efficacy and learning.
... Self-efficacy has also been used to evaluate students' confidence in scientific inquiry (Ketelhut, 2007(Ketelhut, , 2010, although limited by using older definitions of inquiry (National Research Council, 1996, 2000 or equating scientific inquiry self-efficacy with science self-efficacy (Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014;Nelson & Ketelhut, 2008). These instruments did not address the idea of science as a set of practices, and thus may not be appropriate for use with current implementations of curricula that take such a view of science. ...
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ABSTRACTSociocognitive theory [Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; Bandura, A. (1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175?1184. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.44.9.1175; Bandura, A. (1991). Social cognitive theory of self-regulation. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 248?287. doi:10.1016/0749-5978(91)90022-L] accords high importance to the mechanisms of human agency and how they are exercised through self-efficacy. In this paper, we developed and validated the McGill Self-Efficacy For Inquiry Engagement (McSELFIE) instrument with undergraduate students in natural science disciplines. We defined inquiry engagement as carrying out the practices of science (POS) that are supported by students? personality characteristics (SPCs) and that result in achieving inquiry-learning outcomes (ILOs). Based on these theoretical perspectives, the McSELFIE is a 60-item, learner-
... Even as many teachers embrace technology in their classrooms, the evidence surrounding the effectiveness of using it to ignite student interest in the academic content is sparse (Chen et al. 2016;Chen et al. 2014;Moos and Marroquin 2010). One reason for this lack of knowledge is because technology is not often aligned with specific aspects of motivation and content. ...
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Students’ motivation to learn mathematics often declines during the middle grades. How do we keep students engaged with learning mathematics as it gets more complex? One way is through the use of technology, such as computer games, interactive lessons, or on-line videos. Yet evidence from creating technology-based tasks and resources to motivate students to learn mathematics is mixed, partially because most interventions only loosely incorporate motivational constructs. This article is part of a larger research project examining the impact of three digital resources on students’ motivation and learning in mathematics. In it, we provided resources tightly aligned to motivational constructs from research: self-efficacy, implicit theories of ability, and interest and enjoyment. Students then engaged with these resources before and after a 2-day mathematical patterns lesson. We present results from interviews and observations with eighty-eight fifth- to eighth-grade students and their ten teachers. Findings suggest that, even with a minimal encounter over 1 or 2 days, students were able to notice the motivational constructs present within these digital resources.
... Affective response to science is an important factor in students' science learning and achievement (Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002). In this study, we use previously developed affective measures, which have been shown to be valid and reliable among a similar population of middle school students (Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014). ...
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The expanding use of technology in educational settings represents an opportunity to develop new ways of assessing students' science practices. This study details a blended assessment strategy that incorporates analyses of log file data from a multiuser virtual environment with more traditional measures of student learning and affective change. The overall goal is to develop a comprehensive view of student learning gains in the domain of ecosystems science. We describe the assessment plan and also share our pilot results in developing and validating the individual instruments. This study provides a generalizable strategy for integrating technology into an assessment framework to allow for measurement of change in scientific practices through the systematic development of models of student learning, beliefs, and practices.
... For example, some parents may simultaneously hold entity beliefs about their children's math ability and incremental beliefs about their children's verbal ability. Thus, it may be necessary to measure ability beliefs that match the task domain (e.g., Chen, 2012;Chen, Metcalf, & Tutwiler, 2014) in order to best predict the kinds of behaviors parents will engage in when helping their children. ...
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The present studies examined whether parents' beliefs about the fixedness of ability predict their self-reported interactions with their children. Parents' fixedness beliefs were measured at two levels of specificity: their general beliefs about intelligence and their beliefs about their children's math and verbal abilities. Study 1, conducted with an online sample of 300 parents, showed that the more parents believed that abilities were fixed, the more likely they were to endorse controlling and performance-oriented behaviors and the less likely they were to endorse autonomy-supportive and mastery-oriented behaviors. Study 2, conducted with 86 parents from a university database, partially replicated the results of Study 1 and also showed that parents' beliefs predicted the self-reported frequency with which they engaged in math- and reading-related activities with their children at home. Specifically, the more parents believed that abilities were fixed, the less frequently they reported engaging in math- and reading-related activities.
... Does the present finding about Induction 1 and self-efficacy suggest that use of virtual worlds is not worth the trouble and expense? Particularly when inculcating sophisticated knowledge and skills, a substantial body of research suggests that this is not the case (Chen et al. 2014; U.S. Department of Education 2010; National Research Council 2011). We interpret our results as indicating that this type of complex intervention with high cognitive overhead may require more instructional "dosage" than short duration provided in the present intervention. ...
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FULL TEXT IN OPEN ACCESS SEE HERE: http://works.bepress.com/jasonchen/ Background, context, and purpose of study: During the middle school years, students frequently show significant declines in motivation toward school in general and mathematics in particular. One way in which researchers have sought to spark students’ interests and build their sense of competence in mathematics and in STEM more generally is through the use of technology. Yet evidence regarding the motivational effectiveness of this approach is mixed. Here we evaluate the impact of three brief technology-based activities on students’ short-term motivation in math. 16,789 5th to 8th grade students and their teachers in one large school district were randomly assigned to three different technology-based activities, each representing a different framework for motivation and engagement and all designed around an exemplary lesson related to algebraic reasoning. We investigated the relationship between specific technology-based activities that embody various motivational constructs and students’ engagement in mathematics and perceived competence in pursuing STEM careers. Results: Results indicate that the effect of each technology activity on students’ motivation was quite modest. No gains were found in self-efficacy; for implicit theory of ability, a lower incremental view of ability was found; we found modest declines in value beliefs. With respect to math learning, students in all three inductions had modest improvements in their scores on the math learning measure. However, these effects were modified by students’ grade level and not by their demographic variables. In addition, teacher-level variables did not have an effect on student outcomes. Conclusions. The present findings highlight the importance of tailoring motivational experiences to students’ developmental level. Our results are also encouraging about developers’ ability to create instructional interventions and professional development that can be effective when experienced by a wide range of students and teachers. Further research is needed to determine the degree, duration of, and type of instructional intervention necessary to substantially impact multi-dimensional, deep-rooted motivational constructs, such as self-efficacy.
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A problem-based immersive virtual environment (IVE) about bushfire safety was developed as a learning tool for children aged 10–12. Its effectiveness was assessed in relation to children’s ability to determine how to be safer in a bushfire incident. A series of experiential activities were developed in the IVE with digital storytelling and two-stage embedded assessments providing children with an opportunity to engage with tasks and solve problems while receiving feedback on their performance. Changes from pre- to postsurvey results showed positive learning outcomes as evidenced by significant improvements in children’s knowledge of bushfire safety and confidence in their ability to contribute to decisions during a bushfire incident. The significant change in children’s knowledge as well as their performance at two-stage embedded assessments was independent of their gender, background knowledge and perceived ability in responding to bushfire hazards. This suggests that when appropriately designed and implemented within educational settings, immersive virtual learning tools can effectively engage children and enhance learning outcomes associated with bushfire safety. The paper also argues that such immersive problem-based learning can improve self-efficacy amongst children in relation to coping with a bushfire situation. Implications of the findings are also discussed.
Chapter
Learning is an inherently individual process that depends on the learner’s profile, that is his/her pre-existing knowledge, abilities, skills, competences, motivation, etc. The black-box behavioural approach that expected learners to perform identically when facing similar educational constructs did not take into account previous experiences affecting that learning experience. That industrial, one-size-fits-all, educational approach mostly delivered passively through lectures and repetitions has been demonstrated not to be efficient and to fail to develop abilities, skills and competencies required for professional life. Active learning corresponds basically to any pedagogical method that requires and fosters the involvement of learners in their learning process and therefore recognises and promotes their personal experiences in social contexts. These methods develop learners’ skills and competencies beyond the immediate achievement by allowing them to reach higher cognitive levels. In this book, we give an overview of how active learning can be scaffolded in different ways, and we present cases and examples of how technology can foster the uptake and efficiency of such methods. The book focuses on higher education once, as incredible it may seem, most institutions at this level still rely heavily on passive expositive methods.
Chapter
This chapter considers classroom strategies that have been shown to support student science learning and discusses the affordances of multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) as a platform to implement those strategies. EcoMUVE, a middle school curriculum for ecosystem science education, is presented as a case study to demonstrate the design of a MUVE-based curriculum that enhances science learning and engagement. The chapter concludes with a summary of research findings on student learning and engagement, and suggestions for consideration in implementing MUVE-based curricula in classrooms.
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Despite increasing calls for science education that utilizes immersive technologies and authentically model scientific inquiry, little is known about how well curricula leveraging these technologies impact students’ science identity. This paper presents a mixed-methods study of identity exploration in 7th grade science students using a three-week immersive virtual world-based curriculum. Data sources include interviews and pre-post assessments which are compared to see how one can best assess science identity exploration. Students had statistically significant gains in scientific self-efficacy, and interviews showed an increasing awareness of what it means to be a scientist and how inquiry and argumentation skills can be used across different disciplines.
Chapter
One issue involved in incorporating any new technology in science education is the concern that the value added is primarily due to the novelty effect. The authors address this concern by evaluating student motivation during a two-week, multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)-based curriculum for middle school ecosystems science. Analysis of multiple surveys at the beginning, middle, and end of the curriculum revealed that students continued to find the activity engaging from beginning to end, but differed in what specifically engaged them. Further, students' beliefs about EcoMUVE's utility in helping them learn science increased significantly. This transition is attributable to the curriculum's design, which supports internally controlled motivators: autonomy (choice), competence, and connectedness. Specifically, over time EcoMUVE provides opportunities for sustained, meaningful engagement, through self-directed learning, inquiry-based activities, and collaboration with a team.
Book
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When implemented effectively, technology has great potential to positively connect with learning, assessment, and motivation in the context of K-12 science education and inquiry. Written by leading experts on technology-enhanced science learning and educational research, this book situates the topic within the broader context of educational psychology research and theory and brings it to a wider audience. With chapters on the fundamentals of science learning and assessment, integration of technology into classrooms, and examples of specific technologies, this concise volume is designed for any course on science learning that includes technology use in the curriculum. It will be indispensable for student researchers and both pre- and in-service teachers alike.
Chapter
This chapter describes a design strategy for blending virtual reality (VR) with an immersive multi-user virtual environment (MUVE) curriculum developed by the EcoLearn design team at Harvard University for middle school students to learn ecosystems science. The EcoMUVE Pond middle grades curriculum focuses on the potential of immersive authentic simulations for teaching ecosystems science concepts, scientific inquiry (collaborative and individual), and complex causality. The curriculum is inquiry-based; students investigate research questions by exploring the virtual ecosystem and collecting data from a variety of sources over time, assuming roles as ecosystems scientists. The implications of blending in VR for EcoMUVE’s technical characteristics, user-interface, learning objectives, and classroom implementation are discussed. Then, research questions for comparisons between the VR version and the “Classic” version are described. The chapter concludes with generalizable design heuristics for blending MUVE-based curricula with head-mounted display immersion.
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In incorporating technology in science education, some have expressed concern that the value added by technology is primarily due to the novelty or excitement about using the devices, resulting in no lasting effect on student motivation or learning in science. This research addresses this concern through evaluation of student motivation during a two-week, multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)-based curriculum for middle school ecosystems science. Analysis of multiple surveys at the beginning, middle, and end of the curriculum found that students continued to find the activity engaging from beginning to end, while student value of its utility in helping them learn science increased significantly. Furthermore, while initial student engagement resided primarily at the technology interface level, with time and experience students became increasingly engaged in the student-led, collaborative inquiry experiences afforded by the embedded scientific investigation.
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The purpose of this chapter is to present ideas and research findings on self and identity processes that are relevant to the study of students’ motivation, learning, and achievement in school. Towards the pragmatic end of initiating intellectual dialogue concerning self and identity processes in education, we pursue five basic aims. First, we discuss differing approaches to the study of self and identity in social science. Second, we clarify the meaning of the terms self and identity as used historically in the works of William James and Erik Erikson. Third, we update our understanding of these bodies of work in relation to developments in social-personality psychology and the learning, developmental, and brain-behavioral sciences. Fourth, we provide an integrative framework that may be useful to educational researchers who wish to study self and identity processes in educational settings. Fifth, we discuss the implications of these first four aims for contemporary educational research and practice.
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Much of psychology focuses on universal principles of thought and action. Although an extremely productive pursuit, this approach, by describing only the "average person," risks describing no one in particular. This article discusses an alternate approach that complements interests in universal principles with analyses of the unique psychological meaning that individuals find in their experiences and interactions. Rooted in research on social cognition, this approach examines how people's lay theories about the stability or malleability of human attributes alter the meaning they give to basic psychological processes such as self-regulation and social perception. Following a review of research on this lay theories perspective in the field of social psychology, the implications of analyzing psychological meaning for other fields such as developmental, cultural, and personality psychology are discussed.
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It is assumed that serious games influences learning in 2 ways, by changing cognitive processes and by affecting motivation. However, until now research has shown little evidence for these assumptions. We used meta-analytic techniques to investigate whether serious games are more effective in terms of learning and more motivating than conventional instruction methods (learning: k = 77, N 5,547; motivation: k = 31, N 2,216). Consistent with our hypotheses, serious games were found to be more effective in terms of learning (d= 0.29, p d = 0.36, p d = 0.26, p > .05) than conventional instruction methods. Additional moderator analyses on the learning effects revealed that learners in serious games learned more, relative to those taught with conventional instruction methods, when the game was supplemented with other instruction methods, when multiple training sessions were involved, and when players worked in groups. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)
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Expert reasoning about ecosystems requires a focus on the dynamics of the system, including the inherent processes, change over time, and responses to disturbances. However, students often bring assumptions to thinking about ecosystems that may limit their developing expertise. Cognitive science research has shown that novices often reduce ongoing patterns and processes to events across diverse science concepts. A robust, event-based focus may exacerbate student difficulties with reasoning about ecosystems in terms of resilience and change over time. In this study, we investigated middle-school students’ initial reasoning about ecosystem dynamics and analyzed promising shifts in their reasoning after they interacted with a virtual environment with features designed to support thinking about change over time. Some students adopted a domino narrative pattern—a sequential story about the events and processes. The findings suggest that educators should consider the possibility that novices will bring event-based framing to their ecosystems learning.
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The underrepresentation of racial minorities and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines is a national concern. Goal theory provides a useful framework from which to understand issues of underrepresentation. We followed a large sample of high-achieving African American and Latino undergraduates in STEM disciplines attending 38 institutions of higher education in the United States over 3 academic years. We report on the science-related environmental factors and person factors that influence the longitudinal regulation of goal orientations. Further, we examine how goal orientations in turn influence distal academic outcomes such as performance and persistence in STEM. Using SEM-based parallel process latent growth curve modeling, we found that (a) engagement in undergraduate research was the only factor that buffered underrepresented students against an increase in performance-avoidance goals over time; (b) growth in scientific self-identity exhibited a strong positive effect on growth in task and performance-approach goals over time; (c) only task goals positively influenced students' cumulative grade point average, over and above baseline grade point average; and (d) performance-avoidance goals predicted student attrition from the STEM pipeline. We discuss the implications of these findings for underrepresented students in STEM disciplines.
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This study examined the effects of a videodisc-based mathematical problem-solving series known as The Adventures of Jasper Woodbury, as implemented by one school district within a constructivist-inspired reform of its math curricula. The motivational and academic consequences of both the specific innovation and the broader reforms were examined in 19 fifth-grade classrooms in two pairs of closely matched schools. One pair of schools served higher-achieving high-socioeconomic status (SES) students while the other pair served relatively lower-achieving low-SES students. Significantly larger gains on the Mathematical Problem-solving subtest of the ITBS were documented in the 10 classrooms where the Jasper activities were implemented, and in the 10 classrooms that were ranked as relatively more consistent with the broader curricular reform goals. The largest relative gains were found in the five classrooms that both used the Jasper activities and were ranked more consistent with the broader reforms. The positive consequences of both the Jasper activities and the broader reforms were documented in both pairs of schools. The implications of these results are discussed relative to current proposals for curricular reform and research on educational innovations
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The purpose of this article is to describe the basic paradigm of the epistemological belief system and to offer new ideas about the conception and study of personal epistemology, namely an embedded systemic model and coordinated teams approach to research. The epistemological belief system approach to personal epistemology is distinguished from previous research by the following: (a) the addition of beliefs about learning, (b) the identification of distinct beliefs, (c) the consideration of asynchronous development, (d) the acknowledgment of need for balance, (e) the introduction of belief nomenclature, and (f) the introduction of quantitative assessment. The rationale of these features is discussed. The extended conceptualization of epistemological beliefs as a system within other systems is proposed. Implications for education and future research are also presented.
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In resolving an identity crisis, how can better identity choices be distinguished from less promising alternatives? Waterman (1990) proposed that intrinsic motivation, in the form of "feelings of personal expressiveness," serves as a third defining dimension of identity, along with the dimensions of exploration and commitment. Foundations for this perspective can be traced in philosophy to the work of the eudaimonists (e.g., Aristotle, 1985) and the existentialists (e.g., Heidegger, 1927/1962), and in psychology to the work of Horney (1950), Erikson (1958), and Maslow (1968), among others. Findings from a program of research on personal expressiveness are reviewed in terms of their potential for understanding the quality of outcomes to the process of identity formation.
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Purpose Why do girls and women progressively opt out of maths‐related study and careers? This study aims to examine motivations influencing female adolescents' choices for maths participation during high school, which has implications for their long‐term careers. Design/methodology/approach Two longitudinal samples were included from different contexts – one from Sydney, Australia ( N =459), and the other from Southeastern Michigan, USA ( N =266). Both samples involved adolescents from upper middle‐class backgrounds, from coeducational government schools, and data in both settings were collected in the mid 1990s. Australian data spanned a three‐year period through grades 9 to 11; while the US sample spanned a five‐year period, with data from grades 8, 10, 11, and 12. The Expectancy‐Value model of Eccles (Parsons) et al. , framed structural equation modelling analyses for the influences of maths ability‐related beliefs and values on boys' and girls' subsequent choices for senior high maths participation. Findings Boys selected higher levels of maths than girls in the Australian setting, although not in the US sample. There was no support for gendered maths achievement as a basis for gendered maths participation. Interest in and liking for maths were the strongest influence on the Australian adolescents' choices for maths participation, with ability beliefs also influencing choices over and above prior mathematical achievement. Ability‐related beliefs and different kinds of values also predicted adolescents' choices in the US sample, more strongly for girls than boys. Practical implications Interpretations and implications focus on ways to increase girls' and women's retention in the leaky maths pipeline. Originality/value Longitudinal data allow one to determine the extent to which different kinds of motivations predict boys' and girls' mathematical course‐taking through senior high school across Australian and US samples. This has implications for their long‐term careers.
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This study examines epistemic thinking in action in order to shed light on the relation between students’ personal epistemologies and their online learning practices. The study is based on observations of the learning behaviors of 6th-grade students (n = 38) during two online inquiry tasks. Data were collected through think-aloud protocols and retrospective epistemic interviews. The study examines how absolutist and evaluativist epistemic perspectives come into play in two key online inquiry strategies—evaluation of website trustworthiness and critical integration of multiple online sources. The study explores students’ epistemic thinking on the cognitive and metacognitive levels and examines epistemic metacognitive knowledge about both persons and strategies. The findings demonstrate that epistemic thinking plays an important role in online inquiry learning. Participants’ epistemic metacognitive knowledge regarding online learning strategies correlated with their epistemic cognition. Evaluativists significantly outperformed absolutists in the integration strategy but no significant differences were found in the evaluation strategy. Furthermore, there was evidence for considerable variability in students’ epistemic thinking. The complex role of students’ epistemic thinking in online learning is analyzed and discussed.
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This study supported hypotheses derived from Dweck's model about the implications of two implicit self-theories: Entity theorists believe their intelligence is fixed, whereas Incremental theorists believe their intelligence can be increased. Findings showed no normative change in implicit self-theories from high school through college and relatively stable individual differences during college. Entity theorists tended to adopt performance goals, whereas Incremental theorists tended to adopt learning goals. In terms of attributions, affect, and behavioral response to challenge, Entity theorists displayed a helpless response pattern and Incremental theorists displayed a mastery-oriented response pattern. Finally, Entity theorists declined in self-esteem during college whereas Incremental theorists increased self-esteem, and path analyses showed that this effect was mediated by goal orientation and the helpless versus mastery response patterns.
Article
This research sought to integrate C. S. Dweck and E. L. Leggett's (1988) model with attribution theory. Three studies tested the hypothesis that theories of intelligence-the belief that intelligence is malleable (incremental theory) versus fixed (entity theory)-would predict (and create) effort versus ability attributions, which would then mediate mastery-oriented coping. Study 1 revealed that, when given negative feedback, incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to attribute to effort. Studies 2 and 3 showed that incremental theorists were more likely than entity theorists to take remedial action if performance was unsatisfactory. Study 3, in which an entity or incremental theory was induced, showed that incremental theorists' remedial action was mediated by their effort attributions. These results suggest that implicit theories create the meaning framework in which attributions occur and are important for understanding motivation.
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Examined the relation of self-efficacy beliefs as measured by indices constructed using procedures of N. E. Batz and G. Hackett (see record 1982-02194-001) to 42 undergraduates' persistence and success in pursuing science and engineering college majors. Ss had participated in a 10-wk career-planning course on science and engineering fields. Self-efficacy measures tested their perceived ability to fulfill the education requirements and job duties of a variety of technical and/or scientific occupations. Results show that Ss who reported high self-efficacy for educational requirements achieved higher grades and persisted longer in technical and/or scientific majors over the following year than those with low self-efficacy. Self-efficacy was moderately correlated with objective predictors of academic aptitude and achievement. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
In incorporating technology in science education, some have expressed concern that the value added by technology is primarily due to the novelty or excitement about using the devices, resulting in no lasting effect on student motivation or learning in science. This research addresses this concern through evaluation of student motivation during a two-week, multi-user virtual environment (MUVE)-based curriculum for middle school ecosystems science. Analysis of multiple surveys at the beginning, middle, and end of the curriculum found that students continued to find the activity engaging from beginning to end, while student value of its utility in helping them learn science increased significantly. Furthermore, while initial student engagement resided primarily at the technology interface level, with time and experience students became increasingly engaged in the student-led, collaborative inquiry experiences afforded by the embedded scientific investigation.
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Currently well-developed lines of theory and research on motivation in education focus on its expectancy aspects, especially as they apply in achievement situations that call for striving to attain specific goals. This article considers concepts and principles that might be included in a model that addresses the value/interest/appreciation aspects of motivated learning, including learning in exploratory situations that do not require focused achievement striving. Featured concepts and principles include an optimal match between the learning opportunity and the learner's prior knowledge and experiences, learner identification with or perception of self-relevance of the learning domain, curricular choices that feature content and activities that lie within both the cognitive and the motivational zones of proximal development, and teacher scaffolding of learners' exposure to the domain in ways that build motivational schemas that enable learners to appreciate the domain's value and experience its satisfactions.
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Using cluster-analysis in a sample of 65 Norwegian 10th graders, we identified subgroups characterized by relatively high levels of knowledge combined with relatively low beliefs in personal justification of knowledge claims, as well as subgroups characterized by the opposite pattern of knowledge and personal justification. Moreover, the high knowledge/low personal justification groups differed with respect to the strengths of their beliefs in justification by authority and justification by multiple sources. After having read multiple conflicting texts on a science topic, the majority of students increased their knowledge about the topic and lowered their beliefs in personal justification, combining this pattern with higher beliefs in either justification by authority or justification by multiple sources. The subgroup characterized by relatively high level of knowledge and relatively low level of personal justification in combination with strong beliefs in justification by multiple sources performed best on a multiple-text comprehension measure. Theoretical and educational implications of the study are discussed.
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Recent research with Multi-User Virtual Environments (MUVEs) in education has shown that these platforms can be effective and engaging for students; however, educators and administrators have practical concerns about the adoption of MUVE-based curricula. This study looks at implementations of EcoMUVE, a MUVE-based curriculum designed to support middle school learning of ecosystem concepts and processes. Research questions looked at teacher perceptions of the curriculum's implementation feasibility, alignment with curricular objectives and standards, and perceived value. Results showed that EcoMUVE was very well-received, and technical issues were manageable. Teachers felt the curriculum was effective, aligned well with standards, and compared favorably with a non-MUVE alternative. Particular technological and curriculum features that contributed to EcoMUVE's perceived value included student-directed learning, an inquiry, role-based pedagogy, immersion in the virtual environment, and the ease of collecting and comparing data with graphs.
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Computer and video games are a maturing medium and industry and have caught the attention of scholars across a variety of disciplines. By and large, computer and video games have been ignored by educators. When educators have discussed games, they have focused on the social consequences of game play, ignoring important educational potentials of gaming. This paper examines the history of games in educational research, and argues that the cognitive potential of games have been largely ignored by educators. Contemporary developments in gaming, particularly interactive stories, digital authoring tools, and collaborative worlds, suggest powerful new opportunities for educational media.
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Building on and extending existing research, this article proposes a 4-phase model of interest development. The model describes 4 phases in the development and deepening of learner interest: triggered situational interest, maintained situational interest, emerging (less-developed) individual interest, and well-developed individual interest. Affective as well as cognitive factors are considered. Educational implications of the proposed model are identified.
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FULL TEXT IN OPEN ACCESS SEE HERE: http://works.bepress.com/jasonchen/ The purpose of this study was to explore (a) the individual belief profiles that naturally arise among middle and high school science students (n=1225); (b) the relationships between these profiles to science achievement and other prominent motivation variables; and (c) the demographic and developmental differences among the belief profiles. Results revealed that a four-class solution fit the data the best. These profiles were differentially related to achievement goal orientations, science self‐efficacy, and science achievement. Differences in profiles also arose as a function of minority status, grade level, and gender. Findings support and refine Schommer-Aikins's (2004) Embedded Systemic Model of epistemic beliefs. Results are discussed in relation to theory and implications for science instruction
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to bring a rigorous and well-studied theoretical framework of motivation to the study and design of virtual learning environments. The authors outline the key motivation constructs that compose Eccles and Wigfield’s Expectancy-Value Theory (e.g., Eccles, et al., 1989; Wigfield & Eccles, 1992, 2000), and how it can be used in the creation of a virtual learning environment designed to promote students’ interest in and motivation to pursue Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) careers. In addition, using Brophy’s (1999) model of the motivated learner, the authors outline how this type of motivational virtual environment can be incorporated in classroom instruction to further bolster adolescents’ motivation and competence in mathematics. Finally, they describe a NSF-funded project underway at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education that seeks to develop a 4-day mathematics intervention, merging innovative technologies with regular classroom instruction to spark students’ interest in STEM careers.
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This study had the goal of investigating the association among elementary students' (N = 276) science and math beliefs and the relationship between those beliefs and teachers' ratings of mathematical and science understanding. Results of structural path analysis indicate that in science, intellectual risk-taking (IRT; the willingness to share tentative ideas, ask questions, attempting to do, and learn new things) was positively related to teachers' ratings of science understanding, while creative self-efficacy (CSE) beliefs (i.e., students' confidence in their ability to generate ideas and solutions in science) were indirectly related (working through IRT). Results also indicate that students' scientific certainty beliefs (i.e., the belief that science knowledge is stable, fixed, and represented by correct answers) were negatively related to teachers' ratings of science understanding. With respect to math, results indicate that students' CSE beliefs were positively related to teachers' ratings of math understanding; whereas students' mathematical source beliefs (i.e., believing that math knowledge originates from external sources) were negatively related. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Res Sci Teach 49: 942–960, 2012
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Adventure learning has emerged as a promising technology forum that provides students with opportunities to explore real-world issues through authentic learning experiences. Despite these promises, Adventure learning has received little empirical attention. This study examined how adventure learning affects motivation and learning outcomes with middle school students. As one of their teachers climbed Mt. Kilimanjaro in Africa, 182 seventh and eighth graders learned about social studies. This exploratory mixed-method study utilized the Motivation Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) and an African-knowledge-based questionnaire for quantitative data. Additionally , the researchers collected qualitative data in the form of a semi-structured interview. These data revealed two themes: positive feedback on technology in the classroom and a strong effect of adventure learning on student motivation.
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This study examines the contribution of learner cognitive and motivational characteristics to achievement in science at three grade levels. Specifically, the relations between domain-specific epistemic beliefs about the development and justification of scientific knowledge, achievement goals, knowledge, self-concept, self-efficacy, and achievement in science were simultaneously examined. Students in fifth (n = 213), eighth (n = 202), and eleventh (n = 281) grades completed questionnaires measuring the various constructs, and a domain knowledge test. Their grades in science were also collected. Results from structural equation modeling reveal that the hypothesized model fitted the observed data at the three grade levels, although not all expected paths were statistically significant. Students’ epistemic beliefs about the development of scientific knowledge had a direct effect on domain knowledge, whereas beliefs about the justification of scientific knowledge had a direct and an indirect effect via achievement goals on knowledge acquisition. Mastery, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals had a direct effect on self-efficacy. Knowledge had a direct and an indirect effect via self-concept on achievement. Educational implications are discussed.
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This study aimed to identify if complementing representations of concrete objects with representations of abstract objects improves students’ conceptual understanding as they use a simulation to experiment in the domain of Light and Color. Moreover, we investigated whether students’ prior knowledge is a factor that must be considered in deciding when to use representations of abstract objects. A pre-post comparison study design was used, involving 69 participants assigned to two conditions. The first condition consisted of 36 students who had access to a simulation with representations of concrete objects, whereas the second condition consisted of 33 students who had access to a simulation with representations of both concrete and abstract objects. Both conditions used the same inquiry-oriented curriculum materials, consisting of three sections that included physical phenomena with increasingly complex underlying mechanisms, so that the third section’s mechanisms were more complex in nature than those in the first two sections. Tests were administered to assess students’ conceptual understanding before and after the presentation of the curricular material as a whole, as well as before and after each of its three sections. Results revealed that the presence of representations of abstract objects was helpful for the first two sections, but only for students with low prior knowledge. On the third, most complex section, also the students with higher prior knowledge profited from the presence of abstract objects. From these findings, we conjecture that for physical phenomena with a lower level of complexity, students with high prior knowledge are able to mentally construct the necessary abstract concepts on their own, whereas for higher levels of complexity they need an explicit representation of the abstract objects in the learning environment.
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FULL TEXT IN OPEN ACCESS SEE HERE: http://works.bepress.com/jasonchen/ The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) the latent profiles that arise from middle and high school students' (N = 1225) reported exposure to information from the four hypothesized sources of self-efficacy; (b) the relationships between these latent profiles and science self-efficacy and science achievement; and (c) the differences in latent profiles as a function of implicit theory of science ability, gender, and grade level. Results revealed that a four-class solution fit the data the best. Results support past findings indicating that mastery experiences are a powerful source of self-efficacy. Furthermore, there seemed to be an additive benefit of drawing from multiple sources simultaneously. Gender did not predict membership in these four profiles, but implicit theory of ability and grade level did. The results show that students in the most adaptive profiles drew from multiple sources of efficacy-relevant information and espoused a strong belief in the plasticity of their science abilities, whereas those who were in the least adaptive profiles exhibited a high degree of negative affect and held a fixed view of science ability.
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This study used think-aloud methodology to investigate 51 Norwegian undergraduates’ topic-specific epistemic cognition while working with six documents presenting conflicting views on the issue of cell phones and potential health risks. Results showed that students’ epistemic cognition was represented by one dimension concerning the certainty and simplicity of knowledge and three dimensions concerning the justification for knowing by different sources. Moreover, components of a mechanism of change, in particular epistemic doubt and resolution strategies, were identified in the think-aloud protocols. Finally, these mechanism of change components seemed to operate within distinct dimensions of epistemic cognition. Three case studies were used to elaborate on and illustrate how epistemic cognition may be differently involved in the reading of multiple conflicting documents over the course of reading.
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This article reports on a questionnaire study of British pupils' understanding of several aspects of the nature of science. The questions had been extensively explored by interview before being administered to a large sample of pupils aged 15 years (Year 10, Grade 9). From this information, it was possible to explore pupils' ideas about what “scientists” do, their more general knowledge about theories and how they change, and their impressions of how theory and experiment interact in the school science which they had experienced. Our results show some well-known features, such as the powerful effect of the individual classroom teacher. However, they also document important new effects. These involve the interesting subsamples of pupils who have: (a) understood the explanatory nature of the scientific endeavor; and (b) the much smaller sample who are beginning to understand the role of imagination and modeling in the use of scientific theory. The administration of the questionnaire to smaller samples of older and younger pupils provides valuable additional evidence which places the understanding of Year 10 pupils in a developmental context. This also has important implications for school science teaching. © 1996 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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This commentary brings together a collection of articles that addresses several of the important issues in research on personal epistemology. We also propose a more integrated model that elaborates on the following fundamental elements of personal epistemology: (a) a mechanism of change (i.e., epistemic doubt, epistemic volition, and resolution strategies), (b) dimensions of beliefs, (c) advanced beliefs, (d) metacognition, (e) conditions for change (i.e., dissonance and personal relevance), (f) affect, (g) cognitive abilities and environment, and (h) reciprocal causation. Our goal in developing this model is to integrate many of the salient theoretical issues raised by the diverse models of personal epistemology represented in this special issue as a way to guide and inform future research and educational practice.
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Theories of interest and motivation give little specific advice to teachers regarding curriculum decisions about how to attract interest in classroom activities. Although educators should keep in mind the fact that attempts to enhance interest can be irrelevant to learning, and may even undermine learning, promoting interest can enhance learning if applied appropriately; therefore, educators could benefit from understanding factors that predict and enhance interest. In this article, I discuss individual and situational factors that influence interest. The individual factors are belongingness (which includes cultural value, identification, and social support), emotions, competence, utility-goal relevance, and background knowledge (which includes a hole in the schema). The situational factors are hands-on, discrepancy, novelty, food, social interaction (which includes visible author), modeling, games and puzzles, content, biophilia, fantasy, humor, and narrative. To the degree that teachers integrate these factors into their instruction, their students are likely to experience increased interest and learning.
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In this target article, we present evidence for a new model of individual differences in judgments and reactions. The model holds that people's implicit theories about human attributes structure the way they understand and react to human actions and outcomes. We review research showing that when people believe that attributes (such as intelligence or moral character) are fixed, trait-like entities (an entity theory), they tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of these fixed traits (''I failed the test because I am dumb'' or ''He stole the bread because he is dishonest''). In contrast, when people believe that attributes are more dynamic, malleable, and developable (an incremental theory), they tend refocus less on broad traits and, instead, tend to understand outcomes and actions in terms of more specific behavioral or psychological mediators (''I failed the test because of my effort or strategy'' or ''He stole the bread because he was desperate''). The two frameworks also appear to foster different reactions: helpless versus mastery-oriented responses to personal setbacks and an emphasis on retribution versus education or rehabilitation for transgressions. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for personality, motivation, and social perception.
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The current study examines the personal epistemology of fourth-grade elementary school teachers from Germany (n = 10) and the United States (n = 10) to gain a more nuanced understanding of teachers’ beliefs about knowledge and knowing through a cross-cultural lens. Analyses of semi-structured interviews reveal similarities and differences in the statements of teachers. Four themes are identified: The majority of teachers believed that (a) knowing is uncertain and (b) knowledge has domain-specific qualities; (c) U.S. teachers seemed to view knowledge more as being embedded within their community, while (d) German teachers discussed more internal knowledge sources. The general discussion includes possible cross-cultural explanations for these four emerging themes and points tentatively to developmental issues stemming from uncertainty beliefs. Conceptual and educational implications are discussed and suggestions for future research are given.
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We tested the fit of the social cognitive choice model [Lent, R.W., Brown, S.D., & Hackett, G. (1994). Toward a unifying social cognitive theory of career and academic interest, choice, and performance [Monograph]. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 45, 79–122] to the data across gender, educational level, and type of university among students in a variety of computing disciplines. Participants were 1208 students at 21 historically Black and 21 predominantly White universities. They completed measures of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, goals, and social supports and barriers with respect to computing majors. The SCCT model yielded adequate fit to the data across each of the grouping variables. Implications for future research on SCCT’s choice hypotheses in the context of science and engineering-related fields are discussed.
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In a sample of 135 Norwegian education undergraduates, we examined the effects of topic-specific epistemic beliefs concerning the simplicity and source of knowledge on deep-level understanding of multiple expository texts about the same topic—climate change. The results showed that students holding sophisticated simplicity beliefs, viewing knowledge about climate change as complex, gained better multiple-text understanding than did students holding naïve simplicity beliefs, viewing knowledge about climate change as simple. However, students holding sophisticated source beliefs, viewing knowledge about climate change as personal construction, performed poorer than did students holding naïve source beliefs, viewing knowledge about climate change as transmitted from experts. Moreover, students believing knowledge to be complex and, simultaneously, relying on expert authors were at a particular advantage with respect to multiple-text understanding. Thus, in this complex reading-task context, source beliefs usually located at the sophisticated ends of epistemic belief continuums turned out to be maladaptive, presumably because they distracted from the building of a high-quality representation of author and text meaning.
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The purpose of this study was to discover whether the science motivation beliefs of middle school students (N = 262) vary as a function of their gender or race/ethnicity and to determine whether science self-efficacy beliefs predict science achievement when motivation variables shown to predict achievement in other academic areas are controlled. Girls reported stronger science self-efficacy and self-efficacy for self-regulation, and they received higher grades in science. Boys had stronger performance-approach goals. White students had stronger self-efficacy and achievement, and African American students reported stronger task goals. Self-efficacy was the only motivation variable to predict the science achievement of girls, boys, and White students. Self-efficacy and self-concept predicted the science achievement of African American students. Results are interpreted from the perspective of Bandura's social cognitive theory.
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Cluster analysis and analysis of variance procedures were used to identify students’ domain-specific epistemological belief profiles and to examine differences in students’ beliefs, motivation, and task performance. Four hundred eighty-two undergraduates completed measures regarding their beliefs about knowledge, competency beliefs, and achievement values relative to history and mathematics and participated in domain learning tasks. Cluster analysis was used to identify epistemological belief profile groups within the domains of history and mathematics. Students with more sophisticated belief profiles had higher levels of motivation and task performance. Although the configuration of profiles differed across domains, cross-domain analyses suggested a tendency for students to be relatively consistent in the sophistication of their beliefs across domains. These findings provide evidence of the dual nature of epistemological beliefs.
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This review critically examines 33 studies on students’ epistemological beliefs about mathematics. Five categories were identified: beliefs about mathematics, development of beliefs, effects of beliefs on behavior, domain differences, and changing beliefs. Studies examining beliefs about mathematics revealed consistent patterns of nonavailing beliefs at all educational levels. Mathematics instructional environments were inferred to influence the development of beliefs about mathematics. All studies revealed significant relationships between beliefs and cognition, motivation, and academic achievement. Descriptive studies found relationships between beliefs and learning behaviors. Studies examining domain differences found significant variations in beliefs across disciplines. Studies focusing on changing beliefs were successful, which was attributed to appropriate changes in instructional style. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
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The present study examined the reliability and validity of three measures of investigative (science) self-efficacy, a measure of self- efficacy with respect to scientific/technical fields (STF), and mathematics self-efficacy. Also, it addressed the question of whether or not these measures were psychometrically sound and normatively comparable with African Americans and European Americans. Among other findings, all measures were found to be reliable in both racial groups, and all but the STF were found to be related to each other as well as to a criterion of consideration of majors and careers in the sciences. Although validity was comparable for African Americans and European Americans as groups, there was some tendency for relationships of self-efficacy to science relatedness of choices to be strongest among African American women. There were significant gender differences in math and science self-efficacy (in favor of males), but no significant race differences. The STF, used originally with students who had already tentatively selected majors in science and engineering, yielded nearly bimodal score ranges in these unselected samples (both African Americans and European Americans), suggesting its use may be inappropriate with unselected samples of college students. Recommendations for use of these measures in both further research and to evaluate the effectiveness of efficacy-based interventions are reported.
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Currently well-developed lines of theory and research on motivation in education focus on its expectancy aspects, especially as they apply in achievement situations that call for striving to attain specific goals. This article considers concepts and principles that might be included in a model that addresses the value/interest/appreciation aspects of motivated learning, including learning in exploratory situations that do not require focused achievement striving. Featured concepts and principles include an optimal match between the learning opportunity and the learner's prior knowledge and experiences, learner identification with or perception of self-relevance of the learning domain, curricular choices that feature content and activities that lie within both the cognitive and the motivational zones of proximal development, and teacher scaffolding of learners' exposure to the domain in ways that build motivational schemas that enable learners to appreciate the domain's value and experience its satisfactions.
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Introduces the concept of possible selves (PSs) to complement current conceptions of self-knowledge. PSs represent individuals' ideas of what they might become, what they would like to become, and what they are afraid of becoming, and thus provide a conceptual link beteen cognition and motivation. PSs are the cognitive components of hopes, fears, goals, and threats; they give the specific self-relevant form, meaning, organization, and direction to these dynamics. It is suggested that PSs function as incentives for future behavior and to provide an evaluative and interpretive context for the current view of self. The nature and function of PSs and their role in addressing several persistent problems (e.g., the stability and malleability of the self, the unity of the self, self-distortion, the relationship between the self-concept and behavior) are discussed. (143 ref)
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In this article, I use the literature on the development of ability conceptions to emphasize several points about motivation and development: (1) that development does not always proceed toward one correct or mature concept; (2) that analogous concepts or conceptual frameworks can arise at different points in development; and (3) that there is a critical difference between when a concept is formed and when it has motivational impact. Here I will show that only when ability conceptions coalesce into a coherent framework (a 'meaning system') do they begin to exert a consistent and systematic influence on children's motivation. I also suggest that within their constructed meaning systems, children may follow qualitatively different developmental trajectories.
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In this paper I examine the formation of post‐16 choices over 3 years among higher achieving students with respect to enrolment in post‐compulsory science courses. Transcripts from four interviews carried out over 3 years with 72 secondary school students were qualitatively analysed. Students were found to shape their choices for science in a variety of ways across time. The situation regarding science choices hinges on far more dynamic considerations than the stereotypical image of the potential advanced science student, committed to becoming a scientist from an early age. There is an interplay of self‐perception with respect to science, occupational images of working scientists, relationship with significant adults and perceptions of school science The findings are informative for science educators and for career guidance professionals who may need to take into account the complexity of young people’s choices.